Dalit Population

Dalit POPULATION

Introduction

The Chamar people live primarily in India's western states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Gujarat. They are considered untouchable, and most of them know nothing else their entire lives. With a population of over 50 million, they are among the largest untouchable, or Dalit communities in the Hindu world.

The Chamar people are also known as Bhambi, Asadaru, Khalpa, Machigar, Lingayat, Mochi and Rohit. They are mostly distributed in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat.

They are regarded as untouchables or Sudras. To be untouchable, according to Indian-Hindu tradition, is to be undesirable, or unworthy of any sort of consideration or provision by society. This translates into frequent joblessness, lack of education and lifelong poverty. Traditional upper caste members will even avoid an untouchable's shadow.

What are their lives like?

The Chamar use the Devanagari script and speak Kannada, Gujarati and Hindi along with regional languages. Their main occupation is manufacturing shoes and chappals from finished leather. Besides this, they are engaged in daily-wage labour and petty business. Day labor and petty business are also main sources of income, along with the manufacture of shoes and chappal, an Indian sandal. The origins of the name "chamar" come from their leather work. You can imagine how working with the remains of dead cows can be viewed in Hindu cultures where the cow is sacred. Women are also involved in agricultural work, animal husbandry and various economic activities. The Bhambi Khalpa community repairs musical instruments like dhol and nagara which are played in the temples during worship. Men occasionally drink alcohol. The Chamar regard themselves higher than the Mangs and the Mahars.

The Chamar practice monogamy in marriage. Dowry is largely prevalent and is paid in cash and kind. Remarriage is allowed for widowers but not for the widows. The dead body of a bachelor is buried lying on its back with the head facing the south, whereas others are cremated and their mortal remains are immersed in sacred water. Rice balls are offered to the dead and to ancestors on the tenth day after death.

What are their beliefs?

The Chamar are Hindu. They belong to the Shiva and Bhagvat sects. Their deities are Bahiroba, Janai, Kandova of Jejori and Bhawani of Tuljapur. They follow the spiritual teachings of Ravidas. They recite mythological tales and sing songs from the religious epics.

There is a slightly higher degree of responsiveness to the gospel among the Chamars than among other Dalits. There is a church planting movement underway among Chamars in several districts across India.

The most politically and socially influential Chamars are from the state of Punjab, where they form 11% of the population (2.8 million), with Dalits comprising 27% of the population. In the Punjab they are divided into various groups, such as Ad-Dharm, Ravidasi, Ramdasia,and Chamar. In Majha they share the same gotras as Saraswati and Mohyal Brahmins, they share family names with Jats and Rajputs.

In Malwa most Chamars turned to Sikhism, whereas in Doaba most of them did not opt for Sikhism. In Majha they are also called Arya (Aryan) , Ramdasia and Ravidasia, in Doaba they are called Adi Dharmi. They are highly concentrated in the Doaba, and the Malwa region of Punjab, where they form over 25% of the population.

The total Chamar population in Haryana is more than 2,079,132, about 9% of the Population.Most Chamars in the districts of Hisar, Jind, Panipat, Karnal, Sonepat, Rohtak, Kaithal are Julaha Chamars. They are similar to the Kori Julahas of Western Uttar Pradesh and have family relationships with them.

Most Chamars reside in Western Uttar Pradesh are known as Jatav. Total Chamar population in this state is almost 20 million and form 13-14% of the population.

The castes which were involved in leather work in past (before independence) were termed "Chamar".

Chamars in Rajasthan can only be identified in the districts adjoining to the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The districts of Bikaner, Shriganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Alwar, Bharatpur and Dhaulpur are inhabited by Chamars. In the districts of Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and parts of Alwar (adjoining to Bharatpur) they are known as Jatav. Raigar (leather tanners) and Mochi (shoe makers) are other two castes related to the leather profession.

Chamars are the second largest SC caste in the HP after the Kori. Chamars are mainly found in districts: Kangra, Mandi and Una.

Chamars are mostly Hindus. The long term foreign rules by Mughals and British meant that their condition declined day by day. This especially peaked with British rule who practiced divide and rule and preferentially allotted seats in education sector to other castes while ignoring Chamars. In military too, they were excluded. But Hindu revivalists starting from the 15th century preached emancipation of the Chamars. It ultimately culminated in the new Constitution of India; formulated by Dr B.R.Ambedkar. It was hugely supported by most Hindu leaders and reservations in large numbers were provided. Gradually numerous Chamars en-masse increased their standard of living. So much so, that many Muslim authors in the past few decades have lamented that their standard of living in India is far below that of even Chamars. It is symbolic of how much change has occurred since independence. Many Chamars have also joined smaller Hindu religious groups such as the Ravidasi, Arya Samaj. Others joined Sikh Deras such as Nirankari & Radhaswami.

Ravidasia Chamars

Sikh converts from the community working professionally in leather are usually referred to as Ravidasia Sikhs. The term Ravidasi is an adaptation from Ravidasias, as some Chamar castes came to be called.
The spiritual enlightenment of Saint Guru Ravidas attracted many people toward Ravidassia sect. Saint Ravidass was one of those few saints who were directly linked to God without being stuck to false and hoaxful rites.
The teachings of the Sikh gurus, with their rejection of the caste system and emphasis on ethnic equality of all human beings, appealed to them. Of special significance for them was the canonization of the hymns of Shri Guru Ravidas Ji in the Sikh Scripture. Consequently, many Chamars converted to Sikhism and were, as a class, given the respectable name of Ravidassia Sikhs.
Conversion of Hindu Chamars to Sikhism accelerated towards the end of the nineteenth century. This was due to the rise of the Singh Sabha movement, launched in 1873 for the restoration and propagation of Sikh teachings, including the removal of caste distinctions. The number of Chamars who declared Sikhism as their religion increased from 100,014 in 1881 to 155,717 in 1931.

Half of India's dalit population lives in 4 states

B Sivakumar, - 2011 census

CHENNAI: Four states account for nearly half of the country's dalit population, reveals the 2011 census. Uttar Pradesh stands first with 20.5% of the total scheduled caste (SC) population, followed by West Bengal with 10.7%, says the data released by the Union census directorate on Tuesday. Bihar with 8.2% and Tamil Nadu with 7.2 % come third and fourth. Dalits form around 16.6% of India's population.

The 2011 census recorded nearly 20.14 crore people belonging to various scheduled castes in the country. As per the 2001 census, the number was 16.66 crore. The dalit population showed a decadal growth of 20.8%, whereas India's population grew 17.7% during the same period. "Though there is an increase in the population of dalits in the country, many states with a considerable number of dalits don't have any legislation to protect the interests of the community.Dalit empowerment is very poor in many states," said former Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi (VCK) MLA D Ravikumar.

Many scheduled caste families don't own land or any other property, said Ravikumar. "Many dalits are landless and efforts to empower them by giving free land have not been successful in Tamil Nadu. Unlike Punjab, which has a considerable number of dalits as industrialists, here there is hardly any industrialist from our community," the leader of the dalit party said.

There are around 9.79 crore women among the total SC population, and the sex ratio works out to 946 females per 1000 males. Nagaland, Lakshwadeep and Andaman and Nicobar islands have no scheduled castes among their population. Though UP has the largest chunk of the total SC population, Punjab has the largest share of dalits in its population at 31.9%. Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal follow Punjab with 25.2% and 23.5%. In Tamil Nadu, dalits account for about 18% of the population.

The state budget should also allocate funds for creation of assets for dalits, said Ravikumar. "Instead of distributing freebies, the state governments can set aside a portion of the total allocation for dalits. In many cases, funds are being diverted and dalits lose whatever is due to them," he said. The states with considerable number of dalits in their population must pass a separate legislation on the lines of Andhra Pradesh, which has passed the SC/ST Sub Plan Act, said a dalit activist.

Chamars in Gujarat, Maharastra, Assam

In state like Gujarat, Chamar groups Bhambi and Meghwal are listed as Schedule caste(SCs) while other Chamars are listed as Other Backward Classes (OBCs - http://www.tn.gov.in/bcmbcmw/obc/faq/gujarat.pdf - serial number 72- gov official source). Same is the case of Maharastra, Bhambi Chamars are listed in Schedule Caste while other Chamars group Jatiya/Jatia(also known as Jatav-Jatava-Jatia Chamars in north)are listed as Other Backward Caste(OBCs -http://www.tn.gov.in/bcmbcmw/obc/faq/maharashtra.pdf - serial number 45 and 211- gov official source). Same is the case of North-eastern state like Assam where Chamars are listed in Other Backward Castes(OBCs -http://www.ncbc.nic.in/Pdf/assam.pdf - serial number 26(24 in further serialization of 26)- gov official source). It can be stated that all sub-groups of Chamar community are not essentially a part of Schedule Castes all across India. It is only north where all most all sub-groups of Chamar caste have Schedule Castes status. -- Indiancj (talk) 15:27, 12 April 2013 (UTC)


Regions with significant populations

India ~ 166 million
Nepal ~ 4.5 million (2005)
Pakistan ~ 2.0 million (2005)
Sri Lanka Unknown (2008)
Bangladesh Unknown (2008)
United Kingdom 50,000 - 200,000 estimated (2009)

Village Survey Results (Human Rights Watch 2007)

37.8% of village schools force Dalit children to sit separately
27% of Dalits not able to go to the police
33% of public health workers refuse to go to Dalit homes
12% of villages reported preventing Dalits from voting
48% of villages stopped Dalits from drinking from water sources
64% villages prevented Dalits from entering temples
70% of villages do not allow Dalits to eat with non-Dalits

Note: Chamar population in India is 191000

Dalits and religion

The Sachar Committee report of 2006 revealed that scheduled castes and tribes of India are not limited to the religion of Hinduism. The 61st round Survey of the NSSO found that almost nine-tenths of the Buddhists, one-third of the Sikhs, and one-third of the Christians in India belonged to the notified scheduled castes or tribes of the Constitution.

ReligionScheduled CasteScheduled TribeTotal
Buddhism 89.50% 7.40% 96.90%
Christianity 9.00% 32.80% 41.80%
Sikhism 30.70% 0.90% 31.60%
Hinduism 22.20% 9.10% 31.30%
Zoroastrianism – 15.90% 15.90%(+?)
Jainism – 2.60% 2.60%(+?)


*दलित सामाज* की टीम ने *3 महीने* की *मेहनत* कर भारत के समस्त

राज्यों से दलित जनसँख्या जानने की कोशिश की है जिसके अनुसार सूची तयार हुई हे।

उम्मीद हे *दलित* अपनी शक्ति पहचाने :

1) जम्मू कश्मीर : *1करोड़ दलित*
2) पंजाब : *3 करोड़ दलित*
3) हरयाणा : *2 करोड़ दलित*
4) राजस्थान : *4.5 करोड़ दलित*
5) गुजरात : *4 करोड़ दलित*
6) महाराष्ट्र : *5 करोड़ दलित*
7) गोवा : *80 लाख दलित*
8) कर्णाटक : *2 करोड़ दलित*
9) केरल : *1.5 करोड दलित*
10) तमिलनाडु : *2 करोड़ दलित*
11) आँध्रप्रदेश : *5 करोड़ दलित*
12) छत्तीसगढ़ : *4 करोड़ दलित*
13) उड़ीसा : *5 करोड़ दलित*
14) झारखण्ड : *6 करोड़ दलित*
15) बिहार : *7 करोड़ दलित*
16) पश्चिम बंगाल : *8 करोड़ दलित*
17) मध्य प्रदेश : *3 करोड़ दलित*
18) उत्तर प्रदेश : *9 करोड़ दलित*
19) उत्तराखंड : *1 करोड़ दलित*
20) हिमाचल : *90 लाख दलित*
21) सिक्किम : *25 लाख दलित*
22) आसाम : *40 लाख दलित*
23) मिजोरम : *60 लाख दलित*
24) अरुणाचल : *30 लाख दलित*
25) नागालैंड : *20लाख दलित*
26) मणिपुर : *32 लाख दलित*
27) मेघालय : *39 लाख दलित*
28) त्रिपुरा : *20 लाख दलित*

सबसे ज्यादा *दलित* वाला राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश

Chamar Population in Indian States

State
PopulationState Population %
Bengal 999,756 1.25%
Bihar 4,090,070 5%
Delhi 893,384 6.45%
Chandigarh 48,159 5.3%
Chhattisgarh 1,659,303 8%
Haryana 2,079,132 9%
Himachal Pradesh 414,669 6.8%
Jammu & Kashmir 187,277 1.9%
Jharkhand 837,333 3.1%
Madya Pradesh 4,498,165 7.5%
Punjab 2,800,000 11.9%
Rajasthan 2,465,563 4%
Uttar Pradesh 19,803,106 14%
Uttaranchal 444,535 5 %

Primary Language: Hindi (37,946,000 Speakers)
Language Code (ISO): hin Ethnologue Listing

Secondary Languages:
Bhojpuri (3,903,000) Chhattisgarhi (1,353,000)
Panjabi, Western (1,280,000) Gujarati (1,061,000)
Kanauji (1,031,000) Awadhi (1,030,000)
Bengali (952,000) Marathi (649,000)
Dhundari (503,000) Kannada (475,000)
Note: Only 10 largest secondary languages listed

Total Languages: 58

State/UT-wise SCs Population, 2011

Sl.No.

State/UT

Total Population

SC Population

% of SC Population


1

Andhra Pradesh

84580777

13878078

16.41


2

Arunachal Pradesh

1383727

0

0.00


3

Assam

31205576

2231321

7.15


4

Bihar

104099452

16567325

15.91


5

Chhattisgarh

25545198

3274269

12.82


6

Goa

1458545

25449

1.74


7

Gujarat

60439692

4074447

6.74


8

Haryana

25351462

5113615

20.17


9

Himachal Pradesh

6864602

1729252

25.19


10

Jammu & Kashmir

12541302

924991

7.38


11

Jharkhand

32988134

3985644

12.08


12

Karnataka

61095297

10474992

17.15


13

Kerala

33406061

3039573

9.10


14

Madhya Pradesh

72626809

11342320

15.62


15

Maharashtra

112374333

13275898

11.81


16

Manipur

2570390

97042

3.78


17

Meghalaya

2966889

17355

0.58


18

Mizoram

1097206

1218

0.11


19

Nagaland

1978502

0

0.00


20

Odisha

41974218

7188463

17.13


21

Punjab

27743338

8860179

31.94


22

Rajasthan

68548437

12221593

17.83


23

Sikkim

610577

28275

4.63


24

Tamil Nadu

72147030

14438445

20.01


25

Tripura

3673917

654918

17.83


26

Uttar Pradesh

199812341

41357608

20.70


27

Uttarakhand

10086292

1892516

18.76


28

West Bengal

91276115

21463270

23.51


29

A & N Islands

380581

0

0.00


30

Chandigarh

1055450

199086

18.86


31

D & N Haveli

343709

6186

1.80


32

Daman & Diu

243247

6124

2.52


33

NCT of Delhi

16787941

2812309

16.75


34

Lakshadweep

64473

0

0.00


35

Puducherry

1247953

196325

15.73


INDIA

1210569573

201378086

16.63

This page is maintained by

Name : Arvind Pareek
Email : an.pareek@nic.in
Phone No : 01123073567

Comments

Popular Posts