Dalit Saints

Swami A. S. Sahajananda

Sahajananda (1881-1959) was the first son of Alamelu and Annamalai of Medavakkam village, North Arcot district. He had his education at Thindivanam Missionary School. He learnt Thirukkural form V.O.C. Pillai and also studied Sanskrit. In each and every dalit conference and religious conferences, he argued that dalits were not low born not untouchables and there existed men of animalistic nature in all communities and such people alone could be called untouchables. Through this argument he tried his best to remove the untouchable stigma among his class. His dalit men were full of superstitions. He tried to remove such practices away from them. In 1917 he offered a satyagraha to touch the water of the sacred tank of Omekalam, for which he was prosecuted. He attended the conference of the All India Depressed Classes Federation, held at Nagpur in 1932. He got elected for three times to Chennai State Assembly. He took active part in bringing laws to protect Adi Dravidas. Only with three students and a teacher, he started a school and now it had grown leaps and bounds. Gandhiji visited this school twice and honoured him for his onerous religious-cum-educational service to Adi Dravidas. Sahajananda found to his dismay that his men were not allowed into Chidambaram temple. He constructed a separate temple from public donation at Thirupunkar. He installed a statue of Lord Nataraja and arranged a car festival in which Nataraja was drawn by Adi Dravidar along the four streets. As a token of honour to his service, after his death in 1960, a statue was installed by Government of Tamil Nadu.
St Anubhava Mantapa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anubhava Mantapa (Kannada: ಅನುಭವ ಮಂಟಪ) is a first parliament in the world whose literal meaning is "experience center" was an academy of mystics, saints and philosophers of the Veerashaivafaith in the 12th century. It was the fountainhead of all religious and philosophical thought pertaining to the veerashaiva. It was presided over by the mystic Allama Prabhu and numerous Sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. This institution was also the fountainhead of the Vachana literature which was used as the vector to propagate Veerashaiva religious and philosophical thought. Other giants of veerashaiva theosophy like Akka Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the Anubhava Mantapa. The Anubhava Mantapa also called as the Mahaamane.


Anubhava Mantapa was an academy of mystics, saints and philosophers of the ‘veerashaiva’ faith in the 12th century. It was the fountainhead of all religious and philosophical thought pertaining to the Human Values, Ethics. It was presided over by the mystic Allama Prabhu and numerous Sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. The Sharanas belong to the lower strata of the society basically called the Shuydras and the Dalits in the Varna System of Hinduism. Sudras and Dalits where provided equal opportunities by the social reformer Basaveshwara and made them to depend on their own work, think rational and contribute back to society through Dashoha. This institution was also the fountainhead of the Vachana literature which was used as the vector to propagate Sharana’s views and philosophical thought. Other Sharana’s and Sharanes theosophy like Akka Mahadevi, Channabasavanna were participants in the Anubhava Mantapa.It was a unique socio spiritual revolution to establish an egalitarian society.

The Anubhava Mantapa worked to build a Vibrant casteless, creedless Society with full of Human Values propagated through Vachanas

The movement taken over by Basava through Anubhava Mantapa became the basis of a sect of Human values. It gave rise to a system of ethics and education at once simple and exalted. It sought to inspire ideals of social and religious freedom, such as no previous faith of Earth had done. In the medieval age which was characterized by inter-communal jealousy, it helped to shed a ray of light and faith on the homes and hearts of people. But the spirit soon disappeared after the intermarriage that Basava facilitated came to an abrupt end when the couple were punished for the same by the King. The dream of the classless society was shaken and Basava soon realised the meek picture and left for Kudala Sangama and a year later died.

The movement gave a literature of considerable value in the vernacular language of the country, the literature which attained the dignity of a classical tongue. Its aim was the elimination of the barriers of caste and to remove untouchability, raising the untouchable to the equal of the high born. The sanctity of family relations and the improvement in the status of womanhood were striven for while at the same time the importance of rites and rituals, of fasts and pilgrimages was reduced. It encouraged learning and contemplation of God by means of love and faith. The excesses of polytheism were deplored and the idea of monotheism was encouraged. The movement tended, in many ways, to raise the nation generally to a higher level of capacity both in thought and action. However, the sect failed to bring about a completely classless society.
Agastya Muni

By Swami Harshananda
Agastya literally means ‘One who shunned the growth of the mountain Vindhya’.

Agastya is also one of the most famous ṛṣis. He is the seer of several Rgvedic mantras He was a brahmarṣi and the son of Pulastya and Havirbhuk. Sage Agniveśya was his disciple.

According to some texts, he was the son of Mitra and Varuṇa, and was born in a kumbha or jar. Hence he was also named as Kumbhaja, Kumbhodbhava, Kalaśīsuta and so on. Vasiṣtha was his brother. He married to Lopāmudrā (also known as Kāveri), the princess of Vidarbha and begot a son Dṛḍhāsya, also known as Idhmavāha. Some of his achievements are as follows:

He was a man of vast knowledge and severe austerity.

He is said to have destroyed the demons Ilvala and Vātāpi.

He even stunted the growth of the Vindhya mountain which was growing recklessly and obstructing the light of the sun.

He drank the waters of the ocean to expose the demons Kālakeyas who were subsequently killed by the Devas.

He was honored by Lord Rāma when he was living in the Daṇḍakāraṇya forest and gave divine weapons to him. He also taught the Adityahrdaya-hymn to Lord Rāma.

He brought about a reconciliation between the Indra and the Maruts.

Though Agastya is not enumerated among the Saptarṣis (the seven great sages), he is included among the progenitors of ‘gotra’ genealogy.

He has been accorded a stellar status and identified with Canopus, the brightest star in the sky of southern India.

In the annals of Tamil literature, Agastya is the accredited originator of the Tamil language. He was the author of the maiden grammar of that language and the first president of the first organization of Tamil litterateurs.

He is also credited with the authorship of several works on medicine, mysticism and magic. One work called Agastya Sarhhitā which deals with ritualistic worship is available. It is a part of Pāñcarātra literature.

He is said to have visited several South East Asian countries like Borneo, Siam and Cambodia.

The word ‘Agastya’ might have been a title. Several Agastyas may have been involved in these stories, synchronized into one. An Agastyāśrama, a hermitage of Agastya, has been mentioned in the Rāmāyana. This has been sometimes identified with Agastyapurī, east of Nasik in Maharashtra state. The Vanaparva of Mahā bhārata mentions an Agastyatīrtha in the Pāṇḍya country as an important place of pilgrimage. Seeing the star Agastya or Canopus when the sun is in the middle of Kanyā or Virgo and worshiping him at night is mentioned as a vrata (religious rite).

Rgveda Samhitā 1.166 to 191
Mahābhārata 88.13
The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Agastya depicted in a statue as a Hindu sage

Title Vedic Rishi (sage), Siddha, Avatar of Brahma
Spouse Lopamudra
Children Drdhasyu

Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism. In the Indian tradition, he is a noted recluse and an influential scholar in diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent. He and his wife Lopamudra are the celebrated authors of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 in the Sanskrit text Rigveda and other Vedic literature.

Agastya appears in numerous itihasas and puranas including the major Ramayana and Mahabharata. He is one of the seven or eight most revered rishis in the Vedic texts, and is revered as one of the Tamil Siddhar in the Shaivism tradition, who invented an early grammar of the Tamil language, Agattiyam, playing a pioneering role in the development of Tampraparniyan medicine and spirituality at Saiva centres in proto-era Sri Lanka and South India. He is also revered in the Puranic literature of Shaktism and Vaishnavism. He is one of the Indian sages found in ancient sculpture and reliefs in Hindu temples of South Asia, and Southeast Asia such as in the early medieval era Shaiva temples on Java Indonesia. He is the principal figure and Guru in the ancient Javanese language text Agastyaparva, whose 11th century version survives.

Agastya is traditionally attributed to be the author of many Sanskrit texts such as the Agastya Gita found in Varaha Purana, Agastya Samhita found embedded in Skanda Purana, and the Dvaidha-Nirnaya Tantra text. He is also referred to as Mana, Kalasaja, Kumbhaja, Kumbhayoni and Maitravaruni after his mythical origins.
Etymology and nomenclature

seated divine sage Agastya

The etymological origin of Agastya has several theories. One theory states that the root is Aj or Anj, which connotes “brighten, effulgent one” and links Agastya to “one who brightens” in darkness, and Agastya is traditionally the Indian name for Canopus, the second most brilliantly shining star found in South Asian skies, next to Sirius. Another claims that it is derived from a flowering tree called Agati gandiflora, which is endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is called Akatti in Tamil. This theory suggests that Agati evolved into Agastih, and favors Dravidian origins of the Vedic sage.

A third theory links it to Indo-European origins, through the Iranian word gasta which means “sin, foul”, and a-gasta would mean “not sin, not foul”. The fourth theory, based on folk etymology in verse 2.11 of the Ramayana states that Agastya is from aga (unmoving or mountain) and gam (move), and together these roots connote “one who is mover-of-mountains”, or “mover-of-the-unmoving”. The word is also written as Agasti and Agathiyar (Tamil: அகத்தியர் Agathiyar; Telugu: అగస్త్య; Kannada: ಅಗಸ್ತ್ಯ; Malayalam: അഗസ്ത്യൻ or അഗസ്ത്യമുനി Malay: Anggasta; Thai: Akkhot).

Maharishi Agastya and Lopāmudrā

Agastya is the named author of several hymns of the Rigveda (1500-1200 BCE). These hymns do not provide his biography. The origins of Agastya are mythical. Unlike most Vedic sages, he has neither a human mother nor a father in its legends. His miraculous birth follows a yajna being done by gods Varuna and Mitra, where the celestial apsara Urvashi appears. They are overwhelmed by her extraordinary sexuality, and ejaculate. Their semen falls into a mud pitcher, which is the womb in which the fetus of Agastya grows. He is born from this jar, along with his twin sage Vashistha in some mythologies. This mythology gives him the name kumbhayoni, which literally means “he whose womb was a mud pot”

Agastya leads an ascetic life, educates himself, becoming a celebrated sage. He is not born to Brahmin parents, but is called a Brahmin in many Indian texts because of his learning. His unknown origins have led to speculative proposals that the Vedic era Agastya may have been a migrant Aryan whose ideas influenced the south, and alternatively a native non-Aryan Dravidian whose ideas influenced the north.

According to inconsistent legends in the Puranic and the epics, the ascetic sage Agastya proposed to Lopamudra, a princess born in the kingdom of Vidharbha. Her parents were unwilling to bless the engagement, concerned that she would be unable to live the austere lifestyle of Agastya in the forest. However, the legends state that Lopamudra accepted him as her husband, saying that Agastya has the wealth of ascetic living, her own youth will fade with seasons, and it is his virtue that makes him the right person. Therewith, Lopamudra becomes the wife of Agastya. In other versions, Lopamudra marries Agastya, but after the wedding, she demands that Agastya provide her with basic comforts before she will consummate the marriage, a demand that ends up forcing Agastya to return to society and earn wealth.

Agastya and Lopamudra have a son named Drdhasyu, sometimes called Idhmavaha. He is described in the Mahabharata as a boy who learns the Vedas listening to his parents while he is in the womb, and is born into the world reciting the hymns.

Agastya ashram

Agastya had a hermitage (ashram), but the ancient and medieval era Indian texts provide inconsistent stories and location for this ashram. Two legends place it in Northwest Maharashtra, on the banks of river Godavari, near Nashik in small towns named Agastyapuri and Akole. Other putative sites mentioned in Northern and Eastern Indian sources is near Kolhapur (Western ghats at Maharashtra, Karnataka border), or near Kannauj (Utar Pradesh), or in Agastyamuni village near Rudraprayag (Utarakhand), or Satpura Range (Madhya Pradesh). In Southern sources and the North Indian Devi-Bhagavata Purana, his ashram is based in Tamil Nadu, variously placed in Tirunelveli, Pothiyal hills, or Thanjavur.

Textual sources

Agastya is mentioned in all the four Vedas of Hinduism, and is a character in the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, epics, and many Puranas.He is the author of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 of the Rigveda (~1200 BCE). He ran a Vedic school (gurukul), as evidenced by hymn 1.179 of the Rigveda which credits its author to be his wife Lopamudra and his students. He was a respected sage in the Vedic era, as many other hymns of the Rigveda composed by other sages refer to Agastya. The hymns composed by Agastya are known for verbal play and similes, puzzles and puns, and striking imagery embedded within his spiritual message.

Agastya vedic verses

With thee, O Indra, are most bounteous riches
that further every one who lives uprightly.
Now may these Maruts show us loving-kindness,
Gods who of old were ever prompt to help us.
Transl: Ralph T.H. Griffith

May we know refreshment,
and a community having lively waters.
—1.165.15, 1.166.15, 1.167.11, etc.
Transl: Stephanie Jamison, Joel Brereton; Sanskrit original: एषा यासीष्ट तन्वे वयां विद्यामेषं वृजनं जीरदानुम् ॥१५॥

His Vedic poetry is particularly notable for two themes. In one set of hymns, Agastya describes a conflict between two armies led by gods Indra and Maruts, which scholars such as G. S. Ghurye have interpreted as an allegory of a conflict between Arya (Indra) and Dasa (Rudra). Agastya successfully reconciles their conflict, makes an offering wherein he prays for understanding and loving-kindness between the two. Twenty one out of the twenty seven hymns he composed in Mandala 1 of the Rigveda have his signature ending, wherein he appeals, “may each community know refreshment (food) and lively waters”. These ideas have led him to be considered as a protector of both the Arya and the Dasa.However, some scholars interpret the same hymns to be an allegory for any two conflicting ideologies or lifestyles, because Agastya never uses the words Arya or Dasa, and only uses the phrase ubhau varnav (literally, “both colors”). The theme and idea of “mutual understanding” as a means for lasting reconciliation, along with Agastya’s name, reappears in section 1.2.2 of the Aitareya Aranyaka of Hinduism.

The second theme, famous in the literature of Hinduism, is a discussion between his wife Lopamudra and him about the human tension between the monastic solitary pursuit of spirituality, versus the responsibility of a householder’s life and raising a family. Agastya argues that there are many ways to happiness and liberation, while Lopamudra presents her arguments about the nature of life, time and the possibility of both. She successfully seduces Agastya, in the simile filled Rigvedic hymn 1.179.

Agastya is mentioned in both the oldest and the youngest layers of the Rigveda (c. 1500–1200 BCE), such as in hymn 33 of mandala 7, which is older than mandala 1. He is also mentioned in other three Vedas and the Vedanga literature such as in verses 5.13–14 of the Nirukta. Agastya and his ideas are cited in numerous other Vedic texts, such as section 7.5.5 of Taittiriya Samhita, 10.11 of Kathaka Samhita, 2.1 of Maitrayani Samhita, 5.16 of Aitareya Brahmana, 2.7.11 of Taittiriya Brahmana, and 21.14 of Pancavimsati Brahmana.
12th century statue of Agastya from Bihar.

Sage Agastya is mentioned in the Hindu epic Ramayana in several chapters with his hermitage described to be on the banks of river Godavari.

In the Ramayana, Agastya and Lopamudra are described as living in Dandaka forest, on the southern slopes of Vindhya mountains. Rama praises Agastya as the one who can do what gods find impossible. He is described by Rama as the sage who asked Vindhya mountains to lower themselves so that Sun, Moon and living beings could easily pass over it. He is also described as the sage who used his Dharma powers to kill demons Vatapi and Ilwala after they had jointly misled and destroyed 9,000 men

Agastya, according to the Ramayana, is a unique sage, who is short and heavy in build, but by living in the south he balances the powers of Shiva and the weight of Kailasha and Mount Meru. Agastya and his wife meet Rama, Sita and Lakshmana. He gives them a divine bow and arrow, describes the evil nature of Ravana and, according to William Buck, B. A. van Nooten and Shirley Triest, bids them goodbye with the advice, “Rama, demons do not love men, therefore men must love each other”.


The story of Agastya is mirrored in the second major Hindu epic Mahabharata. However, instead of Rama, the story is told as a conversation between Yudhishthira and Lomasa starting with section 96 of Book 3, the Vana Parva (the Book of Forest).
Maharishi Agastya drinking the whole sea

He is described in the epic as a sage with enormous powers of ingestion and digestion. Agastya, once again, stops the Vindhya mountains from growing and lowers them and he kills the demons Vatapi and Ilvala much the same mythical way as in the Ramayana. The Vana Parva also describes the story of Lopamudra and Agastya getting engaged and married. It also contains the mythical story of a war between Indra and Vritra, where all the demons hide in the sea, gods requesting Agastya for help, who then goes and drinks up the ocean thereby revealing all the demons to the gods.


The Puranic literature of Hinduism has numerous stories about Agastya, more elaborate, more fantastical and inconsistent than the mythologies found in Vedic and Epics literature of India. For example, chapter 61 of the Matsya Purana, chapter 22 of Padma Purana, and seven other Maha Puranas tell the entire biography of Agastya. Some list him as one of the Saptarishi (seven great rishi), while in others he is one of the eight or twelve extraordinary sages of the Hindu traditions. The names and details are not consistent across the different Puranas, nor in different manuscript versions of the same Purana. He is variously listed along with Angiras, Atri, Bhrigu, Bhargava, Bharadvaja, Visvamitra, Vasistha, Kashyapa, Gautama, Jamadagni and others.

Agastya is reverentially mentioned in the Puranas of all major Hindu traditions: Shaivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism. Many of the Puranas include lengthy and detailed accounts of the descendants of Agastya and other saptarishis.

Tamil texts
Agastya, Tamil Nadu

In Tamil traditions, Agastya is considered as the father of the Tamil language and the compiler of the first Tamil grammar, called Agattiyam or Akattiyam. Agastya has been a culture hero in Tamil traditions and appears in numerous Tamil texts.

There are similarities and differences between the Northern and Southern (Tamil) traditions about Agastya. According to Iravatham Mahadevan, both traditions state that Agastya migrated from north to south. The Tamil text Purananuru, dated to about the start of the common era, or possibly about 2nd century CE, in verse 201 mentions Agastya along with many people migrating south.

In the northern legends, Agastya’s role in spreading Vedic tradition and Sanskrit is emphasized, while in southern traditions his role in spreading irrigation, agriculture and augmenting the Tamil language is emphasized. In the north, his ancestry is unknown with mythical legends limiting themselves to saying that Agastya was born from a mud pitcher. In southern traditions, his descent from a pitcher is a common reference, but two alternate southern legends place him as the Caṅkam (Sangam) polity and is said to have led the migration of eighteen Velir tribes from Dvārakā to the south.

The northern traditional stories, states Mahadevan, are “nothing more than a collection of incredible fables and myths”, while the southern versions “ring much truer and appear to be a down to earth account of a historical event”. Others disagree. According to K.N. Sivaraja Pillai, for example, there is nothing in the early Sangam literature or any Tamil texts prior to about the mid 1st millennium CE that mentions Agastya. The earliest mention of the role of Agastya in Tamil language, according to Richard Weiss, can be traced to the Iraiyanar Akapporul by 8th century Nakkirar. However, in medieval era stories of the Tamil tradition, Agastya pioneered the first sangam period that lasted 4,440 years, and took part in the second sangam period that lasted another 3,700 years.

he Tirumantiram describes Agastya as an ascetic sage, who came from the north and settled in the southern Pothigai mountains because Shiva asked him to. He is described as the one who perfected and loved both Sanskrit and Tamil languages, amassing knowledge in both, thus becoming a symbol of integration, harmony and learning, instead of being opposed to either.According to the Skanda Purana, the whole world visited the Himalayas when Shiva was about to wed Parvati. This caused the earth to tip to one side. Shiva then requested Agastya to go to the southern region to restore the equilibrium. Thus, Agastya migrated south at Shiva’s behest.

Reverence at an Agastya shrine with garlands of fruits and flowers.

Agastya, in Tamil Hindu traditions, is considered as the first and foremost Siddhar (Tamil: cittar, Sanskrit: siddha). A siddhar is derived from the Sanskrit verbal root sidh which means “to accomplish or succeed”. As the first Siddhar, Agastya is deemed as the first master, accomplished, the sage who perfected his knowledge of the natural and spiritual worlds. This Tamil concept has parallels to Tibetan mahasiddhas, Sri Lankan Buddhist, and Nath Hindu yogi traditions of north India.
Lobamudra sameda Agasthiyar Temple, A. Vallalapatti, Madurai

Agastya, along with Tirumular, is considered a siddhar in both philosophical and practical domains, unlike most other siddhar who are revered for their special domain of knowledge. Agastya is also unique for the reverence he has received in historic texts all over the Indian subcontinent.

According to Venkatraman, the Siddhar-related literature about Agastya is late medieval to early modern era. In particular, all medicine and health-related Tamil text, that include Agastya as the Siddhar, have been composed in and after the 15th-century. According to Hartmut Scharfe, the oldest medicine siddhar Tamil text mentioning Agastya were composed no earlier than the 16th century.

His named is spelled as Agathiyar or Agasthiyar in some Tamil texts, and some consider the writer of the medical texts to be a different person.

According to Kamil Zvelebil, the sage Agastya, Akattiyan the Siddha, and Akatthiyar, the author of Akattiyam, were three or possibly four different persons of different eras, who over time became fused into one single person in the Tamil tradition.

Buddhist texts

Several Buddhist texts mention Agastya. Just like early Buddhist texts such as Kalapa, Katantra and Candra-vyakarana adapting Panini, and Asvaghosa adopting the more ancient Sanskrit poetic methodology as he praises the Buddha, Agastya appears in 1st millennium CE Buddhist texts. In Tamil texts, for example, Akattiyan is described as the sage who learnt Tamil and Sanskrit grammar and poetics from Avalokitan (another name for Buddha-to-be Avalokiteśvara).

The left Indonesian statue shows Agastya with Shiva’s trident, as a divine sage of Shaivism. Agastya iconography is common in southeast Asian temples.

According to Anne E. Monius, the Manimekalai and Viracoliyam are two of many South Indian texts that co-opt Agastya and make him a student of the Buddha-to-be.

Agastya elsewhere appears in other historic Buddhist mythologies, such as the Jataka tales. For example, the Buddhist text Jataka-mala by Aryasura, about the Buddha’s previous lives, includes Agastya as the seventh chapter. The Agastya-Jataka story is carved as a relief in the Borobudur, the world’s largest early medieval era Mahayana Buddhist temple.

Javanese and southeast Asian texts

Agastya is one of the most important figures in a number of medieval era Southeast Asian inscriptions, temple reliefs and arts. He was particularly popular in Java Indonesia, till Islam started to spread throughout the islands of Indonesia. He is also found in Cambodia, Vietnam and other regions. The earliest mentions of Agastya is traceable to about the mid 1st millennium CE, but the 11th-century Javanese language text Agastya-parva is a remarkable combination of philosophy, mythology and genealogy attributed to sage Agastya.

The Agastya-parva includes Sanskrit verse (shlokas) embedded within the Javanese language. The text is structured as a conversation between a Guru (teacher, Agastya) and a Sisya (student, Agastya’s son Drdhasyu). The style is a mixture of didactic, philosophical and theological treatise, covering diverse range of topics much like Hindu Puranas. The chapters of the Javanese text include the Indian theory of cyclic existence, rebirth and samsara, creation of the world by the churning of the ocean (samudra manthan), theories of the Samkhya and the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, major sections on god Shiva and Shaivism, some discussion of Tantra, a manual like summary of ceremonies associated with the rites of passage and others.

While the similarities between the Agastya-parva text and classical Indian ideas are obvious, according to Jan Gonda, the Indian counterpart of this text in Sanskrit or Tamil languages have not been found in Indonesia or in India.Similarly other Agastya-related Indonesian texts, dated to be from the 10th to 12th centuries, discuss ideas from multiple sub-schools of Shaivism such as theistic Shaivasiddhanta and monistic Agamic Pashupata, and these texts declare these theologies to be of equal merit and value.

Agastya on south side of the 9th-century Javanese Sambisari temple unearthed from volcanic mud.

Agastya is common in medieval era Shiva temples of southeast Asia, such as the stone temples in Java (candi). Along with the iconography of Shiva, Uma, Nandi and Ganesha who face particular cardinal directions, these temples include sculpture, image or relief of Agastya carved into the southern face. The Shiva shrine in the largest Hindu temple complex in southeast Asia, Prambanan, features four cellae in its interior. This central shrine within Prambanan group of temples dedicates its southern cella to Agastya.

The Dinoyo inscription, dated to 760 CE, is primarily dedicated to Agastya. The inscription states that his older wooden image was remade in stone, thereby suggesting that the reverence for Agastya iconography in southeast Asia was prevalent in an older period. In Cambodia, the 9th-century king Indravarman, who is remembered for sponsoring and the building of a large number of historic temples and related artworks, is declared in the texts of this period to be a descendant of sage Agastya.

Agastya Samhita

The Agastya Samhita, sometimes called the Sankara Samhita is a section embedded in Skanda Purana. It was probably composed in late medieval era, but before the 12th-century. It exists in many versions, and is structured as a dialogue between Skanda and Agastya. Scholars such as Moriz Winternitz state that the authenticity of the surviving version of this document is doubtful because Shaiva celebrities such as Skanda and Agastya teach Vaishnavism ideas and the bhakti (devotional worship) of Rama, mixed in with a tourist guide about Shiva temples in Varanasi and other parts of India.


Agastya is attributed to be the author of Agastimata, a pre-10th century treatise about gems and diamonds, with chapters on the origins, qualities, testing and making jewellery from them. Several other Sanskrit texts on gems and lapidary are also credited to Agastya in the Indian traditions.


Other mentions of Agastya include:
Bṛhaddevatā in section 5.134.

The Lalita sahasranama of Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, which describes the 1000 names of the goddess Lalita is a part of the Brahmanda Purana. It is presented as a teaching from Hayagriya (an avatar of Viṣṇu) to Agastya.

Agastya is credited as the creator of the Āditya Hṛdayam (literally, “heart of the sun”), a hymn to Sūrya he told Rama to recite, so that he may win against Ravana. Scholars such as John Nuir questioned this hymn since the need for a such a hymn by Rama implies doubts about his divine nature.

Lakshmi Stotram and Saraswati Stotram.

The Tamil text Pattuppattu states Agastya to be master of icai (music, song).

Kalidasa, in his Raghuvaṃśa (6.61) states that Agastya officiated the horse sacrifice of a Pandya king of Madurai.

One of the authors of Nadi Shastra / Nadi astrology

Sri Agasthiyar Temple in Tamil Nadu:
1. Sri Agasthiyar Temple, Agasthiyar Falls (Kalyana Theertham), Papanasam, Thirunelveli.
2. Sri Lobamudra Samedha Agasthiyar Temple, Arulmigu Chidambara Vinayagar Thirukoil, A. Vellalapatti, Madurai – Near to Alagarkovil (7 km).
Agastya statues or reliefs feature in numerous early medieval temples of north India, south India and southeast Asia. The Dasavatara temple in Deogarh (Uttar Pradesh, near Madhya Pradesh border) features a 6th-century Gupta Empire era Agastya carving. In Karnataka similarly, he is reverentially shown in several 7th-century temples such as the Mallikarjuna temple in Mahakuta and the Parvati temple in Sandur. He is a part of many Chalukya era Shaivism temples in the Indian subcontinent peninsula.

The artistic iconography of South Asian and Southeast Asian temples show common themes such as he holding a pitcher, but also differences. For example, Agastya is featured inside or outside of the temple walls and sometimes as guardian at the entrance (dvarapala), with or without a potbelly, with or without a receding hairline, with or without a dagger and sword. Rock cut temples and caves, such as the 8th century Pandya rock temples group, show Agastya.


The shrine to Agastya at the Pothigai hill source of the river is mentioned in both Ilango Adigal’s Silappatikaram and Chithalai Chathanar’s Manimekhalai epics.

Similarly, the Sanskrit plays Anargharāghava and Rajasekhara’s Bālarāmāyaṇa of the ninth century refer to a shrine of Agastya on or near Adam’s Peak (Sri Pada), the tallest mountain in Sri Lanka (ancient Tamraparni), from whence the river Gona Nadi/Kala Oya flows into the Gulf of Mannar’s Puttalam Lagoon.

Martial arts

Maharishi Agastya is regarded as the founder and patron saint of silambam and varmam -an ancient science of healing using varmam points for varied diseases and southern kalaripayat. Shiva’s son Murugan is said to have taught the art to Sage Agastya who then wrote treatises on it and passed it on to other siddhar.
Anasuya Devī
From Wikipedia
Anasuya Devi
28 March 1923

Mannava, Mannava Panchayat, Guntur District, (now Andhra Pradesh), India
Died 12 June 1985 (aged 62)

Religion Hinduism


"Mother exists forever and includes everything within herself. She who is everything and everywhere is Mother. It is not correct to say Mother of the Universe. The Universe itself is the Mother"

Matrusri Anasuya Devi (born 28 March 1923 – 1985), better known simply as Amma ["Mother"], was an Indian spiritual guru from Andhra Pradesh.

Early life

Anasuya Devi was an Indian guru from Jillellamudi (now partially known as Arkapuri), Guntur District, in the state of Andhra Pradesh. to a couple late Seethapathi Rao, the village officer of Mannava and his wife Rangamma. Seethapathi and Rangamma after their loss of as many as five children. Rangamma conceived a child. and gave birth to Anasuya.

On 5 May 1936, Amma's wedding took place at Bapatla with Brahmandam Nageswara Rao who became later the village officer of Jillellamudi.

Charitable career

At Jillellamudi, as a young housewife, Amma looked after the needs of her family which came to include two sons and a daughter. In addition to performing her household duties, Amma devised and organized a grain bank to help the poor and needy. Amma used to give food to every visitor to the village.

She founded the common dining hall Annapurnalayam on 15 August 1958. This place serves simple vegetarian food day and night to all who came. In 1960, the "House of All" was founded to provide lodging to the residents and visitors.

Amma established a Sanskrit school in 1966 (now the Matrusri Oriental College and High School) and within a relatively short time, one could hear the inmates speaking Sanskrit fluently.

Amma saw only good in people and had no concept of "sin", treating all alike irrespective of faith and religion.


Amma died on 12 June 1985. A temple Anasuyeswaralayam was built, in which a life size statue of Amma was installed in 1987.

गुरु अमरदास जी
गुरु अमरदास जी 26.3.1552 में सिखों के तीसरे गुरु बने

समाज से भेदभाव खत्म करने के प्रयासों में सिखों के तीसरे गुरु श्री अमरदास जी का बड़ा योगदान है।

गुरु अमरदास जी बड़े चिंतक तो थे ही, उन्होंने समाज को विभिन्न प्रकार की सामाजिक कुरीतियों से मुक्त करने के लिए सही मार्ग भी दिखाया।

गुरु अमरदास जी ने वैशाख शुक्ल एकादशी संवत 1536 वि. अर्थात 23 मई, 1479 ई. को अमृतसर के 'बासर के' गांव में पिता तेजभान एवं माता लखमी जी के घर जन्म लिया।

एक बार उन्होंने अपनी पुत्रवधू से गुरु नानक देव जी द्वारा रचित एक 'शबद' सुना। उसे सुनकर वे इतने प्रभावित हुए कि पुत्रवधू से गुरु अंगद देव जी का पता पूछकर तुरंत उनके गुरु चरणों में आ बिराजे। उन्होंने 61 वर्ष की आयु में अपने से 25 वर्ष छोटे और रिश्ते में समधी लगने वाले गुरु अंगद देव जी को गुरु बना लिया और लगातार 11 वर्षो तक एकनिष्ठ भाव से गुरु सेवा की। सिखों के दूसरे गुरु अंगद देव जी ने उनकी सेवा और समर्पण से प्रसन्न होकर एवं उन्हें सभी प्रकार से योग्य जानकर 'गुरुगद्दी' सौंप दी। इस प्रकार वे सिखों के तीसरे गुरु बन गए।

मध्यकालीन भारतीय समाज 'सामंतवादी समाज' होने के कारण अनेक सामाजिक बुराइयों से ग्रस्त था। उस समय जाति-प्रथा, ऊंच-नीच, कन्या-हत्या, सती-प्रथा जैसी अनेक बुराइयां समाज में प्रचलित थीं। ये बुराइयां समाज के स्वस्थ विकास में अवरोध बनकर खड़ी थीं। ऐसे कठिन समय में गुरु अमरदास जी ने इन सामाजिक कुरीतियों के विरुद्ध बड़ा प्रभावशाली आंदोलन चलाया। जाति-प्रथा एवं ऊंच-नीच को समाप्त करने के लिए गुरु जी ने लंगर प्रथा को और सशक्त किया। उस जमाने में भोजन करने के लिए जातियों के अनुसार 'पांतें' लगा करती थीं, लेकिन गुरु जी ने सभी के लिए एक ही पंगत में बैठकर 'लंगर छकना' (भोजन करना) अनिवार्य कर दिया। कहते हैं कि जब मुगल बादशाह अकबर गुरु-दर्शन के लिए गोइंदवाल साहिब आया, तो उसने भी 'संगत' के साथ एक ही 'पंगत' में बैठकर लंगर छका। यही नहीं, छुआछूत को समाप्त करने के लिए गुरु जी ने गोइंदवाल साहिब में एक 'सांझी बावली' का निर्माण भी कराया। कोई भी मनुष्य बिना किसी भेदभाव के इसके जल का प्रयोग कर सकता था।

गुरु जी का एक अन्य क्रांतिकारी कार्य सती-प्रथा की समाप्ति था। आपने सती-प्रथा जैसी घिनौनी रस्म को स्त्री के अस्तित्व का विरोधी मानकर, उसके विरुद्ध जबरदस्त प्रचार किया। गुरु जी द्वारा रचित 'वार सूही' में सती प्रथा का ज़ोरदार खंडन किया है। इतिहासकारों का मत है कि गुरु जी सती प्रथा के विरोध में आवाज उठाने वाले पहले समाज सुधारक थे। यह गुरु अमरदास जी एवं बाद के अन्य समाज सुधारकों के प्रयत्नों का ही फल है कि आज का समाज अनेक बुराइयों से दूर हो सका है।

Guru Amar Das Sahib Ji (in English)
Guru Amar Das is our Saving Grace, who carries us across; in lifetime after lifetime, I seek the Sanctuary of Your Feet. ||2||16||

Guru Amar Das Ji
(1552 to 1574)

Full Name : Amar Das Ji
Personal Details
Birth : Sunday 23 May 1479 at Basarkay, Amritsar
Guruship : Saturday 16 April 1552 at age of 73
Joti Jot : Thursday 16 September 1574
Parents : Tej Bhan & Mata Bakht
Brother/Sisters : Ishar Das, Khem Rai and Manak Chand
Spouse : Mata Mansa Devi
Children : Sons - Bhai Mohan and Bhai Mohri, Daughters - Bibi Dani Jiand Bibi Bhani Ji
Other Details
Bani in GGS: {{{Bani in GGS}}}
Other Info: 907 hymns, Anand Sahib

Guru Amar Das Sahib Ji (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਅਮਰ ਦਾਸ) (Sunday 23 May, 1479 - Thursday 16 September, 1574), Nanak III, was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on Saturday, 16 April, 1552 at the age of 73, following the footsteps of Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib ji, who left for his heavenly abode on 29 March, 1552, aged 48.

Guru Amar Das ji was born in 1479, 10 years after the birth of Guru Nanak, the first Sikh Guru and founder of the Sikh faith. Guru Ji was the eldest son of Sri Tej Bhan Ji, a farmer and trader, and Mata Lachmi Ji, a devoted mother. He was a shopkeeper and lived in a village called Basarke, near Amritsar. The third Sikh Guru was married to Mata Mansa Devi and they had four children - two sons named Bhai Mohan and Bhai Mohri, and two daughters named Bibi Dani Ji and Bibi Bhani Ji. Bibi Bhani later married Bhai Jetha who became the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das. (See article Platforms of Jetha.)

Guru Amar Das Sahib contributed the following to the people of the world:

A total of 907 revelatory hymns, that are incorporated in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Gift of the prayer Anand Sahib, which is one of the Five Banis recited daily by devout Sikhs.
All visitors (from any caste, creed, ranking, social status) to Gurdwaras were asked to first partake in Langar (a free communal meal) before seeing the Guru (First Pangat, then Sangat). When emperor Akbar visited the Guru, he too first sat as a commoner in the Langar, and then had a meeting with the Guru.

Further abolished the caste system.

Guru Ji lifted the status of women and gave them equality with men. He strictly prohibited practices such as Sati (the burning of the wife on her husband's funeral pyre), Parda (veil to cover the face), and encouraged widow-remarriage.

Established an administration system for management of the increasing size of the Sikh congregations, called Manjis.

Established the city of Goindval on the banks of River Beas in 1552 A.D.
Before Guru Ji died at the age of 95, he nominated Guru Ram Das Ji (Bhai Jetha) as the fourth Guru of the Sikhs. He didn’t die. His body was of no use. His soul is alive, merged with God.
How did Guru ji become a Sikh?

It is recorded that before becoming a Sikh, Bhai Amardas Ji as he was known at the time, was a very religious Vaishanavite Hindu who spent most of his life performing all of the ritual pilgrimages and fasts of a devout Hindu. One day, Bhai Amardas Sahib Ji heard some hymns of Sri Guru Nanak Dev being sung by Bibi Amro Ji Ji, the daughter of Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji Maharaj, the second Sikh Guru Sahib. Bibi Amro Ji was married to Bhai Sahib's brother, Bhai Manak Chand Ji' s son who was called Bhai Jasso Ji.
Bibi Amro Ji lived together with Bhai Sahib's brother. It so happened that Bhai Sahib was at his brother's nearby house when he heard the wonderful recitation of Gurbani by his niece-in-law. Bhai Sahib was so impressed and moved by these Shabads that he immediately decided to go to see Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji at Khadur Sahib. It is recorded that this event took place when Bhai Sahib was 61 years old.
Bhai Sahib also had a younger brother called Bhai Ishar Das whose son Bhai Gurdas Ji, became a superb poet and scholar of comparative religions who would later become the scribe that was chosen by Guru Arjan Dev to pen the first edition of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Maharaj, [[the Adi Granth]].

In 1635, upon meeting Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji, Bhai Sahib was so touched by the Guru's message that he became a devout Sikh. Soon he became involved in Sewa (Service) to the Guru and the Community. Under the impact of the Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji and the teachings of the Gurus, Bhai Amardas Ji became a devout Sikh. He adopted Guru Ji as his spiritual guide (Guru). Bhai Sahib Ji began to live at Khadur Sahib. He used to rise early in the morning, bring water from the Beas River for Guru ji's bath, he would wash the Guru ji's clothes and fetch wood from the Jungle for 'Guru ka Langar'. He was so dedicated to Sewa and the Guru and had completely extinguished pride and was totally lost in this commitment that he was considered an old man who had no interest in life, he was dubbed Amru, and generally forsaken.

However, as a result of Bhai Sahib's commitment to Sikhi principles, dedicated service and devotion to the Sikh cause, Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji appointed Sri Guru Amar Das Sahib Ji as third Sri Guru Nanak Sahib in March 1552 at the age of 73. He established his headquarters at the newly built town of Goindwal Sahib, which Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji had established.


ਗ੝ਰ੝ ਅਮਰਦਾਸ੝ ਜਿਨ੝ਹ੝ਹ ਸੇਵਿਅਉ ਤਿਨ੝ਹ੝ਹ ਦ੝ਖ੝ ਦਰਿਦ੝ਰ੝ ਪਰਹਰਿ ਪਰੈ ॥੩॥੧੭॥
Those who serve Guru Amar Daas - their pains and poverty are taken away, far away. ||3||17||

Soon large numbers of Sikhs started flocking to Goindwal to see the new Guru. Meanwhile, going against his father's wishes, Datu, one of Guru Angad's sons, proclaimed himself as Guru at Khadur following his father's death. He was so jealous of Guru Amar Das that he, with a small group of his supporters, proceeded to Goindwal to confront the Guru. Upon seeing Guru Amar Das seated on a throne surrounded by his followers he said, "You were a mere menial servant of the house until yesterday; how dare you style yourself as the Master?". At that point, Datu kicked the aged Guru Amardas ji so hard that he fell to the floor. Taking the seat of the Master he then proclaimed himself Guru to the assembly of Sikhs. The Sangat must have been shocked as this not only flew against Guru Angad's wishes, but against centuries of respect that the people of India and the Punjab had for their elders, to kick the revered Guru was indeed - shocking.

Guru Amar Das, however, in utter humility, righted himself and caressed Datu's foot saying, "I am old and my bones have grown very hard, I fear they have hurt your tender foot. " After this Guru Amar Das left Goindwal that evening and returned to his native village of Basarke.

At Basarke, Guru Amar Das shut himself in a small house for solitary meditation. He had told no one where he was headed, but just in case someone tracked him down he attached a notice on the front door saying, "He who opens this door is no Sikh of mine, nor am I his Guru." A delegation of faithful Sikhs led by Baba Buddha found the house and seeing the notice on the front door, finally chose to 'go between the Guru's words', cutting a hole through a wall to reach their beloved Guru. Then Baba Buddha said to the Guru, "Guru Sahib, being a supreme yogi, we know you care for nothing in the world - neither fame, nor riches nor a following, but we cannot live without your guidance. Guru Angad has tied us to your apron, where should we go now if you do not show us the way?"

At the tearful emtreaty of the Sikhs, Guru Amar Das, overwhelmed by their devotion, returned to Goindwal where Datu, who had been unable to gather any followers of his own, had returned to Khadur.

Manji System

At Goindwal, Guru Amar Das propagated the Sikh faith in a logical and planned manner. He himself visited and sent Sikh missionaries to different parts of India to spread Sikhism. He divided the Sikh Sangat area into 22 branches called Manjis and appointed a local devout Sikh preacher at each place. The preacher sat on a Manji (a cot) while the congregation all sat around the Manji or cot. Here are the initial 16 names of the people he appointed to preach Sikhism.

1. Manak Chand Jhinwar (Water Carrier) at Variowal in Amritsar.In the area of Majha (Amritsar, Lahore, Sialkote)
2. Sada ram, a Blacksmith near Amritsar.
3. Hindal at Jandiala near Amritsar.
4. Gangu Shah banker at Lahore.
5. Mutho-Murari, a devoted couple, at Chunian in Lahore Dist.

In Jalandhar Doab
6. Paro Julka at Jalandar.
7. Mahesh Dhir at Sultanpur Lodi.
8. Rang Shah at Moluphota.

In Kangra Hills
9. Sawan mal, Nephew of Guru Amar Das, at Haripur Guler.
10. Name not given, at Dharamsala.

Kashmir Hills
11. Phirya at Mirpur.

Malwa (Area of Patiala, Ludhiana, Bhatinda)
12. Kheira at Firozpur.
13. Mai Das Bairagi in charge of Ludhiana dist.
14. Mai Bhago at village Wayun, tehsil Kharar, dist. Rupar.
15. Mai Sewan at Village Gardnoh in Patiala District.
16. Sachna Shah in charge of Ambala distt.

17. Lalu in chage of some area in Sind.
18 to 22: Unknown
Piri System
Sending Bhai Gurdas to Agra

Guru Amar Das was impressed with Bhai Gurdas' thorough knowledge of Hindi and Sanskrit and the Hindu scriptures. Following the tradition of sending out Masands across the country, Guru Amar Das deputed Bhai Gurdas to Agra to spread the gospel of Sikhism. Before leaving, Guru Amar Das prescribed the following routine for Sikhs:

"He who calls himself a Sikh of the True Guru, He must get up in the morning and say his prayers. He must rise in the early hours and bathe in the holy tank. He must meditate on God as advised by the Guru. And rid himself of the afflictions of sins and evil. As the day dawns, he should recite scriptures, and repeat God's name in every activity. He to whom the Guru takes kindly is shown the path. Nanak! I seek the dust of the feet of the Guru's Sikh who himself remembers God and makes others remember Him." (Gauri)

Visit of Akbar

Guru Ji strengthened the tradition of 'Guru ka Langar' and made it compulsory for the visitor to the Guru saying that 'Pehle Pangat Phir Sangat' (first visit the Langar then go to the Guru). Once the emperor Akbar came to see Guru Sahib and he had to eat the coarse rice in the Langar before he could have an interview with Guru Sahib. He was too much impressed with this system that he expressed his desire to grant some royal property for 'Guru ka Langar', but Guru Sahib declined it with respect. Guru Amardas Sahib persuaded Akbar to waive off toll-tax (pilgrim's tax) for non-Muslims while crossing Yamuna and Ganga, Akbar did so. Guru Amardas Sahib maintained cordial relations with emperor Akbar.

Social Changes

He preached against Sati and advocated the re-marrying of widows. He asked the women to discard 'Purdah' (veil). He introduced new birth, marriage and death ceremonies. Thus he raised the status of women and protected the rights of female infant who were killed without question as they were deemed to have no status. These teachings met stiff resistance from the Orthodox Hindus and Muslim fundamentalists. He fixed three Gurpurbs for Sikh celebrations: Dewali, Vaisakhi and Maghi. Visiting of Hindu pilgrimage centres and paying tributes to the Muslim places were prohibited.

When the Raja of Haripur came to see the Guru. Guru Amar Das insisted that he first partake a common meal from the community kitchen, called langar, irrespective of his caste. The Raja obliged and had an audience with the Guru. But one of his queens refused to lift the veil from her face, so Guru Amar Das refused to meet her. Guru Amar Das not only preached the equality of people irrespective of their caste but he also tried to foster the idea of women's equality. He tried to liberate women from the practices of purdah (wearing a veil) as well as preaching strongly against the practice of sati (Hindu wife burning on her husband's funeral pyre). Guru Amar Das also disapproved of a widow remaining unmarried for the rest of her life.

Guru Amardas Sahib constructed Baoli at Goindwal Sahib having eighty-four steps and made it a Sikh pilgrimage centre for the first time in the history of Sikhism. He reproduced more copies of the hymns of Guru Nanak Sahib and Guru Angad Sahib. He also composed 869 (according to some chronicles these were 709) verses (stanzas) including Anand Sahib, and then later on Guru Arjan (fifth Guru) made all the Shabads part of Guru Granth Sahib.

Once during several days of rain while Guru Amar Das was riding by a wall which he saw was on the verge of falling he galloped his horse past the wall. The Sikhs questioned him saying; "O Master, you have instructed us, 'fear not death, for it comes to all' and 'the Guru and the God-man are beyond the pale of birth and death', why did you then gallop past the collapsing wall?" Guru Amar Das replied; "Our body is the embodiment of God's light. It is through the human body that one can explore one's limitless spiritual possibilities. Demi-gods envy the human form. One should not, therefore, play with it recklessly. One must submit to the Will of God, when one's time is over, but not crave death, nor invite it without a sufficient and noble cause. It is self surrender for the good of man that one should seek, not physical annihilation."

Meeting Bhai Jetha

When it came time for the Guru to get his younger daughter Bibi Bhani, married, he selected a pious and diligent young follower of his called Jetha from Lahore. Jetha had come to visit the Guru with a party of pilgrims from Lahore and had become so enchanted by the Guru's teachings that he had decided to settle in Goindwal. Here, he earned a living selling wheat and would regularly attend the services of Guru Amar Das Ji in his spare time.

Guru Amar Das Sahib did not consider anyone of his sons fit for Guruship and chose instead his son-in law (Guru) Ram Das to succeed him. Certainly it was practically a right step not as emotional, because Bibi Bhani and (Guru) Ram Das had true sprit of service and their keen understanding of the Sikh principles deserved this. This practice shows that Guruship could be transferred to any body fit for the Sikh cause and not to the particular person who belonged to the same family or of other. Guru Amar Das Sahib at the ripe age of 95 passed away for heaven on Bhadon Sudi 14th, (1st Assu) Samvat 1631, (September 1, 1574) at Goindwal Sahib near District Amritsar, after giving responsibility of Guruship to the Fourth Nanak, Guru Ramdas.

Akka Mahadevi
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A murti of Akka Mahadevi consecrated in temple at her birthplace, Udathadi

A popular vachana (poem) composed by Akka Mahadevi

Akka Mahadevi (ಅಕ್ಕ ಮಹಾದೇವಿ) (c.1130–1160) was one of the early female poets of the Kannada language and a prominent personality in the Lingayat sect of Hinduism in the 12th century. Her 430 extant Vachana poems (a form of spontaneous mystical poems), and the two short writings called Mantrogopya and the Yogangatrividhi are considered her most notable contribution to Kannada literature. She composed relatively fewer poems than other saints of the movement. Yet the term Akka ("elder Sister"), which is an honorific given to her by great Lingayat saints such as Basavanna, Siddharama and Allamaprabhu is an indication of her contribution to the spiritual discussions held at the "Anubhava Mantapa". She is in hindsight seen as an inspirational woman for Kannada literature and the history of Karnataka. She is known to have considered the god Shiva ('Chenna Mallikarjuna') as her husband, (traditionally understood as the 'madhura bhava' or 'madhurya' form of devotion).


Akka Mahadevi born in Udutadi, near Shivamogga in the Indian state of Karnataka. The year of her birth is believed to be around 1130. Some scholars suggest that she was born to a couple named Nirmalshetti and Sumati, who were both devotees of Para Shiva. Little is known about her life, however, it has been the subject of hagiographic folk and mythological claims, sourced both, in oral traditions, as well as from her lyrics. One of her lyrics, for instance, appears to record her experiences of leaving her place of her birth and family in order to pursue Para Shiva.

Tharu and Lalita also document a popular claim that a local Jain king named Kaushika sought to marry her, but that she rejected him, choosing instead to fulfil the claims of devotion to the deity Para Shiva. However, it is important to note that the medieval sources that form the basis of accounts of Akka Mahadevi's marriage are themselves ambiguous and inconclusive. Elaborations on this account include a referral to one of her poems, or vachanas, in which she lays down three conditions on which she agreed to marry the King, including a complete control over the choice to spend her time in devotion or in conversation with other scholars and religious figures, as opposed to with the King. There is some dispute over whether the marriage did in fact take place: the medieval scholar and poet Harihara suggests in his biography of her that it did take place but was a marriage in name only, while other accounts from Camasara suggest that the conditions were not accepted and the marriage did not occur.

Harihara's account, which suggests that a marriage did take place, goes on to provide that when King Kaushika violated the conditions she had laid down, Akka Mahadevi left the palace, renouncing all her possessions including clothes, to travel to Srisailam, believed to be the home of the god Para Shiva. Alternative accounts suggest that Akka Mahadevi's act of renunciation was in response to King Kaushika's threats following her refusal to marry him. It is likely that she visited the town of Kalyana, en route, where she met two other poets and prominent figures of the Lingayat movement, Allama and Basava. She is believed to have travelled, towards the end of her life, to the Srisailam mountains, where she lived as an ascetic, and eventually died. A vachana attributed to Akka Mahadevi suggests that towards the end of her life, King Kaushika visited her there, and sought her forgiveness.


A statue of Akka Mahadevi installed at her birthplace, Udathadi

She is considered by modern scholars to be a prominent figure in the field of female emancipation. A household name in Karnataka, she had said that she was a woman only in name and that her mind, body, and soul belonged to Lord Shiva. During a time of strife and political uncertainty in the 12th. century, she chose spiritual enlightenment and stood by her choice. It is commonly known that she took part in many gatherings of learned such as the Anubhavamantapa in Kalyana(now Basava Kalyana) to debate about philosophy and attainment of enlightenment (or Moksha, termed by her as "arivu"). In search for her eternal soul mate, Lord Shiva, she made the animals, flowers and birds her friends and companions, rejecting family life and worldly attachment. Bhakti recorded a rethinking of the ashrama dharma which suggested a stages-of-life approach that began with the pursuit of education and ended with the pursuit of moksha.

Akka was a revelation here in that she pursued enlightenment recording her journey in vachanas of simple language but great cognitive rigor.

It is said that Mahadevi was married by arrangement to Kausika but later did not as the king disrespected some conditions set by her. There were immediate tensions, however, as Kausika was a Jain, a group that tended to be wealthy and was, as a result, much resented by the rest of the population. Akka's poetry explores the themes of rejecting mortal love in favour of the everlasting love of God. Her vachanas also talk about the methods that the path of enlightenment demand of the seeker, such as killing the 'I', conquering desires and the senses and so on.

She rejected her life of luxury to live as a wandering poet-saint, travelling throughout the region and singing praises to her Lord Shiva.

She went in search of fellow seekers or sharanas because the company of the saintly or sajjana sanga is believed to hasten learning. She found the company of such sharanas in Basavakalyana, Bidar district. Akka utters many vachanas in praise of them. Her non-conformist ways caused a lot of consternation in a conservative society and even her eventual guru Allama Prabhu had to initially face difficulties in enlisting her in the gatherings at Anubhavamantapa. A true ascetic, Mahadevi is said to have refused to wear any clothing—a common practice among male ascetics, but shocking for a woman. Legend has it that due to her true love and devotion with God her whole body was protected by hair.

All the sharnas of Anubhavamantapa, especially Basavanna, Chenna Basavanna, Kinnari Bommayya, Siddharama, Allamaprabhu and Dasimayya greet her with a word "Akka". In fact it is here onwards that she becomes Akka, an elderly sister. Allama shows her the further way of attaining the transcendent bliss of ultimate union with Lord Chenna Mallikarjuna. Akka leaves Kalyana with this following vachana:

"Having vanquished the six passions and becomeThe trinity of body, thought and speech;
Having ended the trinity and become twain – I and the Absolute
Having ended the duality and become a unity
Is because of the grace of you all.
I salute Basavanna and all assembled here
Blessed was I by Allama my Master-
Bless me all that I may join my Chenna Mallikarjuna
Good-bye! Good-bye!"

This dramatic situation of Kalyana Parva in Akka Mahadevi's life is an indication of the beginning of the third phase of her life. In the first phase she had renounced the worldly objects and attractions and in the second, discards the entire object based rules and regulations and in the third phase she starts her journey towards Srishila, where her eternal lover Chenna Mallikarjuna's temple locates. Also, it is the holy place for devotees of Shiva since before the 12th century. Akka's spiritual journey ends at Kadali the nearby thick forest area of Shrisaila (Srisailam) where she is supposed to have experienced union (aikya) with Chennamallikarjuna.

One of her famous vachana translates as:

People,male and female,
blush when a cloth covering their shame
comes loose
When the lord of lives

lives drowned without a facein the world, how can you be modest?
When all the world is the eye of the lord,onlooking everywhere, what can youcover and conceal?
Her poetry exhibits her love for Chenna Mallikarjuna and harmony with nature and simple living.

She Sang:

For hunger, there is the village rice in the begging bowl,For thirst, there are tanks and streams and wells

For sleep temple ruins do well
For the company of the soul I have you, Chenna Mallikarjuna

Akka Mahadevi's works, like many other Bhakti movement poets, can be traced through the use of her ankita, or the signature name by which she addressed the figure of her devotion.In Akka Mahadevi's case, she uses the name Chennamallikarjuna to refer to the god Shiva.The name Chennamallikarjuna can be variously translated, but the most well-known translation is by the scholar and linguist A.K. Ramanujan, who interprets it as 'Lord white as jamine'. A more literal translationn would be 'Mallika's beautiful Arjuna', according to Tharu and Lalita.

Based on the use of her ankita, about 350 lyric poems or vachanas are attributed to Akka Mahadevi. Her works frequently use the metaphor of an illicit, or adulterous love to describe her devotion to Chennamallikarjuna (Shiva). The lyrics place Akka Mahadevi as actively seeking out a relationship with Chennamallikarjuna (Shiva), and touches on themes of abandon, carnal love, and separation.

The direct and frank lyrics that Akka Mahadevi wrote have been described as embodying a "radical illegitimacy" that re-examines the role of women, not just as actors with volition and will, but in opposition to established social institutions and mores. At times she uses strong sexual imagery to represent the union between the devotee and the object of devotion. Her works also challenge common understandings of sexual identity; for instance, in one vachana she suggests that creation, or the power of the god Shiva, is masculine, while all of creation, including men, represent the feminine: "I saw the haughty master, Mallikarjuna/for whom men, all men, are but women, wives". In some vachanas, she describes herself as both, feminine and masculine.

Akka Mahadevi's works are like the works of many other female Bhakti poets, also touches on themes of alienation: both, from the material world, and from social expectations and mores concerning women.

Translations and Legacy

A. K. Ramanujan who first popularised the vachanas by translating them into a collection called Speaking of Siva. Postcolonial scholar Tejaswini Niranjana criticised his translations as rendering the vachanas into modern universalist poetry ready-to-consume by the West in Siting Translation (1992). Kannada translator Vanamala Vishwanatha is currently working on a new English translation, which may be published as part of the Murty Classical Library.

Akka Mahadevi continues to occupy a significant place in popular culture and memory, with roads and universities named after her. In 2010, a bas relief dating to the 13th century was discovered near Hospet in Karnataka, and is believed to be a depiction of Akka Mahadevi.

Bold Poetry

Akka Mahadevi describes her love for Lord Shiva as adulterous, viewing her husband and his parents as impediments to her union with her Lord. She talks about cuckolding the husband with Shiva and taking her lord (Shiva) as her husband. Terming relationship with mortal men as unsatisfactory, Akka Mahadevi describes them as thorns hiding under smooth leaves, un-trustworthy. About her mortal husband she says "Take these husbands who die decay, and feed them to your kitchen fires!". In another verse, she expresses the tension of being a wife and a devotee as

Husband inside, lover outside.

I can't manage them both.

This world and that other, cannot manage them both.
Why We Must Remember Poet And Saint Akka Mahadevi

Akka Mahadevi was a twelfth century (c. 1130-1160) Kannada poet, saint and mystic of the Virashaiva Bhakti Movement. The Virashaivites were social and spiritual revolutionaries in Karnataka during the twelfth century. They opposed orthodox Hinduism and its practices, for instance, caste and the system of worship through temple and priest. Their key form of communication was through vachanas or sayings which were free verse hymns in their mother-tongue. Through vachanas, the Virashaivites also rejected local folklore and classical traditions.

Image Credit: Pinterest

Akka Mahadevi is highly regarded for her vachanas, and is seen as an inspirational woman both for the history of Karnataka and Kannada literature. It is said that she was the first woman to have written vachanas in Kannada literature. The other Virashaiva saints like Basavanna, Siddharama, Allamaprabhu, etc. conferred to her the honorific term ‘Akka’ meaning ‘an elder sister’.

In her vachanas, Akka Mahadevi expressed her radical views on women’s roles, Hindu ritualism, caste, etc. and offers a testimony to the spiritual struggles faced by a female mystic in a patriarchal society. Having considered ‘Chennamallikarjuna’ (the god Shiva) as her husband in what is understood as the ‘madhurya’ form of devotion or the ‘madhura bhava’, she ends her verses with her ‘ankita’ (signature) calling Shiva as Chennamallikarjuna or as poetically translated by A. K. Ramanujan, “Lord as White as Jasmine”.

I will
give this wench the slip
and go cuckold my husband with
Hara, my Lord.
-Translation by A. K. Ramanujan

Akka Mahadevi was born in a village called Udatadi in Karnataka and was raised in a spiritual atmosphere. Her parents, Sumati and Nirmalashetty, were devotees of Lord Shiva and followed the Shaivite sect of the Lingayats. They believed in the Trividhi philosophy that comprises of Shiv Linga, Jangama and Guru, i.e., to sacrifice one’s life in service to society, aim for true knowledge and give up on worldly happiness, worshiping the Lord Shiva.

According to legends, she was a beautiful woman with long tresses and Kaushika, the Jain ruler of the region, fell in love with her. However, some accounts suggest that despite Kaushika’s proposal to marry Akka, the latter not only refused, but when forced, renounced her family, discarded her clothes and left the village covered only in her long tresses.

In other versions, it is claimed that the wedding did actually take place but on the conditions that the king would neither touch Akka without her permission nor hinder her worship. However, when Kaushika failed to honour the agreement, Akka left his palace leaving behind all his presents, including her clothes and acknowledged Lord Chennamallikarjuna as her sole husband.

Don’t hold me. Don’t
Stop me. Let go
Of my hand, the hem
Of my sari
Guru became kin,
Linga, the bridegroom
And I, the bride
The whole world knows
Chennamallikarjuna is my husband,
O brother,
No one else can be my man.
-Translation by H. S. Shivprakash

Liberated from a domestic life, Mahadevi travelled to the region of Kalyana, the then capital of the Western Chalukya dynasty in the Bidar district of Karnataka in search of her beloved Chennamallikarjuna. Kalyana was the seat of eminent saint-poets of the Virashaiva sect where leaders like Basavanna and Allamaprabhu resided.

At Anubhav Mandap, Akka Mahadevi became part of the discussions centered around spiritual, social and philosophical questions but her acceptance in the movement did not come easily. She was questioned for her nakedness that exemplified a deliberate rejection of womanly modesty. It was impudent for a woman to abandon her clothes even though for saints it was a natural practice.

On the other hand, Allamaprabhu felt that the tresses covering her body disallowed her complete submission to the god. Mahadevi ultimately succeeded after a meticulous discourse and became part of the group. She acquired the title of Akka (elder sister) and reveled in the company of other devotees. However, later she left for Shrisailam Mountain where according to legends, with great penance and single-pointed devotion, she developed ‘nirguna bhava’ and achieved union with Chennamallikarjuna, her Lord.

I have seen the Supreme Guru Chenna Mallikarjuna sporting with the primeval Sakti,
And saved am I.

-Translation by T. N. Sreekantaiya

Akka Mahadevi is a force to be reckoned with even now. She is remembered for her undefying faith, courage and devotion, although her rebellion is rooted within the patriarchal language and structures. Vijaya Ramaswamy reminds us to be mindful of the fact that, “Female spirituality can also be an enforced phenomenon, a diabolic outcome of patriarchal conspiracy.”

However, Akka Mahadevi is still a defiant spirit who rebelled against worldly constrictions and prescribed gender roles. Hers is a womanhood that drives away from the traditional figures of Lakshmi and Sita. Her vachanas (devotional poems), intense and sensual in nature, are a reflection of this bold and radical spirit. Akka Mahadevi did not let anything or anyone obstruct her unification with Chennamallikarjuna. Her poems portray Chennamallikarjuna as both her illicit lover and her husband.

Take these husbands who die,
decay, and feed them
to your kitchen fires!
-Translation by Ramanujam

Akka Mahadevi defies the traditional feminine images by giving expression to her desire. Besides being a mystic, seer, poet, she is also seen as a social reformer. In a time when women were not even allowed to attend school, she became part of a learned group. In many ways Mahadevi’s life mirrors that of Mirabai and much like the latter, Mirabai had to struggle with social restrictions to achieve union with her Lord. Her poetry embodies this struggle.

U. R. Anantha Murthy writes, “Akka Mahadevi is not just a 12th century memory but a force active in the writing of many women poets.” Akka Mahadevi is still a household name in Karnataka, remembered in festivals and folklore. She has also been commemorated in films, music videos and a couple of NGOs that are established in her name.

Featured Image Credit: Sagar World
Anant Punya Maharaj

In a caste-dominated society, where dalit bridegrooms are often discouraged to ride a mare in their wedding processions, upper castes treat them with disdain and untouchability remains a stigma irrespective of what the Indian Constitution outlines, the induction of a dalit youth in Jain religion comes as a welcome change.

In a historic event, a 22-year-old youth belonging to Meghwal community was anointed as a Jain monk at Ahore town in Jalore district on Monday. Hailing from Mandwaria village, Sirohi district, Chandaram Meghwal alias Sandeep got a new identity as Anant Punya Maharaj at a diksha ceremony attended by a large number of people from Shwetambar Jain community and Sandeep's relatives from Sirohi.

Sandeep who went to Mumbai in search of a job a few years ago was so impressed by Jain saint Suryodaya Maharaj that he expressed his desire to dedicate his life to the religion. He travelled with him to various holy places and attended religious sermons with deep devotion and sincerity to the surprise of the saint. On expressing his desire to join the religion, he was sent to Ahmedabad to study the Jain ideology for almost four years. Seeing his intense desire to lead life of a Jain monk, his family gave in after initial hesitation, reliable sources told Deccan Herald from Ahore.

He was given a warm send off from his village two days ago and reportedly there was a mad rush among the villagers to touch his feet to show their reverence. His monkhood moved about 1,500 people in the village to go vegetarian and give up drinking. Monday onwards, he would be known with his new name Anant Punya, said Mahaveer Jain, a businessman from Bangalore, who was currently in Ahore to attend the diksha ceremony. His 26-year-old sister also took diksha along with Sandeep, he said. A commerce student at the MES college in Bangalore, she gave up her studies to pursue the same path.

A tough life awaits the newly inducted monk from Tuesday as he will have to walk barefoot, clad in a white robe and seeking alms. No physical comforts will be allowed, including the services of a barber.

Recent Conversions to Jainism
By Mahavir Sanglikar

We know much about people, especially Dalits converting to Buddhism, but most of us are unaware of recent conversions to Jainism, another ancient religion of Shramanic origin. We do not know much about such conversion as Jain monks do not want to give much prominence to conversion News. Instead, they have concentrated on attracting people to Jainism, and teaching them the Jain way of life. They do not care much about whether these new converts call themselves Jain or not, but their sole aim is to spread Jain ethics and practices amongst the converts. It is their strategy as the monks know that the converts will get benefits of practicing the Jain way of life in short period, and Jainism will get benefits of numerical strength in near future.

These conversions are going on in two ways:

a. converting common people to Jainism as a layman, on personal level and also in mass conversions.

b. Initiating desirous non Jains in Jain monk order.

It is interesting that many of the great Jain monks and their heads are basically from non-Jain families. I would like to mention some names of such great Jain monks, ascetics and spiritual persons, who were born in non-Jain families here: Acharya Atmaramji (from Punjabi Khatri Family), ShriMad Raaychandra (Gujarati Vaishnavite), Muni Buteraay (Jaat), Muni Mayaram (Jaat), Baba Bhagirath Varni (Jaat), Acharya Vijay Indra Dinn Suri (Tribal/Adivasi), Anant Punya Maharaj (Rajsthani Meghwal Dalit), Vishuddh Ratna Sagar (A Dalit from Maharashtra), Acharay Sushilmuni (Punjabi Brahmin), All these belong to recent time.

There were mass conversions to Jainism in last few decades of 20th century. Here are some of the social groups (castes) from which the conversions took place.


Parmars are adivasis (Tribals) of Panchmahal and other districts in Gujarat. They were converted to Jainism by Acharya Vijay Indra Dinna Suri. The Acharya himself was from this community. Parmars are about half a million in number. The Parmars were followers of Jainism in ancient time, but after revival of Bramhinism they had to take shelter of Jungles, and were not in touch of mainstream Jains. Now they are known as Parmar Kshatriya Jains. Please read Adivasi Conversion To Jainism for a detailed information on their conversions.


Dharmpals were untouchable Balai Hindus of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. They were converted to Jainism by Acharaya Nanalal Maharaj. They are about 2 Lakhs in number.


They were Khatiks (butchers) of Madhya Pradesh. About 1 lakh Khatiks became Jain. They were names as Veervals. Recently they had an Akhil Bhartiya Veerval Jain Sammelan at Secunderabad, A.P.


They were originally Jains belonging to the ancient tradition of Jainism, but were away from Mainstream. Upadhyay Gyan Sagar Maharaj brought a large population of them to mainstream. The population of Saraks is about1.5 million. They are spread in Jharkhand, Bihar,Orissa and West Bengal.


A large number of Patidars in Gujarat have adopted Jainism Jainism in 20th century. This conversion took place mainly because of Shrimad Rajchandra, Kanaji Swami and Dada Bhagwan.

Namdhari Gowdas

In South Karnataka, thousands of Namdhari Gowdas are getting converted to Jainism. These people were Jains in past, but had converted to Vaishnavism. But now they are returning to their original religion.

Neo Jains in West

Many people in North America and Europe have adopted Jainism in recent years.

There are also many other small groups all over India. Beside that a large number of people follow Jainism who are not in the mainstream.
St Andal

Born : Kodhai
8th or 9th century CE
Titles/honours : Alvars
Philosophy : Srivaishnava Bhakti
Literary works : Thiruppavai, Nachiar Tirumozhi

Andal at Pundarikakshan, Perumal Temple, Tamil Nadu

Andal is the only female Alvar among the 12 Alvar saints of South India. The Alvar saints are known for their affiliation to the Srivaishnava tradition of Hinduism. Active in the 9th-century, with some suggesting 8th-century, Andal is credited with the great Tamil works, Thiruppavai and Nachiar Tirumozhi, that are still recited by devotees during the winter festival season of Margazhi.

Andal is known for her unwavering devotion to Lord Vishnu, the God of the Srivaishnavas. She was adopted by the Alvar saint, Periyalvar, who found her as a baby lying under a Tulasi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) plant in the temple garden of Srivilliputhur. He named her "Kodhai" or "gift of Mother Earth." Nonetheless, the story of Andal has no reliable historical account, except for 2 hagiographies.

History of Andal

Periazhwar (originally called Vishnuchittar) was an ardent devotee of Lord Vishnu and he used to string garland to Vishnu every day. He was childless and he prayed to Vishnu to save him from the longing. One day, he found a girl child under a Tulasi plant in a garden inside the temple. He and his wife named the child as Kothai, who grew up as a devotee of Lord Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu. She is believed to have worn the garland before dedicating it to the presiding deity of the temple. Periazhwar, who later found it, was highly upset and remonstrated her. Vishnu appeared in his dream and asked him to dedicate only the garland worn by Andal to him. The girl Kothai was thus named Andal and was referred as Chudikodutha Sudarkodi (lady who gave her garland to Vishnu). The practise is followed during modern times when the garland of Andal from Srivilliputhur Andal Temple is sent to Azhagar Koyil on Garudostavam during the Tamil month of Purattaasi (September - October) and Tirumala Venkateswara Temple during Chitra Pournami.

Dedication to Vishnu

Kodhai was brought up by Vishnuchitta (Periyalvar) in an atmosphere of love and devotion. As Kodhai grew into a beautiful maiden, her fervor for the Lord Vishnu grew to the extent that she decided to marry only the Lord Himself. As time passed, her resolve strengthened and she thought constantly about marrying Ranganathar of Srirangam (the reclining form of Vishnu).

Vishnuchitta (Periyalvar) understood the Divine Love that existed between the Lord Vishnu and his daughter. Kodhai was well-respected by devotees and came to be known as "Andal," the girl who "ruled" over the Lord. She is also known by the phrase, "Soodi kodutha Sudarkodi," which literally means, "The bright creeper-like woman who gave her garlands after wearing them."

Andal's Bhakthi

In North India, Radha Rani is celebrated as the "Queen of Bhakthi (devotion)." Similarly, in Tamil Nadu Andal is remembered for her pure love and devotion. In the Thiruppavai, Andal, as a Gopi in Ayarpadi (Brindavan), emphasizes that the ultimate goal of life is to seek surrender and refuge at the Lord's feet. Initially, the Gopis ask Krishna for the Parai and other materials needed for fulfilling their vow, which they observe in the month of Maarghazhi. But towards the end of the hymn, the request assumes philosophical tones, and their only wish is to serve Lord Vishnu at all times, vividly describing the permanent bond between the Paramatma and the Jivatma. The Gopis view Krishna as the Supreme Brahman (Lord).

Andal extols Krishna's Paratva, which coexists with His Saulabhya when He is in the midst of devotees. She praises Vamana for saving Indra; how He grew in size as Trivikrama; and how He measured the world with His auspicious feet. As Rama, He went to Lanka to kill Ravana and retrieve Sita. Then, as child Krishna, He saved Himself from the dangers posed by the emissaries of Kamsa who came to kill Him. Andal sings about how Krishna protected the entire Vrindavan people from many dangers; and how He saved the Vrindavan from the torrential rains by holding the Govardhana hill as an umbrella at the tip of His little finger.

Marrying the Lord

Parvathi (Lord Shiva's devotee) and Andal (Lord Vishnu's devotee) are similar in the sense that they showed their extraordinary bhakthi and love when they were four years old. Andal was four years old when she started to compose the hymns of the Thiruppavai, Nachayiyar Thirumozhi, and Vaaranam Aayiram.

Andal, like her father, sang a Pallandu to hail the Lord Vishnu as the unfailing Protector of all. She regarded Periyalvar not only as a father, but also as a preceptor. Her wish was that Lord Vishnu should accept them as his servants although they were only simple folk. This Dasya Bhava is the trait of a true Bhakta, and Andal taught how to cultivate this Bhava in all. Initially, the common people commented and mocked Andal as being insane, but Periyalvar supported her and encouraged her to be devoted to Lord Sri Vishnu. Periyalvar played an important role in nurturing Andal's Bhakti and helped her attain divine ecstasy. She thought of herself as a Gopika and dressed herself as a Gopi, demonstrating her simplicity, humility, pure love, and devotion.

Andal's Garlands

One of the ancient stories about Andal tells that she dressed herself as a bride, looked in a mirror, and wore a flower garland. Periyalvar, busy in his daily preparations to go to the temple, took that same flower garland to the temple. The temple priest noticed a strand of Kodhai's hair on one of the garlands and became annoyed that a used flower garland had been offered to the Lord Vishnu. Periyalvar was shocked, and realized that Andal had worn the garland. Meanwhile, Andal was happy thinking that her Lord would have accepted her garland. She grew sad, however, when Periyalvar rebuked her saying that Lord Vishnu had refused to wear the garland. Later Periyalvar tied together new garlands for Lord Vishnu made up of fresh flowers and took them to the temple. Miraculously, however, the Merciful Lord said that He wanted only the garland which had been worn by Andal. Periyalvar, in complete awe, immediately rushed to his house and brought the garland that Andal had worn (Periyalvar is believed to be an incarnation of Garudan, the vehicle of Lord Sri Vishnu). Thus, it became Periyalvar's wish that Andal should marry only Lord Sri Vishnu. Andal then told her father about her beautiful dreams in which the Lord came on an elephant to wed her. Andal described how she had composed her dreams into poems such as '"Vaaranam Aayiram".' The poems describe how Andal and Lord Sri Vishnu got married according to customs and rituals.The marriage happened exactly as stated in "vaaranam aayiram" Her dreams were complete prediction, prophecy, forethinking and reality. The bride, Andal, was then taken to the Srirangam temple where she entered the sanctum sanctorum and was ushered into the Lord's presence. Periyalvar and others present were wonderstruck on witnessing these events, but the wise Periyalvar remained balanced and the absence of his daughter never disturbed him or broke his heart. As a father, he felt that his daughter was married and sent to her husband's home.

It is also believed that Ranganatha of Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple married Andal, who later merged with the idol. Since Andal married Ranganatha, who came as a king (called Raja), the presiding deity is called Rangamannar.

Andal garland and Tirupathi Venkateswara

For Tirupathi Venkateswara temple Brahmotsavam festival, Garland worn by Andal in Srivilliputhur temple (Tamil Nadu) is sent all along to Tirupathi in Andhra Pradesh one day before the Brahmotsavam.These traditional garlands are made of tulasi, sevanthi and sampangi flowers.These garlands are used on prestigious Garuda seva day of Tirupathi Venkateswara in which the lord appear as Maha Vishnu.

Every year Tirupathi Venkateswara’s garland is sent to Srivilliputtur Andal for marriage festival of Andal Thayar.


Andal garland is being sent to Madurai Kallazhagar for Chithirai Festival day.

Andal's Hairstyle

Andal's hairstyle and ornamentation are unique to south India.

Andal's Parrot

Srivillipuththur Andal's handcrafted parrot which was made with green leaves are made each and every day freshly.This parrot is kept in the left hand of Andal. It takes approximately four and half hours to make this parrot. A pomegranate flower for beak and mouth, Bamboo sticks for legs, banana plant, petals of pink oleander and nandiyavattai..are used to prepare this parrot.

During his visit to the Srivillipuththur Andal temple the then president of India R. Venkataraman also was attracted towards this parrot.

Importance in South India

Andal is one of the best-loved poet-saints of the Tamils. Pious tradition holds her to be the incarnation of Bhūmi Devi (Sri Lakshmi as Mother Earth) to show humanity the way to Lord Vishnu's lotus feet. Representations of her next to Vishnu are present in all Srivaishnava temples. During the month of Margazhi, discourses on the Thiruppavai in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Hindi take place all over India. The Andal Temple at Srivilliputhur consists of twin temples, one of which is dedicated to Andal. Most South Indian Vishnu temples have a separate shrine for Andal. There are a number of festivals dedicated to Andal, among the most notable being the Pavai Nonbu in the Tamil month of Margazhi (December – January), Andal Thirukalyanam in Panguni, Pagalpathu, Rapathu, Adi Thiruvizha, when Andal is depicted seated in the lap of Ranganathar. Andal is known for her unwavering devotion to god Vishnu, the God of the Srivaishnavas. Adopted by her father, Periyalvar, Andal avoided earthly marriage, the normal and expected path for women of her culture, to marry Vishnu, both spiritually and physically. In many places in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu, Andal is treated more than a saint and as a form of god herself and a shrine for Andal is dedicated in most Vishnu temples.


The residence of Periyazhwar (Andal's father) has become "Nachiar koil". And the other part of temple is known as "Vadapadhra Sayi" temple in Srivillipuththur.

Thousands of people from the state participate in the "Aadi Pooram" festival celebrated in the Andal Temple. After early morning special pujas, the presiding deities, Sri Rengamannar and Goddess Andal are taken in decorated palanquins to the car. The festival marks the adoption of presiding deity, Andal, by Periyazhwar after he found her near a Tulsi plant in the garden of Vadabadrasai Temple at Srivilliputhur on the eighth day of the Tamil month of Adi.

Women groups inspired by Andal

In poetry, 9th-century Andal became a well known Bhakti movement poetess, states Pintchman, and historical records suggest that by 12th-century she was a major inspiration to Hindu women in south India and elsewhere. Andal continues to inspire hundreds of classical dancers in modern times choreographing and dancing Andal's songs. Andal is also called Goda, and her contributions to the arts have created Goda Mandali (circle of Andal) in the Vaishnava tradition.

Goda Mandali

Goda Mandali (circle) which was named after Andal was formed in 1970 and reorganized in 1982 spreads Andal songs widely through TV and radio programs

Literary works

Andal composed two literary works, both of which are in Tamil verse form and express literary, philosophical, religious, and aesthetic content.


Her first work is the Thiruppavai, a collection of 30 verses in which Andal imagines herself to be a Gopi, one of the cowherd girls known for their unconditional devotion to Lord Krishna. In these verses, she describes her yearning to serve Lord Vishnu and achieve happiness not just in this lifetime, but for all eternity. She also describes the religious vows (pavai) that she and her fellow cowherd girls will observe for this purpose. It is said that Thiruppavai is the nectar of Vedas and teaches philosophical values, moral values, ethical values, pure love, devotion, dedication, single-minded aim, virtues, and the ultimate goal of life.

Nachiar Tirumozhi

The second work by Andal is the Nachiar Tirumozhi, a poem of 143 verses. "Thirumozhi" literally means "Sacred Sayings" in a Tamil poetic style and "Nachiar" means Goddess. Therefore, the title means "Sacred Sayings of the Goddess." This poem fully reveals Andal's intense longing for Vishnu, the Divine Beloved. Utilizing classical Tamil poetic conventions and interspersing stories from the Vedas and Puranas, Andal creates imagery that is possibly unparalleled in the whole gamut of Indian religious literature. However, conservative Srivaishnavite institutions do not encourage the propagation of Nachiar Tirumozhi as much as they encourage Thiruppavai because Nachiar Tirumozhi belongs to an erotic genre of spirituality that is similar to Jayadeva's Gita Govinda.

Religious Recitations

These works form an important part of the daily religious life of South India. The daily services in most Srivaishnava temples and households include recitation of the Thiruppavai which, like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, is recited with great religious fervor by women, men, and children of all ages, particularly in Tamil Nadu. Both of these works, particularly the Thiruppavai, have been studied extensively by scholars and have been translated into a number of languages over the centuries.


Some of Andal's verses express love for Lord Vishnu, written with bold sensuality and startlingly savage longing, hunger and inquiry, that even today many of her most erotic poems are rarely rendered publicly. In one such verse Andal dispenses with metaphor and imagines that she herself in lying in the arms of Krishna, and making love to him

“My life will be spared / Only if he will come / To stay for me for one night / If he will enter me, / So as to leave / the imprint of his saffron paste / upon my breasts / Mixing, churning, maddening me inside, / Gathering my swollen ripeness / Spilling nectar, / As my body and blood / Bursts into flower.”

^ Dalrymple, William (10 July 2015). "In search of Tamil Nadu's poet-preachers" (London). Financial Times. The Financial Times Limited. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
^ Chakravarty, Uma (1989). "The World of the Bhaktin in South Indian Traditions - The Body and Beyond" (PDF). Manushi. 50-51-52: 25. Retrieved 18 September 2015.

Andal whilst admiring herself wearing the garland which was meant for the deity,

the guilt glazed love lay on Andal's breasts.
thick and heavy as him.
frightened with force
and locked away, she conjured him every night,
her empurumaan, her emperor-man.

In one of her poems, Andal says that her voluptuous breasts will swell for the lord alone, and scorns the idea of making love to mortal beings, comparing that with the sacrificial offering made by Brahmins being violated by jackals in the forest, and in another verse she dedicates her swelling breasts to the Lord who carries conch.

Krishnadevaraya's Amuktamalyada

Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagar Dynasty composed the epic poem Amuktamalyada in Telugu, which is considered as a masterpiece. Amuktamalyada translates to one who wears and gives away garlands, and describes the story of Andal or Goda Devi, the daughter of Periyalvar. It is believed that Krishnadevaraya wrote the work, after getting a dream in which Lord Vishnu appeared and instructed him write the story of his wedding to Andal at Srirangam in Telugu. In his dream, on being asked why Telugu was chosen, Lord Vishnu is said to have replied

“ తెలుఁగ దేల యెన్న దేశంబు దెలుఁగేను
తెలుఁగు వల్లభుండఁ తెలుఁగొకండ
యెల్ల నృపులు గొలువ నెరుఁగవే బాసాడి
దేశభాషలందుఁ తెలుఁగు లెస్స ”

— శ్రీ ఆంధ్ర విష్ణు

“ telugadElayanna, dESambu telugEnu
telugu vallaBhunDa telugokanDa
yella nRpulu golva nerugavE bAsADi
dESa BhAShalandu telugu lessa ”

— Śrī Viṣhṇu's reason on why Āmuktamālyada should be written in telugu by Sri Krishnadevaraya

Which translates to: "If you ask, 'Why Telugu?' It is because this is Telugu country and I am a Telugu king. Telugu is one of a kind. After speaking with all the kings that serve you, didn’t you realize - amongst all the regional languages, Telugu is the best!"

Amuktamalyada describes pain of separation (viraha) experienced by Andal, who is described as the incarnate of Lakshmi the consort of Vishnu. Further the poem describes Andal’s beauty in 30 verses written in the keśādi-pādam style, starting from her hair, going down her body till her feet.

Appayya Swamigalu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Appaiah Swami or Sadguru Appayya Swami (ಅಪ್ಪಯ ಸ್ವಾಮಿ 1885–1956) (not to be mistaken with Appayya Swamy, a 17th-century Carnatic Musician and scholar of Tamil Nadu) was a Hindu Indian spiritual master who lived in Virajpet town, in Kodagu, Karnataka, India.

Early life
Appayya Swami was born as Palanganda Appaiah, the son of a Kodava paddy farmer in Kodagu (Coorg) in 1885. Appayya did his schooling in English and Kannada at Central High School, Mercara. Later he entered the Government Service under the Raj. However, he was of a religious bend of mind since childhood, and was inspired by the lives of Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Swami Vivekananda. He sought a spiritual guru, eventually selecting Guru Ramagiri.


His Guru ordained him and Swamigalu learned and composed several hymns. Through the path of devotion, he attained self-realization. Over time he became a spiritual teacher with several disciples and was hence given the title of Sadguru.

In 1941 he founded a monastery in Virajpet known as Kaveri Ashram after the river goddess Kaveri. His work in sustaining Hindu spirituality and culture in Coorg and its surrounding regions is being carried on by the Kaveri Ashram (also known as Cauvery Ashram 12°12′09.27″N 75°48′11.68″E) today. A school is named after him in Somwarpet, Kodagu called Sadguru Appayya Swamy High School.


He died in 1956, aged 71.


Vivekananda Swamiji Cauveri Ashram

Cauveri Ashram Shrine

Mataji Virajpet

Cauveri Ashram Prayer hall adjacent to the Shrine

1. Śrī sadguru appayya vijaya (Kannada) authored by V.S. Rāmakriṣṇa (Śrī Kāvēri Āśrama, 1965) at Google Books)
2. Śrī sadguru appayya svāmijīyavara ātmakathe mattu sandēśa (Kannada) (Śrīkāvēri Bhakta Jana Saṅgha, 1965)
Swami Abhedananda
From Wikipedia
Swami Abhedananda
Kaliprasad Chandra
2 October 1866

Calcutta, Bengal, British India
Died 8 September 1939 (aged 72)

Calcutta, Bengal, British India
Religion Hinduism
Philosophy Advaita Vedanta
Religious career
Guru Ramakrishna Paramahamsa

Group photo taken on 30 January 1887 In Baranagar Math, Kolkata.

Standing: (l–r) Swami Shivananda, Swami Ramakrishnananda, Swami Vivekananda, Randhuni, Debendranath Majumdar, Mahendranath Gupta (Shri M), Swami Trigunatitananda, H.Mustafi

Sitting: (l–r) Swami Niranjanananda, Swami Saradananda, Hutko Gopal, Swami Abhedananda
Swami Abhedananda (2 October 1866 – 8 September 1939), born Kaliprasad Chandra was a direct disciple of the 19th century mystic Ramakrishna Paramahansa and the founder of Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. Swami Vivekananda sent him to the West to head the Vedanta Society of New York in 1897, and spread the message of Vedanta, a theme on which he authored several books through his life, and subsequently founded the Ramakrishna Vedanta Math, in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Darjeeling.

Early life and education

Swami Abhedananda, in his youth.
He was born in north Calcutta on 2 October 1866 and was named Kaliprasad Chandra. His father was Rasiklal Chandra and his mother was Nayantara Devi. In 1884, at the age of 18, while studying for the school final examination under the University of Calcutta, he went to Dakshineswar and met Sri Ramakrishna. Thereafter in April 1885, he left home to be with him, during his final illness, first at Shyampukur and then at Cossipur Garden-house near Calcutta.
Monastic life

After his Master's death in 1886, he plunged into intense sadhana (meditations), by shutting himself up in a room at the Baranagar matha, this gave him the name "Kali Tapaswi" amongst his fellow disciples. After the death of Ramakrishna, he formally became a Sanyasi along with Vivekananda and others, and came to be known as "Swami Abhedananda".

For the next ten years, of his life as a monk he travelled extensively throughout India, depending entirely on alms. During this time he met several famous sages like Pavhari Baba, Trailanga Swami and Swami Bhaskaranand. He went to the sources of the Ganges and the Yamuna, and meditated in the Himalayas. He was a forceful orator, prolific writer, yogi and intellectual with devotional fervour.

In 1896, Vivekananda was in London, when he asked Abhedananda to join him, and propagate the message of Vedanta in the West, which he did with great success. He went to USA in 1897, when Vivekananda asked him to take charge of the Vedanta Society in New York, here he preached messages of Vedanta and teachings of his Guru for about 25 years, travelling far and wide to United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan and Hong Kong. Finally, he returned to India in 1921, after attending the Pan-Pacific Education Conference at Honolulu.

In 1922, he crossed the Himalayas on foot and reached Tibet, where he studied Buddhistic philosophy and Lamaism. In Hemis Monastery, he claimed to have discovered a manuscript on the lost years of Jesus, which has been incorporated in the book Swami Abhedananda's Journey into Kashmir & Tibet published by the Ramakrishna Vedanta Math.

He formed the Ramakrishna Vedanta Society in Kolkata in 1923, which is now known as Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. In 1924, he established Ramakrishna Vedanta Math in Darjeeling in Bengal Presidency (now West Bengal). In 1927, he started publishing Visvavani, the monthly magazine of the Ramakrishna Vedanta Society, which he edited from 1927 to 1938, and which is still published today. In 1936, he presided over the Parliament of Religions at the Town Hall, Calcutta, as a part the birth centenary celebrations of Ramakrishna.

He died on 8 September 1939 at Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. At the time of his death he was the last surviving direct disciple of Ramakrishna.
St Ajahn Chah

Venerable Ajahn Chah was born on June 17, 1918 in a small village near the town of Ubon Ratchathani, North-East Thailand. After finishing his basic schooling, he spent three years as a novice before returning to lay life to help his parents on the farm. At the age of twenty, however, he decided to resume monastic life, and on April 26, 1939 he received upasampadā (bhikkhu ordination). Ajahn Chah’s early monastic life followed a traditional pattern, of studying Buddhist teachings and the Pali scriptural language. In his fifth year his father fell seriously ill and died, a blunt reminder of the frailty and precariousness of human life. It caused him to think deeply about life’s real purpose, for although he had studied extensively and gained some proficiency in Pali, he seemed no nearer to a personal understanding of the end of suffering. Feelings of disenchantment set in, and finally, in 1946 he abandoned his studies and set off on mendicant pilgrimage.

He walked some 400 km to Central Thailand, sleeping in forests and gathering almsfood in the villages on the way. He took up residence in a monastery where the vinaya, (monastic discipline), was carefully studied and practised. While there he was told about Venerable Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta, a most highly respected meditation master. Keen to meet such an accomplished teacher, Ajahn Chah set off on foot for the Northeast in search of him.

At this time Ajahn Chah was wrestling with a crucial problem. He had studied the teachings on morality, meditation and wisdom, which the texts presented in minute and refined detail, but he could not see how they could actually be put into practice. Ajahn Mun told him that although the teachings are indeed extensive, at their heart they are very simple. With mindfulness established, if it is seen that everything arises in the heart-mind, right there is the true path of practice. This succinct and direct teaching was a revelation for Ajahn Chah, and transformed his approach to practice. The Way was clear.

For the next seven years Ajahn Chah practiced in the style of the austere Forest Tradition, wandering through the countryside in quest of quiet and secluded places for developing meditation. He lived in tiger and cobra infested jungles, using reflections on death to penetrate to the true meaning of life. On one occasion he practised in a cremation ground, to challenge and eventually overcome his fear of death. While he was in the cremation ground, a rainstorm left him cold and drenched, and he faced the utter desolation and loneliness of a wandering homeless monk.

In 1954, after years of wandering, he was invited back to his home village. He settled close by, in a fever ridden, haunted forest called ‘Pah Pong’. Despite the hardships of malaria, poor shelter and sparse food, disciples gathered around him in increasing numbers. This was the beginning of the first monastery in the Ajahn Chah tradition, Wat Pah Pong. With time branch monasteries were established at other locations.

In 1967 an American monk came to stay at Wat Pah Pong. The newly ordained Venerable Sumedho had just spent his first Vassa (‘Rains’ retreat) practicing intensive meditation at a monastery near the Laotian border. Although his efforts had borne some fruit, Venerable Sumedho realized that he needed a teacher who could train him in all aspects of monastic life. By chance, one of Ajahn Chah’s monks, one who happened to speak a little English, visited the monastery where Venerable Sumedho was staying. Upon hearing about Ajahn Chah, he asked to take leave of his preceptor, and went back to Wat Pah Pong with the monk. Ajahn Chah willingly accepted the new disciple, but insisted that he receive no special allowances for being a Westerner. He would have to eat the same simple almsfood and practice in the same way as any other monk at Wat Pah Pong. The training there was quite harsh and forbidding. Ajahn Chah often pushed his monks to their limits, to test their powers of endurance so that they would develop patience and resolution. He sometimes initiated long and seemingly pointless work projects, in order to frustrate their attachment to tranquility. The emphasis was always on surrendering to the way things are, and great stress was placed upon strict observance of the vinaya.

In the course of events, other Westerners came through Wat Pah Pong. By the time Venerable Sumedho was a bhikkhu of five vassas, and Ajahn Chah considered him competent enough to teach, some of these new monks had also decided to stay on and train there. In the hot season of 1975, Venerable Sumedho and a handful of Western bhikkhus spent some time living in a forest not far from Wat Pah Pong. The local villagers there asked them to stay on, and Ajahn Chah consented. The Wat Pah Nanachat (‘International Forest Monastery’) came into being, and Venerable Sumedho became the abbot of the first monastery in Thailand to be run by and for English-speaking monks.

In 1977, Ajahn Chah was invited to visit Britain by the English Sangha Trust, a charity with the aim of establishing a locally-resident Buddhist Sangha. He took Venerable Sumedho and Venerable Khemadhammo along to England. Seeing the serious interest there, he left them in London at the Hampstead Vihara, with two of his other Western disciples who were then visiting Europe. He returned to Britain in 1979, at which time the monks were leaving London to begin Chithurst Buddhist Monastery in Sussex. He then went on to America and Canada to visit and teach. After this trip, and again in 1981, Ajahn Chah spent the ‘Rains’ away from Wat Pah Pong, since his health was failing due to the debilitating effects of diabetes. As his illness worsened, he would use his body as a teaching, a living example of the impermanence of all things. He constantly reminded people to endeavor to find a true refuge within themselves, since he would not be able to teach for very much longer. Before the end of the ‘Rains’ of 1981, he was taken to Bangkok for an operation. However, the procedure did little to improve his condition.

Within a few months he stopped talking, and gradually he lost control of his limbs until he was virtually paralyzed and bedridden. From then on, he was diligently and lovingly nursed and attended by devoted disciples, grateful for the occasion to offer service to the teacher who so patiently and compassionately showed the Way to so many.


"yo dhammam desesi ādikalyāṇaṃ, majjhekalyāṇaṃ, pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ"

"The Buddha has pointed out the way: excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and excellent in the end."

Each morning in Theravāda Buddhist monasteries around the world, the above stanza is chanted as part of ‘The Homage to the Triple Gem’. The teaching example of the late meditation master, Venerable Ajahn Chah, or Luang Por as his disciples called him, displayed this quality of being.

‘Excellent in the beginning’, in Ajahn Chah’s case, was his commitment to the life of a renunciant monk (dhutaṅga bhikkhu). He cultivated impeccable discipline and displayed consistent, daring effort to confront all situations, especially those from which he was inclined to turn away. He gave himself completely to the training and eventually the Way became clear.

‘Excellent in the middle’ was the selfless sharing of his realization with all who came to be near him. Regardless of personal discomfort, he ceaselessly offered his body, speech and mind to assist his disciples, lay and ordained alike, to enter the Way. He said of his own teaching method, that it is the example that counts - not just the words. Those who were able to spend time with him know full well that this is so.

And ‘excellent in the end’ is that which remains. It is a radiant confidence of heart for thousands of individuals who now walk the way; that verified faith which profoundly expresses dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi – ‘I go for refuge to the Truth of the Way Things Are.’ Without having witnessed such an example of the Way being lived, this awakening of confidence might not have happened. Hence it is said, ‘No gift excels the gift of Dhamma.’


Printed copies of The Collected Teachings of Ajahn Chah are available for free distribution at the Forest Sangha Monasteries .

Audio files of these talks being read by Ajahn Amaro, are available at amaravati.org.
E-book versions (.epub and .mobi) are available from fsbooks.org.


He spent the first few years of his bhikkhu life studying some basic Dhamma, discipline, Pāli language and scriptures, but the death of his father awakened him to the transience of life. It caused him to think deeply about life's real purpose, for although he had studied extensively and gained some proficiency in Pāli, he seemed no nearer to a personal understanding of the end of suffering. Feelings of disenchantment set in, and a desire to find the real essence of the Buddha's teaching arose. Finally (in 1946) he abandoned his studies and set off on mendicant pilgrimage. He walked some 400 km to Central Thailand, sleeping in forests and gathering almsfood in the villages on the way. He took up residence in a monastery where the vinaya (monastic discipline) was carefully studied and practiced. While there he was told about Venerable Ajahn Mun Bhuridatto, a most highly respected Meditation Master. Keen to meet such an accomplished teacher, Ajahn Chah set off on foot for the Northeast in search of him. He began to travel to other monasteries, studying the monastic discipline in detail and spending a short but enlightening period with Venerable Ajahn Mun, the most outstanding Thai forest meditation master of this century. At this time Ajahn Chah was wrestling with a crucial problem. He had studied the teachings on morality, meditation and wisdom, which the texts presented in minute and refined detail, but he could not see how they could actually be put into practice. Ajahn Mun told him that although the teachings are indeed extensive, at their heart they are very simple. With mindfulness established, if it is seen that everything arises in the heart-mind: right there is the true path of practice. This succinct and direct teaching was a revelation for Ajahn Chah, and transformed his approach to practice. The Way was clear.

For the next seven years Ajahn Chah practiced in the style of an ascetic monk in the austere Forest Tradition, spending his time in forests, caves and cremation grounds, ideal places for developing meditation practice. He wandered through the countryside in quest of quiet and secluded places for developing meditation. He lived in tiger and cobra infested jungles, using reflections on death to penetrate to the true meaning of life. On one occasion he practiced in a cremation ground, to challenge and eventually overcome his fear of death. Then, as he sat cold and drenched in a rainstorm, he faced the utter desolation and loneliness of a homeless monk.

After many years of travel and practice, he was invited to settle in a thick forest grove near the village of his birth. This grove was uninhabited, known as a place of cobras, tigers and ghosts, thus being as he said, the perfect location for a forest monk. Venerable Ajahn Chah's impeccable approach to meditation, or Dhamma practice, and his simple, direct style of teaching, with the emphasis on practical application and a balanced attitude, began to attract a large following of monks and lay people. Thus a large monastery formed around Ajahn Chah as more and more monks, nuns and lay-people came to hear his teachings and stay on to practice with him.

Ajahn Chah's simple yet profound style of teaching has a special appeal to Westerners, and many have come to study and practice with him, quite a few for many years. In 1966 the first westerner came to stay at Wat Nong Pah Pong, Venerable Sumedho Bhikkhu. The newly ordained Venerable Sumedho had just spent his first vassa ('Rains' retreat) practicing intensive meditation at a monastery near the Laotian border. Although his efforts had borne some fruit, Venerable Sumedho realized that he needed a teacher who could train him in all aspects of monastic life. By chance, one of Ajahn Chah's monks, one who happened to speak a little English visited the monastery where Venerable Sumedho was staying. Upon hearing about Ajahn Chah, he asked to take leave of his preceptor, and went back to Wat Nong Pah Pong with the monk. Ajahn Chah willingly accepted the new disciple, but insisted that he receive no special allowances for being a Westerner. He would have to eat the same simple almsfood and practice in the same way as any other monk at Wat Nong Pah Pong. The training there was quite harsh and forbidding. Ajahn Chah often pushed his monks to their limits, to test their powers of endurance so that they would develop patience and resolution. He sometimes initiated long and seemingly pointless work projects, in order to frustrate their attachment to tranquility. The emphasis was always on surrender to the way things are, and great stress was placed upon strict observance of the vinaya.

In 1977, Ajahn Chah and Ajahn Sumedho were invited to visit Britain by the English Sangha Trust, a charity with the aim of establishing a locally-resident Buddhist Sangha. Seeing the serious interest there, Ajahn Chah left Ajahn Sumedho (with two of his other Western disciples who were then visiting Europe) in London at the Hampstead Vihara. He returned to Britain in 1979, at which time the monks were leaving London to begin Chithurst Buddhist Monastery in Sussex. He then went on to AmeFrom that time on, the number of foreign people who came to Ajahn Chah began to steadily increase. By the time Venerable Sumedho was a monk of five vassas, and Ajahn Chah considered him competent enough to teach, some of these new monks had also decided to stay on and train there. In the hot season of 1975, Venerable Sumedho and a handful of Western bhikkhus spent some time living in a forest not far from Wat Nong Pah Pong. The local villagers there asked them to stay on, and Ajahn Chah consented. The Wat Pah Nanachat ('International Forest Monastery') came into being, and Venerable Sumedho became the abbot of the first monastery in Thailand to be run by and for English-speaking monks. rica and Canada to visit and teach.

In 1980 Venerable Ajahn Chah began to feel more accutely the symptoms of dizziness and memory lapse which had plagued him for some years. In 1980 and 1981, Ajahn Chah spent the 'rains retreat' away from Wat Nong Pah Pong, since his health was failing due to the debilitating effects of diabetes. As his illness worsened, he would use his body as a teaching, a living example of the impermanence of all things. He constantly reminded people to endeavor to find a true refuge within themselves, since he would not be able to teach for very much longer. This led to an operation in 1981, which, however, failed to reverse the onset of the paralysis which eventually rendered him completely bedridden and unable to speak. This did not stop the growth of monks and lay people who came to practise at his monastery, however, for whom the teachings of Ajahn Chah were a constant guide and inspiration.

After remaining bedridden and silent for an amazing ten years, carefully tended by his monks and novices, Venerable Ajahn Chah passed away on the 16th of January, 1992, at the age of 74, leaving behind a thriving community of monasteries and lay suporters in Thailand, England, Switzerland, Italy, France, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the U.S.A, where the practise of the Buddha's teachings continues under the inspiration of this great meditation teacher.

Although Ajahn Chah passed away in 1992, the training which he established is still carried on at Wat Nong Pah Pong and its branch monasteries, of which there are currently more than two hundred in Thailand. Discipline is strict, enabling one to lead a simple and pure life in a harmoniously regulated community where virtue, meditation and understanding may be skillfully and continuously cultivated. There is usually group meditation twice a day and sometimes a talk by the senior teacher, but the heart of the meditation is the way of life. The monastics do manual work, dye and sew their own robes, make most of their own requisites and keep the monastery buildings and grounds in immaculate shape. They live extremely simply following the ascetic precepts of eating once a day from the almsbowl and limiting their possessions and robes. Scattered throughout the forest are individual huts where monks and nuns live and meditate in solitude, and where they practice walking meditation on cleared paths under the trees.
Wisdom is a way of living and being, and Ajahn Chah has endeavored to preserve the simple monastic life-style in order that people may study and practice the Dhamma in the present day. Ajahn Chah's wonderfully simple style of teaching can be deceptive. It is often only after we have heard something many times that suddenly our minds are ripe and somehow the teaching takes on a much deeper meaning. His skillful means in tailoring his explanations of Dhamma to time and place, and to the understanding and sensitivity of his audience, was marvelous to see. Sometimes on paper though, it can make him seem inconsistent or even self-contradictory! At such times the reader should remember that these words are a record of a living experience. Similarly, if the teachings may seem to vary at times from tradition, it should be borne in mind that the Venerable Ajahn spoke always from the heart, from the depths of his own meditative experience
आत्‍माराम जी 'लक्ष्‍य' महाराज

जिस व्‍यक्ति के जीवन में कोई ''लक्ष्‍य'' नहीं होता है वह सदैव अज्ञान के बन्‍धनों में बन्‍धा रहता है । जीवन का ''लक्ष्‍य'' आत्‍मज्ञान है । विनोवा भावे ने कहा है, ''चलना आरंभ कीजिए, लक्ष्य मिल ही जाएगा ।'' इतिहास उन्हें ही याद रखता है जो असंभव लक्ष्य निर्धारित करते हैं और उन्हें प्राप्त करते हैं ।

जो समाज अपने इतिहास पुरूष को याद नहीं रखता, वह समाज कमजोर ही नहीं होता, बल्कि उसकी हस्‍ती मिटती चली जाती है । रैगर समाज के इतिहास पुरूष अमर शहीद त्‍यागमूर्ति स्‍वामी श्री 108 आत्‍माराम जी 'लक्ष्‍य' ने परम श्रद्धेय पूजनीय स्‍वामी श्री 108 ज्ञानस्‍वरूप जी महाराज (ब्‍यावर निवासी) के परम शिष्‍य बनकर उन्‍हीं की कृपा से काशी में व्‍याकरण भूषणाचार्य पद् को प्राप्‍त कर, अपने सतगुरू के आदेशानुसार जातिय उत्‍थान का ''लक्ष्‍य'' लेकर रैगर समाज के उत्‍थान के लिए भारत देश के ग्राम-ग्राम में जाकर अपनी रैगर जाति में व्‍याप्‍त कुरीतियों के सुधार हेतु शिक्षा का प्रचार-प्रसार किया । बेगार बहिष्‍कार, बाल-विवाह, मृतक भोज, फिजूल खर्ची पर पाबन्दियां लगाई और शिक्षा के लिए सन्‍तान को योग्‍य बनाने का संकल्‍प लोगों से करवाया । यही उनका ''लक्ष्‍य'' था । इसी 'लक्ष्‍य' की प्राप्‍ति के लिए उन्‍होंने अपने सम्‍पूर्ण जीवन काल में जगह-जगह जाकर शिक्षा का प्रचार-प्रसार करके समस्‍त रैगर बन्‍धुओं को जैसे दिल्‍ली, कराची, हैदराबद (सिंध), पंजाब, मीरपुर, टन्‍डे आदम, अहमदाबाद, गुजरात, ब्‍यावर, जौधपुर, जैसलमेर, बीकानेर, छोटीसादड़ी, करजू, कराणा, कनगट्टी, फागी, इन्‍दौर, जयपुर, अलवर आदि व राजस्‍थान राज्‍य के अनेक ग्रामों से सभी सजातिय बन्‍धुओं को एक ब्रहत समाज का अखिल भारतीय रैगर समाज का महासम्‍मेलन दौसा ग्राम में अजमेर के श्री चान्‍द करण जी शारदा शेर राजस्‍थान की अध्‍यक्षता में 2, 3 व 4 नवम्‍बर, 1944 को सम्‍मेलन के स्‍वागताध्‍यक्ष आप ही थे । वह दिन आज भी चिरस्‍मरणी है जिस चार छोड़ों की बग्‍गी में अपने गुरू स्‍वामी ज्ञानस्‍वरूप जी महाराज के चरणों में बैठकर चान्‍दकरण जी शारदा की अध्‍यक्षता में समाज के उत्‍थान के लिए कुरीतियों को मिटाने के प्रस्‍ताव पास किये जो आज तक समाज में लागू है । दुसरा सम्‍मेलन सन् 1946 में जयपुर घाट दरवाजे के साथ स्‍पील के साथ मैदान में दिल्‍ली निवासी चौधरी कन्‍हैयालाल जी रातावाल की अध्‍यक्षता में चौ. गौतम सिंह जी सक्‍करवाल स्‍वागताध्‍यक्ष बने ।

स्‍वामी जी रैगर समाज के सर्वांगीण उत्‍थान के कार्य में लगातार व्‍यस्‍त रहने के कारण कई वर्षों से अस्‍वस्‍थ थे, किन्‍तु उन्‍होंने अपने स्‍वास्‍थ्‍य की चिन्‍ता ना करते हुए, अपनी आत्‍मा की पुकार पर सदैव समाज हित में कार्यरत रहे । अत: वे विकट संग्रहणी-रोग के शिकार हो गए जो कि उनके जीवन में साथ छोड़कर नहीं गया, इस प्रकार समाज के उत्‍थान के लिए आपने अपने लक्ष्‍य को पूर किया और 20 नवम्‍बर 1946 को जयपुर में चान्‍दपोल गेट श्री लाला राम जी जलूथरिया जी के निवास स्‍थान, उस 'त्‍याग' मूर्ति के जिसने अपना सारा जीवन अपने 'लक्ष्‍य' की पूर्ति में लगा दिया प्राण पखेरु अनन्‍त गगन की ओर उठ गए और वे सदेव के लिए चिर निंद्रा में सो गये । रैगर जाति को प्रकाशित करने वाला वह सूर्य अस्‍त हो गया, उसके साथ ही रैगर जाति की सामाजिक क्रान्ति का स्‍वर्णिम अध्‍याय । वह लौ बुझ गई, जिससे रैगर समाज को प्रकाश मिला था । श्री कंवर सेन मौर्य व चौ. कन्‍हैया लाल रातावाल अन्‍त्‍येष्टि में कर्फ्य के समय में संस्‍कार में शामिल हुए ।

देखा जाए तो वस्‍तुत: स्‍वामी आत्‍मारामजी 'लक्ष्‍य' अपने जीवन पर के लक्ष्‍य की प्राप्ति में पूर्ण रूपेण सफल रहे । लेकिन फिर भी उन्‍होंने वसीयत के रुप में अपने जीवन को तीन अन्तिम अभिलाषा व्‍यक्‍त की जिन्‍हे स्‍वामीजी अपने जीवन काल में ही पूरा करना चाहते थे लेकिन कर नहीं सके थे । स्‍वामी जी ने श्री कंवरसेन मौर्य जी को रैगर समाज के उत्‍थान के लिए तीन बातें कही जो उनके 'लक्ष्‍य' के रूप में थी कि ये जल्‍द से जल्‍द पूर्ण हो वे इस प्रकार है :-

1. रैगर जाति का एक विस्‍तृत इति‍हास लिखा जाना चाहिये ।

2. रैगर जाति में उच्‍च शिक्षा का अध्‍ययन करने वाले विद्यार्थियों के लिए जगह-जगह पर रैगर छात्रावासों का निर्माण होना चाहिए ।

3. रैगर जाति के अपने एक समाचार पत्र प्रकाशन हो ।

स्‍वामी जी ने अपने परिवार को त्‍याग कर अपने जीवने के एक मात्र 'लक्ष्‍य' रैगर जाति के उत्‍थान की प्राप्ति के लिए न्‍योछावर कर दिया इस लिए उन्‍हे त्‍यागमूर्ति स्‍वामी आत्‍माराम लक्ष्‍य के नाम से भी जाना जाता है । रैगर समाज के ऐसे युग पुरूष को हम शत् शत् प्रणाम करते हैं ।

अनागारिक धम्मपाल

अनागारिक धर्मपाल प्रसिद्ध बौद्ध भिक्षु थे। इनका जन्म श्रीलंका में 17 सितंबर 1864 को हुआ। पिता का नाम डान करोलिंस हेवावितारण तथा माता का मल्लिका था। इनका नाम डान डेविड रखा गया। शिक्षाकाल से ही इन्हें ईसाई स्कूलों में पढ़ने यूरोपीय रहन-सहन और विदेशी शासन से घृणा हो गई थी। शिक्षा समाप्ति पर प्रसिद्ध बौद्ध विद्वान् भदंत हिवकडुवे सुमंगल नामक महास्थविर से पालि भाषा की शिक्षा और बौद्ध धम्म की दीक्षा ली तथा अपना नाम बदलकर अनागरिक (संन्यासी) धर्मपाल रखा और सार्वजनिक प्रचार कार्य के लिए एक मोटर बस को घर बनाया और उसका नाम "शोभन मालिगाँव" रखकर गाँव-गाँव घूमते विदेशी वस्तुओं के बहिष्कार तथा बौद्ध धर्म का संदेश देने लगे। प्रथम महायुद्ध के समय ये पाँच वर्षों के लिए कलकत्ता में नजरबंद कर दिए गए। महाबोधि सभा (महाबोधि सोसायटी) इनके ही प्रयत्न से स्थापित हुई। मेरी फास्टर नामक एक विदेशी महिला ने इनसे प्रभावित होकर महाबोधि सोसायटी के लिए लगभग पाँच लाख रुपए दिए थे।

धर्मपाल के प्रयत्नों के परिणामस्वरूप उनके निधनोपरांत राष्ट्रपति डॉ॰ राजेंद्रप्रसाद के हाथों बौद्ध गया वैशाख पूर्णिमा, सं. 2012 अर्थात् 6 मई सन् 1955 को बौद्धों को दे दी गई।

13 जुलाई 1931 को उन्होंने प्रव्रज्या ली और उनका नाम देवमित धर्मपाल हुआ। 1933 की 16 जनवरी को प्रव्रज्या पूर्ण हुई और उन्होंने उपसंपदा ग्रहण की, नाम पड़ा भिक्षु श्री देवमित धर्मपाल। 29 अप्रैल 1933 को 69 वर्ष की आयु में इहलीला संवरण की।

Sri Lankan writer

Anagārika Dharmapāla was a Sri Lankan Buddhist revivalist and writer. He was the first global Buddhist missionary. He was one of the founding contributors of non-violent Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism and Buddhism.
Swami Achhootanand ‘Harihar’

He was the progenitor of the Adihindu movement and the leader of the Bahujan renaissance in North India. He joined hands with Ambedkar to fight for separate representation for Dalits and wrote poetry and plays that challenged Brahmanism

By Kanwal bharti कंवल भारती
On February 8, 2019

There is a proverb that says, “Every cloud has a silver lining.” For millennia, a large population in India has been subjected to suppression. Denied the status of human beings, they were deprived of all their human rights. They were shackled, enslaved and kept in conditions far worse than that of animals. As the eras passed, one dynasty replaced another, resulting in prolongation of the servitude of the masses. Meanwhile, sparks of fury and rebellion kept flaring up amid them, which from time to time assumed bigger proportions. But they were ruthlessly suppressed. However, although suppressed, the rebellion smouldered on. But the history of India has also witnessed such times when the suppression weakened, allowing the enslaved to vent their anger and revolt. It paved the way for a struggle, which, in the 20th century, expanded into a revolution.

The democratic ethos of the British Raj played a significant role in freeing the Untouchables and the other backward castes from thousands of years of suppression, which culminated in the emergence of a new leadership among the untouchable communities. Swami Achhootanand was part of that leadership in northern India. He was born in 1879 in Umri village, Sirasganj, in Mainpuri district of Uttar Pradesh. His father, Moti Ram, named him Hira Lal. Soon after his son’s birth, Motiram and his younger brother Mathura Prasad joined the army. Motiram’s family thus moved to the cantonment and Hiralal received his primary education at the army school. By the age of 14, he had good command over Urdu and English.

A sketch of Swami Achhootanand (6 May 1869 – 20 July 1933) on the cover of ‘Adihindu Andolan Ke Pravartak’ by Chandrika Prasad Jigyasu

Mathura Prasad was unmarried and used to dote on Hiralal. He was, in a way, the one who reared him. He used to recite Kabir’s verses to him, due to which Hiralal became inclined to Nirguna Bhakti during his early childhood.

Kabir’s verses had such a great impact on Hiralal that he turned into an introvert and embraced Bairaag (renunciation of worldly bondages and pleasures). Consequently, he started appreciating the Satsang (the coming together of like-minded people to engage in a spiritual dialogue) of the saints. He would welcome whosoever came to the village as a Sadhu (ascetic) and be in his noble company. Once he left home and went along with a group of Kabirpanthi sadhus and visited various places. He roamed till the age of 24, during which he gathered considerable knowledge about religion, philosophy and social conduct and also learnt Gurmukhi, Sanskrit, Bangla, Gujarati and Marathi.

During those days,he met Swami Sacchidanand, a Arya Samaj preacher, and by his initiation, he became an Aryasamaji Swami. His mentor named him Hariharanand. As a follower of Arya Samaj, he studied a lot and travelled extensively. But he could not be part of the institution for long. He realized that discrimination against the Untouchables prevailed there, too. According to Jigyasu, “While working for the cause of Arya Samaj, he came to know about its hollowness and became disenchanted with it. Within in a matter of days, this disenchantment turned into disgust. He discovered that Arya Samaj was a farce in the name of religion, forged to emulate Christians and Muslims with the objective to compete with them.”Therefore, after serving the Samaj from 1905 until 1912, he disengaged himself. However, he remained a sadhu, and kept moving from one place to another as before. Meanwhile, his father had him marry Durgabai, daughter of Ram Singh Kuril, resident of Nagla, Rathin, in Etawah, with whom he had three daughters.

In the 1910s, leaders of Arya Samaj assured people of untouchable castes that they would work for their social upliftment, setting up schools and hostels for them and offering scholarships to the students from the “untouchable” community.

But it was just a device to keep the community within the Hindu caste system by bringing back those who had converted to Christianity and Islam. This realization made the educated Arya Samaji Untouchables break all ties with the Samaj, asserting that the people of the untouchable castes were the Adihindus (indigenous inhabitants of India). Arya Samaj had initiated a purification movement in reaction to the religious frenzy generated by Muslims on the heels of the Khilafat movement launched in opposition to the Western intervention in the Ottoman Empire. Its goal was to bring the Untouchables, who had converted to Islam, back into the fold of Hinduism by “purifying” them. Soon, the untouchable Arya Samaji leaders understood the real character of the Arya Samaj. They figured that the Arya Samaj was actually a brigade ofthe upper-casteHindus, which merely intended to consolidate the Hindus against the Muslims and whose objective to uplift the Untouchables was part of that very strategy. In Meerut, while exposing the Samaj, Achhootanand said:

“This is a charade in the name of Vedic religion, crafted to shield the Brahmin religion from the attacks of the Christians and Muslims. What it states is sheer bluff and its doctrines are absurd. Its idea of purification is plain deceit and what it claims to be the varna system based on virtue and works is an erroneous word trap. It is the falsifier of history, truth manipulator and an absolute windbag of false oration. Its viewpoint is flawed and expressions illogical; its establishment is flimsy and its interpretation of the Vedas is utterly concocted. It does not practise what it preaches. It aims to turn the Hindus hostile to Christians and Muslims, thus pushing them into servitude of the Vedas and Brahmins.”

However, while he was with the Arya Samaj, he had deeply studied the Vedas and other scriptures and concluded that the Shudrasand Atishudras were the “Adihindus” of India.

A painting of Swami Achhootanand

In 1917, Achhootanand went to Delhi to attend a grand conference organized by the Untouchables. By then, he had already earned prominence as an opponent of the Arya Samaj. At the conference, Swami Akhilananda, a sermonizer of Arya Samaj, challenged him for a debate on the scriptures, which he readily accepted. The debate was held as scheduled. Akhilananda did not have a convincing answer to any of Achhootanand’s questions and ended up losing the debate. Impressed by him, Chaudhary Jankidas, Devidas and Jagat Ram, leaders from the Jatav community, proposed to rename him “Achhootanand” (literally Joy of the Untouchables). Until then, he was known by his brahmanical name, “Hariharanand”. So, Swami Achhootanand became the representative of the Untouchables of North India. He was also conferred the title of “Shree 108” for defeating the eminent scholar of the Arya Samaj.

Dr Angne Lal has chronicled these events in his book Uttar Pradesh mein Dalit Andolan. However, Chandrika Prasad Jigyasu, in his treatiseAdihindu Andolan Ke Pravartak Shree 108 Swami Achhootanand Ji ‘Harihar’: Jeevani, Siddhant Aur Bhashan (1960),has stated that Swami Acchootanandwas given the appelation of “Shree 108” in 1921:

“Here, it is worth mentioning how and where Swamiji was conferred the title of ‘Shree 108’. This relates to the occasion when he went to Delhi to attend the wedding of the son of Shri Chhedi Lal Jatav, who was from Agra. There, he laid the foundation of Jati Sudhar Achhoot Sabha at Chaudhary Yadavram’s place. Following this event, with the efforts of Chaudhari Yadavram and Chhedi Lal Arya, a massive assembly was held in Chaudhary Bade’s Panchayat in front of the Red Fort. There was a stir over this gathering in Delhi. Subsequently, on 9 October 1921, a debate over the scriptures was held with poetPandit Akhilanand ji, which Swami ji won. Upon his triumph, the title of ‘Shri 108’ was bestowed on Swami ji, on the proposal of Arya preacher, Pandit Ramchandra, and the approval and consensus of Shri Naubat Singh, minister of Shahdara Samaj in Delhi, and Swami Datanand. Veerratna Shri Devidas ji, editor of ‘Pracheen Bharat’, Delhi, published this news with immense pride and joy. Thereafter, the certificate of victory was printed and widely distributed in and outside Delhi.”

As part of the political reforms introduced by the British government in 1919, various religious sections of society were given representation on the basis of their numerical strength. This law was based on the Montagu-Chelmsford report, in which the untouchable sections were given minority status and a provision for their security was introduced. According to Nandini Gooptu, this law was also a major reason behind the Shuddhi(reconversion) movement of the Arya Samaj aimed at increasing the Hindu population.” On the other hand, this law paved the way for the political rights of the untouchable sections of society. Dr Ambedkar has written that it was unfortunate that while the particulars of the Constitution were being framed, the Government of India found it difficult to make any provision for the protection of the untouchable sections, except their nominal representation in the legislative assemblies through nomination. In such a situation, first of all, it was imperative that Untouchables asked for necessary measures for their security in the face of the atrocities and oppression by the Hindus. Dr Ambedkar ensured that this was done when he submitted a memorandum to the Minorities Committee in the Round Table Conference. The memorandum consisted of eight demands, among which equal citizenship rights, free enjoyment of equal rights, protection against discrimination, adequate representation in legislatures, adequaterepresentation in government services, redress against prejudicial action or neglect of interests, were prominent.

In 1921, two years after the 1919 Act came into force, Edward, Prince of Wales, came to India. Though the Congress boycotted him, a large number of Untouchables welcomed him on 22 November 1921 in Bombay and 14 February 1922 in Delhi. A huge All India Achhoot Conference was held in Delhi under the leadership of Swami Achhootanand in which thousands belonging to untouchable sections across the country participated. Prince Edward was welcomed at this conference and presented with a 17-point charter of demands. Katherine Mayo has described the spectacular event in her book Mother India. She says 25,000 Untouchables welcomed the prince. According to Jigyasu, there were “lakhs” of them. His version is as follows:

“In 1922, after the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Prince of Wales came to India, where the Congress leaders boycotted him. At the time, Swamiji was in Delhi. The boycott did not appeal to him. On this occasion, he held a massive gathering of the Untouchables in Delhi and declared, ‘My brothers! We are the ancient inhabitants, the Adihindus of India. The Aryan Dwijs are all outlanders. They have enslaved us by branding us as servile and untouchable. We need to step out of the delusion spread by these people and independently fight for all our civil rights. We should not rebel against the British government; rather we should welcome the princeand ask for our political rights from the British government.’ Needless to say, this had a magical effect on the Untouchables. Lakhs of them gave the prince a lofty welcome and the term ‘Adihindu’ echoed in the ears of the people.”

It was at this conference that Swami Achhootanand founded the Adihindu Sabha in Delhi. Its principles were as follows: participation of Untouchables and other backward castes in the Hindu movement, promotion of interdining, faith in the tradition of Nirguna saints, revolutionary struggle against inequality, truth as the only means to attain divinity, and one’s own effort as the only way to enlightenment.

Jigyasu writes that after this gathering, the term “Adihindu” was heard not only across the country but also in British Parliament in London. Numerous conferences, assemblies and meetings were convened at various places on the “Adihindu” identity. In 1930, the eighth session of the All India Adihindu Conference was held in Allahabad, during which it was reported that by then a total of 11 All India Adihindu Conferences had already been held in Delhi, Bombay, Hyderabad, Nagpur, Allahabad, Madras, Amravati and Meerut. Similarly, 15 provincial conferences had been held – in Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Meerut, Mainpuri, Mathura, Etawah, Gorakhpur, Farrukhabad and Agra among others. Jigyasu further notes that 208 district-level Adihindu Sabhas had been held until November 1930. However, no data pertaining to national, provincial and district-level Adihindu Sabhas held is available from the period that followed.

According to Jigyasu, the Adihindu movement was not limited solely to British India (the states under British government) but also spread to countless princely states, such as Gwalior, Bhopal, Jaipur, Alwar, Hyderabad, Bharatpur and Tehri Garhwal through numerous gatherings.

Jigyasu has made a significant observation: “From anideological perspective, the Adihindu movement is genuine socialism, and Swami Achhootanand and Babasaheb Ambedkar are Karl Marx and Lenin of India. The Adihindus are the proletariat of India and Dwij Hindus and their supporters, the Indian bourgeois.”

Asthe Adihindu movement spread all over, and every district started hosting a meeting, the haughty upper-caste Hindus, especially Aryasamajis, began to make allegations against Swami Achhootanand and spread rumours to tarnish his image. According to Jigyasu, somebody alleged Achhootanand was a Christian who was on the payroll of Christians and would get everyone converted. Others claimed that he was working for the Muslims and still others called him a British stooge. Gossipers would say that he was excluded from Arya Samaj due to his immorality and since then he had been criticizing it. This false propaganda scared many Untouchables away and they too did not come to Achhootanand’s support. But despite this, Achhootanand did not give up. According to Jigyasu: “He would sleep sometimes without having a meal and sometimes after chewing on grams. He would traverse miles on foot because he didn’t have any money. Yet, he would not be distracted from his goal and principles. He was firm on his mission. Through his preaching, he awakened the unconscious, uplifted the fallen and revived the inert community.”

When intimidation and spurious propaganda fail to distract a movement, a conspiracy to infiltrate it and capture its leadership follows. The movement is thus annihilated or distorted from within. Buddhism, Jainism and the philosophies of saints like Kabir and Raidas were distorted in the same manner. Ajivak Dharma was erased. Upper castes attempted to appropriate the leadership of the Adihindu movement, but they were not successful. That is why Achhootanand did not allow anyone from the upper castes to even preside over the meetings of the Sabha. Jigyasu relates this incident:

“No ruler, king or aristocrat could buy Swami ji off. One instance of his boldness is always cited. In the course of propagating the principles of Adihindu movement, he went to India’s ancient capital, Kannauj. It was decided to hold a huge gathering of the Untouchables there. The king of Tirwa helped immensely in setting up the tent and the stage. The venue was well decorated. Some Untouchables thus thought of asking the king to chair the meeting. Many giddy, coward and smooth-tongued Untouchables even went to invite the king. However, when Swami ji came to know about it, he fearlessly disapproved of it. He clearly said that the meeting of Untouchables cannot be chaired by a king and that it should be chaired only by a deserving Untouchable. Consequently, the king wasn’t made the king; Mahatma Ramcharan Kuril, an untouchable leader, was chosen as the chair. This was a brilliant example of Swami ji’s ancestral pride and fearlessness.”

On 28 April 1930, Achhootanand revealed at a conference of Adihindu Samajik Parishad in Amravati, Barar, that the Hindus had threatened to kill him. The news was published in Arjun newspaper, dated 13-14 July 1927. He had already been attacked in Agra but he had managed to escape unhurt. These attacks and protests proved that Achhootanand was not following the path laid down by the Hindus, rather he was refuting their religious system. The second reason was that Achhootanand had turned the Adihindu movement from a social movement into a political movement. Had he restricted himself to social work, the Congress supporters and Aryasamajis wouldn’t have held any grudge against him. But the political atmosphere was not in favour of the Untouchables. The Swaraj movement of the Congress was talking only about Hindus; there was no mention of liberation of the Untouchables. Against this backdrop, it was imperative for the Adihindu movement to be political. Parallel to the Swaraj movement, Dr Ambedkar was already leading the movement for the emancipation of Untouchables. At the Adihindu Conference held in Bombay in 1928 both leaders met face to face for the first time. However, they were both acquainted with each other’s endeavours and struggles. After a discussion with Dr Ambedkar, Achhootanand got an inclination for politics, and there itself, he decided to extend full support to Dr Ambedkar’s mukti-sangram (war for freedom). It was the need of the hour, as Dr Ambedkar had said “if not now, then never”. That was the appropriate time when the British government could be pushed to take measures for liberating the Untouchables. Letting that opportunity go would mean leaving the Untouchables in their deprived state, inferior to the Hindus.

Chandrika Prasad Jigyasu

Prior to the launch of the Adihindu Sabha, Achhootanand had already submitted a memorandum to Prince Edward regarding liberation of Untouchables, during his welcome in Delhi in 1922. Still, on behalf of the Sabha, Achhootanand, accompanied by thousands of people, welcomed the members of the Simon Commission with great pomp on their arrival at Charbagh, Lucknow, on 29-30 September 1928. He also submitted the charter of demands for political rights, while the Congress leaders had opposed and boycotted the commission. According to Dr Angne Lal, Bhadant Bodhanand played the most significant role in organizing the event to welcome the commission.

It was then only that Congress leader Lala Lajpat Rai prepped Chaudhary Bihari Lal, a Harijan leader of Uttar Pradesh, to counter Achhootanand. Bihari Lal used to obstructAchhootanand’s meetings, spread false propaganda against him and denigrate him.

This was the period when two claimants of political power were emerging – Qaid-i-Azam Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi. While Jinnah represented the Muslims, Gandhi stood for the Hindus. Gandhi assumed that the backward classes, including the Untouchables, were part of the Hindu community. At the same time, Dr Ambedkar declared that the Untouchables were non-Hindus and therefore a minority section and demanded separate representation. This proved to be detrimental to Gandhi’s tactics. Dr Ambedkar firmly advocated the cause of Untouchables and attended the Round Table Conference held in London to demand a separate electorate for them. With his strong arguments, he dismissed Gandhi’s leadership of the Untouchables. The Congress and leaders of the Arya Samaj conspired in every possible way to quash Dr Ambedkar’s claims. They even sent fake letters to London on behalf of the Untouchables stating that Gandhi, not Ambedkar, was their leader. Nevertheless,Achhootanand did not allow their trick to succeed. He consistently defied Gandhi and Congress in the Adihindu meetings and backed Dr Ambedkar. To counter the fake letters, he forwarded numerous genuine letters to London on behalf of the Untouchables in opposition to Gandhi and in support of Ambedkar. As a result, Dr Ambedkar’s claim received full endorsement and British Prime Minister conceded the demand for a separate electorate for Untouchables in the “Communal Award”. But Gandhi sat on a fast unto death in his protest against this decision and Dr Ambedkar had to lose the battle already won.

Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi signed an agreement in Pune, agreeing on a joint electorate for reserved constituencies for Untouchables. Dr Ambedkar was forced to arrive at a compromise, for the Hindus were powerful and would have otherwise inflicted violence upon Untouchables in villages and cities, since for the Aryans, violence in the name of religion was justified. Jigyasu writes that when the Poona Pact was being arrived at, Swami ji was ill. He thus could not contribute much in this matter. Later, when people asked his opinion on the agreement, he laughingly said in a weighty tone, “whatever happened was good enough. Now accepting it is the wise thing to do. On one hand, it saved Mahatma Gandhi’s life and we escaped the blot. On the other hand, we have maintained our amity with the elder brothers (Hindus). Now, let us see how the Hindus atone for their wrongs and perform self-purification. But this agreement does not mean that our social and religious movement will come to a halt. It should rather be carried out more vigorously now. We do not need to enter the Hindu temples. The entire world and every heart is a temple of our self-god. Whatever has happened is all due to our Adihindu movement.”

Saddened and embarrassed by the revelations in the Round Table Conference in London about the inhuman atrocities committed by the Hindus upon the Untouchables, Gandhi, on his return to India, named the Untouchables as “Harijan”.According to Jigyasu, Gandhi changed the name of his newspaper from Navjivan to Harijan Sevak. Moreover, Harijan Sevak Sangh was founded only because he wished it.Even the Hindu press started using the name “Harijan”. But Swami Achhootanand disliked this term. He composed an impressive bhajan to express his discontent. It is part of the collection Swami Achhootanand Rachna Sanchayita. In the bhajan, he said: “After ‘Antyaj’, ‘Patit’, ‘Bahishkrit’, ‘Padaj’, ‘Pancham’, ‘Sankar’, ‘Varnadham’ and ‘Achhoot’, Gandhi has now given us the status of ‘Harijan’. ‘Hari’ means ‘God’ and ‘jan’ means ‘man’. Therefore, ‘Harijan’ or ‘Khuda-e-jan’ means someone whose parents are unknown. If we are Harijans, then how come you are not? Does it mean that you are the offspring of the devil?” In other words,

Kiyo harijan pad humein pradaan

Antyaj, patit, bahishkrit, padaj, pancham, shudra mahan.

Sankar baran aur varnadham pad achhoot upmaan.

Hari ko arth khuda, jan banda jaanat sakal jahan.

Bande khuda n baap-maai ka jinke pata thikan.

Hum Harijan toh tum hun harijan kas na, kaho shriman?

Ki tum ho unke jan, jinko jagat kahat shaitan?

Achhootanand was not only the progenitor of the Adihindu movement and an astute political orator, but also the founding father of Hindi Dalit literature and journalism. He published the Pracheen Hindu magazine Delhi for two years between 1922-23 and from 1924 to 1932, he brought out theAdihindu magazine from Kanpur, where he had also set up a printing press by the name ‘Adihindu’ in 1925. He was the first Hindi Dalit poet. In his poetry, we find the evolution of Kabir and Raidas’Nirgun ideology. He used to publish his poetry under his pen name “Harihar”. His work of poetry, Adi Khand Kavya, is quite significant. H.L. Jatiya, municipal commissioner and Kannauj Adihindu Sabha chief, published it on 13 May 1929. On its front page, it is written, “With the satisfaction of finally retrieving this extraordinary long lost work of poetry ofShree 108 Achhoot Swami ji Maharaj, it is dedicated to the Adihindu (Shudras, Achhoot) brothers.”

This is confirmation that Adi Khand Kavya dates back to several years before 1929, when it was eventually published. Composed in Alha tune, this is a poem of 63 verses and eight lines. Its last lines carry the message of organizing both the Untouchables and the other backward castes:

Jo azad hon tum chaho, toh ab chant dewu sab chhoot.

Adivansh mil jor lagao, pandrah koti sachhoot-achhoot.

The collection of his poems, ghazals and bhajans, Adivansh Ka Danka, was published only once in Achhootanand’s lifetime (1913-1914). Later, it was again published by Bahujan Kalyan Prakashan in Lucknow – fifth edition in 1960 and eleventh in 1983, which is an indication of its popularity. His popular poem Manusmriti Se Jalan, is part of this collection, probably the first Dalit poem on Manuvism. Composed in Qawwali tune, its each line is quite suggestive:

Nishdin Manusmriti ye humko jala rahi hai.

Oopar na uthne deti, niche gira rahi hai.

Brahman wa Kshatriyon ko sabka banaya afsar.

Humko purana utaran pehno, bata rahi hai.

Humko bina mazoori, bailon ke sath joten,

Gali aur maar uspar, humko dila rahi hai.

Lete begaar, khana tak pet bhar na dete,

Bacche tadapte bhookhe, kya zulm dha rahi hai.

Eh Hindu kaum sun le, tera bhala na hoga,

Hum bekason ko ‘Harihar’ gar tu rula rahi hai.

Achhootanand initiated the tradition of playwriting in Dalit literature. Two of his available plays are Mayanand Balidan and Ramrajya Nyaya. However, according to Chandrika PrasadJigyasu, “Swamiji had many plots in mind, through which he wanted to disseminate knowledge about ‘Adihindu’. But he was so busy and taken up that he did not have enough time put pen to paper. The plays that left a lasting impression were Samudra Manthan, Bali Chhalan, Eklavya and Sudas and Devdas.”

While introducing them, Jigyasu writes, “The theme of Samudra Manthan revolves around the trickery and guile of the Arya deities and the Adivasi Asuras being deceived by Vishnu in the garb of a seductive woman. Bali Chhalan depicts Vishnu’s incarnation as a dwarf, a conspiracy hatched by the Arya deities and Brahmins to betray the utmost generous and valiant Adivasi, Asur emperor, Bali. Eklavya narrates the story of the matchless archer and the son of a Nishad (a lowly caste). Eklavya was ignobly asked to severe his thumb. Sudas and Devdas aimed at demonstrating that both, Sudas and Devdas, were Adivasi kings. Like Vibhishan and Jayachand, Devdas joined hands with Indra, the commander of the Aryans who conspired against Sudas. As a result, Sudas was defeated and Aryans were able to exercise control over Sindh and Punjab region.”

Mayanand Balidan is a play written like a Kanpuri song. The genre features the songs of Shrikrishna Pehelwan with verses that take the form of Doha, Chobola, Daud, Baharatbeel and Gazal. This play was published in July 1926 by the Adihindu All India Mahasabha, Kanpur. A line by Kabir, “Kahen kabir te chhoot vivarjit jaake sang na maaya” is given a the top of the cover page. Below the line is the name of the play followed by the following line: “Adihindu sadhu ko naramedh yagya mein bali dena.” Then there is this introduction: “Itihaas ki is sachchee praamanik ghatana ko hazaar varsh beete is mahaatma ne Adihindu jati par jaan dekar nagar mein basne, pahanne aur odhne ki azadi dilayi thi.” (This historical incident took place a thousand years ago, when this mahatma secured the freedom to settle in the city and wear and drape for the Adihindujati by sacrificing his life). The play is centred on Patan city (Gujarat region) under Siddharaj rule where a dam was being built on the sea in 11th century Vikram Samvat to put an end to the shortage of water but in vain. When the king asked the Brahmins for a remedy, they advised him to perform Narmedh Yagya. The Brahmins caught hold of an anti-Vedic Untouchable, Mayanand, and took him to the king for sacrifice. Before offering himself for sacrifice, Mayanand told the king that he would do so if a decree was issued to give the Untouchables the right to settle in the city, wear and drape with freedom. The play says that the king fulfilled the wish of Mayanand and immediately issued the decree.

The play Ram Rajya Nyaya depicts the slaying of the Shudra rishi, Shambuk, by King Ram. This composition is surely from before 1927. Achhootanand’s poem Manusmriti, which is a part of this play, is a soliloquy by Shambuk. This play is not available in its original form. Jigyasu published an abridged version, adding songs to it under the pen name ‘Prakash’.This play remained unpublished for 14 years before it was published for the second time in 1964. In 1995, its eleventh edition was published.

Although Achhootanand enjoyed a lot of success, he lacked wealth and wasn’t blessed with sound health. His health deteriorated since he was always working. He never stopped travelling on foot. He always carried a bag in which he kept all the necessary items for running the office of AdihinduSabha. While travelling, he used to write whenever he got time. He composed most of his literary works during his travels. His health worsened after the Virat AdihinduConference held in Gwalior in 1932. He could not afford proper treatment. His treatment by quacks proved fatal. His health deteriorated further and he passed away in Zhabar Idgah, Kanpur, on 20 July 1933 at 9.29 am at a relatively young age of 54 years. The sun that awakened the aspiration for freedom among the Untouchables and other backward castes in north India had set forever.

Jigyasu wrote:

ek aala dimaag tha, na raha.
adivanshee chirag tha, na raha.

After Achhootanand’s demise, the Adihindumovement, in a way, collapsed. While some of its members joined the Congress in search of better prospects, others remained loyal to the movement and merged with Babasaheb Ambedkar’s Scheduled Caste Federation.

Translation: Devina Auchoybur; copy-editing: Anil
स्वामी अछूतानन्द हरिहर (In Hindi)

स्वामी अछूतानन्द हरिहर, आदि-वंश आन्दोलन के प्रणेता थे. उन्होंने उ.प्र. में इस सामाजिक-धार्मिक आन्दोलन की स्थापना की थी.

स्वामीजी जन्म उ.प्र. के फरुखाबाद जिले के सौरिख गाँव में हुआ था. उनकी माता का नाम राम पियारी और पिता का नाम मोतीराम था. माता-पिता ने काफी समय पहले से ही उच्च वर्ण हिन्दुओं की जातिगत-घृणा और कलह से तंग आकर पैतृक गाँव छोड़ दिया था. वे जिला मैनपुरी के उमरी गाँव में आ बसे थे. बाद में पिताजी ने आर्मी ज्वाइन कर लिया था. स्वामीजी बचपन से ही तीव्र बुद्धि के थे. उन्होंने 14 वर्ष की उम्र में स्कूल छोड़ दिया था. आपका ब्याह हिराबाई से हुआ था. संतान के नाम पर इनको चार पुत्रियाँ थी.

शुरू में स्वामी जी ने आर्य समाजियों के साथ थे। मगर, जल्दी ही हिन्दू आर्य-समाजियों से इनका भ्रम टूट गया. तब स्वामीजी ने जाति-पांति और छुआ-छूत के विरुद्ध स्वत्रंत रूप से आन्दोलन चलाया. उन्होंने गाँव-गाँव भ्रमण कर अपनी बात को लोगों के सामने रखा.

स्वामीजी सन 1917 में दिल्ली आये. आपने अपने लोगों को जगाने के लिए यहाँ से आदि-हिन्दू नामक हिंदी मासिक पत्रिका का सम्पादन किया था. स्वामीजी के अनुसार आदि-हिन्दू जातियां अर्थात अनार्य इस भारत-भूमि के मूलनिवासी थे.आर्यों ने यहाँ आकर छल-कपट से उनको दास बनाया और बाद में कई तरह की पाबंदियाँ उन पर लाद दी. आर्य जातियों का यह षड्यंत्र यहीं तक सीमित नहीं रहा बल्कि, आगे चलकर अनार्य जातियों को पशुओं से भी बदतर जीवन जीने को बाध्य किया.

स्वामीजी ने दिल्ली में अछूत नेता वीररतन दास और जगतराम जाटिया के साथ मिलकर अखिल भारतीय स्तर पर अछूत महासभा का गठन किया. सन 1922 के दरम्यान दिल्ली में ही स्वामी जी ने अछूत जातियों का एक बड़ा सम्मेलन आयोजित कर उसमें प्रिंस आफ वेल्स को आमंत्रित किया था. वहां आपने प्रिंस आफ वेल्स को अछूत जातियों के उत्थान से सम्बन्धित 17 बिन्दुओं का मेमोरेंडम दिया था. इस मेमोरेंडम के मांग की गई थी कि आदि-हिन्दू (अछूत जातियों) के लिए पृथक चुनाव और प्रतिनिधित्व का प्रावधान हो. इसके साथ ही छुआ-छूत के उच्छेद के लिए कड़े नियम बनाये जाये. इन जातियों के शिक्षित बच्चों को नौकरी और व्यवसाय में प्राथमिकता मिले. बलात-श्रम पर पाबंदी लगे और गाँव के कोटवार इन जातियों के हो आदि आदि।

सन 1927 में स्वामी जी ने एक पब्लिक मीटिंग में हिन्दू और मुसलमानों की तर्ज पर आदि हिन्दुओं(अछूत जातियों) के लिए पृथक स्वत्रंता की मांग की थी. आपने कहा कि अछूत जातियां इसकी सही हकदार है. 30.11.1930 को स्वामी जी ने सायमन कमीशन से मुलाकात की थी, जिसके सदस्य डा.आम्बेडकर थे.

स्वामीजी को जब मालूम हुआ कि डा.आम्बेडकर, जो अछूत समाज के हैं और देश की पिछड़ी जातियों के लिए कार्य कर रहे हैं तो उन्होंने डा.आम्बेडकर से मिलने की ठानी. सन 1928 में संपन्न 'आदि हिन्दू' महासभा के एक अधिवेशन में उनकी पहली मुलाकात हुई थी. बाद में इन दोनों महापुरुषों ने देश के आजादी के साथ-साथ पिछड़ी जातियों के अधिकारों के लिए, जो उनके शोषकों को सुनाई दे, ऐसी आवाज बुलंद की.

राउंड टेबल कन्फेरेंश के दौरान स्वामी अछूतानन्द हरिहर ने भारत में अछूतों के सर्वमान्य नेता के तौर पर डा.आम्बेडकर और राव बहादूर श्रीनिवासन को सपोर्ट के लिए देश के कई कोनों से टेलीग्राम कराये थे. यह स्वामी जी का प्रयास था की ब्रिटिश भारत में अछूतों को संसद और विधान सभाओं में पृथक प्रधिनिधित्व और अछूत जातियों वाले अधिसंख्यक सीटों पर दोहरे मत का अधिकार मिला था. किन्तु गाँधी जी के आमरण अनशन ने इन दोनों मांगों की मिटटी-पलीद कर दी. किसी तरह 24.9.1932 को पूना पेक्ट हुआ जिसके साक्षी स्वामी जी थे.

स्वामी अछुतानंद हरिहर ने हिन्दू धर्म की काट के तौर पर 'आदि-हिन्दू धर्म' इजाद किया था. आदि-हिन्दू धर्म की 7 मान्यताएं थी-

1.इस देश के मूल निवासी होने से वे 'आदि-हिन्दू' हैं. आदि-हिन्दू होने के नाते उनका कर्तव्य है कि वे अपनी इस मात्र- भूमि पर सत्य और न्याय का शासन स्थापित करे.
2.आर्यों के आने के पहले यहाँ के मूलनिवासियों की जो आस्था और मान्यताएं थी, वही उनका 'आदि-धर्म' है.
3.यह कि ईश्वर अवतार नहीं लेता।
4.ऊँच-नीच का भेद गलत है.
5.क्रोध,मोह,लोभ और काम वासना से अलिप्त रहना। वेश्यागमन,जुआ, हिंसा और मद्य-पान से अलिप्त रहना।
6.संत कबीर का कथन सत्य है कि सब ब्राहमण-ग्रन्थ झूठे, अन्यायी और उनके वर्ग हित को साधने वाले हैं. हिन्दुओं के धर्म-शास्त्र ही उनके अधोगति के कारण है और इसलिए वे ब्राह्मण देवताओं, ईश्वर के अवतारों, ब्रह्मनिक धार्मिक उपदेशों को त्यागने की शपथ लेते हैं. यह भी शपथ लेते हैं कि न तो वे कोई ब्राहमनिक-संस्कार करेंगे और न ही अपने किसी सामाजिक-धार्मिक संस्कार को संपन्न कराने ब्राह्मण को बुलाएँगे.
7.वे अपने पूर्वजों के उच्च चरित्र और आदि-वंश के गर्व भरे इतिहास को प्रचार-प्रसार करेंगे.

देश की शोषित-पीड़ित जातियों के लोग जो हिन्दुओं से भयाक्रांत थे और जिनके लिए अंग्रेजों से आजादी पाने का कोई अर्थ नहीं था, हिन्दुओं से अपनी आजादी के लिए संघर्षरत थे. भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस जो तब, बड़े जोर-शोर से आजादी का आन्दोलन चला रहा था, के कर्ता-धर्ताओं के सामने स्वामी अछुतानंद हरिहर ने जमीदारी उन्मूलन की मांग रखी थी. स्वामीजी के पत्र के उत्तर में मोतीलाल नेहरू ने लिखा था- पहले आजादी के आन्दोलन में सहयोग करे. जमीदारी उन्मूलन के सम्बन्ध में स्वराज प्राप्त होने पर विचार किया जा सकता है.


Ayyavu Swamikal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ayyavu Swamikal (Thykkadu Ayya)
Born 1814

Nakalapuram, of Tamil Nadu
Died 20 July 1909

Religion Hinduism

Muthukumaran (father)
Rugmini Ammal (mother)
Philosophy Siva Raja Yoga
Religious career

Literary works Raja YogaKarma YogaBhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga

Thycaud Ayyavu Swamikal (1814 – 20 July 1909) (also known as Sadananda Swami) was a spiritualist and a social reformer, the first to break customs related to caste in Kerala when caste restrictions and untouchability were at its extreme.


Ayyavu Swamikal was born in 1814 in Nakalapuram in Tamil Nadu. His original name was Subharayan. His parents were Mutthukumaran and Rugmini Ammal. His father and grandfather Sri Hrishikesan were scholars and experts in yoga and spiritual sciences.(Ayyaavu means Father)

At the age of twelve, Subharayan received spiritual initiation from two Tamil Saints, Sachidananda Maharaj and Sri Chitti Paradeshi who used to visit his father. They told his family that his life has a specific assignment, he is destined to serve humanity at another place and that when it is time they would come and take him to mould him to fulfil his duty. These avadutas are said to be connected to great siddhas from Tamil Nadu living in Himalayas who knew the science of immortality. When he was 16, the two siddhas took him with them to Palani where he learned advanced yoga. He travelled with them to Burma, Singapore, Penang and Africa. With them he met teachers of many religions and saints. Subbarayan mastered English during his stay and travel with them. He also acquired proficiency in English, Siddha medicine and alchemy during his wanderings with the siddhas.

At the age of nineteen he was sent back home with instructions to look after his parents and brethren. At home he continued worshiping Goddess and yogic practices, often entering the state of Samadhi. His biographers and disciples state that by this time he had acquired the Ashtasiddhies or divine powers including that of astral travel. Occasionally he visited Pazhani, Chennai and other religious places as part of pilgrimages for participating scholarly discussions going on there. He also started writing and composed 'Brahmothara Khandam' and 'Pazani Vaibhavam'. At the age of 27, as suggested by his gurus he visited Kodungalloor Devi Temple in Kerala. It is said that his devotion was so deep and his prayers were so strong that when he recited the keerthans the temples bells rang by themselves and the doors opened to give him darsan.

Once in a dream Goddess told him that she will appear before him at Trivandrum and he went there during the period of Swathi Tirunal Maharaja. The king came to know of his scholarship and expertise in Sivaraja Yoga and invited him to the palace and also learned many things from him. One day while a family gathering related to a marriage was going on at the house where he stayed a very old lean women told him that someone will be coming to meet him from his village and asked him to go to the traveller's shed near by on that night. The Goddess gave darsan to him at that travellers' shed that night. Later Thycaud Devi Temple was constructed at this site. Before long he went back to Tamil Nadu.

Within a few months his father left to Kasi. The whole responsibility for the family fell on his shoulders and he started a business to support his family. In accordance with the direction of his guru, Subbarayan got married. He used to deliver spiritual discourses at Chennai. As part of his business he was supplying goods to military camp in Chennai, where he came in contact with a British official Mr. McGregor. McGregor became fond of this English speaking Tamil villager and established a friendship with him. He was interested in Indian religion, language and culture and he became his student. During the reign of Maharaja Ayillyam Thirunal, McGregor became the Resident of Travancore. When the selection of a manager for Residency came he appointed him as the Manager of his Residency in Thycaud in 1873. As this post was one of the senior most offices that the British allowed to natives, people respectfully called him 'Superintend Ayyavu'. The term 'Ayyavu' means a respectable or venerable person. Gradually when people understood his yogic powers and scholarship the name changed from Superintend Ayyavu to Ayyavu Swami. Swami kept strict discipline in work and was extremely punctual.

Ayyavu Swamikal visited Vaikunda Swami of Nagarcoil and also the famous Maruthwamalai where he sat in meditation for days. At his residence he spent most of his time in meditation and in initiating and instructing his disciples in spiritual practices. Ayyavu used to deliver lectures on Bhakthi, Yoga and Vedanta in Jnanaprjagaram; where the leading literary, social and spiritual personalities in and around Trivandrum used assemble discuss and deliver lectures and discourses. He in association with Manonmaniam Sundaram Pillai, founded the Saiva Prakasha Sabha of Trivandrum.

He already knew that he had to permanently withdraw from this objective world and enter into Samadhi on that day. When the King knew about his approaching Samadhi he wanted to provide a place for Samadhi near the palace and construct a temple there. But Ayyavu insisted that his Samadhi should be in the Thycaud cremation ground and should be a very simple and small structure. Ayyavu Swami attained Samadhi on 20 July 1909. A Shivalinga was installed over the Samadhi site of Ayyavu Swami in Thycaud in 1943. This temple was improved under the patronage of Sri Chithira Thirunal Maharaja the last king of Travancore. This is now known as Thycaud Siva Temple.


Ayyavu wrote several books on Bhakthi, Jnana and Yoga in Sanskrit, Tamil and Malayalam. A few were later published by his disciples. The works that could be identified as his are:

Ramayanam Pattu
Utjaini Mahakali Pancharatnam
Thiruvarur Murukan
Kumara Kovil Kuravan
Ulloor Amarntha Guhan
Ramayanam Sundarkandom
Hanuman Paamalai
Ente Kasiyathra

Ayyavu Swamikal was instrumental in shaping the personalities of many spiritual, cultural and social leaders of erstwhile Travancore in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ayyavu demonstrated by his own life how realisation of the Supreme Self is possible even for ordinary people through practising Siva Raja Yoga. The greatness of what he taught is that realisation is possible even while leading family life and carrying out one's worldly duties.Chattampi Swami,[4] Narayana Guru who contributed much for the modernisation of Kerala were his disciples. Ayyavu Swami had about fifty disciples consisting of people from diverse fields and castes extending from palace to huts, Nambuthiries, Nairs, Ezhavas, Nadars, Princesses, administrators, doctors, engineers, Muslims, Christians, Hindus and the like. The following are important disciples:

Spiritual Masters and Reformers- Hindu: Chattampi SwamiNarayana Guru, Swayamprakasa Yogini Amma (Kulathoor), Kollathamma. Muslim: Makkadi Labba, Thakkala Peermuhammad. Christian: Petta Fernandez.

Social and Political Leaders: Ayyankali.

Kings, Administrators: Swathi Tirunal Maharaja, Mc Gregor (British Resident), Surya Narayana Iyer, Muthukumara Swami Pillai, Vailur Rayasam Madhavan Pillai and Periya Perumal Pillai, Sundaram Iyyenkar (Peshkars/administrators).

Artists and men of Letters: Raja Ravi Varma (Painter), Kerala Varma Koithampuran, and A.R. Rajaraja Varma (Literature),

Padmanbhan Vaidyan (Musician).


Ayyguru Swamikal was a good astrologer and had also the siddhi to predict future events. His predictions that the younger Maharanis' son will become the last Maharaja, that North India will get separated, Ayyankali will be nominated to a participative administrative body to help the downtrodden, the day of his Samadhi etc. became true. Ayyankali was nominated to Sri Moolam Assembly and was honoured by the Rulers and later his statue was unveiled by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Maharaja Chithira Tirunal was also the last King of Travancore as he predicted. Swami also attained Samadhi on the date, he predicted. India got separated into India and Pakistan about fifty years after his prediction.


Ayyavu Swamikal was an adept of 'Siva Raja Yoga', an ancient technique practised by Tamil Saiva Yogis like Agasthyar, Bhogar and their line. He was one of the great teachers of Sivaraja Yoga in modern times. He belonged to the line of Tamil Siddhas consisting of Agasthyar, Bogar, Tirumular, Tirujnana Sambhandhar, Manikka vachakar etc. His disciples Chattampi Swami, Narayana Guru, Swayam Prakasini Amma, and others continued that line.

He taught his disciples the principles of Advaitha, and the practice of one God, one religion and one caste. He proclaimed that 'Intha Ulakathile Ore Oru Matham, Ore Oru Jathy, Ore Oru Kadavul Than'. (One caste, one religion and one god in this world). This teaching influenced Chattampi Swami and Narayana Guru. Guru translated this doctrine into Malayalam- 'Oru jathy, oru matham, oru daivam manushyanu' which got a magical charm and helped to remove caste difference from the mind of the people of Kerala. The movements initiated by Ayyavu Swami and his disciples are more based on Humanism, Rationalism and Democracy based on universal love rather than the European model of Renaissance or Reformation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Arunagirinathar Statue at Venjamakoodalur Temple, near Karur
Born 15th century CE

Religion Hinduism
Philosophy Kaumaram
Religious career
Literary works Tiruppugazh
Honors Tamil Poet

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Arunagirinaadhar (Aruna-giri-naadhar, Tamil: அருணகிரிநாதர், Aruṇakirinātar, Tamil: [aɾuɳaɡɯɾɯn̪aːdar]) was a Tamil saint-poet who lived during the 15th century in Tamil Nadu, India. In his treatise A History of Indian Literature (1974), Czech Indologist Kamil Zvelebil places Arunagirinathar's period between circa 1370 and circa 1450 CE. He was the creator of Thiruppugazh (Tamil: திருப்புகழ், Tiruppukaḻ, [tiɾupːɯɡaɻ], meaning "Holy Praise" or "Divine Glory"), a book of poems in Tamil in praise of lord Murugan.

His poems are known for their lyricism coupled with complex rhymes and rhythmic structures. In Thiruppugazh, the literature and devotion has been blended harmoniously.

Thiruppugazh is one of the major works of medieval Tamil literature, known for its poetical and musical qualities, as well as for its religious, moral and philosophical content.

Early life

Arunagiri was born in Senguntha Kaikolar family during the 15th century in Thiruvannamalai, a town in Tamil Nadu. His father died soon after his birth and his pious mother and sister instilled in him, their cultural and religious traditions. Legends claim that Arunagiri was attracted to the pleasures of the flesh and spent his youth in pursuing a life of debauchery. His sister always gave whatever she earned to make her brother happy, and he frequently visited the devadasis. It was said that since he was enjoying his life in dissipation, he started to suffer from leprosy and because of it people started to avoid him.

There came a time when his sister had no money to meet his demands for dissipation. Arunagiri said he was going to kill himself because of this. To prevent Arunagiri from committing suicide, his sister said that he should sell her in order to have money, upon hearing which Arunagiri realised how selfish he had been. He decided to end his life, went to a temple and hit his head against the pillars and steps, begging for forgiveness. He considered jumping to his death from the temple tower but according to legends, the God Murugan himself prevented him from committing suicide, cured his leprosy, showed him a path of reform and piety, initiated him to create devotional songs for the benefit of mankind.

Alternative autobiographical version

The above story, though popular contradicts the poet's own version of his story. In the Tiruppugazh, Manaiaval nahaikka, Arunagirinather speaks of how his wife, parents and relatives were utterly disgusted with him and ridicule from friends and others in town impelled him to try to end his life. He thanks the Lord for saving him at this time. This not only shows that his father was alive much longer than what myths suggest but also that he was married.
Arunagiri sang his first devotional song thereafter and decided to spend the rest of his life in piety, writing devotional poetry and singing in the praise of God. He was a devotee of Lord Murugan and worshipped him at the sacred Vedapureeswarar temple in the town of Cheyyar.[citation needed]

His fame drew the jealousy of the chief minister of the Kingdom. He accused Arunagirinathar of espousing false beliefs. The king arranged a public gathering of thousands and commanded Arunagiri to prove the existence of Murugan to others. According to Tamil Hindu tradition, it is recorded that Arunagiri began performing his devotional songs for Lord Murugan and soon after, the form of child Lord Murugan miraculously appeared before those gathered, thus saving his life.


Arunagiri, rendered his first song 'Mutthai tharu' after the miraculous rescue from suicide, at Thiruvannamalai. Arunagiri visited temples all over South India and composed 16,000 songs - at present about 1,334 alone were found. His songs show the way to a life of virtue and righteousness and set the tone for a new form of worship, the musical worship.

The works of Arunagirinathar include
Kandar Alangaram
Kandar Anubhuti
Kandar Andhaadhi
Vel Viruttham
Mayil Viruttham
Seval Viruttham
Thiru Elukūtrirukkai

For Lord Murugan's devotees Thiruppugazh is equivalent to Thevaaram, Kandar Alangaram is equivalent to Thiru Vaasagam and Kandar Anubhuti is equivalent to Thiru Mandhiram. In the Kandar Anubhuti, it is revealed that Arunagirinathar was an exponent of Shaktism. He believed that Devi had incarnated on the Poosam Nakshatram day for the benefit of mankind, in many places, extolling the sanctity of these places, 'She' had a green coloured complexion, and 'She' was the personification of the Vedas. In Thiruppugazh, he describes the divine miracles of Devi. He has shown familiarity with rituals pertaining to Vamachara, though one who worships the Devi internally (spiritually) may not worship her externally (physically). It was seen that the title nātha, was normally conferred on a person, when he becomes an adept in the worship of Devi.


The Thiruppugazh songs remained in manuscript form for a number of years and were gradually forgotten. V. T. Subramania Pillai and his son V. S. Chengalvaraya Pillai of Thirutthani understood their value, retrieved and published them.

In 1871 Subramania Pillai, a District Munsif, had the opportunity to hear a rendering of a Thiruppugazh song while he was on a tour of Chidambaram. Captivated by the song, he decided to set out on a mission to search for the entire body of Thiruppugazh songs. He toured all over South India, collected manuscripts, including palm leaves, assembled the texts and published them in two volumes, the first in 1894 and the second in 1901. After his demise, his son Chengalvaraya Pillai brought out a new edition of the book of songs.

He also went to so many shrines such as Shiva temple and Muruga temples, Melakadambur is one of them. He wrote a song about this shrine's Lord Muruga "kaviri seerumon seeraru soozh kadambooril" - means Muruga is blessing us from the place where the tributary of the river Cauvery is the Vadavaaru. The place Kadambur lies in the banks of the river Vadavaaru.

Music of Tiruppugazh

There is no doubt that Arunagirinathar possessed a deep knowledge of music and rhythms. His compositions contain references to various ragas (known as panns in Tamil) such as Varali, Lalita, Bhairavi, Malahari, Bowli, Gowla, Kuranji etc. Though he has himself not employed them, he mentioned the fundamental five Marga talas - Shashatputam, ShashapuTam, Shatpitaputrikam, Sampatveshtakam and Udghattam as well as three others - Utsava, Darpana and Charchari talas. His compositions are set in complex meters and form an alternate system of talas called Chanda (meter-based) talas.

The original music of Arunagirinathar has unfortunately not survived which has necessitated them to be re-tuned in recent times. Early musicians who set Tiruppugazh to music included Carnatic musical giant, Kancheepuram Naina Pillai (1888-1934) and his disciple, Chittoor Subramaniam Pillai (1898-1975). Several musicians including G N Balasubramaniam, Alathur Brothers and M M Dandapani Deshikar used to render many of these prominently in their concerts and soon there was not a single musician who had not learnt at least a few of these.

A great number of these were also set to music by noted Tiruppugazh exponent A. S. Raghavan which enabled these masterful creations to gain mass popularity. He set to tune more than 500 of these songs in over 100 Ragas and several of these are being rendered by his large following of Tiruppugazh devotees ("Thiruppugazh Anbargal"). Thanks to him, Thiruppugazh classes sprung up both in cities and rural areas, and Thiruppugazh Anbargal started performing in various forums including Temples, Music Sabhas and homes of devotees where they attracted large audiences. Some of these students who settled in countries outside India started Thiruppugazh classes in their new communities, thus extending the reach of his movement to other continents, and giving the movement an international footing. Other musicians who have set music to Tiruppugazh include Chitravina N. Ravikiran.


In 1964, a biopic Tamil film, starring popular playback singer, T. M. Soundararajan in the title role, was released.
Bodhananda Swamikal
Born in a middle class family in Chirakkal village in Trichur (Thrissur) district Bodhananda Swami argued against inequality in the society. He traveled to many places in North India and he accepted the Sanyasin life at Jyothir Mutt in Kasi.

He came back to Kerala and started agitations against untouchability and caste discrimination and opposed idol worship. When he heard of the Guru's program about the idol installation at Jagannatha Temple he went there and asked the youngsters to stay away from it. But a brief interaction with the Guru changed his mind. The Guru explained to him about the necessity of Temples and Idols and he stayed there until the function was over.

The Guru accepted Bodhanda as his Sanyasi disciple in 1912, on the third day of Sharada idol installation. Guru sent him as his representative to many meetings and committees. He helped Nataraja Guru to set up the Narayana Gurukulam in Neelagiri. He spared his life entirely for up-lifting the status of down-trodden people in his native state. The Cochin National Bank was established by him to improve the economic progress of the backward people. “Sree Narayana Dharmam” published by him codified the Guru's precept on “Caste, Religion, Morality, Celibacy and Household duties. The Guru registered his will in Bodhananda Swami's name and made him his successor. But unfortunately Bodhananda Swami attained Samadhi two days after the Guru's Samadhi, in 1928.

Swami Bodhananda

Swami Bodhananda was born in a quiet village called Mattatur, 36 miles north east of Kalady (in Kerala, the south west state of India) the birth place of Adi Sankaracharya. From early childhood He showed great interest in reading and discussing issues pertaining to His country, culture, and geopolitics.

He spent long hours of time either in solitude or dialoguing with his friends, teachers, and wandering monks.

The young mind was disinterested in the ordinary, and sought to find the Light that was beckoning Him. He walked. He meditated. He kept silent. He read.

Everyday the young boy walked 10 miles to the school eager for the classes and to devour books in the public library. By the age of 14 He finished reading Nehru's Glimpses of World History, complete works of Swami Vivekananda, and Mahatma Gandhi, and by 17 he finished Marx's Das Capital, Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, Herbert Marcuse's One-dimensional man, Regis Debre's Revolution in Revolution, and Albert Camu's The Rebel.
The brilliant student, graduated with government scholarship from Christ college, (Irinjalakuda) Kerala, and subsequently chose economics and political science for post graduation. His favourite subject continued to be economics, and one of his favourite teachers, Fr. Vivan who taught him economics.

Gurudev spent several years in the Himalayas in silence watching the embodiment of ultimate truth - the snow clad mountains, and in meditation absorbed in the non-dual basis of existence - Brahman.

His enlightenment is marked by compassion, love, and a crystal clear vision that illumines even the darkest corners of human mind.

In the early eightees Swami Bodhananda spent several years teaching in Ernakulam, and the students at that time included very welknown community and social leaders of that time.

From 1987 to 1990 Swami Bodhananda was the Mukhyacharya at the Sandeepany Sadanalaya in Kasargode (north Kerala) and taught a complete course of Vedanta for the first batch of Brahmacharis. The Sadhanalaya was inaugurated in September 1987.

The Brahmachari Training Course replete with a syllabus to master the mind as well as scriptures was taught by Swami Bodhananda and completed in a period of two and half years. Many of the Brahmacharis Gurudv taught then are today well-known sanyasins, and among them is Swami Adhyatmananda, who currently heads the Sambodh Kerala.

Swami Bodhananda is a Teacher of keen observation, sharp analytical thinking, subtle perception, and an integral vision, all marked by unconditional compassion for anyone and everyone who comes to Him. His analysis of any issue, whether it is of geopolitical importance, or philosophical abstraction, or psychological complexity, always brings with it nuanced clarity coupled with connected and unified presentation. Hence, anyone who meets Him finds the issue of discussion retold in an exhaustive, lucid, and connected manner. And in that retelling, one finds an enlightening and accomodative reponse to their question and challenge.Gurudev believes in the fundamental unity of life, and in freedom of the individual as the uncomprimisable value.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Born 1628

Devgaon rangari near Ellora, Maharashtra, India
Died 1700 (aged 71–72)
Burial place Shivoor, Vaijapur, Aurangabad

Notable work Autobiography Atmamanivedana or Bahinibai Gatha, devotional abhangas, Pundalika-Mahatmya

Honors Sant in Marathi, meaning "Saint"

Bahinabai (1628–1700 AD) or Bahina or Bahini is a Varkari female-saint from Maharashtra, India. She is considered as a disciple of another Varkari poet-saint Tukaram. Having been born in a Brahmin family, Bahinabai was married to a widower at a young age and spent most of her childhood wandering around Maharashtra along with her family. She describes, in her autobiography Atmamanivedana, her spiritual experiences with a calf and visions of the Varkari's patron deity Vithoba and Tukaram. She reports being subjected to verbal and physical abuse by her husband, who despised her spiritual inclination but who finally accepted her chosen path of devotion (bhakti). Unlike most female-saints who never married or renounced their married life for God, Bahinabai remained married her entire life.

Bahinabai's abhanga compositions, written in Marathi, focus on her troubled marital life and the regret being born a woman. Bahinabai was always torn between her duties to her husband and her devotion to Vithoba. Her poetry mirrors her compromise between her devotion to her husband and God.

Early life

Bahinabai has written an autobiographical work called Atmamanivedana or Bahinibai Gatha, where she describes not only her current birth but also twelve previous births. The first 78 verses of the total 473 trace her current life.....

As per the account, she was born in Deogaon(Rangari) or Devgaon(R) near Ellora or Verul in northern Maharashtra, where she spent her childhood. Her parents, Aaudev Kulkarni and Janaki were brahmins, the Hindu priest class, and considered their first child Bahinabai as a harbinger of good fortune. Bahinabai started reciting the names of God from an early age, while playing with her mates.

Bahinabai was married at the age of three with a thirty-year-old widower called Gangadhar Pathak, who she describes as a scholar and "an excellent jewel of a man", but stayed with parents until she reached puberty as per the custom. When Bahinabai was about nine years old, she with her parents and husband, had to leave Devghar due to a family dispute. They wandered with pilgrims along the banks of river Godavari and begged for grain, as customarily wandering holy men do. They visited Pandharpur, the city which hosts the chief temple of Vithoba, in this period. By the age of eleven, she with her family finally settled in Kolhapur. She was "subjected to the demands of married life" at this age, but she was not into it.
Later life

Bahinabai reported visions of the Varkari's patron deity Vithoba, pictured

In Kolhapur, Bahinabai was exposed to Hari-Kirtana songs and tales from the scripture Bhagavata Purana. Here, Bahinabai's husband was gifted a cow, who soon gave birth to a calf. Bahinabai reports a spiritual encounter with the calf. The calf, in Varkari literature, symbolises a person who has attained the highest state of yogic concentration in the previous birth, but due to some fault, is forced to take birth as a calf. The calf followed Bahinabai wherever she went. Bahinabai with the calf also attended the Kirtana of the famed swami Jayaram. Jayaram patted heads of the calf and Bahinabai. When Bahinabai's husband heard of the incident, he dragged Bahinabai by her hair, beat and tied her up in the house. Following this, the calf and the cow gave up food and water leading to the former's death. At its burial, Bahinabai fainted and lay unconscious for days. She awoke with her first vision of the Varkari's patron deity Vithoba and later of her contemporary poet-saint Tukaram. Following the incident, she had another vision of the duo that revived her from the sorrow of the calf's death. In these visions, Tukaram fed her nectar and taught her the mantra "Rama-Krishna-Hari". Thereafter, Bahinabai pronounced Tukaram as her guru. In her visions, Tukaram initiated her into the path of bhakti (devotion) and instructed her to recite the name of Vithoba. Some people considered her behaviour as a sign of madness, while others considered it a mark of sainthood.

Bahinabai's husband dissuaded her by saying that she being of a Brahmin, should not listen to the lower caste Shudra Tukaram. However, Bahinabai did not find happiness in the life of a dutiful wife and turns to bhakti, at the same time serving her husband. As her fame spread, her husband is portrayed to have been jealous of the attention Bahinabai received. Her hot-tempered husband is reported to have abused, beaten and confined Bahinabai to the cattle-shed. When all methods fail to deter her, he decided to leave Bahinabai, who was three months pregnant at the time. However, he could not do so as he suffered a burning limbs sensation lasting a month, on the day of departure. Finally, he repented and was convinced of Bahinabai's faith and devotion to God. At the same time, Bahinabai realised her neglect of her husband and decided "serving him was more important than devoting herself to (another) god." Bahinabai writes:

I'll serve my husband – he's my god ...
My husband's my guru; my husband's my way this
is my heart's true resolve.
If my husband goes off, renouncing the world,
Pandurang (Vithoba), what good will it do me to live among men? ...
My husband's the soul; I'm the body ...
My husband's the water; I'm a fish in it.
How can I survive? ...
Why should the stone god Vitthal (Vithoba)
and the dream saint Tuka (Tukaram)
deprive me of the happiness I know?

The family of Bahinabai went to Dehu, the home-town of Tukaram and paid their respects to him. Here, the brahmin Bahinabai's acceptance of the lower caste Sudra Tukaram as her guru, agitated local brahmins, which led to harassment of the family and threatening of ostracism. In Dehu, Bahinabai gave birth to a daughter, who she named Kasibai. But, she was distressed and mediated suicide. Tukaram in her vision, stopped her and blessed her with poetic powers and prophesied that she would have a son who was a companion in her previous birth, thus Bahinabai is believed to have started composition of poetry, the first of which were dedicated to Vithoba. Consequently, she had a son, who she named Vithoba, the exact time of his birth is not provided, but he is mentioned in a later part of her autobiography.

Finally the family moved to Shirur, where Bahinabai practised a vow of silence for a while. In 1649, on Tukaram's death, Bahinabai revisited Dehu and fasted for eighteen days where, according to the traditional account, she was blessed with a vision of Tukaram again. She then visited the saint Ramdas and stayed in his company until his death in 1681. Afterwards she returned to Shirur.

In last sections of her autobiography, Bahinabai says she has "seen her death". She prophesied her death and wrote a letter to Vithoba, her son, who had gone to Shukeshwar to perform last rites of his wife. On her death-bed, Bahinabai told Vithoba (her son) that he had been her son throughout her twelve previous births and also in her current (thirteenth) birth, which she believed was her last. Further, she narrated the tale of her twelve previous births, which are recorded in her autobiography. She died in 1700, at the age of 72.

Literary works

Apart from her autobiography, Bahinabai composed abhangas, which deal with various subjects like praise of god Vithoba, Atman, Sad-guru, sainthood, Brahmanhood, and devotion Bahinabai's abhanga compositions also focus on her troubled relationship with her husband, the conflict between husband and wife, and to certain extent its resolution. She even portrays her husband's hostile and harmful feelings with empathy. Unlike many of the woman-saints of the period, Bahinabai remained married her entire life, dutifully serving her husband, balancing her roles pativrata (a devoted wife) and virata (the detached). Bahinabai does not revolt against social traditions and believed denouncement of the world is not the solution to a woman's suffering. Her poetry reflects her compromise between her devotion to her husband and her god Vithoba.

Bahinabai also comments on the duties of a married woman. Some abhangas extol the merits of a pativrata, others advocate pure devotion to God which may lead to the ire of society. Others advocate the compromise. She also speaks of pravrtti (action) and nivrtti (quiescence), personified as wives of manas (the mind). Both of them argue over their own superiority, winning a particular moment in the debate and finally reconciling and together directing the mind to its ultimate goal. In her own life, Bahinabai sought to balance these two: pravrtti – the duties of a virtuous wife and nivrtti – renunciation of the world.

Bahinabai sometimes curses her fate of being born as a woman, which author Tharu interprets as "her scepticism, her rebelliousness and her insistent refusal to abandon her aspiration for the truth". She regrets her female birth as she was kept away from the knowledge of the holy scriptures like Vedas and sacred mantras, by the male-dominated brahmin society. Bahinabai sings in her abhanga:

The Vedas cry aloud, the Puranas shout
"No good may come to woman."
I was born with a woman's body
How am I to attain Truth?
"They are foolish, seductive and deceptive –
Any connection with a woman is disastrous."
Bahina says, "If a woman's body is so harmful,
How in this world will I reach Truth?"

At times, Bahinabai's abhangas call out to her god Vithoba (Panduranga, Hari) to help her to balance her twin roles. Bahinabai's wisdom can be summed up in her words as: "A woman's body is a body controlled by somebody else. Therefore the path of renunciation is not open to her." Bahinabai's philosophy reveals the social status of the seventeenth century Indian woman, who was supposed to no existence apart from her husband.

She has also composed a text called Pundalika-Mahatmya, which details the legend of Vithoba and devotee Pundalik, a central figure in Varkari tradition.

Sant Banka
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sant Banka (Marathi: संत बंका) also known as Wanka was a poet in 14th century Maharashtra, India. He was husband to Nirmala and brother-in-law to Chokhamela. Born in Mehenpuri, Banka was a member of the Mahar caste of Untouchables. In most of his abhangs he praised Vitthal in happiness and peace. Infrequently, he described his lower caste birth.

As a bhakti poet saint from the Mahar caste of untouchables, Banka raised a voice against untouchability which is very relevant to current Dalit literature.

Infrequently, he described his lower caste birth. As a bhakti poet saint from the Mahar 
caste of untouchables, Banka raised a voice against untouchability which is very relevant to current .
movements. Leiden: Brill. p. 29. ISBN 9004063706. ^ Zelliot, Eleanor (2000). "Sant Sahitya and its Effect on Dalit Movements". In Kosambi, Meera. Intersections: Socio-cultural Trends in Maharashtra. New Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 190. ISBN 8125018786. ^ Zelliot, Eleanor (2008). "Chokhamela, His Family and the Marathi Tradition". In Aktor, Mikael; Deliège, Robert. From Stigma to Assertion: Untouchability, Identity and Politics in Early and Modern India. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 76–86. ISBN 87635

Bhagawan Nityananda
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhagawan Nityananda

Bhagawan Nityananda as a young yogi

Raman Nair

Tuneri, Koyilandy, Kerala, India
Died 8 August 1961

Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, India
Religion Hinduism

Bhagawan Nityananda (November/December, 1897 – 8 August 1961) is an Indian Guru. His teachings are published in the "Chidakash Gita". Nityananda was born in Koyilandy (Pandalayini), Kerala, South India.


Details about Bhagwan Nityananda's birth are relatively unknown. According to his disciples, Nityananda was found as an abandoned infant in Tuneri village, Kozhikode, Kerala, India by a lady named Uniamma Nair, who was married to Chathu Nair. The Nair couple adopted this child and took care of him along with their own five children. Nityananda was named as Raman by his foster parents. The Nair couple were farmers, who also took care of the farms owned by a wealthy lawyer named Ishwar Iyer, who greatly trusted them. Nityananda's foster father died when he was three and his foster mother when he was six. Before dying she handed over her responsibility of Nityananda to Ishwar Iyer.

Spiritual life

Bhagawan Nityananda Samadhi

Even in childhood, Bhagwan Nityananda seemed to be in an unusually advanced spiritual state, which gave rise to the belief that he was born enlightened. He was eventually given the name Nityananda, which means, "always in bliss".

Before the age of twenty, Nityananda became a wandering yogi, spending time on yogic studies and practices in the Himalayas and other places. By 1920, he was back in southern India.

Settled in southern India, Nityananda gained a reputation for creating miracles and cures. He started building an ashram near Kanhangad, Kerala state. The hill temple and Ashram in Kanhangad are now pilgrim centres. The Guruvan, a forest in the hills nearby where Bhagawan sat on penance, is now a pilgrim retreat.

By 1923, Nityananda had wandered to the Tansa Valley in Maharashtra state. There, his reputation as a miracle worker attracted people from as far away as Mumbai, though he never took credit for any miracles. He said, "Everything that happens, happens automatically by the will of God." Nityananda gave a great deal of help to the local adivasis. Nityananda set up a school, as well as providing food and clothing for them.


As a Guru,Bhagwan Nityananda gave relatively little by way of verbal teachings. Starting in the early 1920s, his devotees in Mangalore would sit with him in the evenings. Most of the time he was silent, though occasionally he would give teachings. A female devotee named Tulsiamma (Tulsi Amma) (1882-1945) wrote down some of his teachings and his answers to her specific queries. Later, these notes were compiled and published in the Kannada language and came to be known as the Chidakasha Geeta.
Some believe that Nityananda had the power to transmit spiritual energy (shaktipat) to people through non-verbal means. He could also be extremely fiery and intimidating in his behaviour, even to the point of throwing rocks on occasion. This was his way of deterring people who were not serious in their spiritual aspirations, or who came to him with ulterior motives.
In 1936, he went to the Shiva temple in the village of Ganeshpuri and asked if he could stay there. The family that looked after the temple agreed and built a hut for him. As his visitors and followers increased, the hut expanded and became an ashram. To the people around him, he was an avadhuta: one who is absorbed in the transcendental state.

Final Years And Death (Samadhi)

Bhagwan Nityananda died on 8 August 1961 at age 63. His samadhi is located in Ganeshpuri at the Samadhi Mandir. There is also a shrine dedicated to him in the Gurudev Siddha Peeth ashram at Ganeshpuri. His ashram, tourist hostel, and other buildings associated with his life in Ganeshpuri are preserved by the Shree Bhimeshwar Sadguru Nityanand Sanstha Ganeshpuri. This trust is also responsible for his samadhi shrine in Ganeshpuri, which is a pilgrimage site.

A trust at Kanhangad looks after the Ashram and temples located there. The trust also runs a few educational institutions and a dharmasala.
Bhagwan Nityananda’s Guru

A life size statue of Bhagawan Nityananda at Bunt Bhavan, Mumbai, India

According to Bhagwan Nityananda's biographers, the identity of Nityananda's guru is a mystery. According to Healy, Nityananda did not have a guru. In one of his talks, his student Swami Muktananda said Nityananda’s Guru was an unknown Siddha purusha from Kerala.
Beni Madhab Das
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Beni Madhab Das
Native name
বেণী মাধব দাস
Born 22 November 1866

Sarowatoli, Chittagong, Bengal Presidency
Died 2 September 1952 (aged 85)

Calcutta, India
Nationality British Indian (1866–1947)
Indian (1947–1952)
Education Chittagong College
Occupation Teacher, social reformer
Known for Teacher of Subhas Chandra Bose
Spouse(s) Sarala Devi
Children 5 daughters and 2 sons (including Bina, Kalyani, Purnaprabha)
Parent(s) Krishna Chandra Das

Beni Madhab Das (Bengali: বেণী মাধব দাস) (1866 – 1952) was an erudite Bengali scholar, a renowned teacher and a great patriot in British India. Subhas Chandra Bose was his student at Ravenshaw Collegiate School and he left an indelible mark in the mind of his young student, as acknowledged in his book Bharat Pathik. When Bose was under internment and had decided to leave India, he wanted the blessings of his teacher, and so a clandestine meeting was organized for the purpose. A number of his other students occupied important positions in life. His personal life of dedication and devotion inspired all his students on to an eventful life. He was what was referred to as an exemplary teacher.

Early life

Son of Krishna Chandra Das of Sarowatoli, Chittagong (now in Bangladesh), he was born on 22 November 1866. After successfully completing his post graduation in philosophy, he joined Chittagong College. He converted it into a model institution. He was posted in Chittagong, Dhaka, Cuttack, Krishnanagar and Kolkata, initially as a teacher in government colleges and later as headmaster of government schools.

Influenced by Keshub Chunder Sen, he joined the Brahmo Samaj early in life. He was associated with the publications of the Brahmo Samaj, Indian Messenger and Navavidhan.
Ideal teacher

With his dedication and patriotism, he was considered an ideal teacher. Apart from philosophy, he had vast knowledge of economics and history, and used to teach these subjects as well. He presided over the All-India Theistic Conference at Kakinada, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1923. His presidential speech was later published in a booklet entitled Modern Theistic Movement in India. His collection of essays, Pilgrimage Through Prayers, was a critically acclaimed publication.

Another great Brahmo teacher, Niranjan Niyogi, who had occasion to come close to him at both Cuttack and Krishnanagar writes about him, "There was no harshness in his administration, no pompous display surrounding it – his cool and charming behaviour used to have a remarkable impact on his students. Even those who were turbulent calmed down, became respectful towards him and were endeared to his affections."

Family involvement

His wife, Sarala Devi was daughter of Madhusudan Sen, who after serving as secretary of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj at Kolkata shifted his base to Dhaka on retirement. She was actively involved in social welfare activities. He used to assist in the functioning of Sarala Punyashram an organisation she had set up for the assistance of destitute and helpless women.

Kalyani Das (Bhattacharya) and Bina Das (Bhaumik) were their daughters. Kalyani Das (1907-1983) was a leading social activist and revolutionary worker. She was one of the organisers of Chhatri Sangha and was secretary of Students’ Association. Apart from her political activities for which she went to jail, she was associated with Sarala Punyashram all her life. Bina Das (1911-1986) shot into prominence when she fired her pistol at the governor of Bengal, Stanley Jackson, in 1932, at the annual convocation meeting of Calcutta University. The attempt failed but she was sentenced to nine years’ imprisonment.

He devoted the later part of his life entirely to the cause of the Brahmo Samaj and died on 2 September 1952.
Bhagavan Das (yogi)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhagavan Das (Devanagari: भगवान दास) (born Kermit Michael Riggs on May 17, 1945) is an American yogi who lived for six years in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. He is a singer and teacher.


Bhagavan Das is a bhakti yogi, a shakta tantra adept, and kirtan singer. As a young man he was one of the first Western initiates/devotees of the late Hindu holy man Neem Karoli Baba, as well as the first American to meet Kalu Rinpoche of the Shangpa Kargyupas lineage. He has received Vajra Yogini initiation from the Sixteenth Karmapa Rangjung Rigpe Dorje of the Karma Kagyu lineage and Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, the 11th Trungpa Tulku. During the almost seven years he spent as a wandering ascetic in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka he received numerous initiations and teachings from living saints and sages including A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Swami Chaitanya Prakashananda Tirtha, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Sri Anandamoyi Ma, and Tarthang Tulku of the Dudjom Rinpoche lineage.

In 1972 in California he married his girlfriend, Bhavani, who was expecting their child; subsequently their daughter, Soma, was born in New York. In 1974 in Berkeley, California, he met Usha, who eventually became his common-law wife and bore him a son, Mikyo, and a daughter, Lalita.

Bhagavan Das guided spiritual teacher Ram Dass, at the time known as Dr. Richard Alpert, throughout India, eventually introducing him to Neem Karoli Baba. Bhagavan Das gained fame after being featured in Ram Dass' book Be Here Now, which described Bhagavan Das' role in his spiritual journeys in India. Bhagavan Das travels widely throughout the world as a performer of traditional and non-traditional Indian bhajans and kirtans, and is the author of an autobiography, It's Here Now
Saint Bhikha Sahib
Bhikha Saheb was a great and experienced saint. Did not believe in miracles and appearances. He knew so much that one who does not sing the hymn of Rama, should

consider it as a form, Bhikha Saheb was born in a village called Khanpur Bohna in Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh. He was attracted by the saints coming to the village from his childhood. Gradually, quietness began to grow in his mind. At the age of just twelve years, preparations were made for their marriage. Wearing colorful wedding beggars, he realized that the cloaks of householder religion were being put on his feet. What was it then, one day he quietly escaped from the house.

Bhikha wandered in Kashi in search of Guru and had to return empty handed. Kashi and Kaaba, Girnar and Shikharji, are all empty. Yes, some lamps lit up there centuries ago. Due to those lamps, pilgrimages were made. But the lamps were extinguished. Did not get extinguished, there was no sign of lamps.

Searching in a small village, whose name you may not have even heard. The name of the village was "Bhurkuda", a small village, there would be ten or twenty houses. The name itself is telling. Bhurkuda Gulaals were found there. And saw Gulal, that not only did Bhikha recognize, Gulal also recognized.

Having picked up this twelve year old child, he has got himself sitting on his throne. Jealousy spread among the old disciples. People are wary of what is the matter. Never put anyone on the throne. Big hospitality - of a twelve year old child. Because there is another world where nothing is measured from this age. Where the heart is weighed; Where souls are tested. It was respected as if there was an emperor. Bhikha became Gulal. Gulal became a beggar. Still did not leave The village of Bhurkuta remained there till the end of time, and the Guru died at the feet. At the same time, he remained as Bhurkuta and Gulal. Not even a single moment left Gulal's company. Charan temples were built there day and night, the same shrine became of Bhikha.

And then such a fire burnt… the one who loved Rama then burnt such a fire. It was felt that all the four years had passed in only twelve years. As I got older. As the four states passed - the four ashrams together, in twelve years. Dispossessed and such a fire and such burns, as if the body was gone. I suddenly grew old at twelve years: seeable. Everything was possible. Death stood in front. At the age of twelve. Death stood in front. While people cherish dreams, which will be broken today, not tomorrow. While people make big plans and fantasies. All of which will be dusty. Awake, there is only one way to know more. Consistency of Guru Pratap Sadha, this escape of Bhikha is straightforward, easy, but like a spark. And one spark will set the whole forest on fire - such a spark is such a force. Open the heart, take this spark within you. The disciple is the one who takes the spark as a flower. All that is wrong will spark the spark. All that is meaningless Everything that is garbage will burn, spark will burn, that should not happen. And enhances everything that should be. One who goes through this fire, one day appears as Kundan, appears clean.

"Not beggar hungry, everyone's bundle is red,
gir khol na jansi

tate bhaiy pangal " Bhikha Saheb says that the name 'Rupi Lal' is tied in everyone's feet, but it has a root-gland (knot) tied in it. Till this knot is not opened, that is, the name of the body does not come from the body, we remain hungry. Despite the wealth, we are hungry but after getting the 'name' we become happy. 'Naam' is all perfect, yet are we sad? They say that we have not revealed it.

Begged about it.
Kahn Sunan ki naye
Say sleep
You know that, don't you?

संत भीखा साहिब जी

भीखा साहब बड़े सिद्ध और अनुभवी संत थे। चमत्कारों और दिखावे में विश्वास नहीं करते थे। वह तो इतना जानते थे कि जो राम का भजन नहीं करता है, उसे कालरूप समझना चाहिए

भीखा साहब का जन्म आजमगढ़ ज़िला, उत्तर प्रदेश के खानपुर बोहना नामक ग्राम में हुआ था। उनको बचपन से ही गांव में आने वाले साधु-संत आकर्षित किया करते थे। धीरे-धीरे उनके मन में वैराग्य बढ़ने लगा। मात्र बारह साल की अवस्था में ही उनके विवाह की तैयारी की जाने लगी थी। विवाह के रंग- बिरंगे कपड़े पहनकर भीखा समझ गए कि उनके पैरों में गृहस्थ-धर्म की बेड़ियां डाली जा रही हैं। बस फिर क्या था, एक दिन वह चुपचाप घर से निकल भागे।

भीखा गुरु की खोज में घूमता रहा काशी में और खाली हाथ लौटना पडा उसे। काशी और काबा, गिरनार और शिखर जी,सब खाली पड़े है। हां, कभी सदियों पूर्व कोई दीये वहां जले थे। उन दीयों के कारण तीर्थ बन गये थे। लेकिन दीये तो कब के बुझ गये। बुझ ही नहीं गये, दीयों का तो नाम-निशान न रहा।

खोजते खोजें एक छोटे से गांव में, जिसका नाम भी तुमने न सुना होगा। नाम था गांव का ‘’भुरकुड़ा’’ एक छोटा सा गांव,होगा कोई दस- बीस घरों का। नाम ही बता रहा है। भुरकुड़ा। वहां गुलाल मिले। और गुलाल को देखा, कि न भीखा ने ही केवल पहचाना,गुलाल ने भी पहचाना।

इस बारह वर्ष के बच्चे को एकदम उठाकर अपने पास बिठा लिया अपनी गद्दी पर। पुराने शिष्यों में तो ईर्ष्या फैल गयी। लोग तो चौकन्ने हो गये कि बात क्या है। किसी को कभी अपने पास गद्दी पर नहीं बिठाया। बड़ी आवभगत की—बारह वर्ष के बच्चे की। क्योंकि एक और दुनिया है जहां, इस उम्र से कुछ भी नहीं नाप जाता। जहां ह्रदय तोले जाते है; जहां आत्माएं परखी जाती है। इसकी ऐसा सम्मान दिया जैसे कोई सम्राट हो। भीखा गुलाल के हो गये। गुलाल भीखा का हो गया। फिर भीखा न छोड़ा ही नहीं। भुरकुटा गांव, वहीं पर अंत समय तक रहे, और वहीं गुरु चरणों में मरे। वहीं जीवन भर भुरकुटा और गुलाल के हो कर रह गये। एक पल एक दिन के लिए भी नहीं छोड़ा गुलाल का साथ। रात दिन वहीं चरण मंदिर बन गये, वही तीर्थ हो गया, भीखा का।

और फिर ऐसी आग जली…वह जो राम की प्रीति लगी तो ऐसी आग जली। कि लगा बारह साल में ही चारों पन बीत गये। जैसे में बूढ़ा हो गया। जैसे बीत गयीं चारों अवस्थाएं—चारों आश्रम, एक साथ बारह साल में। निपट लागी चटपटी और ऐसी लगी आग और ऐसी जली अभीप्सा, मानों चरिउ पन गये बीती। मैं अचानक बारह वर्ष में वृद्ध हो गया: देख लिया देखने योग्य। सब आसार था। मौत सामने खड़ी हो गयी। बारह वर्ष की उम्र में। मौत सामने खड़ी हो गयी। जब कि लोग सपने सँजोता है, जो टूटे गे आज नहीं कल। जब कि लोग बड़ी योजनाएं और कल्पनाएं बनाते है। जो कि सब धूल-धूसरित हो जाएंगा। जागों, और जानने का एक ही उपाय है। गुरु परताप साध की संगति, भीखा के ये बचन सीधे-सादे,सुगम,पर चिनगारी की भांति है। और एक चिनगारी सारे जंगल में आग लगा दे —एक चिनगारी का इतना बल है। ह्रदय को खोलों, इस चिनगारी को अपने भीतर ले लो। शिष्य वही है जो चिनगारी को फूल की तरह अपने भीतर ले ले। चिनगारी जलाएगी वह सब जो गलत है। वह सब जो व्यर्थ है, वह सब जो कूड़ा करकट हे, चिनगारी जलाएगी, भभकाएगी, वह जो नहीं होना चाहिए। और उस सबको निखारती है जो होना चाहिए। जो इस अग्नि से गुजरता है, एक दिन कुंदन होकर प्रकट होकर होता है, शुद्ध होकर प्रकट होता है।

"भीखा भूखा को नहीं ,सबकी गठरी लाल,
गिरह खोल न जानसी ताते भये कंगाल"

भीखा साहब जी कहते हैं कि सबके पल्ले में ‘नाम’ रुपी लाल बंधा पड़ा है पर उसमे जड़ -चेतन की ग्रंथि (गाँठ) बंधी पड़ी है । जब तक यह गाँठ न खुले , अर्थात पिंड से ऊपर आकर नाम का अनुभव न मिले , हम भूखे के भूखे रह जाते हैं । दौलत के होते हुए भी हम भूखे हैं परन्तु ‘नाम’ को पाकर हम सुखी हो जाते हैं । ‘नाम’ सब में परिपूर्ण है , फिर भी हम दुखी हैं ? वे कहते हैं कि हमने उसे प्रकट नहीं किया है ।

भीखा बात अगम की ।
कहन सुनन की नाए।
कहे सो जाने ना।

जाने सो कहे ना।
Basaveshwara and Kinnari Bommayya
For all those who aspire to unite Hindus, there is a valuable lesson to learn from an episode involving Basaveshwara, the first social reformer of India and a shivasharana (devotee of Lord Shiva), Kinnari Bommayya. This episode is found in the Kannada work- Basavarajadevara Ragale written by Harihara who lived during 12th century A.D. at Hampi.

Kinnari Bommayya, a shivasharana was a contemporary of Basaveshwara. Born to a family of goldsmiths at Puduru village in Andhra Pradesh, Kinnari Bommayya came to Kalyan and took the profession of playing Kinnari, a kind of lute in front of Tripurantakeshwara temple for a living. He was also a vachanakara and about eighteen vachanas with the ankitanama, Mahalinga Tripurantaka have been found. Kinnari Bommayya was a close friend of Basaveshwara and lived in his house.

Kinnari had a weakness for onions and one day he was skinning them to prepare a meal. Basava could not tolerate the pungent smell and without knowing it was Kinnari who was skinning them questioned in a raised voice the person who had brought those ‘foul things’ and went to the court. Kinnari was pained by these words left the house and went to a nearby village. Basava returned back and not finding Kinnari in the house became angst. When he learned the reason for Kinnari leaving his house, Basava felt sorry and on the suggestion of his well-wishers decided to pacify the anger of Kinnari by going in a procession himself wearing a huge garland of onions and accompanied by elephants, horses and men all decorated with onions. Even the streets through which the procession passed was decked with onion. In this manner Basava conciliated Kinnari and brought him back home.

Now what lesson does the above episode offer to all those who aspire to unite the Hindus? Number one, we should not impose our views or criticize about other’s food habits, the way they dress, the way they worship, their customs and traditions. Number two, only when we show respect to their feelings and stop sermonizing them on various issues, do they reciprocate and try to emulate us; if indeed they feel that our food habits, way of dressing and worshipping are better than theirs. Today in south India, Karnataka is the only state to have a large number of vegetarians. This is due to the large Lingayat population. As a result of Basaveshwara’s teachings a large number of people belonging to various professions and castes including those ostracized from the society and meat eaters accepted Lingayatism and became vegetarians willingly.

India is a land where different religious sampradayas/paramparas (traditions) and panthas (cults) exits. There is nothing like one tradition/cult being superior to all others or all others being derived from one sampradaya/pantha.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Bamacharan Chattopadhyay

Atla village, Birbhum, West Bengal, India)
Died 1911

Tarapith, Birbhum, West Bengal, India)
Religion Hinduism
Nationality Indian
Philosophy Tantra
Religious career
Guru Swami kailashpati

Bamakhepa (1837–1911),(Bengali: বামাক্ষ্যাপা) born Bamacharan Chattopadhyay, popularly known as the "mad saint," was a Hindu saint, held in great reverence in Tarapith and whose shrine is also located in the vicinity of the Tara temple in Birbhum. He worshipped Maa Tara as if she was his own mother. He was born at Atla village in Rampurhat subdivision of Birbhum district.

Memorial of Sadhak Bamakhyapa

Bamakhepa, goddess Tara's ardent devotee lived near the temple and meditated in the cremation grounds. He was a contemporary of another famous Bengali saint Ramakrishna. At a young age, he left his house and came under the tutelage of a saint named Swami Makshadananda, who lived in a village name Dakshingram,in Birbhum district. Later he relocated to maluti, an old temple village on the banks of Dwarka River. He stayed in Mouliksha temple for continuing the worship of Holy Mother.

Bamakhyapa's Temple. Maluti village, Jharkhand

He perfected yoga and Tantric sadhana (worship)under the tutelage of his guru baba Kailashpati, which resulted in his becoming the spiritual head of Tarapith. People came to him seeking blessings or cures for their illness, in distress or just to meet him. He did not follow the set rules of the temple and as result was even once roughed up by the temple priests for taking food meant as offering for the deity. It is said: Tara appeared in the dream of Maharani ("Queen") of Natore - Rani Bhabani and told her to feed the saint first as he was her son. After this incident, Bamakhepa was fed first in the temple before the deity and nobody obstructed him. It is believed that Tara gave a vision to Bamakhepa in the cremation grounds in her ferocious form and then took him to her breast.
Popular culture

Beginning in 2007, a teleserial named 'Sadhak Bamakhepa' about Bamakhepa ran on television in Bengal. By late 2011, it had run for 1500 episodes

Bhagat Pipa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Born 5 April 1425
Gagron, Jhalawar, Rajasthan, India
Died Unknown (~early 15th century)
Other names Raja Pipaji or King Pipaji
Occupation Ruler of Gagron
Known for 1 verse in Guru Granth Sahib.
Spouse(s) Rani Sita
Children Raja Dwarkanath

Bhagat Pipa, also known as Pratap Singh Raja Pipaji, Rao Pipa, Sardar Pipa, Sant Pipaji, Pipa Bairagi or Pipanand Acharya,[citation needed] was a Rajput King of Gagaraungarh who abdicated the throne to become a Hindu mystic poet and saint of the Bhakti movement. He was born in the Malwa region of North India (east Rajasthan) in approximately AD 1425.

Pipa's exact date of birth and death are unknown, but it is believed that he lived in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century. Born into a warrior class and royal family, Pipa is described as an early Shaivism (Shiva) and Sakta (Durga) follower. Thereafter, he adopted Vaishnavism as a disciple of Ramananda, and later preached Nirguni (god without attributes) beliefs of life. Bhagat Pipa is considered one of the earliest influential sants of the Bhakti movement in 15th century northern India.


Part of a series on

Pipa (rightmost) with other Bhagats of Sikhism, Ravidas, Kabir and Namdev.

Pipa was born into a Rajput royal family (Kshatriya varna) at Gagaron, in the present-day Jhalawar district of Rajasthan. He became the king of Gagaraungarh. Pipa worshipped the Hindu goddess Durga Bhavani and kept her idol in a temple within his palace. While Pipa was the king Gagaraungarh, he abdicated and became a 'sanyasi' and accepted Ramananda as his guru. He then joined Ramananda's Vaishnavism Bhakti, a movement with a strong monist emphasis based out of Varanasi.

According to Bhaktamal, a Bhakti movement hagiography, his wife, Sita, stayed with him before and after his abdication when he became a wandering monk. The hagiography mentions many episodes of his sannyasa life, such as one where robbers tried to steal his buffalo that provided milk to his companions. When he stumbled into the robbery in progress, he began helping the robbers and suggested that they should take the calf. The robbers were so touched that they abandoned their ways and became Pipa's disciples.

In his later life, Bhagat Pipa, as with several other disciples of Ramananda such as Kabir and Dadu Dayal, shifted his devotional worship from saguni Vishnu avatar (Dvaita, dualism) to nirguni (Advaita, monism) god, that is, from god with attributes to god without attributes.

His date of birth and death is unknown, but the traditional genealogy in Bhakti hagiography suggests he died in 1400 CE.

Key teachings and influence

Pipa taught that God is within one's own self, and that true worship is to look within and have reverence for God in each human being.

Within the body is the god, within the body is the temple,
within the body is all the Jangamas
within the body the incense, the lamps, and the food-offerings,
within the body is the puja-leaves.

After searching so many lands,
I found the nine treasures within my body,
Now there will be no further going and coming,
I swear by Rama.
— Sant Pipa, Gu dhanasari, Translated by Vaudeville

He shared same views as Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, and Bhagat Pipa's hymns are included in the Guru Granth Sahib.

Bhagavaan Ji

Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji (3 July 1898 – 28 May 1968), born Gopinath Bhan, also called Bhagavaan Ji, was a mystic saint of early 20th century Kashmir in India. He has been called a jivanmukta (liberated soul) and his spiritual state has been described as Shambhavi avastha (state of Shiva).

Contemporary saints of his times have also called him an Aghoreshwar. It was sometime during 1946–1956 that he came to be called as Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji by his devotees.

Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji is called JagatGuru

As we all know Kashmir which is also called as ‘Rishwar’ (The land of saints) has produced many great saints & rishis. Among these great saints who have spread the message of love throughout the globe was Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Maharaj. The only saint who has been conferred with the title "Bhagavaan"(The God). Bhagavaanji was born in Srinagar in 1898 at Banamohalla Srinagar Kashmir (J&K) India and attained Mahasamadhi in 1968. Bhagavaanji is rightly called the saint of all times. Bhagavaanji's Ashram is situated at Kharyar (Habba Kadal) on the banks of river Vitasata (Jhelum). People from all over India and abroad used to come and have the darshan and blessings of this great saint. It was under the divine touch of this great saint suffering and problems of people were removed automatically. The divine power of Bhagavaanji was such that he offered the solution to the people who came under his lotus feet without waiting for the person to express his problems. Bhagavaanji heart was full of love. There are quite a few instances of near miracles performed by him in removing disease, postponing death, warding off clouds and also help some devotees to have a glimpse of Divine Mother (Sharika). Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji is called Jagat Guru because of his world view. To an Australian devotee he has given a message that all religious and spiritual forums of the world should put in their all efforts in order to raise the mankind from animality to Divinity.

One great instance or what can be rightly said the Miracle which was performed by Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Maharaj was during the Indo-Pak Conflict at Tiger Hills (Kargil J&K) in 1999 when the officer's & personnel of the Indian Army, Who had never heard of Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji, saw Him at the front guiding them during the operations. These Army Officers have attributed the successful capture of the Tiger Hills mainly due to the directions they received by him during the counter attack.

It was an officer of 18 Grenadiers, who first revealed how this mysterious saint of Kashmir directed the operation and how the commandos acted accordingly to his command with the result that the strategically important point (Tiger Hills) was snatched back from the clutches of the enemy. The Officer had heard about Bhagavaanji from a Kashmiri army officer, who was wearing a locket with the photograph of Shri Bhagavaanji in his neck. It was because of this back ground that he had recognized the saint with a white turban and a red "Tilaka" on his forehead. He had no doubt in his mind that this success in recapturing this formidable and strategically all important peak was made possible by this unforgettable character emerging on the scene on July3,1999.

And some devotees of him who were very close to him said that during 1962 when the Indian army was engaged in halting the onslaught of the Chinese troops, one day he left his residence and returned only the next day. His body was shivering and he had caught cold and was having the symptoms of bronchitis. When asked he replied that he had gone to Tibet border to settle scores. A few days soon thereafter there was ceasefire on the battlefront. Bhagavaanji preached the oness of all religions. His belief was to work collectively for the welfare of Mankind throughout the Globe. He had a world view of spirituality. He desired that the forces of peace, piety and righteousness world over should pool their efforts and serve humanity so that universal brotherhood prevails and the forces of dissention and division are defeated. Mayor Schundler of New Jersy proclaimed Jul 26, 1997 as Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Day when a colorful function was held there with devotion and religious fervor.

Let the Blessings of This Great Saint should bestow on all of us throughout the globe and Let the divine light of Bhagavaan Ji Guide us on every point and show the right path in order to make this world happier place to live in.
Bulleh Shah
Those who do not forget the Lord, with each breath and morsel of food, whose minds are filled with the Mantra of the Lord's Name they alone are blessed; O Nanak, they are the perfect Saints.

Once Baba Bulleh Shah was sitting on bank of river when he saw this lady selling carrots. People were coming to buy it, but when they start picking and choosing she would say "I only sell carrots in volumes there is no pick and choose". So all these people had to buy carrots in volumes/in bulk.

Then there was this beautiful man, who came to her to get carrots, but this time she herself picked the best carrots for him ! Bulleh shah was quite surprised looking at the incident so after this men had left Bulleh shah asked her how come you let only him to hand pick the carrots, in fact you picked and choose carrots for him yourself. She replied, Bulleh Shah ji, he is my husband, there is no counting/accounts between lovers.

This made Bullah Shah realize, what's the point of carrying a rosary. He put it away and asked himself, Bullah are you insane? Why are you doing counting with your beloved? Why count what Waheguru has given me ? How many times have I done simran or went to Gurudwara, or how much money did I gave for charity and then brag about the same etc ?

Make good deeds the soil, and let the Word of the Shabad be the seed; irrigate it continually with the water of Truth.

Become such a farmer, and faith will sprout. This brings knowledge of heaven and hell, you fool!

Do not think that your Husband Lord can be obtained by mere words.

You are wasting this life in the pride of wealth and the splendor of beauty. Acknowledgement: http://tuhitu.blogspot.com/

Bulleh Shah‘s real name was Abdullah Shah, was a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet, a humanist and philosopher.

Born: 1680 Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan

Died: 1757 (aged 77) Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan

Early life and background

Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680, in the small village of Uch, Bahawalpur, Punjab, now in Pakistan. His ancestors had migrated from Bukhara in modern Uzbekistan.

When he was six months old, his parents relocated to Malakwal. There his father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a preacher in the village mosque and a teacher. His father later got a job in Pandoke, about 50 miles southeast of Kasur. Bulleh Shah received his early schooling in Pandoke, and moved to Kasur for higher education. He also received education from Maulana Mohiyuddin. His spiritual teacher was the eminent Sufi saint, Shah Inayat Qadiri.

Little is known about Bulleh Shah’s direct ancestors, except that they were migrants from Uzbekistan. However, Bulleh Shah’s family was directly descended from the Prophet Muhammad(PBUH).


A large amount of what is known about Bulleh Shah comes through legends, and is subjective; to the point that there isn’t even agreement among historians concerning his precise date and place of birth. Some “facts” about his life have been pieced together from his own writings. Other “facts” seem to have been passed down through oral traditions.

Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538 – 1599), Sultan Bahu (1629 – 1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640 – 1724).

Bulleh Shah lived in the same period as the famous Sindhi Sufi poet , Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai (1689 – 1752). His lifespan also overlapped with the legendary Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722 – 1798), of Heer Ranjha fame, and the famous Sindhi Sufi poet Abdul Wahad (1739 – 1829), better known by his pen-name, Sachal Sarmast (“truth seeking leader of the intoxicated ones”). Amongst Urdu poets, Bulleh Shah lived 400 miles away from Mir Taqi Mir (1723 – 1810) of Agra.

Poetry Style

The verse form Bulleh Shah primarily employed is called the Kafi, a style of Punjabi, Sindhi and Siraiki poetry used not only by the Sufis of Sindh and Punjab, but also by Sikh gurus.

Bulleh Shah’s poetry and philosophy strongly criticizes Islamic religious orthodoxy of his day.

A Beacon of Peace

Bulleh Shah’s time was marked with communal strife between Muslims and Sikhs. But in that age Baba Bulleh Shah was a beacon of hope and peace for the citizens of Punjab. While Bulleh Shah was in Pandoke, Muslims killed a young Sikh man who was riding through their village in retaliation for murder of some Muslims by Sikhs. Baba Bulleh Shah denounced the murder of an innocent Sikh and was censured by the mullas and muftis of Pandoke. Bulleh Shah maintained that violence was not the answer to violence.Bulleh Shah also hailed Guru Tegh Bahadur as a ghazi (Islamic term for a religious warrior) and incurred the wrath of the fanatic muslims at the time.

Banda Singh Bairagi was a contemporary of Bulleh Shah. In retaliation for the murder of Guru Gobind Singh’s two sons by Aurangzeb, he sought revenge by killing common Muslims. Baba Bulleh Shah tried to convince Banda Singh Bairagi to renounce his campaign of revenge. Bulleh Shah told him that the same sword which fell upon Guru Gobind Singh’s sons and innocent Sikhs also fell upon innocent Muslims. Hence killing innocent Muslim was not the answer to Aurangzeb’s reign of oppression.


Bulleh Shah’s writings represent him as a humanist, someone providing solutions to the sociological problems of the world around him as he lives through it, describing the turbulence his motherland of Punjab is passing through, while concurrently searching for God. His poetry highlights his mystical spiritual voyage through the four stages of Sufism: Shariat (Path), Tariqat (Observance), Haqiqat (Truth) and Marfat (Union). The simplicity with which Bulleh Shah has been able to address the complex fundamental issues of life and humanity is a large part of his appeal. Thus, many people have put his kafis to music, from humble street-singers to renowned Sufi singers like the Waddali Brothers, Abida Parveen and Pathanay Khan, from the synthesized techno qawwali remixes of UK-based Asian artists to the rock band Junoon.

Bulleh Shah’s popularity stretches uniformly across Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, to the point that much of the written material about this philosopher is from Hindu and Sikh authors.

Modern Renditions

In the 1990s Junoon, Asia’s biggest rock band from Pakistan, rendered such poems as Aleph (Ilmon Bas Kareen O Yaar) and Bullah Ki Jaana. In 2004, Rabbi Shergill successfully performed the unlikely feat of turning the abstruse metaphysical poem Bullah Ki Jaana into a Rock/Fusion song, which became hugely popular in India and Pakistan. The 2007 Pakistani movie Khuda Kay Liye includes Bulleh Shah’s poetry in the song Bandeya Ho. A 2008 film, ‘A wednesday’, had a song, “Bulle Shah, O yaar mere” in its soundtrack. In 2009, Episode One of Pakistan’s Coke Studio Season 2 featured a collaboration between Sain Zahoor and Noori, “Aik Alif“.

Bulleh Shah’s Poetry
– Makkeh Gaya, Gal Mukdee Naheen (Going to Makkah is not the ultimate)
– Bulleya Ki Jana Main Kaun (Bulleya to me, I am not known)
– Verhe Aa Varh Mere (Do come to me)
– Main Jana Jogi De Naal (I’m going together with Jogi)
– Aa Mil Yaar (Come my love)
– Uth Gaye Gawandon Yaar (There goes my Love!)
– Bas Karjee Hun Bas Karjee (Enough is enough, my friend)
– Tere Ishq Nachaya (Your love has made me dance)
– Ilmoun Bas Kari O-Yaar (Aik Alif) (Enough of learning, my friend!)
– Ishq De Naween Naween Bahar (Love is ever new and fresh)
– Ghoonghat Ohle Na Luk Sajna (Hide not behind the veil, my love)
– Gharyali Diyo Nikal Ni (Sack the gongman)
– Meri Bukkal De Vich Chor Ni (There is a thief in the folds of my arms.)
– Ek Nukte Wich Gal Mukdi Ae (At this one point, all talk ends.)
– Ek Nukta Yaar Parhaya Ae (I have learnt a secret)
Sadhu Bhaiya Naik
Sadhu Bhaiya Naik alias Sadashiv Rao Naik was an ardent devotee of Shirdi Sai Baba. He was dealing in grocery articles and was also attending to his landed property at Harda, Madhya Pradesh. Sadhu Bhaiya Naik had three sons. The eldest was Ananda Rao, Lakshmanrao alias Balasaheb Naik and Shankar Rao.

He had love and devotion for saints and holy men. When he had occasion to visit saint Gondavalekar Maharaj, the latter told him that some evil spirit was ruling over him and that he should go to Ganagapur for getting rid of same. According to those orders of Shri Gondavalekar Maharaj, Shri Sadashivrao Naik went to Ganagapur and got rid of the influence of the evil spirit.

Shri Sadashiv Rao Naik had close contact with Shri Sai Baba from 1914. Before that also he was often visiting Shirdi for the darshan of Shri Sai Baba.

Once Shama alias Shri.Madhavrao Deshpande, happened to come to Harda when the mother of Shri Naik complained to Shri.Shama that Shri Naik was a man with a family, If he went to Shirdi very often, how would he be able to take care of his family? Hearing this complaint from the mother of Shri Naik, Shama said to Shri Naik, "Do not give your mother any cause for complaint. Henceforth do not come to Shirdi unless you are called by Shri Baba".

As Shama was very close to Shri Baba, Shri Naik considered Shama's words as the order of Shri Sai Baba Himself and stopped going to Shirdi. When Shri Sai Baba knew about it He said, "Due to Shama's orders Shri Naik would not come. So ask Shri Parulkar to bring Shri Naik along with him". So a letter from Shri Sai Baba was sent to Shri Naik and he went to Shirdi in 1914 along with his two sons. Shri Balasaheb had the darshan of Shri Baba in this way when he was only about seven years of age. Shri Parulkar and Shri Sadashivrao used to sit with Shri Sai Baba for hours together smoking Chilim. Shri Balasaheb and his brother got at that time prasad and Udi directly from the hands of Shri Sai Baba.

Immediately in the next, year, that is in 1915, Shri Balasaheb got an opportunity to visit Shirdi along with his father. At that time they stayed at Shirdi for about 10 days. This time also they got opportunity to take darshan of Shri Sai Baba from close quarters, when he used to go to Chavdi along with his brother, Radhakrishnamai used to apply sandalwood paste on their forehead. The thread ceremony of Shri Balasaheb was attended at Harda by Shri Dixit, Shri Deshpande and Shri Tatya Kote Patil. At that time Shri Baba had sent to him rupees five and Savitribhajanmala.

At the time of Dasnavami in 1915 Shri Baba sent His big photo to Harda to Shri Naik, along with Shr| Balakram and Muktaram. This was the photograph that was kept in Dixit Wada.; it reached him on 8th February 1915 on a Thursday (Dasnavami). Baba also sent a letter saying "Through this photo I have come to your home. Without My permission don’t come to Shirdi again”.

Baba sent this Portrait to Sadhu Bhaiya on 8th February 1915

Rudrabhishek and Puja were performed and He was placed upon a sinhasan and Anna Daan was done. Then Muktaram climbed on the roof to hoist a flag. He was precariously perched on the roof and the flag was hoisted three fourth of the height when his arm ached terribly. Simultaneously Baba asked a bhakta seated near Him to massage His arm and said, "Allah Mallik Sadhu Bhaiya Garebon ka wali hai. Allah se bada kyon hein (Allah Mallik is the savior of the poor. Who is greater than Allah?)". At that very moment, the pain in Muktaram's arm also disappeared and he was able to comfortably complete the task.

The flag thus was hoisted. Everyone was joyous as Muktaram was safe. Baba looked after him at all times. Once there was an epidemic of plague in Harda. Everyone fled deserting the village. At that time, Sadhu Bhaiya had gone to his ancestral village, Brahmingaon, about 7 miles away, leaving his father with Baba's photograph in Harda. Sadhu Bhaiya wrote to Baba asking him about the photograph and the plague. Baba told him to perform puja to the photograph daily and go back to Harda and send his father to Shirdi. A few days later, two dead rats were found near the photograph. Sadhu immediately wrote to Baba and consulted Him. Baba in his characteristic way said, "Allah Mallik was there and there is nothing to fear." Sadhu Bhaiya stayed on in that house and was safe.

Sadhu Bhaiya took samadhi in 1937. As a close Sai devotee, the photo of Shri Sadashivrao Naik is hung in the Samadhi Mandir at Shirdi along with Shri Baba's other devotees.

Shri Balasaheb Naik was born at Harda, Madhya Pradesh on 14th January 1907. Shri Balasaheb remembers very well that he had visited Shirdi with his father in 1914 and 1915.

Shri Balasaheb had his primary education at Harda. He also attended the middle school there. In 1927, he came to Indore at the house of his sister for higher education and passed his Matriculation examination at Indore. He studied further upto Inter Arts at Indore. Shri Balasaheb served in the High Court at Indore and retired from there. He is now drawing a pension. He is now working in his own firm known as "Malwa Trading Syndicate". He is also having an agency of Camel Ink. His son is helping his father in this business. Shri Balasaheb Naik is also giving free Homeopathic medicines to poor people. He is taking keen interest in all the social and religious activities conducted at Indore.

Shri Balasaheb Naik was married in 1943 and the name of his wife was Malatibai. They led a married life for full thirty five years and Mrs. Malatibai left for heavenly abode in 1978. Shri Balasaheb has two sons and a daughter. The names of his sons are Vishwanath (30) and Dhananjaya (25). The Name of his daughter is Vanitha. She is aged 30. His daughter-in law is named Girija and she is having two children.

The photograph sent by Baba was in Brahmingaon unattended. One day Lakshmanrao alias Balasaheb Naik got a vivid dream in which Baba said "I came to your home through this photograph, and you have discarded Me. If you don't come and free me within two days my leg will be eaten away". Lakshmanrao was shocked at this dream, as he could not understand it. He went to the court as usual but was restless the whole day and could not do a lot of work.

Lakshmanrao Naik

That night he had the same dream. In which Baba said "you have not heeded my warning, if you don't come and set me free, my leg will be eaten away by termites (white ants)'. This dream terrified Lakshmanrao. The very next day he went to court and applied for leave. Hastily he went to the house in Brahmingaon. When he opened the door he was shocked to see that termites had eaten the wooden frame, and had just invaded the photograph below Baba’s big toe.

Lakshmanrao at once took down the photograph and cleaned it. Then he took the photograph to his home in Indore. There he got it re-cleaned and re-framed and kept it in his home. Daily Puja was performed. Now Baba in that photograph is being tended to with tender loving care by Vanitha (Laxman's daughter).

Today this photo has been kept for darshan at the house of Shri Balasaheb Naik at Rajendranagar, Indore and many Sai devotees who know about it take darshan regularly.

(Source: Shri Sai Leela Magazine July 1982 & Ambrosia in Shirdi by Sai Bhakta Vinny Chitluri, Photo Courtesy: Shri.Nagaraj Anvekar, Bangalore)
Bansuria Baba

There have been many saints, sages and maharishis on the holy land of India, who have served the society and the nation while worshiping God. One of such saints was Bansuria Baba, who glorified God and worked as a lighthouse in the freedom struggle.

People of all castes and classes participated openly in the freedom struggle of 1857 AD. Due to Dalhousie's imperialist policy, Jhansi, Satara, Awadh and Delhi were all against the company rule. Nana Saheb and Tatya Tope together planned a revolution in Bithoor. The message of revolution was also spread secretly in every village. The saints and saints also contributed significantly in spreading the message of revolution.

The revolution was secretly propagated in Bihar. The revolution was planned under the leadership of Pir Ali and its secret meetings were held in Danapur. On behalf of Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur, Harekrishna Singh and Dal Bhanaj Singh used to spread the wave of revolution among the soldiers of Danapur Cantonment of Bihar.

In India at the time of crisis, saints have sacrificed their all for the salvation of the country. He has also conducted the movement at some places and raised the sword when needed.

In the Treta Yuga, when King Ravana of Lanka had destroyed the Aryan civilization and culture, then Maharishi Vasistha and Agastya prepared Lord Rama for armed struggle against him. Rama defeated Ravana with the help of his brother Lakshmana and the Vanar Sena and waved the flag of Aryan culture in the south. Similarly, in Dwapar era, Vidur Maharaj had secretly helped the Pandavas in the Kaurava-Pandava war. Sadhus and saints always support justice and religion.

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay has written in his famous book 'Anand Math' that the ascetics have contributed immensely in destroying the English Empire. He conceived the national awakening in the general public.

The land of Bhojpur is considered the sacred land of India. Maharishi Vishwamitra taught Rama and Lakshmana with weapons in their Siddhashram here, so that they could destroy the demons. The expelled son of an ordinary jagirdar of this land, Farid Khan (Sher Shah) defeated Mughal emperor Humayun and established the rule of Sur dynasty. What we mean to say is that many such gems have been born on the land of Bhojpur, who have rendered valuable service to Mother India in one form or the other.

Babukunvarsingh and Amar Singh led the revolutionaries of Bihar during the first freedom struggle. Bansuria Baba gave him inspiration for this. It is said that in those days, there lived a saint in the jungles of Jagdishpur, on whose banshee the sound of all beings was enchanted. It seemed as if Lord Krishna himself was reciting his Murali tune to the people of Bhojpur in his form. Just as Krishna inspired Arjuna to fight against the tyrannical Kauravas, Bansuria Baba also inspired the people of Bhojpur to fight against the tyrannical rule of the company. On Baba's call, the public agreed to give up everything. Baba used to say "Son keep your forehead right. The body will work automatically." This meant help your leader. Everything else will go well on its own. End the tyrannical rule of the company while under discipline.

Babu Kunwar Singh and Amar Singh got inspiration from Baba. He made his plans, for which Baba would always bless. There is also written evidence that he once told Kunwar Singh that your name will be immortalized in Indian history not because of your dynasty, but because of your services.

Thousands of Bhojpuri youth started working without pay in Kunwar Singh's army due to Baba's inspiration. He used to instill a sense of hatred in public by calling the British as heretics. Baba's heart was filled with national sentiment. He was desirous of ending the English state in every way. Baba himself did not take up arms, but inspired others for this.

Baba used to roam from place to place propagating the messages of revolution. His method of propaganda was very simple and attractive.

Where was Baba born? Who were his parents. We do not receive any information in this regard. Actually great saints do not have any one place. There is a saying in Bhojpuri that 'Ramta Jogi flows water' is the importance.

Some scholars believe that Baba Chambay was a lean-to-middle age saint. He used to drink ganja and spoke always. Used to eat milk and fruits and lived outside the village.

After the death of Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh took up the task of governance and continued the struggle against the British. Even then Baba used to inspire Amar Singh. Due to his blessings and blessings, Amar Singh survived many times narrowly from the hands of enemies.

When Baba came to know that Babu Kunwar Singh's nephews Ripubhanjan Singh and Guman Bhanjan Singh had met the British, he was very sad. Ripubhanjan Singh used to inform the British about all the plans of Babu Kunwar Singh. He used to distinguish the revolutionaries from the British and transport them to the British army. Not only this, by explaining the rebels, removing them from the revolution, apologizing to the British, provoking the people in favor of the British was the main task of Ripubhanjan Singh.

Baba was fiercely angry with these works of Ripubhanjan Singh. Therefore, he had cursed that both Ripubhanjan Singh's wealth and fame will be destroyed.

Dr. Bharat Mishra, after discussing with the people of Jagdishpur, concluded about Baba that a monk had very good contact with Babu Kunwar Singh. Unfortunately, it is not a relic of the monk. There is a need for scholars to do special research on them. Today our country needs a saint like Bansuria Baba, who can work for the integrity and national unity of the country. Our main goal should be that all Indians should be united in one thread.
Saint Birbhan

Birbhan is the founder of Satnami Sect of Hinduism in Bijesar,village near Narnaul, Haryana in 1543 CE.This sect is mainly comprised of Chamars of Northern region associating with some sweepers,carpenters,goldsmiths etc.During the rule of Mughal Aurangzeb, there was resentment among Hindus for revival of Jaziya and destruction of temples. The revolt triggered when a Mughal soldier killed a Satnami. The Satnamis killed the soldier in revenge and in turn Mughal soldiers were sent to teach them a lesson. Some 5,000 Satnamis stood up in arms and routed the Mughal troops in the town, drove away the Mughal administrators and set up their own administration under their leader Birbhan.The rebellion was crushed when Aurangzeb under the leadership of Nawab of Narnaul,Taherbeg sent 10,000 troops with artillery to crush the Satnamis. In the sort of a large battle, 2000 Satnamis were slained along with Birbhan.Then remaining Satnamis fled in all directions and especially towards the jungles of Chattisgarh.

Birbhan was a contemporary of Dadu. He was born near Narnaul in Punjab in 1543 and founded the famous sect of Sadhus or Satnamis. Birbhan was a monotheist and descri­bed God by the name of Satnam or Truth. Birbhan did not believe in caste and other distinctions and was opposed to idol worship.

He insisted on meditation and virtuous life with a view to attain ultimate absorption with God. Birbhan insisted on his followers to abstain from intoxicants and animal food as well as unnecessary accumulation of wealth. The sect founded by Birbhan is known as Satnamis and their religious granth is known as Pothi, which is revered like the Granth of the Sikhs.

In addition to the above saints and reformers a number of other saints and reformers also tried to bring about religious synthe­sis and to reconcile the ideas of Islam and Hinduism. It is not possible to make a mention of the ideas of all these saints within the limited space at our disposal. However, the prominent amongst them included Lal Das of Alwar; Bawa Lal of Malwa, Dliarnidas of Chapra, Jagjivandas of Barabanki district, Charandas of Rajputna, Ramcharan of Shahpur, and numerous others.
Bhima Bhoi
Ganapati Panda
Born 1850, Baisakh Purnima

 near by kenjriapali Subarnapur (previously RairakholSambalpur), Odisha, India
Died 1895, Siva Chaturdasi

Shashanka chamber SubarnapurOdisha, India
Nationality Indian
Spouse Annapurna
Children Labanyabati (daughter)
Kapileshwar (son)
Notable work(s) Stuti Chintamoni
Brahma Nirupana Gita
Nirveda Sadha
Senior posting
Teacher Guru Mahima Swamy

Bhima Bhoi (1850–1895) was a saint, poet and philosopher from the state of Odisha in India. Bhima Bhoi was a bhakta (Odia: devotee) of Mahima Swamy (commonly referred to as Mahima Gosain and whose birth name is said to have been Mukunda Das). From Mahima Swamy, Bhima Bhoi would receive initiation into Mahima Dharma, an Indian religious tradition that challenged the authority of caste Hinduism on its own terms.

Early life

Bhima Bhoi was born in Jatesingha in 1850, though various sources have cited different years as well as different places of birth. Bhima Bhoi's family belonged to the Khond tribe. Bhoi's family was not well off and by most accounts his early life was not a happy one. His father died when he was quite young. His mother remarried and had children with her new husband soon after.

Notable works

Bhima Bhoi was a great poet, composer and singer. Humanity and liberation of the world were the central theme of his poetic creations. His assertion "mo jeevana pachhe narke padithau, jagata uddhara heu" (let my life remain inglorious, let the world achieve salvation) showcases his dedication to the upliftment of the societally deprived while being a clear reflection of socio-economic conditions in the State, during his lifetime. While a few Odia scholars have studied the life and poetry of Bhima Bhoi, research chairs have recently been established at Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences - Deemed to be University (in April 2018) and Gangadhar Meher University in 2019, to research the impact of Bhima Bhoi's life and philosophy in Odisha.(Wikipedia)
Baba Lal Das
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baba Lal Das was the former court appointed chief priest of the Ram lalla idols inside the Babri Masjid of the Ayodhya dispute in India.He was considered a star witness in the Babri Masjid demolition case and a vocal opponent of the Vishva Hindu Parishad campaign to build a temple at the Ram Janmabhoomi site.

He lost his life on 16 November 1993 over a land dispute.

Early life and career

Baba Lal Das was born in Shringrishi village close to AyodhyaUttar Pradesh. After completing his religious schooling in Raghunathpur, Jammu and Kashmir, he became a priest at a temple in MehsanaGujarat.

After returning to Ayodhya, he joined the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and served as a secretary in the local unit.


On 16 November 1993, Baba Lal Das was shot dead in the middle of the night in Ranipur Chattar village, 20 km from Ayodhya. The CBI took over the investigation of the case in 1994 and charge sheeted two people for murder over a four year old personal land dispute.
Bhakta Bhagu


Bhagu was a female Varkari Saint and a great poet. Though she belonged to the Mahar caste, she got good knowledge in penning bhakti poems on Lord Vittal, a form of Lord Krishna. She was born in a village in Maharashtra, in a lower caste, to a pious Hindu couple. Her father was a potter, and he earned his income by making and selling clay pots. With the meagre income of her father, the family lived happily.

She was married at her young age, but soon her husband had sent her to her home town, due to the unlimited bhakti shown by her on Lord Vittal. But young Bhagu, didn’t get upset, but she left her home, and joined in a troupe who were on their way to Pandharpur. As soon as she reached the temple of Pandharpur, she felt very happy, and began to sing melodious songs on Lord Vittal. After knowing about her selfless devotion on Lord Vittal, the temple authorities have provided her a shelter and also asked her to make flower garlands for the Lord. She happily accepted the offer, and began to stay in the hut and also done the divine service of making flower garlands.

In order to test her bhakti, one day, Lord Vittal had appeared in the form of a small boy, and gave a golden necklace to her, and disappeared from that place. Bhagu was surprised with the act of the small boy, and she went to the temple priest and offered the necklace to him, in order to adorn it to Lord Vittal. At that time, one of the jewels of Lord Vittal was went missing, and when the temple priest saw the necklace in the hands of Bhagu, he realised that the necklace is belonged to Lord Vittal, and mistakenly he thought that the ornament was stolen by her, and he tied her in the pillar of the temple, and reported to the king of Pandharpur about the theft.

The king went inside the temple, and he decided to hang her, without getting any explanation from her side. When the hang man hanged her in a rope, suddenly Lord Vittal appeared in that place, and he began to lift Bhagu in his hands, he saved her life, and gave his divine vision to everybody in the temple. The Lord had narrated the entire incident to everybody in the temple with his sweet voice, and disappeared from that place. The king had realized his mistake, and asked Ma Bhagu to apologise him, and he provided a proper house and also provided all sorts of facilities to her. She lived her life by keeping the divine thoughts of Lord Vittal in her mind, and after her death, she has attained the lotus feet of Lord Vittal.

Bhagat Baba Kalu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhagat Baba Kalu Ji Panchhat
Baba Kalu is a local Saint revered by the people of the Hoshiarpur and Phagwara areas of the Punjab, India.


Baba Kalu was born in Barial, a village in Hoshiarpur during medieval times. He spent his final days in the village of Panch Nangal near the village Khushalpur in Hoshiarpur where his wooden sandals are still kept.

The main shrine of Baba Kalu is in Panshta (also known as Panchhat).

Baba Kalu was of the Manauti surname and had two sons: Ganesha and Mehesha. The latter left issue who are styled Bawas and live in the villages of Panshta, Barial, Panch Nangal, Khutiar and Kahnpur. He also had 4 disciples: Lachhmi Chand, Sri Chand, Megh Chand and Tara Chand from whose descendants a priest is elected.

The shrine in Panshta hosts the annual Baisakhi Mela. A representative of the shrine travels to the villages that attend the Mela to gather contributions. People from many villages attend the Mela including people from the adjoining villages of Narur and Jalwehra as well as people from Lakhpur and Sahni.
Budhu Bhagat
Full Name Budhu Bhagat
Birth February 17 , 1792 A.D.
Birth place Ranchi , Jharkhand
Citizenship Indian
The fame Revolutionary
protest Larka movement

Other information Budhu Bhagat trained his squad for guerrilla warfare . The British government announced a reward of one thousand rupees for capturing them .

Budhu Bhagat or 'Budu Bhagat' ( English : Budhu Bhagat , born - 17 February , 1792 AD, Ranchi , Jharkhand ; died - 13 February , 1832 AD) is known as a famous revolutionary in Indian history . Their fight was against the atrocities and injustice being done by the British , zamindars and moneylenders.


Budhu Bhagat was born on February 17, 1792 AD in a village called Silagai in Ranchi district in today's Jharkhand state . He is said to have possessed divine powers, as a symbol of which he always carried an ax with him.


Generally, 1857 is considered the first summer of the freedom struggle . But before this, Veer Budhu Bhagat had not only conceived the revolution, but also with his courage and leadership, in 1832, he started the historical movement called "Larka Rebellion". Vandalism was at its peak during the British rule in the tribal areas of Chota Nagpur . The Mundas had already waged a fierce rebellion against the landlords, moneylenders. Oraon also adopted rebel attitude. Budhu Bhagat had been witnessing the brutality of landlords and the English army since childhood. They had seen how the landlords used to take away the forced harvest. The stove could not burn for many days in the homes of poor villagers. Boy Budhu Bhagat Silagai's Cuckoo RiverUsed to sit for hours on the banks of the British and think of the landlords.


Sitting for hours alone, sword and Dnus- arrow due to good on people mistook the angel Budhu. Hearing the great things of the brilliant young man Budhu, the tribals started considering him as their savior. Budhu now had enough mass support for the rebellion. He called for rebellion against injustice. Thousands of hands stood up with arrows, bows, swords, axes. Hundreds of villagers held captive by Captain Impe were liberated by fighting the rebels. Budhu trained his squad for guerrilla warfare . Taking advantage of dense forests and inaccessible hills, he defeated the English army several times. To catch Budhu British government for a thousand bucks had announced a cash reward.

Struggle with the british

The British government and the zamindars were shaken by the armed rebellion of thousands of people. Captain Impe was entrusted with the task of capturing Budhu Bhagat. Six company of the fiftieth native infantry of Benares and a large contingent of cavalry were sent into the forest. Thousands of villagers were arrested from Tiku and surrounding villages. Budhu's squad freed the prisoners in the valley itself. Captain was overwhelmed by a severe defeat.

MartyrdomOn February 13 , 1832, Budhu and his companions surrounded Captain Impega in Silagai village. Budhu wanted to surrender so that innocent villagers would not be killed in the indiscriminate firing from the British. But the devotees of Budhu circled and surrounded them. After the warning, the captain ordered to shoot. Indiscriminate firing started. The area trembled with the screams of old, children, women and youth. About 300 villagers were killed in that bloody orgy. Mass rebellion against injustice was forcibly silenced on the strength of arms. Budhu Bhagat and his sons 'Haldhar' and 'Girdhar' also became martyrs, taking on the British.

 (Falound Kalan)India / Punjab / Maler Kotla / Falound Kalan / Ludhiana - Malerkotla ( State Highway 11 )
interesting place, religious organisation

Dhan dhan baba gajjan shah ji

In 1804 Maharaj Ranjit Singh crossed Satluj to settle the dispute between Patiala and Jind Rayaist over the ownership of DULADDI village (near Nabha)and he had spent three/ four days on present Raikot road near Malerkotla. The Nawab of Malerkotla was ordered to provide fooder to Elephants and horses and food to Maharaja's army. Tne Nawab was poor as the Rayaist was very small having only 168 villages. He could not carry out Mahraja's bid, hence , he was asked to stand on a platform keeping his hands up.One of his Wazirs went to Dhanula where Baba Gajjan Shah ji was putting up and narrated this story of punishment to Baba ji. Gajnesh wali came to Maharaj's camp and scolded him " O one-eyed man why are you putting this man in to trouble"? Maharaj Ranjit Singh ordered the release of Nawab and asked him to give some land to "FAKIR" Gajjan Shah. Then the land in Falound Kalan, Falound Khurd,Bhogiwal and Balewal was given by the Nawab. The record is available at Baba ji's Samadh if someone wants to read or see it, he is welcome.Maharaj Ranjit Singh used to offer his "Gaddi" to Baba ji , then Baba ji's "MOHALLA" was placed on the Gaddi. Both Maharaja and Baba ji used to sit on floor. All is written in the Granth containing the details on baba ji's life. One must read that Granth written by Baba Parmatam nanad.

MALER-- was the name given by Afghan Pathans in 1466 and KOTLA was built(now Rehamatgarh)in 1650 by the Ist NAWAB and kotla was cantonment of the Nawab which is present there even today.Malerkotla had 22 Nawabs and last was IFTIKHAR ALI KHAN. The Area of Malerkotla riyasat was 163 Sq.Miles, its population was 88,109 in 1941. Malerkotla rank was 10th among the states of Punjab. No person was hanged by the Nawab,

FLOUND-- This name came from the foundries that used to melt iron (Folad- Loha) for the state of Malerkotla.There was a big mound nearer to Chupka village in the administrative land of Falound khurd that could have testified to this fact.Though it is a small riyasat, but its history is awe- inspiring.

This following portion is written by Sh.Maninder singh:



BABA GAJJAN SHAH JI BIRTH ..-----------------------.1791 BIKRMI SAMMAT
BIRTH LOCATIOAN ...---------------------------------- Mahipur village near New Air port DELHI


01675--- 93177-79377

This land donation certificate was given by The Nawab of Raikot to Baba Gajjan Shah ji

Falaund Kalan is a village in Sangrur in Punjab, India.History

The village name came from the foundries that were used to melt iron (folad) for the state of Malerkotla. A large mound near the Chupka village in the administrative land of Falaund Khurd offers evidence of that; the area was once called Banger, as its dialect was different from central Punjab.

Ahmed Shah Abdali fought a historical war with Sikhs at nearby Rohira in which more than twenty-thousand men were killed and a large number were injured; this battle was significant in the history of Malerkotla Rayiast.

During the Partition of India in 1947, those men who had crossed the boundary into Falaund Kalan were not harmed; the Nawab of Malerkotla, Sher Khan opposed the killing of the younger sons of the 10th master Sri Guru Gobind Singh at Sirhind. This is known as Ha Da Nahra ("Voice against oppression.") The Sikhs felt that Sri Guru Gobind Singh had pardoned the Nawab. In lieu of this, Malerkotla was not displaced. Many people and animals entered the city for protection during Partition.

In 2015, Mr. Bal Anand, IFS, from Falaund Kalan, instituted a prize consisting of Rs 11,000 and a citation for a renowned author in the memory of his grandfather Baba Paramatma Nand, an Ayurveda wizard who had written the life history of Baba Gajjan Shah.


Falound Kalan is located on the Ludhiana-Malerkotla Road four kilometers away from Rohira.
Lohri festival

In 1884 Samat started the Lohri festival celebration, where the Sadhus used to assemble in large numbers; the scholars of Sanskrit who had contributed to Ayurvedic medicine were honored by Baba Ji. This tradition was made compulsory by Baba Ji followers known as Mahant.

The rural sports organized by Young Farmers Club was started in 1951 by Master Ram Swarup; the events of kabbadi, football, volleyball, wrestling and tug-of-war are included. Local artists sing religious and historical songs.


A majority of the villagers served in the Indian Army; the village's population is educated and produced administrators such as Shri Bachitter Singh I.R.S .(retired), Shri Jagtar Singh P.C.S., and various educators and men ranging from Indian Foreign Services to the Indian Postal department.

Some younger inhabitants emigrated to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe and the Gulf nations. Many return to their native village for the Lohri festival where they pay homage to the forefathers and fulfill the vow, "The person who visits Falound for three days together on Lohri will go to Heaven." This legacy was ordained by Guru Gajjan Shah.
Bhikku Jagdish Kashyap
January 28th, 1976 death

Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap was born in 1908 in Ranchi, Bihar (now Jharkhand), India. His birth name was Jagdish Narain, and the name Kashyap was given to him at his bhikkhu ordination in 1933.MA in Sanskrit from Banares Hindu University in 1932. After finishing his MA in Sanskrit from Banares Hindu University in 1932, Bhikkhu Kashyap, desiring to doctoral work in Buddhist philosophy, was advised to study Pāli, and so resolved to go to Sri Lanka. On return to Sarnath, India, he worked for Benares Hindu University to offer courses in Pāli - even occasionally walking the 22 mile journey into Varanasi from Sarnat to officials to start these courses and even taught them from free. During this time Bhikkhu Kashyap took on a young English monk as a student who Later became popular as Sangharakshita and went on to found the Western Buddhist Order (Trailokya Boudh Maha Sangha) in 1968.

Kashyap had confided in Sangharakshita who has been quoted.“As he had already confided to me, he was there very much on sufferance. Dominated as it was by orthodox brahmins, the University had not wanted to have a Professor of Pali and Buddhist Philosophy at all, and Kashyap-ji’s appointment had been due to the insistence of the multimillionaire philanthropist Jugal Kishore Birla, a benefactor whose wishes the University could not afford to ignore. But though the University had been forced to appoint a Professor of Pali and Buddhist Philosophy it was not obliged to supply him with pupils. In fact it made it as difficult as possible for him to get any. Under University regulations, no one could take Pali without also taking Sanskrit. In other words Pali and Buddhist Philosophy were actively not allowed to become alternatives to Sanskrit and Hindu Philosophy. One could take Sanskrit and Pali, or only Sanskrit, but under no circumstances could one take only Pali. So effectively did these tactics limit the number of Kashyap-ji’s students that he never had more than three or four, sometimes none at all. For someone as devoted to his subject as he was this was a bitter disappointment. He had accepted the professorship only because he hoped it would enable him to make some contribution to the advancement of Buddhist studies and thus, indirectly, to the cause of Buddhism; but as it became more obvious every year that Pali and Buddhist Philosophy were unwelcome guests at the Benares Hindu University, he had come to the conclusion that he was wasting his time there and he was now thinking of resigning.

”He spent his life translating works from Pali, involved in Ambedkarite movements and spreading the Dhamma to Dalits in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

28 January 1976: Death of Bhante Jagdish Kashyap

Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap was born in 1908 in Ranchi, Bihar (now Jharkhand), India. His birth name was Jagdish Narain, and the name Kashyap was given to him at his bhikkhu ordination in 1933.

He had done his BA from Patna College in 1929; MA in Philosophy from Banares Hindu University in 1931 and MA in Sanskrit from Banares Hindu University in 1932. After finishing his MA, Bhikkhu Kashyap, desiring to doctoral work in Buddhist philosophy, was advised to study Pāli, and so resolved to go to Sri Lanka, to his parents’ dismay. They relented in 1933 and he joined the Vidyalankara Pirivena (now the University of Kelaniya). He was ordained by Venerable L. Dhammananda Nayaka Mahathero. During his time at the Vidyalankara Pirivena he translated the Digha Nikāya into Hindi.

In 1936 in Sri Lanka he spent time in a forest hermitage to practice meditation. Towards the end of 1936 he returned to India and in 1937 settled at Sarnath where he was involved in scholarly and translating work, principally of the Pāli Canon into Hindi. In Sarnath he became associated with the Mahabodhi Society and was soon helping with the institutional organisation and social services. He became the headmaster of a new high school founded by the Mahabodhi Society. While in Sarnath he also worked for Benares Hindu University to offer courses in Pāli – even occasionally walking the 22 mile journey into Varanasi from Sarnath. This was because he persuaded officials to start these courses and even taught them from free.

During this time Bhikkhu Kashyap took on a young English monk as a live-in student for about nine months. Later on the monk became popular as Sangharakshita who went on to found the Western Buddhist Order (Trailokya Boudh Maha Sangha) in 1968.

Sangharakshita’s version of the Benares university job, as he understood from Kashyap:

“As he had already confided to me, he was there very much on sufferance. Dominated as it was by orthodox brahmins, the University had not wanted to have a Professor of Pali and Buddhist Philosophy at all, and Kashyap-ji’s appointment had been due to the insistence of the multimillionaire philanthropist Jugal Kishore Birla, a benefactor whose wishes the University could not afford to ignore. But though the University had been forced to appoint a Professor of Pali and Buddhist Philosophy it was not obliged to supply him with pupils. In fact it made it as difficult as possible for him to get any. Under University regulations, no one could take Pali without also taking Sanskrit. In other words Pali and Buddhist Philosophy were not allowed to become alternatives to Sanskrit and Hindu Philosophy. One could take Sanskrit and Pali, or only Sanskrit, but under no circumstances could one take only Pali. So effectively did these tactics limit the number of Kashyap-ji’s students that he never had more than three or four, sometimes none at all. For someone as devoted to his subject as he was this was a bitter disappointment. He had accepted the professorship only because he hoped it would enable him to make some contribution to the advancement of Buddhist studies and thus, indirectly, to the cause of Buddhism; but as it became more obvious every year that Pali and Buddhist Philosophy were unwelcome guests at the Benares Hindu University, he had come to the conclusion that he was wasting his time there and he was now thinking of resigning.

In 1949 he toured his ancestral homeland, the ancient province of Magadha, which was also the centre of ancient Buddhism. For the first time in many centuries the villages in Magadha saw a yellow robed bhikkhu, and were pleasantly surprised to find that he spoke their local dialect Magadhi. The locals had long forgotten their own history and Bhikkhu Kashyap was able to furnish many details. The very name of the state of Bihar comes from presence of so many Buddhist viharas in the past. He was able to point out the true identity of the images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas which were being worshipped as Hindu gods or local deities. Villages such as Sari-chak, near Nalanda, had previously had an association with the Buddha’s chief disciple Sariputta. Finally he was able, by quoting passages from the Pāli texts, to demonstrate that Magadhi is still closely related to the Magadhi dialect.

After this visit Bhikkhu Kashyap offered to teach Pāli at Gaya College and at Nalanda College in Bihar-Sharif. Later, when the Bihar state government decided to start an institute for Pāli studies at Nalanda, he was the obvious choice to head the project. In 1951 the institute became the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. In 1956 was the 2500th anniversary of the parinibbana of the Buddha, celebrated by the Indian government as the Buddha Jayanti. As part of the celebrations, Bhikkhu Kashyap’s work of bringing out a Devanagari edition of the Pāli Canon was accepted as an official project, and was jointly sponsored by the governments of Bihar and India. The first volume appeared in 1956 on the occasion of the Buddha Jayanti, and the rest followed over five years – guided to completion with enormous effort and marathon labour by Bhikkhu Kashyap.

During the Buddha Jayanti project Bhikkhu Kashyap returned to Varanasi and in 1959 was asked to become the first Professor of Pāli and Buddhism at the Sanskrit University of Varanasi. He remained there until 1965 when he returned to Nalanda for a second term as Director of the Nava Nalanda Mahavihara. He retired in 1973. Having earlier developed diabetes, he became seriously ill in 1974 and spent his last two years bedridden in the Japanese temple in Rajgir, from where he could see the Vulture Peak and the newly constructed Peace Pagoda. He died on 28 Jaunuary 1976.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Channabasavanna also known as " Guru Channabasaveshwara " was Basava's nephew and one of the foremost Sharanas of the 12th century. He, along with Basava, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi, played a pivotal role in the propagation of the Lingayat faith. He was the youngest among the sharana leaders and grew up in the household of Basavanna as he was the son of Nagalambike, Basava's own sister. He also wrote the Karana Hasuge which is one of the most sacred texts of the Lingayats, among many vachanas. He propounded the "shatasthala" philosophy associated with the six holy places of Veerashaiva Lingayat creed. He succeeded to the Shunya Simhasana at Anubhava Mantapa, Kalyana after the departure of Allama Prabhu, circa 1162ad. His young shoulders carried on the legacy of Basava after the latter's departure to Kudalasangama in 1162ad. He is credited to have systematised the entire manual of simple rituals for the followers. He was a strong advocate of the Ishtalinga wearing and expounded the material as well as the esoteric meaning of that divine symbol. He held together the nascent group of Shivasharanas and Jangmas in tumultuous times of clashes with the orthodox Brahmins and heretic Jains. Following the assassination of Kalachuri King Bijjala II in 1167 A.D, Channabasava along with his followers migrated to Ulavi safeguarding the Vachana literature. He attained Samadhi state there at the age of 25 passing on the leadership of the movement to Siddarama.

A sacred temple of Channabasavanna is located at Ulavi in Karwar District (Uttar Kannada) of Karnataka State, India.

The temple of Channabasavanna faces the east. In front of the temple there is a spacious lake. The lake is filled with lotus flowers and hence very attractive. Devotees coming from different parts of the country, take a dip in the holy waters and are absolved of all their sins and impurities. Thrice a day the Mahasamadhi of Channabasavanna is worshipped with all pomp and ceremony. On the Samadhi is placed the face of Nandi. To the left is Sangameshwar, to the right Mallikarjuna and to the right of Mallikarjuna is Basavanna. The Mantap outside the temple is very beautiful. To the east and to the south there are doors. The door of the sanctum is to the east.

He composed many Vachanas under the nom de plume Kudala Channasangama.

Published By : Praveen Kumar
Updated On : 31/08/2019
Channabasavanna : A Great Saint, Scholar, and a Poet

Channabasavanna was one of the important Lingayat saints of the 12th century. He played a key role in spreading the faith of Lingayats. His uncle was Basavanna, and he was brought up in his house.


His main devotional writings were the Karana Hasuge, which is celebrated writing among the lingayats. He made many spiritual writings in the nickname of Kudala Channasangama. He took charge of Shunya Simhasana at Anubhava Mantapa, Kalyana, and he followed the footsteps of his uncle Basava and followed his principles. He established simple rituals for his followers. He was a staunch Shiva devotee and advises his followers to wear the Ishtalinga in their body. He attained Samadhi state at Ulavi, a village in Karnataka, at the age of 25, and his successor was Siddarama.

A temple of Channabasavanna is located at Ulavi in Karnataka State, India which is also a famous pilgrimage center for the tourists. It is situated amidst dense forests with full of greenery and natural beauty.

Devotees who are coming from different parts of the country, visit the temple of Channabasavanna, worship him with pure faith, and take bath in the holy waters, in order to wash out their sins. Three times puja is performed daily in this temple.


Channa basavanna, who was a great saint, scholar, and a poet, has dedicated his entire life towards the devotion of Lord Shiva. He has attained siddhi at a younger age. He controlled his senses and concentrated on devotion to Lord Shiva. He was also involved in several social welfare activities for the welfare of the people. Let us worship this great “SAINT” and chant his name repeatedly and be blessed.



The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Alternative Title: Caṇḍīdās

Chandidas, (flourished 15th century, Bengal, India), poet whose love songs addressed to the washerwoman Rami were popular in the medieval period and were a source of inspiration to the Vaishnava-Sahajiya religious movement that explored parallels between human and divine love.

The popularity of Chandidas’s songs inspired much imitation, making it difficult to establish firmly the identity of the poet. Furthermore, the details of his life have been overlaid with legend. The poems themselves relate that the author was a Brahman and a village priest (in either the village Chhatna in Bankura district or Nannur in Birbhum district) who broke with tradition by openly declaring his love for the low-caste Rami. The lovers viewed their relationship as sacred, the closest possible analogy to the spiritual union of the divine lovers Radha and Krishna. Chandidas refused to relinquish either his temple duties or his love for Rami, much to the chagrin of his family. A feast to placate the village Brahmans was prepared but was thrown into confusion by the unexpected appearance of Rami.

What happened afterward is obscured by legend. One version relates that Chandidas assumed the form of Vishnu; another claims that he was dismissed as priest and fasted to death as a protest but came to life again on the funeral pyre. A third version (based on poems supposedly written by Rami) states that he was whipped to death while tied to the back of an elephant, on the orders of the nawab of Gaur, for having attracted the attention of the Begum.
The poetry of Chandidas had a strong influence on later Bengali art, literature, and religious thought. In the Vaishnava-Sahajiya movement, the love of a man for the wife of another or for a woman of unsuitably low caste was praised above others for its intensity in the face of social disapproval.

St. Chokhamela

Sant Chokhamela संत चोखामेळा

Chokha Mela lived in Mangalavedha near Pandharpur in Maharashtra in the 14th century. He was born in the lower cast (Mahar), but his devotion to Lord Vitthala was pure and unmatched. He migrated to Pandharpur and became a desciple of the great saint-poet Namdev. Chokha used to constantly chant the name of Panduranga and clean the temple premises daily.However, he was not allowed to enter the sanctum sanctorum due to his birth in the lower cast. One day someone questioned the futility of his devotion to Lord, as he would never be able to see God. Humiliated and deeply hurt Chokha abstained from taking food and wept inconsolably when Panduranga appeared before him, embraced him, took him inside the temple and talked to him. The temple priest was outraged as he felt that the temple was desecreted by Chokha and ordered him to stay across the river Chandrabhaga. Chokha’s pleas fell on the deaf ears and at last Chokha went to stay across the river. However, Lord started to visit Chokha daily and both of them used to take lunch together. One day the priest was passing by Chokha’s hut when Chokha was taking lunch with Panduranga and Soyara (Chokha’s wife) was serving. Priest could not see Panduranga as his mind was impure. Soyara spilled the curd on Panduranga’s pitambar by mistake. Chokha exclaimed, “Oh! Soyara you have soiled Panduranga’s pitambar”. Priest felt it was a deliberate attempt by Chokha to show his devotion and slapped Chokha across his face. Later he bathed in the river and ferried across the river. The priest was stunned to see Lord Vitthala’s swollen cheek. He realised the intensity of Chokha’s devotion towards Lord. He to Chokha, asked for his forgiveness and requested him to pacify the Lord. Chokha’s prayers and request pacified Lord Vitthala.

Chokha was forced to return to Mangalavedha as the people there wanted to construct a wall in order to separate shudra people from others. While he was working there, he was killed when the wall collapsed and was crushed. Namdev deeply grieved the death of a great Vaishnava devotee, went to Mangalavedha and brought the mortal remains to Chokha and constructed his Samadhi in Pandharpur.
St Dayaramji

Sri Rajrishi Yogiraj Brahmachari Pujya present Gadadhipati Saint Sri Sri 1008 Shri Dayaram Ji Maharaj came to the ashram on

Saints are the representatives, messengers and flag bearers of the martyr. If the true saint is said to be the true form of God, then it will not be exaggerated. A true saint is one who has done his salvation and who has no other wish in life except to salvage another. Which does not smell of selfishness. Who does not know anything other than philanthropy. That true saint is a true teacher. Saints are the deepest pillars of the spiritual world and the common people get supernatural light from them and make their life successful. Sage - A reverent, auspicious, fair, fair, truthful, beneficial, economical, honorable, conflictless and innocent. The saint - bereft of addiction, mourning - calms the temperature and pleases the mind. Bharatvarsha various incarnations of God, monks - saints, ascetics, It has been a land of Mahatmas. Rishis and sages have inherited such an everlasting culture to us through rigorous chanting and meditation of Sadio, who is still immortal even after suffering every bit of time. These mystics have provided us with a vast store of knowledge in the form of Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads, Gita, Ramayana etc. India is a land of saints and our country has also been blessed with titles like Dharmaguru and Jagadguru only because of the uniqueness of saints.

Shikarpura arrival and education initiation

Shri Dayaram Ji Maharaj came to the Ashram on 1st July, 1979. At that time Mahant Shri Devaram Ji Maharaj was absorbed in devotion and Shri Kishan Ram Ji Maharaj was busy in social service. Shri Dayaram Ji had to accept saintliness only with the intention of fulfilling the promise given by Mahant Shri Devadaram Bhuria to Mahant Shri Devaram, the father of Mahant Saint Shri Dayaram Ji Maharaj.

The main things that you contributed to are the following:

1. Construction work of Kishanramji Maharaj Samadhi Temple.
2. CC road construction work in the ashram complex.
3. Sonderization and construction of shops outside the main pole gate.
4. Construction and grand example of Haridwar Dharamshala.
5. Construction of school building at Rajaram Gurukul-Palanpur and inauguration of Hi-Tech Science.
6. Removing all cut fences in the ashram premises, forged lotta fencing and division of the campus into blocks.
7. Construction of separate fair grounds in the campus.
8. Construction of Satsang Bhawan 155210 Modern Teen Sed.
9. Construction of a huge and magnificent tin sed for the food fair near the Krishna Khanshala in the Ashram complex, 190270

संत श्री दयारामजी
श्री राजऋषि योगीराज ब्रह्राचारी पूज्य वर्तमान गाद्धिपति संत श्री श्री 1008 श्री दयाराम जी महाराज दिनांक १ जुलाई १९७९ को आश्रम आ गए| उस समय महंत श्री देवाराम जी महाराज भक्ति में लीन थे एवं श्री किशनाराम जी महाराज समाज सेवा में व्यस्थ थे| श्री दयाराम जी के पिताजी श्री अणदाराम जी भूरिया द्वारा महंत श्री देवाराम को दिए गए वचन को पूरा करने के उद्धेस्य से ही श्री दयाराम जी को साधुत्व स्वीकार करना पड़ा |

संत मरमात्मा के प्रतिनिधि , संदेशवाहक और ध्वजवाहक होते है । यदि सच्चे संत को भगवान का साक्षात स्वरूप कहा जाए तो अतिश्योकित नहीं होगी । सच्चा संत वह होता है जो अपना उध्दार कर चुका है और दूसरे का उध्दार करने के अतिरिक्त जिसके जीवन में दूसरी कोर्इ इच्छा नहीं है । जिसमें स्वार्थ की गंध नहीं है । जिसको परोपकार के अलावा कुछ और आता नहीं है । वही सच्चा संत सच्चा गुरू होता है । संत आध्यातिमक जगत के दीपस्तम्भ होते है और आम जन उनसे अलौकिक प्रकाश प्राप्त कर अपने जीवन का मार्ग सफल बनाते है । संत - पूज्य भाव बढ़ाने वाला , कर्ण सुखद , न्यायानुकूल , सत्य , हितकर , अर्थगर्भित , मानरहित , विवादरहित और निर्दोष वचन आलता है । संत - व्यसन से विमुख , शोक - ताप को शांत करने वाला और चित को प्रसन्न करने वाला होता है । भारतवर्ष भगवान के विभिन्न अवतारों , साधु - संतो , तपस्वियों, महात्माओ का देश रहा है । ऋषि-मुनियों ने सदियो के कठोर जप-तप ध्यान-अध्ययन द्वारा ऐसी सनातन संस्कृति हमें विरासत में दी है , जो समय के हर थपेड़े को सहते हुए भी अजर - अमर है । इन मनीषियो ने वेद , पुराण , उपनिषद , गीता , रामायण आदि के रूप में ज्ञान का अथाह भंडार हमें उपलब्ध कराया है । भारत संतो की भूमि है और संतो के अखंड प्रताप से ही हमारा देश धर्मगुरू , जगदगुरू जैसी उपाधियों से विभूषित भी हुआ है ।

शिकारपुरा आगमन एवं शिक्षा दीक्षा

श्री दयाराम जी महाराज दिनांक १ जुलाई १९७९ को आश्रम आ गए | उस समय महंत श्री देवाराम जी महाराज भक्ति में लीन थे एवं श्री किशनाराम जी महाराज समाज सेवा में व्यस्थ थे | महंत संत श्री दयाराम जी महाराज के पिताश्री अणदाराम जी भूरिया द्वारा महंत श्री देवाराम को दिए गए वचन को पूरा करने के उद्धेश्य से ही श्री दयाराम जी को साधुत्व स्वीकार करना पड़ा |

आपका जिन जिन विशेष कार्यों में योगदान रहा वे मुख्य बातें निम्न है :
1. किशनारामजी महाराज समाधी मंदिर का निर्माण कार्य ।
2. आश्रम परिसर में सी. सी. सड़क निर्माण कार्य ।
3. मुख्य पोल द्वार के बाहर सोंद्रियकरण व दुकानो का निर्माण ।
4. हरिद्वार धर्मशाला का निर्माण व भव्य उदाहरण ।
5. राजाराम गुरूकुल -पालनपुर में स्कूल भवन का निर्माण एवं हार्इटेक सांर्इस का शुभारम्भ ।
6. आश्रम परिसर में समस्त काटे की बाड़ को हटाकर लोटा फेमिंग जाली लगार्इ व परिसर का खण्ड़ो में विभाजन ।
7. परिसर में अलग से मेला ग्राउण्ड का निर्माण ।
8. सत्संग भवन 155210 आधुनिक टीन सेड का निर्माण ।
9. आश्रम परिसर में कृष्ण भोजनशाला के पास मेला भोजन प्रसाधी हेतु विशाल व भव्य टीन सेड का निर्माण जो कि 190270
Dadu Dayal
Birth Samvat 1601 (AD 1544)

Birth place Ahmedabad
The death Samvat 1660 (AD 1603 AD)
Guardian Lodiram and Basi Bai
children Sons- Garibdas and Miskindas, daughters- Nanibai and Matabai
Karma land Gujarat
Field of work Social poetry
Major compositions Sakhi, verse, Hardevani, Angavadhu
Subject Religion, social reformer
Language Hindi , Gujarati , Rajasthani
Citizenship Indian

Other information Like other devotees and saints of India , there is a lack of authentic information about the life of Dadu Dayal. His birth, death, life and personality are covered with legends, rumors and fantasies.

Dadu Dayal ( English : Dadu Dayal , born 1544 E .; died 1603 AD.) Hindi to Bktikal in Gyanasryi branch headed saint poet. He founded a virtuous sect known as ' Dadupanth '. He was the son of a Dhunia of Ahmedabad and a contemporary of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (1627–58). Spent most of his life Rajputana spent out and the Hindu and Islam composed of a number of positions to coordinate. His followers neither worship idolsAnd do not wear any special type of costumes. They only chant the name of Rama and believe in peaceful life, although a section of the Dadu pantheon has also been admitted to the army. Like other devotees and saints of India , there is a lack of authentic information about the life of Dadu Dayal. His birth, death, life and personality are covered with legends, rumors and fantasies. One reason for this is that these saints emerged from the general public.

Life introduction

Dadu was a dhunia by profession and later he became a religious preacher and wanderer. He lived for some time in Sambhar and Amber and eventually Narayana, where he died. All these places are around Jaipur and Ajmer ( Rajasthan state). He rejected the power of Vedas , caste discrimination and all discriminatory lines of worship . Instead, he focused on core emotions like chanting (repetition of God's name) and the soul as the bride of God. His followers emphasize vegetarianism and alcoholism and sanyas are an essential component of the Dadu Panth. The teachings of Dadu are mainly in the form of poetic hymns and Ishvara Bhajan, which is stored in a collection of 5,000 verses, called Bani (Vani). These other saint poets, likePanchvani is also included in the collection of slightly altered verses with compositions of Kabir , Namdev , Ravidas and Haridas . This book is one of the religious texts of Dadu Panth. Details of the general public are generally not found anywhere. That is why we do not get an authentic account of the lives of these saints. Names of Dadu, Raidas and even Kabir are rarely found in the historical texts of that era. The mention of saints begins years after his death, when his disciples began to emerge as organized political-social power. Despite so much neglect, Dadu Dayal is not one of the poets whom the Indian public has forgotten. Modern researchers have done the distinction of finding many such forgotten poets by conducting research.

According to different opinions

According to Chandrika Prasad Tripathi lived in Ahmedabad till the age of eighteen , wandered in Madhya Pradesh for six years and later settled in Sambhar (Rajasthan). If Dadu was born in Ahmedabad, when and why did he come to Sambhar. What they had done before and when they came to Sambhar and they had visited somewhere. We do not get authentic information about this.

According to Jan Gopal's 'Parchi', Dadu started coming to Sambhar at the age of thirty years. A little information about their activities after the days of Sambhar Niwas is available. After Sambhar, he stayed in Amer (near Jaipur) for a few days . There is still a 'by dadu' here.

Some people say that Dadu had met Akbar in Fatehpur Sikri and had been discussing spiritual matters for forty days. Although this information is not available in historical documents. It is a matter of conjecture. By the way, Akbar consulted many religious devotees and saints of that era. Many Hindu saints also went to meet him. It is possible that Dadu may have been one of them and due to not being so famous in his life time, he should not have been focused on them. Like other saints, Dadu Dayal also traveled extensively. Especially in North India , Kashi ), Bihar , Bengal and Rajasthan . Lastly, this slogan,Started living in Rajasthan , where he finished his Ihila.

Birth Saint poet Dadu Dayal was born on Fagun Sudi eight Thursday in Samvat 1601 (AD 1544). Dadu Dayal was born in the city of Ahmedabad in the Indian state of Gujarat , but there is no unanimous opinion about Dadu's place of birth. Dadu Panthi people think that he was found as a small boy (near Ahmedabad) flowing in the Sabarmati river . We no longer have the means to obtain authentic information of whether Dadu Dayal was born in Ahmedabad or not. Yet it is certain that a large part of his life was spent in Rajasthan.

Family life

His family was not related to the court. In the eyes of the then history writers and collectors, the center of history used to be the royal family. Who were the parents of Dadu Dayal and what was his caste. Scholars differ on this subject too. In the absence of authentic information, these differences remain on the basis of inference. Their means of redress are unavailable. According to a legend, Dadu, like Kabir, was also the illegitimate child of a Qawari Brahmini, who made Dadu flow into the Sabarmati river for fear of slander . Later, he grew up in a Dhunia family. They were brought up by a civil Brahmin named Lodiram. Acharya Parashuram ChaturvediAccording to the opinion, her mother's name was Basi Bai and she was a Brahmin. There is no information about how authentic this legend is and from when it came into vogue. It is possible that it was later fabricated. Dadu's disciple Rajab has written-

Dhuni Grabhe Jadeno Dadu Yogandro Mahamuni:
Uttam jog dharanam, tasmat kya nyanyi causam.

Pinjara is a caste-specific tuning rui, hence it is also called Dhunia. Acharya Kshitimohan Sen has related these to Bengal . According to him, Dadu was a Muslim and his real name was 'Dawood'. The life of Dadu Dayal is found in Dadu Panthi Raghodas 'Bhaktamala' and 'Sri Dadu Janma Leela Parachi' composed by Dadu's disciple Janagopal. Apart from this, through the introspection of Dadu's compositions, we can speculate about his life and personality.

Traditionally in Hindu society, a person has been introduced to his clan and his caste. The system of caste was very strong in the medieval period . Most of the nirguna saint poets were among the lower castes and were opposed to caste system. But the aristocracy of his insult was a staunch supporter of caste. The saint poet knew this cruel reality. Nevertheless, he had no inferiority complex in his mind. Therefore, they neither hid their caste nor worshiped it as an extreme truth. Many times even his inquisitive devotees used to ask themselves, Maharaj, what is your caste.

Addressing such curious devotees, Dadu wrote-

Dadu Kul is our Kesava, Sagat Sirjanhar.
Caste Our Jagatgur, Parameshwara Parivar.
Dadu in a real world, Jin hum syronje soi.
Mansa bacha chramanam, na duja no.

Here Dadu has expressed his thought system and said that my true relationship is with God. And it is in this relationship that I am introduced. A sense of alienation comes in the family. Dadu calls it 'Maya' of the world and 'Moh' of the world. Dadu had freed himself from them, he had cut worldly bonds even while in the world. Therefore, how would you give your real introduction in the cosmic language of meaningless caste.

Nevertheless, in many places he has explicitly mentioned that he is a cage. In one of the verses he has written-

Kaun man Kmin perficial, Kiskaun Puga poor Pinjarakktek
I Mass every several Pescara, Bujil Bria more Aparakkl
one remember the Tau Khi Smijaoo, many Aruja predominant Surjounkk
I meet nibble all restorative A predominant Kri Pugun much expanded .

Peev Pukarau Understand Nahi, Dadu Deshi Dishi Jahi.

Dadu has called himself a 'Kaminey' in this post. He has not said this humbly. Rather, they have revealed the name called by the Savarnas to the persons belonging to the lower castes and have also defiantly condemned the understanding of the Savarnas from time to time.

Dadu has said in another post-

Who can lead me bastard here?
Jaka Ajhoon Muni mass castle not Pavakktek
Syu Virnci Narada Gabe, who like Kri Nikti Bulavakkl
Deva gross Tetisu Kodi, are Tadhe to Jodikk2 court
brought Lyu are Sid seeker, Ajhoon thick castle not pie ..
Savaten nich main naan na jaan jaan, Why do Dadu meet Sayana.

The post has a mixture of social sensation and spiritual experience. Dadu wants to meet God, but this society remains a hindrance. In the eyes of God, even if all human beings are equal, what happens. The society calls me as the meanest and the least. Here, along with the disappointment of not meeting God, the pain of heart hurt by social injustice has also been expressed. On the basis of this internal evidence, it can be said that Dadu was a cage. Legends that prove Brahmin were born later. Whether he was a Muslim or not, or he had taken a new initiation into Islam, due to which some Hindu rituals were saved in him, but he was a Muslim. There is no evidence of this. Possibly, it has been said to accuse them. The influence of Islam has been propagated on Nirguna saints to eliminate the influence of anti-Varnashrama consciousness. Since Islam was the official religion of that era, Therefore, an attempt was made to narrow their mass base by linking them with the then rulers. Such an inference can be made because the same charge was also leveled against Kabir. In his works, he has described the routes of both Hindu and Turk as incorrect. His disciples were both Hindus and Muslims. Yet, there is no logical reason for his being initiated into Islam.

Who was Dadu's wife, and what her name was, authentic information is not available. He had two sons named Garibdas and Miskinadas and two daughters named Nanibai and Matabai. Some scholars disagree. According to him, these were his sons. According to some people these were his disciples. According to Janagopal, Dadu settled in Sambhar at the age of thirty and after two years, his eldest son Garibadas was born.

Dadu ka guru

Dadu has sung the glory of Guru much in his speech, but has not named him anywhere, due to whose knowledge, Dadu's personality could cut the temporal barriers. Dadu has elaborated the glory of Guru in his works. Therefore, it is also necessary for us to know who his guru was. But authentic information of this fact is unavailable. According to Jan Gopal's 'Shri Dadu Janma Leela Parachi', at the age of eleven, God appeared in the form of a Buddha and asked him for money. Then delighted with them, placed a hand on their head and touching their entire body, gave 'Saras Paan' in their mouths. According to the Dadu panthis, an unknown saint named Budhan was his guru. According to Jan Gopal, after eleven years of childhood, he had a vision of Guru as an old man.

There is still doubt about whether he was literate or not. His guru, who is unknown till now, even if he was a bit literate, is so certain that he did not study religion and philosophy. The objective analysis of his compositions does not confirm that he studied classical religion. Like other Nirguna saints, he too got knowledge of religion and spirituality through satsang. He has written-

Hari only Adhara, so Taran Tirn Hmarakktek
not I Pandit Pdi Guni Janau, not some knowledge Vicharakkl
not I proceeds Jontig Jannau, not Singarakk me as

Here, reading and writing can be derived from classical lore. In the Middle Ages this facility was available only to the upper castes. On the one hand, the situation of those so-called Savarnas has been satirized. On the other hand, the lack of classical knowledge has also been conveyed. The philosophers of the scriptures had certainly challenged his knowledge and saints like Dadu accepted this deficiency.

Agam mo paani janyu jaayi nahi hai, vimasni jiade mahi.

It is also an accepted fact that Dadu Dayal himself did not collect his compositions but his disciples. This also reinforces the suspicion that Dadu was probably not literate. The great feature of these Nirguna saints of Bhaktikal was also that most of these saints were householders. He preached to renounce worldly temptation. But not the renunciation of the world. This means that even when living in the world, one should rise above the world. Those who boycott the world are queer. How can they get liberation. It is from Sambhar that the devotional practice of Dadu Dayal begins. It was from here that he started preaching and it was here that he founded the 'Brahma Sampradaya'. Which came to be called 'Dadu Panth' after Dadu's death. Dadu mentions his family and family situation in his compositions. He has written-

Dadu is Rosie Ram, Rajik Rijk Hamar.
Dadu, that family, Poshya all the family.

Dadu Sahib my clothes, Sahib my paan.
Sahib is the Nazar of the head, Sahib Pyand Paran.
Give true satisfaction, sentiment of happiness
Siddak saburi sach de, manga dadu das.

It seems that a curious person had asked Dadu a direct question about how your food and drink goes. How do you take care of your family? That is, what are the means of your income. Here, lack is visible everywhere. To calm this curiosity, Dadu said that Ram is my employment, he is my property, the family is being nourished by the same Ram's offerings. It can be easily inferred from these lines that here, there is no rule of opulence, but an empire of poverty. It is worth highlighting here that Dadu has no complaint about his poverty. They accepted it as an easy living situation. The feeling of poverty and outrage arising from it is not found anywhere in Dadu's compositions. Here the poet relies on Rama, Because the temporal position is uncertain. Rama, whom God has given food for the child for nine months in the mother's womb and who has preserved his tender physique amidst the stomach, can never be so merciless nor so impolite that he can make the person in this world. I starve to death. Therefore, man should not be angry about the lack of food and drink. According to Dadu, man should not worry about his personal life, Rama himself cares for man and will. Dadu has said in a Sakhi-

Dadu hanna was so hoi rahya, and no hoivai aayi.

Lena was asleep, she was taken, and neither was she taken.

Social life has also been expressed in these lines of Dadu. This shows the inability of the people in the erstwhile state system. He believes that doing one's own concern cannot solve the problem. Its fruit is harmful. Therefore, Dadu says that man should not worry unproductive. The devotees and saints of that era had concluded empirically that man should not worry about his food and water. He will definitely be found. The desire to accumulate more wealth than this constantly hurts man. He is not able to accumulate wealth, on the contrary he washes his hands with his food. Therefore, a man should keep taking the name of Rama by taking satisfaction. While surveying the society of his time, Dadu has said-

Dadu, sub world, sleepless, none other
So Dhanvanta Janiya, Jaike Ram Padaratha Hoi.

Keeping this social status in mind, the saint poet Moolakadas had said that the dragon does not serve anyone and birds do not do any work. Even then they get food. The giver of all living beings is Rama. Therefore, man should not mortgage his soul for food and drink.


Dadu Dayal has named his predecessor Nirgun Saints with great respect and honor. In particular, he Namdeo of Kabir and Raidas profound expressing reverence. Kabir was the ideal of Dadu. He wrote in a post-

Amrit Ram Rasaine Peya, Tathain Amar Kabira Kiya.
Ram Ram Ram Ram Ram Samanam, Jan Raidas Mile Bhagwana.

That is, Kabir had drunk Rama juice, he became immortal. Jan Raidas became like Rama with the name of Rama. The influence of his footsteps and sakhis can be clearly seen on Dadu-Vani. Many accounts are popularly known as both Kabir and Dadu after some manipulation. The compositions of Kabir have also had a profound impact on the works of predecessors Naths and Siddhas. Therefore, looking at their literature, it cannot be said with certainty that their position is original and which is not.

Dadu's disciples

During his lifetime, many of his disciples had become his father. A separate community should be established with the idea of ​​tying them into a sutra, this idea had come in Dadu's mind. And so he established 'Par Brahman Sampradaya' at Sambhar. After Dadu's death, his disciples started calling this sect 'Dadu Panth'. Initially, a total of one hundred fifty-two of his disciples were considered. One hundred of them were disciples (bittaragi) and continued in the Bhagavata hymn. The fifty-two disciples also considered it necessary to carry out the organizational work of propagating knowledge in public with secluded Bhagavad-contemplation. The pranks of these fifty-two disciples came into vogue. Their fans are still mostly Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana . Are in Dadu-gates were established at many places in this region. Among his disciples, Garibdas, Badhana, Rajjab, Sundardas, Janagopal etc. became famous. Most of these saints also presented their original compositions.

Acharya Parashuram Chaturvedi has written-

Within about a hundred years of the demise of Dadu Dayal ji, the ideological, dress, living and living system of the followers of Dadu Panth began to change more and more, and this began to be seen even in the Pradhan Kendra. It was necessary for the Mahantas of Narana to remain unmarried with Jaitaram ji (No. 1750-1789), Dadu Vani was elevated and started his worship. The aarti and hymns duly began to be sung, the divine sentiment towards the late Sadguru was displayed, and the sentiment of communalism increased steadily. As long as the disciples of Dadu Dayal Ji like Rajjab Ji, Sundaradas Ji, Banwaridas ji remained alive, people's attention was more attracted towards their basics. But when they died too, when the separate pillars became respected and the said idea was widely publicized, due to some local characteristics and some personal differences, Even the creation of sub-sects started. The original universal form of Daduism gradually grew and became a more modern 'Hinduism influenced creed'.

Dadu Dayal's opponents

Where Dadu Dayal had so many disciples and supporters, his opponents and cynics were no less. Dadu Dayal knew his slanders. Therefore, in a verse, he has done a little satire on them. In it Dadu has said that cynic is like a brother to me, who cuts the bond of crores of deeds. One who saves himself by drowning himself in Bhavsagar. He also blesses them to survive for ages -

Nyandak vava bir hamara, bin hi kaude whe vichara. Kusmal katai of tech
karam koti, Kaj savare binahi satte. 1 Aapan
badai and kaun tarai, take such a pritam cross

Upadhyaya on Nyandak Bapura, Nadu Nyandya do ours.
Dadu, on the other hand, has preached to his disciples not to blaspheme, because the person who does not have Rama resides in his heart . Dadu is amazed at how people blasphemously condemn another.

Everybody considers everyone, we are Bhave Ram Piara.
Narsansai nridosh rahteje, tasni kaat gaye re yeh.
Niravari nihkami sadhā, tāsiri dīt too much crime.
Loha Kanchan is similar, Tasani kahan karat abhimana.
Let the praise of God be an exception, say Tasoun.

Dadu blasphemy

Objective study of Dadu's compositions shows that they had less tendency to debate. They have reduced the volume and the higher the volume. It seems that his opposition was either in his absence, which he would get to know later or he himself was so calm that he did not get involved in any controversy. He had received condemnation and praise. However, he has less debate with his opponents and has given more advice to supporters.

Major sub-sect

In time, five major sects of Dadu Panth were formed: -

Ascetic ascetic
Landing or placeholder

Their followers meet at different places. There is also a slight difference of opinion among them. But the importance of Dadu is accepted in all sub-sects. Acharya Parashuram Chaturvedi has written about the various monuments of Saint Dadu Dayal-

Kardala and Kalyanpur are the first places to be memorialized in the form of memorials of Saint Dadu Dayal. Where he first practiced for a long time. To introduce this, there is one of his 'Bhajan Shila' present. There is also made by a Dadu on the bottom of the hill, which is given importance. Apart from Kardala, there is an umbrella of Dadu ji in Sambhar. Which represents the old hut of their stay and a huge temple has also been built at the back. Amber is considered to be the place of his residence for a long time, where a beautiful Dadu is built. But more important than all these is given to Nrane, where till now the tree of Khejade is also shown, where he used to sit. There is a 'Bhajanashala' near it, and a huge temple is also built. It is considered to be the first by Dadu. Dadu's dead body, The place of Bharana is also present as his last memorial, where he was put on his death. A platform has also been made there and the entire place is also named as 'Dadu Khol'. It is said that somewhere here some of his hair, tuba, chola and Patten is still safe. Kalyanpur, Sambhar, Amer, Narana and Bhairana are also considered 'Panchtirtha'.

Two fairs are also organized as his memorial. One of these places Fagun Sudi from five to Ekadashi every year in Nrane. In which Dadu Panthi of almost all places gather. The second fair continues from Faguna Krishna three to Fagun sudi three in Bhairaine .

Dadu's creations


Dadu has written many sakhis and verses. Dadu's compositions were collected by his two disciples Santdas and Jagan Das under the name 'Hardevani'. Later Rajjab edited it under the name 'Angavadhu'. Dadu's poem is written keeping in mind the common man, so it is simple and easy. Dadu, like Kabir, considered experience as proof. There is a sense of love and distraction towards God in Dadu's compositions. Like Kabir, he too has made Nirguna formless God the subject of personal feelings. The words of Islamic practice have been used a lot in his compositions. His language is Hindi influenced by Western Rajasthani . It has a lot of Arabic- Persian words, yet it is easy and accessible.


Dadu Dayal's voice is edited by Angavadhu Exact Acharya Chandrika Prasad Tripathi published from Ajmer. It has been edited on the basis of many manuscripts. In this sequence, Rajab compiled his vocals in the name of Angavadhu by dividing his voice in orderly and separate parts. An attempt is made to remove all the errors of Harde Vani in Angavadhu. There is an attempt to divide Angavadhu into 37 parts. Based on this, different scholars have edited Dadu Vani in their own way. 59 Dadu Vani has been edited by many people. Among which Chandrika Prasad, Babu Baleshwari Prasad, Swami Narayan Das, Swami Jeevanand, IndiaThe monks etc. are prominent. In 1907, Sudhakar Dwivedi published his compositions in the name of Dadu Dayal's Bani from Kashi Nagari Pracharini Sabha. They have divided it into two parts. There are couplets in the first section and verses in the second, which are classified in terms of raga-raginis.

The death

Dadu Dayal died on Jeth Vadi Ashtami on Saturday Samvat 1660 (AD 1603 AD). There may be scope for differences regarding place of birth. But it is certain that he died in a village called Narana near Ajmer . There is 'Dadu-by' made. A fair is held there every year on his birthday and on his death day. Narana has also been his cultivation land and samadhi land. The traditional importance of this place remains as it is today. For Dadu Panthi saints, this place is similar to a shrine. Since there is no specific information about their place of birth, Dadu-Panthi people also do not worship any particular place. Lastly, this Narana ( Rajasthan), Where he finished his first marriage. According to Dadu's wish, his body was kept in a cave on the hill of Bhairon, where he was given a tomb. This hill is now called 'Dadu Khol'. Where the fair still holds in his memory.

सन्त दादूदयाल जीवनी (in Hindi)
Published By : Jivani.org

दादूदयाल मध्यकालीन भक्ति आंदोलन के प्रमुख संत थे. इनका जन्म विक्रम संवत् 1601 में फाल्गुन शुक्ला अष्टमी को अहमदाबाद में हुआ था. पूर्व में दादूदयाल का नाम महाबलि था. पत्नी की मृत्यु के बाद ये सन्यासी बन गये. अधिकाशतया ये सांभर व आमेर में रहने लगे.

फतेहपुर सिकरी में अकबर से भेट के बाद आप भक्ति का प्रसार प्रसार करने लगे. राजस्थान में ये नारायणा में रहने लगे. 1603 में वही पर इन्होने अपनी देह का त्याग किया. दादूदयाल के 52 शिष्य थे इनमे से रज्जब, सुन्दरदास, जनगोपाल प्रमुख थे. जिन्होंने अपने गुरु की शिक्षाएँ जन जन तक फैलाई. इनकी शिक्षाएँ दादुवाणी में संग्रहित है.

दादूदयाल ने बहुत ही सरल भाषा में अपने विचारों की अभिव्यक्ति की है. इनके अनुसार ब्रह्मा से ओकार की उत्पति और ओंकार से पांच तत्वों की उत्पति हुई. माया के कारण ही आत्मा और परमात्मा के मध्य भेद होता है. दादूदयाल ने ईश्वर प्राप्ति के लिए गुरु को अत्यंत आवश्यक बताया.

अच्छी संगति, ईश्वर का स्मरण, अहंकार का त्याग, संयम एवं निर्भीक उपासना ही सच्चे साधन है. दादूदयाल ने विभिन्न प्रकार के सामाजिक आडम्बर, पाखंड एवं सामाजिक भेदभाव का खंडन किया. जीवन में सादगी, सफलता और निश्छलता पर विशेष बल दिया. सरल भाषा एवं विचारों के आधार पर दादू को राजस्थान का कबीर भी कहा जाता है.

संत दादू जी विक्रम सं. 1625 में सांभर पधारे यहाँ उन्होंने मानव-मानव के भेद को दूर करने वाले, सच्चे मार्ग का उपदेश दिया। तत्पश्चात दादू जी महाराज आमेर पधारे तो वहां की सारी प्रजा और राजा उनके भक्त हो गए।

उसके बाद वे फतेहपुर सीकरी भी गए जहाँ पर बादशाह अकबर ने पूर्ण भक्ति व भावना से दादू जी के दर्शन कर उनके सत्संग व उपदेश ग्रहण करने के इच्छा प्रकट की तथा लगातार 40 दिनों तक दादूजी से सत्संग करते हुए उपदेश ग्रहण किया। दादूजी के सत्संग प्रभावित होकर अकबर ने अपने समस्त साम्राज्य में गौ हत्या बंदी का फरमान लागू कर दिया।

उसके बाद दादूजी महाराज नरेना (जिला जयपुर) पधारे और उन्होंने इस नगर को साधना, विश्राम तथा धाम के लिए चुना और यहाँ एक खेजडे के वृक्ष के नीचे विराजमान होकर लम्बे समय तक तपस्या की और आज भी खेजडा जी के वृक्ष के दर्शन मात्र से तीनो प्रकार के ताप नष्ट होते हैं। यहीं पर उन्होंने ब्रह्मधाम “दादूद्वारा” की स्थापना की जिसके दर्शन मात्र से आज भी सभी मनोकामनाए पूर्ण होती है। तत्पश्चात श्री दादूजी ने सभी संत शिष्यों को अपने ब्रह्मलीन होने का समय बताया।

ब्रह्मलीन होने के लिए निर्धारित दिन (जयेष्ट कृष्ण अष्टमी सम्वत 1660 ) के शुभ समय में श्री दादूजी ने एकांत में ध्यानमग्न होते हुए “सत्यराम” शब्द का उच्चारण कर इस संसार से ब्रहम्लोक को प्रस्थान किया। श्री दादू दयाल जी महाराज के द्वारा स्थापित “दादू पंथ” व “दादू पीठ” आज भी मानव मात्र की सेवा में निर्विघ्न लीन है। वर्तमान में दादूधाम के पीठाधीश्वर के रूप में आचार्य महंत श्री गोपालदास जी महाराज विराजमान हैं।

पारिवारिक जीवन

उनके परिवार का सम्बन्ध राजदरबार से नहीं था। तत्कालीन इतिहास लेखकों और संग्रहकर्त्ताओं की दृष्टि में इतिहास के केंद्र राजघराने ही हुआ करते थे। दादू दयाल के माता-पिता कौन थे और उनकी जाति क्या थी। इस विषय पर भी विद्वानों में मतभेद है। प्रामाणिक जानकारी के अभाव में ये मतभेद अनुमान के आधार पर बने हुए हैं। उनके निवारण के साधन अनुपलब्ध हैं। एक किंवदंती के अनुसार, कबीर की भाँति दादू भी किसी कवाँरी ब्राह्मणी की अवैध सन्तान थे, जिसने बदनामी के भय से दादू को साबरमती नदी में प्रवाहित कर दिया। बाद में, इनका लालन-पालन एक धुनिया परिवार में हुआ। इनका लालन-पालन लोदीराम नामक नागर ब्राह्मण ने किया। आचार्य परशुराम चतुर्वेदी के मतानुसार इनकी माता का नाम बसी बाई था और वह ब्राह्मणी थी। यह किंवदंती कितनी प्रामाणिक है और किस समय से प्रचलित हुई है, इसकी कोई जानकारी नहीं है। सम्भव है, इसे बाद में गढ़ लिया गया हो। दादू के शिष्य रज्जब ने लिखा है—

धुनी ग्रभे उत्पन्नो दादू योगन्द्रो महामुनिः।
उतृम जोग धारनं, तस्मात् क्यं न्यानि कारणम्।।

पिंजारा रुई धुनने वाली जाति-विशेष है, इसलिए इसे धुनिया भी कहा जाता है। आचार्य क्षितिजमोहन सेन ने इनका सम्बन्ध बंगाल से बताया है। उनके अनुसार, दादू मुसलमान थे और उनका असली नाम 'दाऊद' था। दादू दयाल के जीवन की जानकारी दादू पंथी राघोदास 'भक्तमाल' और दादू के शिष्य जनगोपाल द्वारा रचित 'श्री दादू जन्म लीला परची' में मिलता है। इसके अलावा दादू की रचनाओं के अन्तःसाक्ष्य के माध्यम से भी, हम उनके जीवन और व्यक्तित्व के बारे में अनुमान लगा सकते हैं।

हिन्दू समाज में परम्परागत रूप से व्यक्ति का परिचय उसके कुल और उसकी जाति से दिया जाता रहा है। जात-पात की व्यवस्था मध्य काल में बहुत सुदृढ़ थी।

दादू दयाल की मृत्यु

दादू दयाल की मृत्यु जेठ वदी अष्टमी शनिवार संवत् 1660 (सन् 1603 ई.) को हुई। जन्म स्थान के सम्बन्ध में मतभेद की गुंजाइश हो सकती है। लेकिन यह तय है कि इनकी मृत्यु अजमेर के निकट नराणा नामक गाँव में हुई। वहाँ ‘दादू-द्वारा’ बना हुआ है। इनके जन्म-दिन और मृत्यु के दिन वहाँ पर हर साल मेला लगता है।


दादूदयाल (1544-1603 ई.) हिन्दी के भक्तिकाल में ज्ञानाश्रयी शाखा के प्रमुख सन्त कवि थे। इनके 52 पट्टशिष्य थे, जिनमें गरीबदास, सुंदरदास, रज्जब और बखना मुख्य हैं। दादू के नाम से 'दादू पंथ' चल पडा। ये अत्यधिक दयालु थे। इस कारण इनका नाम 'दादू दयाल' पड गया। दादू हिन्दी, गुजराती, राजस्थानी आदि कई भाषाओं के ज्ञाता थे। इन्होंने शबद और साखी लिखीं। इनकी रचना प्रेमभावपूर्ण है। जात-पाँत के निराकरण, हिन्दू-मुसलमानों की एकता आदि विषयों पर इनके पद तर्क-प्रेरित न होकर हृदय-प्रेरित हैं।

परिचयसन्त दादूदयाल जी महाराज का अवतार संवत् 1601 वि. में भारतवर्ष के गुजरात राज्य के अहमदाबाद नगर में हुआ था। कहा जाता है कि लोदी राम नामक ब्राह्मण को साबरमती में बहता हुआ एक बालक मिला। अधेड़ आयु के उपरांत भी लोधीराम के कोई पुत्र नहीं था जिसकी उन्हें सदा लालसा रहती थी।

एक दिन उन्हें एक सिद्ध संत के दर्शन हुए और उन्होंने अपनी हार्दिक व्यथा उन संत को कह सुनाई। संत ने शरणागत जानकर लोधीरम को पुत्र रत्न की प्राप्ति का वरदान दिया और कहा "साबरमती नदी में तैरते कमल पत्र पर शयन करते बालक को अपने घर ले आना वही तुम्हारा पुत्र होगा" पुत्र प्राप्ति की कामना लेकर श्री लोधीरम ब्राहमण साबरमती नदी के तट पर गए जहाँ उन्हें पानी पर तैरते कमल पर लेटा हुआ बालक प्राप्त हुआ। इस प्रकार शुभमिति फाल्गुन शुक्ल अष्टमी गुरुवार के दिन विक्रम संवत 1601 में संत शिरोमणि सदगुरु श्री दादू दयाल जी महाराज का अवतार हुआ।

अपनी प्रिय से प्रिय वस्तु परोपकार के लिए तुरंत दे देने के स्वाभाव के कारण उनका नाम “दादू” रखा गया। आप दया दीनता व करुणा के खजाने थे, क्षमा शील और संतोष के कारण आप ‘दयाल’ अतार्थ “दादू दयाल” कहलाये।

विक्रम सं. 1620 में 12 वर्ष की अवस्था में दादूजी गृह त्याग कर सत्संग के लिए निकल पड़े, केवल प्रभु चिंतन में ही लीन हो गए। अहमदाबाद से प्रस्थान कर भ्रमण करते हुए राजस्थान की आबू पर्वतमाला, तीर्थराज पुष्कर से होते हुए करडाला धाम (जिला जयपुर) पधारे और पूरे 6 वर्षों तक लगातार प्रभु की साधना की कठोर साधना से इन्द्र को आशंका हुई की कहीं इन्द्रासन छीनने के लिए तो वे तपस्या नहीं कर रहे , इसीलिए इंद्र ने उनकी साधना में विघ्न डालने के लिए अप्सरा रूप में माया को भेजा। जिसने साधना में बाधा डालने के लिए अनेक उपाय किये मगर उस महान संत ने माया में व अपने में एकात्म दृष्टि से बहन और भाई का सनातन प्रतिपादित कर उसके प्रेमचक्र को एक पवित्र सूत्र से बाँध कर शांत कर दिया।

संत दादू जी विक्रम सं. 1625 में सांभर पधारे यहाँ उन्होंने मानव-मानव के भेद को दूर करने वाले, सच्चे मार्ग का उपदेश दिया। तत्पश्चात दादू जी महाराज आमेर पधारे तो वहां की सारी प्रजा और राजा उनके भक्त हो गए।

उसके बाद वे फतेहपुर सीकरी भी गए जहाँ पर बादशाह अकबर ने पूर्ण भक्ति व भावना से दादू जी के दर्शन कर उनके सत्संग व उपदेश ग्रहण करने के इच्छा प्रकट की तथा लगातार 40 दिनों तक दादूजी से सत्संग करते हुए उपदेश ग्रहण किया। दादूजी के सत्संग प्रभावित होकर अकबर ने अपने समस्त साम्राज्य में गौ हत्या बंदी का फरमान लागू कर दिया।

उसके बाद दादूजी महाराज नरेना (जिला जयपुर) पधारे और उन्होंने इस नगर को साधना, विश्राम तथा धाम के लिए चुना और यहाँ एक खेजडे के वृक्ष के नीचे विराजमान होकर लम्बे समय तक तपस्या की और आज भी खेजडा जी के वृक्ष के दर्शन मात्र से तीनो प्रकार के ताप नष्ट होते हैं। यहीं पर उन्होंने ब्रह्मधाम “दादूद्वारा” की स्थापना की जिसके दर्शन मात्र से आज भी सभी मनोकामनाए पूर्ण होती है। तत्पश्चात श्री दादूजी ने सभी संत शिष्यों को अपने ब्रह्मलीन होने का समय बताया।

ब्रह्मलीन होने के लिए निर्धारित दिन (जयेष्ट कृष्ण अष्टमी सम्वत 1660 ) के शुभ समय में श्री दादूजी ने एकांत में ध्यानमग्न होते हुए “सत्यराम” शब्द का उच्चारण कर इस संसार से ब्रहम्लोक को प्रस्थान किया। श्री दादू दयाल जी महाराज के द्वारा स्थापित “दादू पंथ” व “दादू पीठ” आज भी मानव मात्र की सेवा में निर्विघ्न लीन है। वर्तमान में दादूधाम के पीठाधीश्वर के रूप में आचार्य महंत श्री गोपालदास जी महाराज विराजमान हैं।

वर्तमान में भी प्रतिवर्ष फाल्गुन शुक्ल अष्टमी पर नरेना धाम में भव्य मेले का आयोजन होता है तथा इस अवसर पर एक माह के लिए भारत सरकार के आदेश अनुसार वहां से गुजरने वाली प्रत्येक रेलगाड़ी का नरेना स्टेशन पर ठहराव रहता है।

उनके उपदेशों को उनके शिष्य रज्जब जी ने “दादू अनुभव वाणी” के रूप में समाहित किया, जिसमे लगभग 5000 दोहे शामिल हैं। संतप्रवर श्री दादू दयालजी महाराज को निर्गुण संतो जैसे की कबीर व गुरु नानक के समकक्ष माना जाता है तथा उनके उपदेश व दोहे आज भी समाज को सही राह दिखाते आ रहे हैं।


कबीर के बोध को जन-जन तक पहुँचाने में दादूपंथी संतों की बड़ी भूमिका है। संख्या की दृष्टि से दादू के जीवन में ही जितनी बड़ी संख्या में शिष्य-प्रशिष्य दादू के बने, सम्भवतः उतने शिष्य किसी अन्य संत के नहीं। दादूपंथी संतों में एक बहुत बड़ी संख्या पढ़े-लिखे संतों की है। जगजीवनदास जैसे शास्त्रार्थी, सुन्दरदास जैसे प्रकाण्ड शास्त्र पण्डित और साधु निश्चलदास जैसे दार्शनिक दादूपंथी ही थे। संत साहित्य के संरक्षण और संवर्धन की दृष्टि से बहुत महत्त्वपूर्ण कार्य दादूपंथियों ने किया। इन संतों ने अपने गुरु की वाणियों को संरक्षित तो किया ही, पूर्ववर्ती तमाम संतों की वाणियों का संरक्षण भी किया।

संत दादू दयाल संत कबीर के शिष्यों में से एक थे। संत कवि दादू दयाल फागुन संवत 1601 में अहमदाबाद में साबरमती नदी के तट पर लोदीराम नाम के ब्राह्मण को पानी में बहते मिले थे। 11 की उम्र में श्रीकृष्ण की भक्ति में लीन हो गये। 13 साल में जब वे घर से भागे तो माता-पिता पकड़ कर वापस ले आये। लेकिन सात वर्ष बाद वे फिर भाग खड़े हुए और सागर पहुंच कर धुनिया का काम करने लगे। वहीं 12 साल तक अध्ययन करते रहे। गुरु-कृपा से ज्ञान प्राप्त होने से इनके कई सैंकडों शिष्य हो गए। जिनमें गरीबदास, सुंदरदास, रज्जब और बखना मुख्य हैं। वे हिन्दी, गुजराती, राजस्थानी आदि कई भाषाओं के ज्ञाता थे। इन्होंने शब्द और साखी लिखीं। इनकी रचना प्रेमभावपूर्ण है। जात-पात के निराकरण, हिन्दू-मुसलमानों की एकता आदि विषयों पर इन्होंने अनेक पद/शब्द लिखे हैं। कहते हैं प्रसिद्धि होने पर एक बार उन्हें अकबर ने बुलवाया और पूछा कि अल्लाह की जाति क्या है ? इस पर इन्होंने ने एक दोहा सुनाया-

इश्क अल्लाह की जाती है इश्क अल्लाह का अंग
इश्क अल्लाह मौजूद है, इश्क अल्लाह का रंग ।

साखी/दोहे संत दादू दयाल जी

श्री गुरुदेव का अंग संत दादू दयाल जीदादू नमो नमो निरंजनं, नमस्कार गुरु देवत:।
वन्दनं सर्व साधावा, प्रणामं पारंगत:।।1।।
परब्रह्म परापरं, सो मम देव निरंजनं।
निराकारं निर्मलं, तस्य दादू वन्दनं।।2।।
दादू गैब माँहि गुरुदेव मिल्या, पाया हम परसाद।
मस्तक मेरे कर धारया, दख्या अगम अगाध।।3।।
दादू सद्गुरु सहज में, कीया बहु उपकार।
निर्धन अनवँत कर लिया, गुरु मिलिया दातार।।4।।
दादू सद्गुरु सूं सहजैं मिल्या, लीया कंठ लगाइ।
दया भई दयालु की, तब दीपक दिया जगाइ।।5।।
दादू देखु दयालु की, गुरु दिखाई बाट।
ताला कूंची लाइ करि, खोले सबै कपाट।।6।।
दादू सद्गुरु अंजन बाहिकर, नैन पटल सब खोले।
बहरे कानों सुनने लागे, गूंगे मुख सों बोले।।7।।
सद्गुरु दाता जीव का, श्रवण शीश कर नैन।
तन मन सौंज सँवारि सब, मुख रसना अरु बैन।।8।।
राम नाम उपदेश करि, अगम गवन यहु सैन।
दादू सद्गुरु सब दिया, आप मिलाये अैन।।9।।
सद्गुरु कीया फेरिकर, मन का औरै रूप।
दादू पंचों पलट कर, कैसे भये अनूप।।10।।
साचा सद्गुरु जे मिले, सब साज सँवारै।
दादू नाव चढ़ाय कर, ले पार उतारै।।11।।
सद्गुरु पशु मानुष करै, मानुष तैं सिध्द सोइ।
दादू सिध्द तैं देवता, देव निरंजन होइ।।12।।
दादू काढ़े काल मुख, अंधो लोचन देय।
दादू ऐसा गुरु मिल्या, जीव ब्रह्म कर लेय।।13।।
दादू काढ़े काल मुख, श्रवणहु शब्द सुनाय।
दादू ऐसा गुरु मिल्या, मृतक लिये जिवाय।।14।।
दादू काढ़े काल मुख, गूंगे लिये बुलाय।
दादू ऐसा गुरु मिल्या, सुख में रहे समाय।।15।।
दादू काढ़े काल मुख, महर दया कर आय।
दादू ऐसा गुरु मिल्या, महिमा कही न जाय।।16।।
सद्गुरु काढ़े केश गहि, डूबत इहि संसार।
दादू नाव चढ़ायकरि, कीये पैली पार।।17।।
भव सागर में डूबतां, सद्गुरु काढ़े आय।
दादू खेवट गुरु मिल्या, लीये नाव चढ़ाय।।18।।
दादू उस गुरुदेव की, मैं बलिहारी जाउं।
जहाँ आसन अमर अलेख था, ले राखे उस ठांउं।।19।।
आतम माँहीं ऊपजै, दादू पंगुल ज्ञान।
कृत्रिम जाय उलंघि कर, जहाँ निरंजन थान।।20।।
आत्म बोधा बंझ का बेटा, गुरुमुख उपजै आय।
दादू पंगुल पंच बिन, जहाँ राम तहँ जाय।।21।।
साचा सहजैं ले मिले, शब्द गुरु का ज्ञान।
दादू हमकूं ले चल्या, जहाँ प्रीतम का स्थान।।22।।
दादू शब्द विचार करि, लागि रहै मन लाय।
ज्ञान गहैं गुरुदेव का, दादू सहज समाय।।23।।
दादू सद्गुरु शब्द सुनाय कर, भावै जीव जगाय।
भावै अन्तर आप कहि, अपने अंग लगाय।।24।।
दादू बाहर सारा देखिए, भीतर कीया चूर।
सद्गुरु शब्दों मारिया, जाण न पावे दूर।।25।।
दादू सद्गुरु मारे शब्द सों, निरखि निरखि निज ठौर।
राम अकेला रह गया, चित्ता न आवे और।।26।।
दादू हम को सुख भया, साधा शब्द गुरु ज्ञान।
सुधि बुधि सोधी समझि करि, पाया पद निर्वान।।27।।
दादू शब्द बाण गुरु साधु के, दूर दिशंतर जाय।
जिहिं लागे सो ऊबरे, सूते लिये जगाय।।28।।
सद्गुरु शब्द मुख सों कह्या, क्या नेड़े क्या दूर।
दादू सिख श्रवणों सुन्या, सुमिरन लागा सूर।।29।।
शब्द दूधा, घृत राम रस, मथ कर काढ़े कोइ।
दादू गुरु गोविन्द बिन, घट-घट समझ न होइ।।30।।
शब्द दूधा घृत राम रस, कोइ साधु बिलोवणहार।
दादू अमृत काढ़ ले, गुरुमुख गहै विचार।।31।।
घीव दूधा में रम रह्या, व्यापक सब ही ठौर।
दादू बकता बहुत है, मथि काढ़े ते और।।32।।
कामधोनु घट जीव है, दिन-दिन दुर्बल होय।
गोरू ज्ञान न उपजै, मथि नहिं खाया सोय।।33।।
साचा समरथ गुरु मिल्या, तिन तत दिया बताय।
दादू मोटा महाबली, घट घृत मथिकर खाय।।34।।
मथि करि दीपक कीजिए, सब घट भया प्रकास।
दादू दीया हाथ करि, गया निरंजन पास।।35।।
दीयै दीया कीजिए, गुरुमुख मारग जाय।
दादू अपने पीव का, दरशन देखै आय।।36।।
दादू दीया है भला, दिया करो सब कोइ।
घर में धारया न पाइये, जे कर दिया न होइ।।37।।
दादू दीये का गुण ते लहैं, दीया मोटी बात।
दीया जग में चाँदणा, दीया चाले साथ।।38।।
निर्मल गुरु का ज्ञान गहि, निर्मल भक्ति विचार।
निर्मल पाया प्रेम रस, छूटे सकल विकार।।39।।
निर्मल तन मन आत्मा, निर्मल मनसा सार।
निर्मल प्राणी पंच करि, दादू लंघे पार।।40।।
परापरी पासै रहै, कोई न जाणै ताहि।
सद्गुरु दिया दिखाय करि, दादू रह्या ल्यौ लाय।।41।।
जिन हम सिरजे सो कहाँ, सद्गुरु देहु दिखाय।
दादू दिल अरवाह का, तहँ मालिक ल्यौ लाय।।42।।
मुझ ही में मेरा धाणी, पड़दा खोल दिखाय।
आतम सौं परमातमा, परगट आणि मिलाय।।43।।
भरि-भरि प्याला प्रेम रस, अपने हाथ पिलाय।
सद्गुरु के सदिकै किया, दादू बलि-बलि जाय।।44।।
सरवर भरिया दह दिशा, पंखी प्यासा जाय।
दादू गुरु परसाद बिन, क्यों जल पीवे आय।।45।।
मान-सरोवर मांहि जल, प्यासा पीवे आय।
दादू दोष न दीजिए, घर-घर कहण न जाय।।46।।
दादू गुरु गरवा मिल्या, ताथैं सब गम होय।
लोहा पारस परसतां, सहज समाना सोय।।47।।
दीन गरीबी गहि रह्या, गरवा गुरु गंभीर।
सूक्षम शीतल सुरति मति, सहज दया गुरु धीर।।48।।
सोधी दाता पलक में, तिरै तिरावण जोग।
दादू ऐसा परम गुरु, पाया किहिं संजोग।।49।।
दादू सद्गुरु ऐसा कीजिए, राम रस माता।
पार उतारे पलक में, दर्शन का दाता।।50।।
देवे किरका दरद का, टूटा जोड़े तार।
दादू सांधो सुरति को, सो गुरु पीर हमार।।51।।
दादू घायल होय रहे, सद्गुरु के मारे।
दादू अंग लगाय करि, भव सागर तारे।।52।।
दादू साचा गुरु मिल्या, साचा दिया दिखाइ।
साचे को साचा मिल्या, साचा रह्या समाइ।।53।।
साचा सद्गुरु सोधिले, साँचे लीजे साध।
साचा साहिब सोधि कर, दादू भक्ति अगाध।।54।।
सन्मुख सद्गुरु साधु सौं, सांई सौं राता।
दादू प्याला प्रेम का, महा रस माता।।55।।
सांई सौं साचा रहै, सद्गुरु सौं शूरा।
साधू सौं सन्मुख रहै, सो दादू पूरा।।56।।
सद्गुरु मिलै तो पाइये, भक्ति मुक्ति भण्डार।
दादू सहजैं देखिए, साहिब का दीदार।।57।।
दादू सांई सद्गुरु सेविये, भक्ति मुक्ति फल होय।
अमर अभय पद पाइये, काल न लागे कोय।।58।।
इक लख चन्दा आण घर, सूरज कोटि मिलाय।
दादू गुरु गोविंद बिन, तो भी तिमर न जाय।।59।।
अनेक चंद उदय करे, असंख्य सूर प्रकास।
एक निरंजन नाम बिन, दादू नहीं उजास।।60।।
दादू कदि यहु आपा जायगा, कदि यहु बिसरे और।
कदि यहु सूक्षम होयगा, कदि यहु पावे ठौर।।61।।
विषम दुहेला जीव को, सद्गुरु तैं आसान।
जब दरवे तब पाइये, नेड़ा ही अस्थान।।62।।
दादू नैन न देखे नैन को, अन्तर भी कुछ नाँहि।
सद्गुरु दर्पण कर दिया, अरस परस मिल माँहि।।63।।
घट-घट राम रतन है, दादू लखे न कोइ।
सद्गुरु शब्दों पाइये, सहजैं ही गम होइ।।64।।
जब ही कर दीपक दिया, तब सब सूझन लाग।
यूं दादू गुरु ज्ञान तैं, राम कहत जन जाग।।65।।
दादू मन माला तहाँ फेरिये, जहाँ दिवस न परसे रात।
तहाँ गुरु बानाँ दिया, सहजै जपिये तात।।66।।
दादू मन माला तहाँ फेरिये, जहाँ प्रीतम बैठे पास।
आगम गुरु तैं गम भया, पाया नूर निवास।।67।।
दादू मन माला तहँ फेरिये, जहाँ आपै एक अनन्त।
सहजै सो सद्गुरु मिल्या, जुग-जुग फाग बसन्त।।68।।
दादू सद्गुरु माला मन दिया, पवन सुरति सूँ पोइ।
बिन हाथों निश दिन जपै, परम जाप यूँ होइ।।69।।
दादू मन फकीर मांही हुआ, भीतर लीया भेख।
शब्द गहै गुरुदेव का, माँगे भीख अलेख।।70।।
दादू मन फकीर सद्गुरु किया, कहि समझाया ज्ञान।
निश्चल आसन बैस कर, अकल पुरुष का धयान।।71।।
दादू मन फकीर जग तैं रह्या, सद्गुरु लीया लाय।
अहनिशि लागा एक सौं, सहज शून्य रस खाय।।72।।
दादू मन फकीर ऐसे भया, सद्गुरु के परसाद।
जहाँ का था लागा तहाँ, छूटे वाद विवाद।।73।।
ना घर रह्या न वन गया, ना कुछ किया कलेश।
दादू मनहीं मन मिल्या, सद्गुरु के उपदेश।।74।।
दादू यहु मसीत यहु देहुरा, सद्गुरु दिया दिखाय।
भीतरि सेवा बन्दगी, बाहर काहे जाय।।75।।
दादू मंझे चेला मंझे गुरु, मंझे ही उपदेश।
बाहरि ढ़ूढ़ैं बावरे, जटा बधाये केश ।।76।।
मन का मस्तक मूंडिये, काम-क्रोध के केश।
दादू विषै विकार सब, सद्गुरु के उपदेश।।77।।
दादू पड़दा भरम का, रह्या सकल घट छाय।
गुरु गोविन्द कृपा करैं, तो सहजैं ही मिट जाय।।78।।
जिहिं मत साधु उध्दरैं, सो मत लीया शोध।
मन लै मारग मूल गहि, यह सद्गुरु का परमोध।।79।।
दादू सोई मारग मन गह्या, जिहिं मारग मिलिये जाय।
वेद कुरानों ना कह्या, सो गुरु दिया दिखाय।।80।।
मन भुवंग यहु विष भरया, निर्विष क्यौं ही न होइ।
दादू मिल्या गुरु गारुड़ी, निर्विष कीया सोइ।।81।।
एता कीजे आप तैं, तन मन उनमनि लाय।
पंच समाधी राखिये, दूजा सहज सुभाय।।82।।
दादू जीव जंजालौं पड़ गया, उलझा नौ मण सूत।
कोई इक सुलझे सावधान, गुरु बाइक अवधूत।।83।।
चंचल चहुँ दिशि जात है, गुरु बाइक सों बंधि।
दादू संगति साधु की, पार-ब्रह्म सों संधि।।84।।
गुरु अंकुश माने नहीं, उदमद माता अंधा।
दादू मन चेतै नहीं, काल न देखै फंधा।।85।।
दादू मारया बिन माने नहीं, यह मन हरि की आन।
ज्ञान खड़ग गुरुदेव का, ता संग सदा सुजान।।86।।
जहाँ तैं मन उठि चले, फेरि तहाँ ही राखि।
तहँ दादू लै लीन करि, साधु कहें गुरु साखि।।87।।
दादू मन ही सूं मल ऊपजै, मन ही सूं मल धोय।
सीख चले गुरु साधु की, तो तू निर्मल होय।।88।।
दादू कच्छब अपने कर लिये, मन इन्द्रिय निजठौर।
नाम निरंजन लागि रहु, प्राणी परहरि और।।89।।
मन के मतै सब कोइ खेले, गुरुमुख विरला कोइ।
दादू मन की माने नहीं, सद्गुरु का शिष्य सोइ।।90।।
सब जीवों को मन ठगै, मन को विरला कोइ।
दादू गुरु के ज्ञान सौं, सांई सन्मुख होइ।।91।।
दादू एक सूं लै लीन होना, सबै सयानप येह।
सद्गुरु साधु कहत हैं, परम तत्तव जप लेह।।92।।
सद्गुरु शब्द विवेक बिन, संयम रहा न जाय।
दादू ज्ञान विचार बिन, विषय हलाहल खाय।।93।।
घर-घर घट कोल्हू चले, अमीं महा रस जाय।
दादू गुरु के ज्ञान बिन, विषय हलाहल खाय।।94।।
सद्गुरु शब्द उलंघ करि, जिन कोई शिष्य जाय।
दादू पग-पग काल है, जहाँ जाइ तहँ खाय।।94।।
सद्गुरु बरजे शिष्य करे, क्यों कर बंचे काल।
दह दिशि देखत बहि गया, पाणी फोड़ी पाल।।96।।
दादू सद्गुरु कहै सु शिष्य करे, सब सिध्द कारजहोय।
अमर अभय पद पाइये, काल न लागे कोय।।97।।
दादू जे साहिब को भावै नहीं, सो हम तैं जिन होइ।
सद्गुरु लाजे आपणा, साधु न माने कोइ।।98।।
दादू 'हूं' की ठाहर 'है' कहो, 'तन' की ठाहर 'तूं'।
'री' की ठाहर 'जी' कहो, ज्ञान गुरु का यूँ।।99।।
दादू पंच स्वादी पंच दिशि, पंचे पंचों बाट।
तब लग कह्या न कीजिये, गह गुरु दिखाया घाट।।100।।
दादू पंचों एक मत, पंचों पूरया साथ।
पंचों मिल सन्मुख भये, तब पंचों गुरु की बाट।।101।।
दादू ताता लोहा तिणे सूँ, क्यों कर पकडया जाय।
गहन गति सूझे नहीं, गुरु नहीं बूझे आय।।102।।
दादू अवगुण गुण कर माने गुरु के, सोई शिष्य सुजान।
सद्गुरु अवगुण क्यों करे, समझे सोई सयान।।103।।
सोने सेती वैर क्या, मारे घण के घाइ।
दादू काट कलंक सब, राखे कंठ लगाइ।।104।।
पाणी माँही राखिये, कनक कलंक न जाइ।
दादू गुरु के ज्ञान सौं, ताइ अग्नि में बाहि।।105।।
दादू माँही मीठा हेत कर, ऊपर कड़वा राखि।
सद्गुरु शिष्य को सीख दे, सब साधूं की साखि।।106।।
दादू कहे शिष्य भरोसे आपणै, ह्नै बोली हुसियार।
कहेगा सो बहेगा, हम पहली करैं पुकार।।107।।
दादू सद्गुरु कहैं सु कीजिये, जे तूं शिष्य सुजान।
जहाँ लाया तहाँ लाग रहु, बूझे कहाँ अजान।।108।।
गुरु पहले मन सौं कहैं, पीछे नैन की सैन।
दादू शिष्य समझैं नहीं, कहि समझावै बैन।।109।।
कहे लखे सो मानवी, सैन लखे सो साध।
मन की लखे सु देवता, दादू अगम अगाध।।110।।
दादू कहि-कहि मेरी जीभ रही, सुन-सुन तेरे कान।
सद्गुरु बपुरा क्या करे, जो चेला मूढ़ अजान।।111।।
एक शब्द सब कुछ कह्या, सद्गुरु शिष्य समझाय।
जहँ लाया तहँ लागे नहीं, फिर-फिर बूझे आय।।112।।
ज्ञान लिया सब सीख सुनि, मन का मैल न जाय।
गुरु बिचारा क्या करे, शिष्य विषय हलाहल खाय।।113।।
सद्गुरु की समझे नहीं, अपने उपजे नाँहि।
तो दादू क्या कीजिए, बुरी व्यथा मन माँहि।।114।।
गुरु अपंग पग पंख बिन, शिष्य शाखा का भार।
दादू खेवट नाव बिन, क्यों उतरेंगे पार।।115।।
दादू संशा जीव का, शिष्य शाखा का साल।
दोनों को भारी पड़ी, होगा कौन हवाल।।116।।
अंधो अंधा मिल चले, दादू बन्धा कतार।
कूप पड़े हम देखते, अंधो अंधा लार।।117।।
सोधी नहीं शरीर की, औरों को उपदेश।
दादू अचरज देखिया, ये जाँयेंगे किस देश।।118।।
सोधी नहीं शरीर की, कहैं अगम की बात।
जान कहावें बापुड़े, आयुधा लीये हाथ।।119।।
दादू माया मांहैं काढ़ि कर, फिर माया में दीन्ह।
दोऊ जन समझै नहीं, एको काज न कीन्ह।।120।।
दादू कहै सो गुरु किस काम का, गहि भरमावे आन।
तत्तव बतावे निर्मला, सो गुरु साधु सुजान।।121।।
तूं मेरा हूँ तेरा, गुरु शिष्य कीया मंत।
दोनों भूले जात हैं, दादू विसरा कंत।।122।।
दुहि-दुहि पीवे ग्वाल गुरु, शिष्य है छेली गाय।
यह अवसर यों ही गया, दादू कहि समझाय।।123।।
शिष गोरू गुरु ग्वाल है, रक्षा कर कर लेय।
दादू राखे जतन करि, आनि धाणी को देय।।124।।
झूठे अंधो गुरु घणे, भरम दिढ़ावें आय।
दादू साचा गुरु मिले, जीव ब्रह्म हो जाय।।125।।
झूठे अंधो गुरु घणे, बंधो विषय विकार।
दादू साचा गुरु मिले, सन्मुख सिरजनहार।।126।।
झूठे अंधो गुरु घणे, भरम दिढ़ावें काम।
बंधो माया मोह सों, दादू मुख सों राम।।127।।
झूठे अंधो गुरु घणे, भटकैं घर-घर बार।
कारज को सीझे नहीं, दादू माथे मार।।128।।
दादू भक्त कहावें आपको, भक्ति न जाने भेव।
सपने हीं समझे नहीं, कहाँ बसे गुरुदेव।।129।।
भरम करम जग बंधिया, पंडित दिया भुलाय।
दादू सद्गुरु ना मिले, मारग देइ दिखाय।।130।।
दादू पंथ बतावें पाप का, भरम कर्म विश्वास।
निकट निरंजन जे रहै, क्यों न बतावें तास।।131।।
दादू आपा उरझे उरझिया, दीसे सब संसार।
आपा सुरझे सुरझिया, यहु ज्ञान विचार।।132।।
साधु का अंग निर्मला, तामें मल न समाय।
परम गुरु परगट कहैं, तातैं दादू ताय।।133।।
राम नाम गुरु शब्द सों, रे मन पेलि भरंम।
निहकरमी सूं मन मिल्या, दादू काटि करंम।।134।।
दादू बिन पायन का पंथ है, क्यों कर पहुँचे प्रान।
विकट घाट औघट खरे, माँहि शिखर असमान।।135।।
मन ताजी चेतन चढ़े, ल्यौ की करे लगाम।
शब्द गुरु का ताजणा, कोई पहुँचे साधु सुजान।।136।।
साधों सुमिरण सो कह्या, जिहिँ सुमिरण आपा भूल।
दादू गहि गम्भीर गुरु, चेतन आनँद मूल।।137।।
दादू आप सवारथ सब सगे, प्राण सनेही नाँहि।
प्राण सनेही राम है, कै साधु कलि माँहि।।138।।
सुख का साथी जगत् सब, दुख का नाहीं कोइ।
दुख का साथी सांइया, दादू सद्गुरु होइ।।139।।
सगे हमारे साधु हैं, शिर पर सिरजनहार।
दादू सद्गुरु सो सगा, दूजा धांधा विकार।।140।।
दादू के दूजा नहीं, एकै आतम राम।
सद्गुरु शिर पर साधु सब, प्रेम भक्ति विश्राम।।141।।
दादू शुधा बुधा आत्मा, सद्गुरु परसे आय।
दादू भृंगी कीट ज्यौं, देखत ही हो जाय।।142।।
दादू भृंगी ज्यौं, सद्गुरु सेती होय।
आप सरीखे कर लिये, दूजा नाँही कोय।।143।।
दादू कच्छप राखे दृष्टि में कुंजों के मन माँहिं।
सद्गुरु राखे आपणा, दूजा कोई नाँहिं।।144।।
बच्चों के माता पिता, दूजा नाँहीं कोइ।
दादू निपजे भाव सूं, सद्गुरु के घट होइ।।145।।
एकै शब्द अनन्त शिष्य, जब सद्गुरु बोलै।
दादू जड़े कपाट सब, दे कूँची खोलै।।146।।
बिन ही किये होय सब, सन्मुख सिरजनहार।
दादू कर कर को मरे, शिष्य शाखा शिर भार।।147।।
सूरज सन्मुख आरसी, पावक किया प्रकास।
दादू सांई साधु बिच, सहजैं निपजै दास।।148।।
दादू पंचों ये परमोधा ले, इनहीं को उपदेश।
यहु मन अपणा हाथ कर, तो चेला सब देश।।149।।
अमर भये गुरु ज्ञान सौं, केते इहिं कलि माँहि।
दादू गुरु के ज्ञान बिन, केते मरि-मरि जाँहि।।150।।
औषधि खाइ न पछ रहे, विषम व्याधि क्यों जाय।
दादू रोगी बावरा, दोष वैद्य को लाय।।151।।
वैद्य व्यथा कहे देखि कर, रोगी रहे रिसाय।
मन माँही लीये रहै, दादू व्याधि न जाय।।152।।
दादू वैद्य बिचारा क्या करे, रोगी रहे न साँच।
खाटा मीठा चरपरा, माँगे मेरा वाच।।153।।
दुर्लभ दरशन साधु का, दुर्लभ गुरु उपदेश।
दुर्लभ करिबा कठिन है, दुर्लभ परस अलेख।।154।।
दादू अविचल मंत्रा, अमर मंत्रा अखै मंत्रा, अभय मंत्रा, राम मंत्रा, निजसार।
संजीवन मंत्रा, सबीरज मंत्रा, सुंदर मंत्रा, शिरोमणिमंत्रा, निर्मल मंत्रा, निराकार।
अलख मंत्रा, अकल मंत्रा, अगाधा मंत्रा, अपार मंत्रा, अनंत मंत्रा, राया।
नूर मंत्रा, तेज मंत्रा, ज्योति मंत्रा, प्रकाश मंत्रा, परम मंत्रा, पाया।।155।।
दादू सब ही गुरु किये, पशु पंखी बन राय।
तीन लोक गुण पंच सौं, सब ही माँहि खुदाय।।156।।
जो पहली सद्गुरु कह्या, सो नैनहुँ देख्या आइ।
अरस परस मिलि एक रस, दादू रहे समाइ।।157।।
।।इति गुरुदेव का अंग सम्पूर्ण।।

सुमिरण का अंग संत दादू दयाल जीदादू नमो नमो निरंजनं, नमस्कार गुरु देवत:।
वन्दनं सर्व साधावा, प्रणामं पारंगत:।।1।।
एकै अक्षर पीव का, सोई सत्य करि जाणि।
राम नाम सद्गुरु कह्या, दादू सो परवाणि।।2।।
पहली श्रवण द्वितीय रसन, तृतीय हिरदै गाय।
चतुर्थी चिंतन भया, तब रोम-रोम ल्यौ लाय।।3।।
दादू नीका नाम है, तीन लोक तत सार।
रात दिवस रटबौ करी, रे मन इहै विचार।।4।।
दादू नीका नाम है, हरि हिरदै न विसार।
मूर्ति मन माँहीं बसे, श्वासैं श्वास सँभार।।5।।
श्वासैं श्वास सँभालतां, इक दिन मिलि है आय।
सुमिरण पैंडा सहज का, सद्गुरु दिया बताय।।6।।
दादू नीका नाम है, सो तू हिरदै राखि।
पाखंड प्रपंच दूर कर, सुनि साधु जन की साखि।।7।।
दादू नीका नाम है, आप कहै समझाय।
और आरंभ सब छाड़ि दे, राम नाम ल्यौ लाय।।8।।
राम भजन का सोच क्या, करतां होइ सो होय।
दादू राम सँभालिये, फिर बूझिये न कोय।।9।।
राम तुम्हारे नाम बिन, जे मुख निकसे और।
तो इस अपराधी जीव को, तीन लोक कित ठौर।।10।।
छिन-छिन राम सँभालतां, जे जिव जाय तो जाय।
आतम के आधार को, नाहीं आन उपाय।।11।।
एक महूरत मन रहै, नाम निरंजन पास।
दादू तब ही देखतां, सकल करम का नास।।12।।
सहजैं ही सब होइगा, गुण इन्द्री का नास।
दादू राम सँभालतां, कटै कर्म के पास।।13।।
एक राम के नाम बिन, जीवन की जलनी न जाय।
दादू केते पचि मुये, करि करि बहुत उपाय।।14।।
दादू एक राम की टेक गहि, दूजा सहज सुभाय।
राम नाम छाडै नहीं, दूजा आवै जाय।।15।।
दादू राम अगाधा है, परिमित नाँही पार।
अवर्ण वर्ण न जाणिये, दादू नाम अधार।।16।।
दादू राम अगाधा है, अविगति लखै न कोइ।
निर्गुण सगुण का कहै, नाम विलम्ब न होइ।।17।।
दादू राम अगाधा है, बेहद लख्या न जाय।
आदि अंत नहिं जाणिये, नाम निरंतर गाय।।18।।
दादू राम अगाधा है, अकल अगोचर एक।
दादू नाम विलंबिये, साधू कहैं अनेक।।19।।
दादू एकै अल्लह राम है, समर्थ सांई सोय।
मैदे के पकवान सब, खातां होय सु होय।।20।।
सगुण निर्गुण ह्नै रहे, जैसा है तैसा लीन।
हरि सुमिरण ल्यौ लाइये, का जाणौं का कीन।।21।।
दादू सिरजनहार के, केते नाम अनंत।
चित आवै सो लीजिये, यूँ साधू सुमरैं संत।।22।।
दादू जिन प्राण पिंड हम कूं दिया, अंतर सेवैं ताहि।
जे आवै औसाण शिर, सोई नाम संबाहि।।23।।
दादू ऐसा कौण अभागिया, कछू दिढ़ावे और।
नाम बिना पग धारन कौं, कहो कहाँ है ठौर।।24।।
दादू निमष न न्यारा कीजिए, अंतर तैं उर नाम।
कोटि पतित पावन भये, केवल कहतां राम।।25।।
दादू जे तैं अब जाण्या नहीं, राम नाम निज सार।
फिर पीछे पछिताहिगा, रे मन मूढ़ गँवार।।26।।
दादू राम सँभालि ले, जब लग सुखी शरीर।
फिर पीछैं पछिताहिगा, जब तन मन धारै न धीर।।27।।
दुख दरिया संसार है, सुख का सागर राम।
सुख सागर चलि जाइये, दादू तज बेकाम।।28।।
दादू दरिया यह संसार है तामें राम नाम जिननाव।
दादू ढ़ील न कीजिए, यहु औसर यहु डाव।।29।।
मेरे संशा को नहीं, जीवण-मरण का राम।
सपनैं ही जिन बीसरै, मुख हिरदै हरिनाम।।30।।
दादू दुखिया तब लगै, जब लग नाम न लेह।
तब ही पावन परम सुख, मेरी जीवनि येह।।31।।
कछू न कहावै आपकौं, सांई कूं सेवै।
दादू दूजा छाडि सब, नाम निज लेवै।।32।।
जे चित चहुँटे राम सौं, सुमिरण मन लागै।
दादू आतम जीव का, संशा सब भागै।।33।।
दादू पिव का नाम ले, तौ हि मिटे शिर साल।
घड़ी महूरत चालणां, कैसी आवै कालि।।34।।
दादू औसर जीव तैं, कह्या न केवल राम।
अंतकाल हम कहैंगे, जम वैरी सौं काम।।35।।
दादू ऐसे महँगे मोल का, एक श्वास जे जाय।
चौदह लोक समान सो, काहे रेत मिलाय।।36।।
सोइ श्वास सुजाण नर, सांई सेती लाइ।
करि साटा सिरजनहार सूं, महँगे मोल बिकाइ।।37।।
जतन करे नहिं जीव का, तन मन पवना फेरि।
दादू महँगे मोल का, द्वै दोवटी इक सेर।।38।।
दादू रावत राजा राम का, कदे न विसारी नाँव।
आतम राम सँभालिये, तो सु बस काया गाँव।।39।।
दादू अहनिश सदा शरीर में हरि, चिन्तत दिन जाय।
प्रेम मगन लै लीन मन, अन्तर गति ल्यौ लाय।।40।।
निमष एक न्यारा नहीं, तन मन मंझि समाय।
एक अंग लागा रहै, ताकूं काल न खाय।।41।।
दादू पिंजर पिंड शरीर का, सुवटा सहज समाय।
रमता सेती रमि रहै, विमल-विमल जश गाय।।42।।
अविनाशी सूं एक ह्नै, निमष न इत उत जाय।
बहुत बिलाई क्या करे, जे हरि-हरि शब्द सुनाय।।43।।
दादू जहाँ रहूँ तहँ राम सूं, भावै कंदलि जाय।
भावै गिरि परबत रहूँ, भावै गेह बसाय।।44।।
भावै जाइ जलहरि रहूँ, भावै शीश नवाय।
जहाँ तहाँ हरि नाम सूं हिरदै हेत लगाय।।45।।
दादू राम कहे सब रहत है, नख शिख सकल शरीर।
राम कहे बिन जात है, समझी मनवा वीर।।46।।
दादू राम कहे सब रहत है, लाहा मूल सहेत।
राम कहे बिन जात है, मूरख मनवा चेत।।47।।
दादू राम कहे सब रहत है, आदि अन्त लौं सोय।
राम कहे बिन जात है, यहु मन बहुरि न होय।।48।।
दादू राम कहे सब रहत है, जीव ब्रह्म की लार।
राम कहे बिन जात है, रे मन हो हुशियार।।49।।
हरि भज साफल जीवणा, पर उपकार समाय।
दादू मरणा तहाँ भला, जहाँ पशु पक्षी खाय।।50।।

दादू राम शब्द मुख ले रहै, पीछै लागा जाय।
मनसा वाचा करमना, तिहिं, तत सहजि समाय।।51।।
दादू रचि मचि लागे नाम सौं, राते माते होय।
देखेंगे दीदार कूं, सुख पावैंगे सोय।।52।।
दादू सांई सेवै सब भले, बुरा न कहिये कोइ।
सारौं माँही सो बुरा, जिस घट नाम न होइ।।53।।
दादू जियरा राम बिन, दुखिया इहि संसार।
उपजै विनशै खपि मरे, सुख दुख बारंबार।।54।।
राम नाम रूचि ऊपजे, लेवे हित चित लाय।
दादू सोई जीयरा, काहे जमपुरि जाय।।55।।
दादू नीकी बरियाँ आय करि, राम जप लीन्हा।
आतम साधान सोधि करि, कारज भल कीन्हा।।56।।
दादू अगम वस्तु पानैं पड़ी, राखी मांझि छिपाय।
छिन-छिन सोई संभालिये, मति वै बीसर जाय।।57।।
दादू उज्ज्वल निर्मला, हरि रँग राता होय।
काहे दादू पचि मरे, पानी सेती धोय।।58।।
शरीर सरोवर राम जल, माँहैं संयम सार।
दादू सहजैं सब गये, मन के मैल विकार।।59।।
दादू राम नाम जलं कृत्तवा, स्नानं सदा जित:।
तन मन आतम निर्मलं, पचं भू पापं गत:।।60।।
दादू उत्ताम इन्द्री निग्रहं, मुच्यते माया मन:।
परम पुरुष पुरातनं, चिन्तते सदा तन:।।61।।
दादू सब जग विष भरा, निर्विष विरला कोय।
सोई निर्विष होयगा, जाके नाम निरंजन होय।।62।।
दादू निर्विष नाम सौं, तन मन सहजैं होय।
राम निरोगा करेगा, दूजा नाहीं कोय।।63।।
ब्रह्मभक्ति जब ऊपजे, तब माया भक्ति विलाय।
दादू निर्मल मल गया, ज्यूँ रवि तिमिर नशाय।।64।।
दादू विषय विकार सूं, जब लग मन राता।
तब लग चित्ता न आवई, त्रिाभुवनपति दाता।।65।।
दादू का जाणौं कब होयगा, हरि सुमिरण इकतार।
का जाणौं कब छाड़ि है, यह मन विषय विकार।।66।।
है सो सुमिरण होता नहीं, नहीं सु कीजे काम।
दादू यहु तन यौं गया, क्यूँ करि पाइये राम।।67।।
दादू राम नाम निज मोहनी, जिन मोहे करतार।
सुर नर शंकर मुनि जना, ब्रह्मा सृष्टि विचार।।67।।
दादू राम नाम निज औषधी, काटे कोटि विकार।
विषम व्याधि तैं ऊबरे, काया कंचन सार।।69।।
दादू निर्विकार निज नाम ले, जीवन इहै उपाइ।
दादू कृत्रिम काल है, ताके निकट न जाइ।।70।।

मन पवना गहि सुरति सौं, दादू पावे स्वाद।
सुमिरण माँहीं सुख घणा, छाडि देहु बकवाद।।71।।
नाम सपीड़ा लीजिए, प्रेम भक्ति गुण गाय।
दादू सुमिरण प्रीति सौं, हेत सहित ल्यौ लाय।।72।।
प्राण कमल मुख राम कहि, मन पवना मुख राम।
दादू सुरति मुख राम कहि, ब्रह्म शून्य निज ठाम।।73।।
दादू कहतां सुनता राम कहि लेतां देतां राम।
खातां पीतां राम कहि, आत्म कमल विश्राम।।74।।
ज्यों जल पैसे दूधा में, ज्यों पाणी में लौंण।
ऐसे आतम राम सौं, मन हठ साधो कौंण।।75।।
दादू राम नाम में पैसि करि, राम नाम ल्यो लाय।
यह इकंत त्राय लोक में, अनत काहे को जाय।।76।।
ना घर भला न वन भला, जहाँ नहीं निज नाम।
दादू उनमनी मन रहै, भला तो सोई ठाम।।77।।
दादू निर्गुणं नामं मई, हृदय भाव प्रवर्ततं।
भरमं करमं किल्विषं, माया मोहं कंपितम्ड्ड78।।
कालं जालं सोचितं, भयानक जम किंकरं।
हरषं मुदितं सद्गुरं, दादू अविगत दर्शनं।।79।।
दादू सब सुख स्वर्ग पयाल के, तोल तराजू बाहि।
हरि सुख एक पलक का, ता सम कह्या न जाइ।।80।।

दादू राम नाम सब को कहे, कहिबे बहुत विवेक।
एक अनेकौं फिर मिलै, एक समाना एक।।81।।
दादू अपणी अपणी हद्द में, सबको लेवे नांउ।
जे लागे बेहद्द सौं, तिनकी मैं बलि जांउ।।82।।
कौण पटंतर दीजिए, दूजा नाहीं कोय।
राम सरीखा राम है, सुमिरयां ही सुख होय।।83।।
अपनी जाणे आप गति, और न जाणे कोइ।
सुमिर-सुमिर रस पीजिए, दादू आनँद होइ।।84।।
दादू सब ही वेद पुराण पढ़ि, नेटि नाम निर्धार।
सब कुछ इनहीं माँहि है, क्या करिये विस्तार।।85।।
पढ़-पढ़ थाके पंडिता, किनहुँ न पाया पार।
कथ-कथ थाके मुनि जना, दादू नाम अधार।।86।।
निगम हि अगम विचारिये, तउ पार न पावे।
तातैं सेवक क्या करे, सुमिरण ल्यौ लावे।।87।।
दादू अलिफ एक अल्लाह का, जे पढ़ जाणै कोइ।
कुरान कतेबां इलम सब, पढ़कर पूरा होइ।।88।।
दादू यहु मन पिंजरा, माँही मन सूवा।
एक नाम अल्लाह का, पढ़ हाफिज हूवा।।89।।
नाम लिया तब जाणिये, जे तन मन रहै समाइ।
आदि अंत मधय एक रस, कबहूँ भूलि न जाइ।।90।।

दादू एकै दशा अनन्य की, दूजी दशा न जाइ।
आपा भूलै आन सब, एकै रहै समाइ।।91।।
दादू पीवे एक रस, बिसरि जाय सब और।
अविगत यहु गति कीजिए, मन राखो इहि ठौर।।92।।
आतम चेतन कीजिए, प्रेम रस पीवे।
दादू भूले देह गुण, ऐसै जन जीवे।।93।।
कहि कहि केते थाके दादू, सुनि सुनि कहु क्या लेय।
लूंण मिले गलि पाणियाँ, ता सम चित यौं देय।।94।।
दादू हरि रस पीवतां, रती विलम्ब न लाय।
बारंबार सँभालिये, मति वै बीसरि जाय।।95।।
दादू जागत सपना ह्नै गया, चिन्तामणि जब जाय।
तब ही साचा होत है, आदि अन्त उर लाय।।96।।
नाम न आवे तब दुखी, आवे सुख सन्तोष।
दादू सेवक राम का, दूजा हरख न शोक।।97।।
मिलै तो सब सुख पाइए, बिछुरे बहु दुख होय।
दादू सुख दुख राम का, दूजा नाहीं कोय।।98।।
दादू हरि का नाम जल, मैं मीन ता माँहि।
संग सदा आनन्द करे, विछुरत ही मर जाँहि।।99।।
दादू राम विसार करि, जीवें किहिं आधाार।
ज्यौं चातक जल बूँद कूँ, करे पुकार पुकार।।100।।

हम जीवें इहि आसिरे, सुमिरण के आधाार।
दादू छिटके हाथ तैं, तो हमको वार न पार।।101।।
दादू नाम निमित राम हि भजे, भक्ति निमित भज सोय।
सेवा निमित सांई भजे, सदा सजीवन होय।।102।।
दादू राम रसायन नित चवै, हरि है हीरा साथ।
सो धान मेरे सांइयां, अलख खजीना हाथ।।103।।
हिरदै राम रहे जा जन के, ताको ऊरा कौन कहै।
अठ सिधि नौ निधि ताके आगे, सन्मुख सदा रहै।।104।।
वंदित तीनों लोक बापुरा, कैसे दरश लहै।
नाम निसान सकल जग उपरि, दादू देखत है।।105।।
दादू सब जग नीधाना, धानवंता नहिं कोय।
सो धानवंता जानिये, जाके राम पदारथ होय।।106।।
संगहि लागा सब फिरे, राम नाम के साथ।
चिन्तामणि हिरदै बसे, तो सकल पदारथ हाथ।।107।।
दादू आनँद आतमा, अविनाशी के साथ।
प्राणनाथ हिरदै बसे, तो सकल पदारथ हाथ।।108।।
दादू भावे तहाँ छिपाइये, साच न छाना होय।
शेष रसातल गगन धारू, परकट कहिये सोय।।109।।
दादू कहाँ था नारद मुनिजना, कहाँ भक्त प्रहलाद।
परकट तीनों लोक में, सकल पुकारैं साध।।110।।

दादू कहाँ शिव बैठा धयान धारि, कहाँ कबीरा नाम।
सौ क्यूँ छाना होयगा, जे रु कहेगा राम।।111।।
दादू कहाँ लीन शुकदेव था, कहाँ पीपा रैदास।
दादू साचा क्यों छिपे, सकल लोक परकास।।112।।
दादू कहाँ था गोरख थरथरी, अनंत सिधों का मंत।
परकट गोपीचन्द है, दत्ता कहैं सब संत।।113।।
अगम अगोचर राखिए, कर कर कोटि जतन।
दादू छाना क्यों रहै, जिस घट राम रतन।।114।।
दादू स्वर्ग पयाल में, साचा लेवे नाम।
सकल लोक शिर देखिए, परकट सब ही ठाम।।115।।
सुमिरण का संशय रह्या, पछितावा मन माँहि।
दादू मीठा राम रस, सगला पीया नाँहि।।116।।
दादू जैसा नाम था, तैसा लीया नाँहि।
हौंस रही यहु जीव में, पछितावा मन माँहि।।117।।
दादू शिर करवत बहै, बिसरे आतम राम।
माँहि कलेजा काटिये, जीव नहीं विश्राम।।118।।
दादू शिर करवत बहै, राम हृदै थें जाय।
माँहि कलेजा काटिये, काल दशों दिशि खाय।।119।।
दादू शिर करवत बहै, अंग परस नहिं होय।
माँहि कलेजा काटिये, यहु व्यथा न जाणे कोय।।120।।
दादू शिर करवत बहै, नैनहुँ निरखे नाँहि।
माँहि कलेजा काटिये, साल रह्या मन माँहि।।121।।
जेता पाप सब जग करे, तेता नाम बिसारे होइ।
दादू राम सँभालिये, तो येता डारे धोइ।।122।।
दादू जब ही राम बिसारिये, तब ही मोटी मार।
खंड-खंड कर नाखिये, बीज पड़े तिहिं बार।।123।।
दादू जब ही राम बिसारिये, तब ही झ्रपै काल।
शिर ऊपर करवत बहै, आइ पड़े जम जाल।।124।।
दादूजबही राम बिसारिये, तब ही कँध विनाश।
पग-पग परले पिंड पड़े, प्राणी जाइ निराश ।।125।।
दादू जब ही राम बिसारिए, तब ही हाना होय।
प्राण पिंड सर्वस गया, सुखी न देख्या कोय।।126।।
साहिबजी के नाम मां, विरहा पीड़ पुकार।
ताला-बेली रोवणा, दादू है दीदार।।127।।
साहिबजी के नाम मां, भाव भक्ति विश्वास।
लै समाधि लागा रहे, दादू सांई पास।।128।।
साहिबजी के नाम मां, मति बुधि ज्ञान विचार।
प्रेम प्रीति सनेह सुख, दादू ज्योति अपार।।129।।
साहिबजी के नाम मां, सब कुछ भरे भंडार।
नूर तेज अनन्त है, दादू सिरजनहार।।130।।
जिसमें सब कुछ सो लिया, निरंजन का नांउ।
दादू हिरदै राखिये, मैं बलिहारी जांउ।।131।।

।।इति सुमिरण का अंग सम्पूर्ण।।

विरह का अंग संत दादू दयाल जीदादू नमो नमो निरंजनं, नमस्कार गुरु देवत:।
वन्दनं सर्व साधावा, प्रणामं पारंगत:।।1।।
रतिवंती आरति करे, राम सनेही आव।
दादू औसर अब मिलै, यहु विरहनि का भाव।।2।।
पीव पुकारे विरहनी, निश दिन रहै उदास।
राम राम दादू कहै, ताला-वेली प्यास।।3।।
मन चित चातक ज्यौं रटै, पिव पिव लागी प्यास।
दादू दरशन कारणै, पुरवहु मेरी आस।।4।।
दादू विरहनि दुख कासनि कहे, कासनि देइ संदेश।
पंथ निहारत पीव का, विरहनि पलटे केश।।5।।
विरहनि दुख कासनि कहै, जानत है जगदीश।
दादू निशदिन विरही है, विरहा करवत शीश।।6।।
शब्द तुम्हारा ऊजला, चिरिया क्यों कारी।
तुंहीं तुंहीं निश दिन करूँ, विरहा की जारी।।7।।
विरहनि रोवे रात-दिन, झूरै मन ही माँहि।
दादू औसर चल गया, प्रीतम पाये नाँहि।।8।।
दादू विरहनि कुरलै कूंज ज्यों, निशदिन तलफत जाय।
राम सनेही कारणै, रोवत रैनि बिहाय।।9।।
पासे बैठा सब सुने, हमको जवाब न देय।
दादू तेरे शिर चढे, जीव हमारा लेय।।10।।
सबको सुखिया देखिए, दुखिया नाँहीं कोय।
दुखिया दादू दास हे, ऐन परस नहिं होय।।11।।
साहिब मुख बोले नहीं, सेवक फिरे उदास।
यहु वेदन जिय में रहे, दुखिया दादू दास।।12।।
पिव बिन पल-पल जुग भया, कठिन दिवस क्यों जाय।
दादू दुखिया राम बिन, काल रूप सब खाय।।13।।
दादू इस संसार में, मुझ सा दुखी न कोइ।
पीव मिलन के कारणैं, मैं जल भरिया रोइ।।14।।
ना वह मिले न मैं सुखी, कहो क्यों जीवन होय।
जिन मुझ को घायल किया, मेरी दारू सोय।।15।।
दरशन कारण विरहनी, वैरागनि होवे।
दादू विरह वियोगिनी, हरि मारग जोवे।।16।।
अति गति आतुर मिलन को, जैसे जल बिन मीन।
सो देखे दीदार को, दादू आतम लीन।।17।।
राम विछोही विरहनी, फिर मिलण न पावे।
दादू तलफै मीन ज्यों, तुझ दया न आवे।।18।।
दादू जब लग सुरति समिटे नहीं, मन निश्चल नहीं होहि।
तब लग पिव परसे नहीं, बड़ी विपति यहु मोहि।।19।।
ज्यों अमली के चित अमल है, शूरे के संग्राम।
निर्धान के चित धान बसे, यौं दादू के राम।।20।।
ज्यों चातक के चित जल बसे, ज्यों पानी बिन मीन।
जैसे चन्द चकोर है, ऐसे दादू हरि सौं कीन।।21।।
ज्यों कु×जर के मन वन बसे, अनल पक्षि आकास।
यों दादू का मन राम सौं, ज्यों वैरागी वनखंड वास।।22।।
भँवरां लुबधी वास का, मोह्या नाद कुरंग।
यों दादू का मन राम सौं, ज्यों दीपक ज्योति पतंग।।23।।
श्रवणा राते नाद सौं, नैन राते रूप।
जिह्ना राती स्वाद सौं, त्यों दादू एक अनूप।।24।।
देह पियारी जीव को, निशि दिन सेवा माँहि।
दादू जीवन मरण लों, कबहुँ छाड़ी नाँहि।।25।।
देह पियारी जीव को, जीव पियारा देह।
दादू हरि रस पाइये, जे ऐसा होय सनेह।।26।।
दादू हरदम माँहि दिवान, सेज हमारी पीव है।
देखूँ सो सुबहान, यह इश्क हमारा जीव है।।27।।
दादू हरदम माँहि दिवान, कहूँ दरूने दरद सौं।
परद दरूने जाइ, जब देखूँ दीदार कौं।।28।।
दादू दरूने दरदवंद, यहु दिल दरद न जाय।
हम दुखिया दीदार के, महरवान दिखलाय।।29।।
मूये पीड़ा पुकारता, वैद्य न मिलिया आय।
दादू थोड़ी बात थी, जे टुक दरश दिखाय।।30।।
दादू मैं भिखारी मंगता, दर्शन देहु दयाल।
तुम दाता दुख भंजता, मेरी करहु सँभाल।।31।।
क्या जीये में जीवणा, बिन दरशन बेहाल।
दादू सोई जीवणा, परगट परसन लाल।।32।।
इहि जग जीवन सो भला, जब लग हिरदै राम।
राम बिना जो जीवना, सो दादू बेकाम।।33।।
दादू कहु दीदार की, सांई सेती बात।
कब हरि दरशन देहुगे, यह अवसर चल जात।।34।।
व्यथा तुम्हारे दरश की, मोहि व्यापै दिन-रात।
दुखी न कीजे दीन को, दरशन दीजे तात।।35।।
दादू इस हियड़े यह साल, पिव बिन क्योंहि न जायसी।
जब देखूँ मेरा लाल, तब रोम-रोम सुख आइसी।।36।।
तूं है तैसा प्रकाश करि, अपना आप दिखाय।
दादू को दीदार दे, बलि जाउं विलम्ब न लाय।।37।।
दादू पिवजी देखें मुझको, हूँ भी देखूँ पीव।
हूँ देखूँ देखत मिले, तो सुख पावे जीव।।38।।
दादू कहै-तन मन तुम पर वारणै, कर दीजे कै बार।
जे ऐसी विधि पाइये, तो लीजे सिरजनहार।।39।।
दीन दुनी सदके करूँ, टुक देखण दे दीदार।
तन मन भी छिन-छिन करौं, भिस्त दोजख भी वार।।40।।
दादू हम दुखिया दीदार के, तू दिल तैं दूर न होइ।
भावै हमको जाल दे, होना है सो होइ।।41।।
दादू कहै-जे कुछ दिया हमको, सो सब तुम ही लेहु।
तुम बिन मन माने नहीं, दरश आपणा देहु।।42।।
दूजा कुछ माँगैं नहीं, हमको दे दीदार।
तूं है तब लग एक टग, दादू के दिलदार।।43।।
दादू कहै तूं है तैसी भक्ति दे, तूं है तैसा प्रेम।
तूं है तैसी सुरति दे, तूं है तैसा क्षेम।।44।।
दादू कहै सदके करूँ शरीर को, बेर-बेर बहु भंत।
भाव-भक्ति हित प्रेम ल्यौ, खरा पियारा कंत।।45।।
दादू दरशन की रली, हमको बहुत अपार।
क्या जाणूँ कब ही मिले, मेरा प्राण अधार।।46।।
दादू कारण कंत के, खरा दुखी बेहाल।
मीरा मेरा मिहर करि, दे दर्शन दर हाल।।47।।
ताल-बेली प्यास बिन, क्यों रस पीया जाय।
विरहा दरशन दरद सौं, हमको देहु खुदाय।।48।।
ताला-बेली पीड़ सौं, विरहा प्रेम पियास।
दर्शन सेती दीजिए, विलसे दादू दास।।49।।
दादू कहैµहमको अपना आप दे, इश्क मुहब्बत दर्द।
सेज सुहाग सुख प्रेम रस, मिल खेलें लापर्द।।50।।

प्रेम भक्ति माता रहे, तालाबेली अंग।
सदा सपीड़ा मन रहे, राम रमे उन संग।।51।।
प्रेम मगन रस पाइये, भक्ति हेत रुचि भाव।
विरह विश्वास निज नाम सौं, देव दयाकर आव।।52।।
गई दशा सब बाहुड़े, जे तुम प्रगटहु आय।
दादू ऊजड़ सब बसे, दर्शन देहु दिखाय।।53।।
हम कसिये क्या होइगा, विड़द तुम्हारा जाय।
पीछैं ही पछिताहुगे, तातैं प्रकटहु आय।।54।।
मींयां मैंडा आव घर, वांढी वत्तां लोइ।
डुखंडे मुंहिडे गये, मराँ विछोहै रोइ।।55।।
है सो निधि नहिं पाइये, नहिं सु है भरपूर।
दादू मन माने नहीं, तातैं मरिये झूर।।56।।
जिस घट इश्क अल्लाह का, तिस घट लोही न माँस।
दादू जियरे जक नहीं, सिसके श्वासों श्वास।।57।।
रती रब ना बीसरै, मरै सँभाल सँभाल।
दादू सुहदायी रहे, आशिक अल्लह नाल।।58।।
दादू आशिक रब्बदा, शिर भी डेवे लाहि।
अल्लह कारण आपको, साड़े अन्दर भाहि।।59।।
भोरे-भोरे तन करै, वंडे कर कुरबाण।
मिट्ठा कोड़ा ना लगे, दादू तोहूँ साण।।60।।
जब लग शीश न सौंपिये, तब लग इश्क न होय।
आशिक मरणे ना डरे, पिया पियाला सोय।।61।।
तैं डीनोंई सभु, जे डीये दीदार के।
उंजे लहदी अभु, पसाई दो पाण के।।62।।
बिचौं सभो डूर कर, अन्दर बिया न पाय।
दादू रत्ता हिकदा, मन मुहब्बत लाय।।63।।
इश्क मुहब्बत मस्त मन, तालिब दर दीदार।
दोस्त दिल हरदम हरजू, यादगार हुशियार।।64।।
दादू आशिक एक अल्लाह के, फारिग दुनियाँ दीन।
तारिक इस औजूद तैं, दादू पाक यकीन।।65।।
आशिकां रह कब्ज करदां, दिल वजां रफतन्द।
अल्लह आले नूर दीदम, दिल हि दादू बन्द।।66।।
दादू इश्क अवाज सौं, ऐसे कहै न कोय।
दर्द मुहब्बत पाइये, साहिब हासिल होय।।67।।
कहाँ आशिक अल्लाह के, मारे अपने हाथ।
कहाँ आलम औजूद सौं, कहैं जबाँ की बात।।68।।
दादू इश्क अल्लाह का, जे कबहूँ प्रगटे आय।
तोतन-मनदिन अरवाह का, सब पड़दा जलजाय।।69।।
अरवाहे सिजदा कुनंद, वजूद रा चि:कार।
दादू नूर दादनी, आशिकां दीदार।।70।।
विरह अग्नि तन जालिये, ज्ञान अग्नि दौं लाय।
दादू नख-शिख पर जले, तब राम बुझावे आय।।71।।
विरह अग्नि में जालिबा, दरशन के तांई।
दादू आतुर रोइबा, दूजा कुछ नाँहीं।।72।।
साहिब सौं कुछ बल नहीं, जिन हठ साधो कोय।
दादू पीड़ पुकारिये, रोतां होय सो होय।।73।।
ज्ञान धयान सब छाड़िदे, जप-तप साधान जोग।
दादू विरहा ले रहै, छाड़ि सकल रस भोग।।74।।
जहँ विरहा तहँ और क्या, सुधि-बुधि नाठे ज्ञान।
लोक वेद मारग तजे, दादू एकै धयान।।75।।
विरही जन जीवे नहीं, जे कोटि कहैं समझाय।
दादू गहिला ह्नै रहै, कै तलफि-तलफि मरि जाय।।76।।
दादू तलफै पीड़ सौं, विरही जन तेरा।
सिसकै सांई कारणै, मिल साहिब मेरा।।77।।
पड़ा पुकारै पीड़ सौं, दादू विरही जन।
राम सनेही चित बसै, और न भावै मन।।78।।
जिस घट विरहा राम का, उसे नींद न आवे।
दादू तलफै विरहनी, उसे पीड़ जगावे।।79।।
सारा शूरा नींद भर, सब कोई सोवे।
दादू घाइल दर्दवंद, जागे अरु रोवे।।80।।

पीड़ पुराणी ना पड़े, जे अन्तर बैधया होय।
दादू जीवन-मरण लों, पड़या पुकारे सोय।।81।।
दादू विरही पीड़ा सौं, पड़या पुकारे मिंत्ता।
राम बिना जीवे नहीं, पीव मिलन की चिंत्ता।।82।।
जो कबहूँ विरहनि मरे, तो सुरति विरहनि होइ।
दादू पिव पिव जीवतां, मुवाँ भी टेरे सोइ।।83।।
दादू अपनी पीड़ पुकारिये, पीड़ पराई नाँहि।
पीड़ पुकारे सो भला, जाके करक कलेजे माँहि।।84।।
ज्यों जीवत मृत्ताक कारणे, गत कर नाखे आप।
यों दादू कारण राम के, विरही करै विलाप।।85।।
दादू तलफि-तलफि विरहणि मरे, करि-करि बहुत विलाप।
विरह अग्नि में जल गई, पीव न पूछे बात।।86।।
दादू कहाँ जाऊँ कौन पै पुकारूँ, पीव न पूछे बात।
पिव बिन चैन न आवई, क्यों भरूँ दिन-रात।।87।।
दादू विरह वियोग न सह सकूँ, मों पै सह्या न जाय।
कोई कहो मेरे पीव को, दरश दिखावे आय।।88।।
दादू विरह वियोग न सह सकूँ, निशि दिन साले मोहि।
कोई कहो मेरे पीव कौं, कब मुख देखूँ तोहि।।89।।
दादू विरह वियोग न सहि सकूँ, तन-मन धारे न धीर।
कोई कहो मेरे पीव को, मेटे मेरी पीर।।90।।
दादू कहै-साधु दुखी संसार में, तुम बिन रह्या न जाय।
औरों के आनन्द है, सुख सौं रैनि बिहाय।।91।।
दादू लाइक हम नहीं, हरि के दरशन जोग।
बिन देखे मर जाँहिगे, पिव के विरह वियोग।।92।।
दादू सुख सांई सौं, और सबै ही दु:ख।
देखूँ दर्शन पीव का, तिस ही लागे सुख।।93।।
चन्दन शीतल चन्द्रमा, जल शीतल सब कोइ।
दादू विरही राम का, इन सौं कदे न होइ।।94।।
दादू घाइल दर्दवंद, अन्तर करे पुकार।
साँई सुने सब लोक में, दादू यहु अधिकार।।95।।
दादू जागे जगत् गुरु, जब सगला सोवे।
विरही जागे पीड़ा सौं, जे घाइल होवे।।96।।
विरह अग्नि का दाग दे, जीवत मृतक गौर।
दादू पहली घर किया, आदि हमारी ठौर।।97।।
दादू देखे का अचरज नहीं, अण देखे का होय।
देखे ऊपरि दिल नहीं, अण देखे को रोय।।98।।
पहली आगम विरह का, पीछे प्रीति प्रकाश।
प्रेम मगन लै लीन मन, तहाँ मिलन की आश।।99।।
विरह वियोगी मन भला, साँई का वैराग।
सहज संतोषी पाइये, दादू मोटे भाग।।100।।
दादू तृषा बिना तन प्रीति न उपजे, शीतल निकट जल धारिया।
जनम लगैं जीव पुणग न पीवे, निर्मल दह दिश भरिया।।101।।
दादू क्षुधा बिना तन प्रीति न उपजे, बहु विधि भोजन नेरा।
जनम लगैं जिव रती न चाखे, पाक पूरि बहुतेरा।।102।।
दादू तपति बिना तन प्रीति न उपजे, संग हि शीतल छाया।
जनम लगैं जिव जाणे नाँहीं, तरुवर त्रिाभुवन राया।।103।।
दादू चोट बिना तन प्रीति न उपजे, औषधि अंग रहंत।
जनम लगैं जीव पलक न परसे, बूँटी अमर अनंत।।104।।
दादू चोट न लागी विरह की, पीड़ा न उपजी आय।
जागि न रोवे धाह दे, सोवत गई बिहाय।।105।।
दादू पीड़ न ऊपजी, ना हम करी पुकार।
तातैं साहिब न मिल्या, दादू बीती बार।।106।।
अन्दर पीड़ न ऊभरै, बाहर करे पुकार।
दादू सो क्यों कर लहे, साहिब, का दीदार।।107।।
मन ही माँहीं झूरणा, रावे मन ही माँहि।
मन ही माँहीं धाह दे, दादू बाहर नाँहि।।108।।
बिन ही नैन हुँ रोवणा, बिन मुख पीड़ पुकार।
बिन ही हाथों पीटणा, दादू बारंबार।।109।।
प्रीति न उपजे विरह बिन, प्रेम भक्ति क्यों होय।
सब झूठे दादू भाव बिन, कोटि करे जे कोय।।110।।
दादू बातों विरह न ऊपजे, बातों प्रीति न होय।
बातों प्रेम न पाइये, जिनि रु पतीजे कोय।।111।।
दादू तो पिव पाइये, कुश्मल है सो जाय।
निर्मल मन कर आरसी, मूरति माँहि लखाय।।112।।
दादू तो पिव पाइये, करिये मंझें विलाप।
सुणि है कबहु चित्ता धारि, परगट होवे आप।।113।।
दादू तो पिव पाइये, कर सांई की सेव।
काया माँहि लखाइसी, घट ही भीतरि देव।।114।।
दादू तो पिव पाइये, भावै प्रीति लगाय।
हेजैं हरि बुलाइये, मोहन मंदिर आय।।115।।
दादू जाके जैसी पीड़ा है, सो तैसी करे पुकार।
को सूक्ष्म को सहज में, को मृत्ताक तिहिं बार।।116।।
दरद हि बूझे दरदवंद, जाके दिल होवे।
क्या जाणे दादू दरद की, नींद भर सोवे।।117।।
दादू अक्षर प्रेम का, कोई पढ़ेगा एक।
दादू पुस्तक प्रेम बिन, केते पढ़ैं अनेक।।118।।
दादू पाती प्रेम की, विरला बाँचे कोइ।
वेद पुराण पुस्तक पढ़ै, प्रेम बिना क्या होइ।।119।।
दादू कर बिन, शर बिन, कमान बिन, मारै खैंचि कसीस।
लागी चोट शरीर में, नख शिख सालै सीस।।120।।
दादू भलका मारे भेद सौं, सालै मंझि पराण।
मारण हारा जाणि है, कै जिहिं लागे बाण।।121।।
दादू सो शर हमको मारिले, जिहिं शर मिलिये जाय।
निश दिन मारग देखिए, कबहूँ लागे आय।।122।।
जिहिं लागी सो जागि है, बेधया करै पुकार।
दादू पिंजर पीड़ है, सालै बारंबार।।123।।
विरही सिसकै पीड़ सौं, ज्यों घायल रण माँहि।
प्रीतम मारे बाण भरि, दादू जीवैं नाँहि।।124।।
दादू विरह जगावे दरद को, दरद जगावे जीव।
जीव जगावे सुरति को, पंच पुकारे पीव।।125।।
दादू मारे प्रेम सौं, बेधे साधु सुजाण।
मारण हारे को मिले, दादू विरही बाण।।126।।
सहजैं मनसा मन सधौ, सहजैं पवना सोय।
सहजैं पंचों थिर भये, जे चोट विरह की होय।।127।।
मारण हारा रहि गया, जिहिं लागी सो नाँहि।
कबहूँ सो दिन होइगा, यह मेरे मन माँहि।।128।।
प्रीतम मारे प्रेम सौं, तिनको क्या मारे।
दादू जारे विरह के, तिनको क्या जारे।।129।।
दादू पड़दा पलक का, येता अंतर होइ।
दादू विरही राम बिन, क्यों करि जीवे सोइ।।130।।
काया मांहैं क्यों रह्या, बिन देखे दीदार।
दादू विरही बावरा, मरे नहीं तिहिं बार।।131।।
बिन देखे जीवै नहीं, विरह का सहिनाण।
दादू जीवै जब लगैं तब लग विरह न जाण।।132।।
रोम-रोम रस प्यास है, दादू करहि पुकार।
राम घटा दल उमंगि कर बरसहु सिरजनहार।।133।।
प्रीति जु मेरे पीव की, पैठी पिंजर माँहि।
रोम-रोम पिव-पिव करे, दादू दूसर नाँहि।।134।।
सब घट श्रवणा सुरति सौं, सब घट रसना बैंन।
सब घट नैना ह्नै रहै, दादू विरहा ऐन।।135।।
रात दिवस का रोवणाँ, पहर पलक का नाँहि।
रोवत-रोवत मिल गया, दादू साहिब माँहि।।136।।
दादू नैन हमारे बावरे, रोवे नहिं दिन-रात।
सांई संग न जाग ही, पिव क्यों पूछे बात।।137।।
नैनहु नीर न आइया, क्या जाणैं ये रोइ।
तैसे ही कर रोइये, साहिब नैनहु जोइ।।138।।
दादू नैन हमारे ढीठ हैं, नाले नीर न जाँहि।
सूके सरां सहेत वै, करंक भये गलि माँहि।।139।।
दादू विरह प्रेम की लहरि में, यहु मन पंगुल होइ।
राम नाम में गलि गया, बुझै विरला कोइ।।140।।
विरह अग्नि में जल गये, मन के मैल विकार।
दादू विरही पीव का, देखेगा दीदीर।।141।।
विरह अग्नि में जल गये, मन के विषय विकार।
तातैं पंगुल ह्नै रह्या, दादू दर दीदार।।142।।
जब विरहा आया दरद सौं, तब मीठा लागा राम।
काया लागी काल ह्नै, कड़वे लागे काम।।143।।
जब राम अकेला रहि गया, तन-मन गया बिलाइ।
दादू विरही तब सुखी, जब दरश परस मिल जाइ।।144।।
जे हम छाडैं राम कूँ, तो राम न छाडै।
दादू अमली अमल तैं, मन क्यों करि काढ़ै।।145।।
विरहा पारस जब मिले, विरहनि विरहा होय।
दादू परसै विरहनी, पिव पिव टेरे सोय।।146।।
आशिक माशूक ह्नै गया इश्क कहावे सोय।
दादू उस माशूक का, अल्लह आशिक होय।।147।।
राम विरहनी ह्नै रह्या, विरहनि ह्नै गई राम।
दादू विरहा बापुरा, ऐसे कर गया काम।।148।।
विरह बिचारा ले गया, दादू हमको आइ।
जहँ अमग अगोचर राम था, तहँ विरह बिना को जाइ।।149।।
विरह बपुरा आइ करि, सोवत जगावे जीव।
दादू अंग लगाइ करि, ले पहुँचावे पीव।।150।।
विरहा मेरा मीत है, विरहा वैरी नाँहि।
विरहा को वैरी कहै, सो दादू किस माँहि।।151।।
दादू इश्क अलह की जाति है, इश्क अलह का अंग।
इश्क अल्लाह वजूद है, इश्क अलह का रंग।।152।।
दादू प्रीतम के पग परसिये, मुझे देखन का चाव।
तहँ ले शीश नवाइये, जहाँ धारे थे पाव।।153।।
बाट विरह की सोधि करि, पंथ प्रेम का लेहु।
लै के मारग जाइये, दूसर पाव न देहु।।154।।
विरहा वेगा भक्ति सहज में, आगे-पीछे जाय।
थोड़े माँहीं बहुत है, दादू रहु ल्यौ लाय।।155।।
विरहा वेगा ले मिले, ताला-बेली पीर।
दादू मन घाइल भया, सालै सकल शरीर।।156।।
आज्ञा अपरंपार की, बसि अम्बर भरतार।
हरे पटम्बर पहरि करि, धारती करे सिंगार।।157।।
वसुधा सब फूले-फले, पृथ्वी अनन्त अपार।
गगन गर्ज जल थल भरै, दादू जै जै कार।।158।।
काला मुँह कर काल का, सांई सदा सुकाल।
मेघ तुम्हारे घर घणां, बरसहु दीनदयाल।।159।।

।।इति विरह का अंग सम्पूर्ण।।

शब्द संत दादू दयाल जी

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dirghatamas Mamateya
In-universe information

Family Utathya (Father), Mamata(Mother), Vrihaspati(uncle), Angiras(Grandfather)
Spouse Pradeshwari

Children Gautama and others (Pradeshwari), Kakshivat and elven sons (Sudra servant woman) and Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra, Cumbha(Sudeshna)

Dīrghatamas (Sanskrit: दीर्घतमस्) was an ancient sage well known for his philosophical verses in the Rigveda. He was author of Suktas (hymns) 140 to 164 in the first Mandala (section) of the Rigveda.However there was another Dirghatamas named Dirghatama Mamteya.


Dirghatamas was one of the Angirasa Rishis, the oldest of the Rishi families, and regarded as brother to the Rishi Bharadvaja, who is the seer of the sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda. Dirghatamas is also the chief predecessor of the Gotama family of Rishis that includes Kakshivan, Gautam Maharishi, Nodhas and Vamadeva(seer of the fourth Mandala of the Rig Veda), who along with Dirghatamas account for almost 150 of the 1000 hymns of the Rig Veda. Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma, Ondra were also the sons of Dirghatamas through Raja Bali’s wife Sudhesana. His own verses occur frequently in many Vedic texts, a few even in the Upanishads.

He was the reputed purohit or chief priest of King Bharata (Aitareya Brahmana VIII.23), one of the earliest kings of the land, after whom India was named as Bharata (the traditional name of the country).


Dīrghatama was son of Raṣṭra.

Bhishma tells the narrative of the birth of Dirghatama Mamteya in the Mahabharata (book1, Adi Parva, CIV): "There was in olden days a wise Rishi of the name of Utathya. He had a wife of the name Mamata whom he dearly loved. One day Utathya's younger brother Brihaspati, the priest of the celestials, endued with great energy, approached Mamata. The latter, however, told her husband's younger brother—that foremost of eloquent men—that she had conceived from her connection with his elder brother and that, therefore, he should not then seek for the consummation of his wishes. She continued, 'O illustrious Brihaspati, the child that I have conceived has studied in his mother's womb the Vedas with the six Angas, Seed is not lost in vain. How can then this womb of mine afford room for two children at a time? Therefore, it behoveth thee not to seek for the consummation of thy desire at such a time. Thus addressed by her, Brihaspati, though possessed of great wisdom, could not suppress his desire. The child in the womb protested, 'There is no space here for two. O illustrious one, the room is small. I have occupied it first. It behoveth thee not to afflict me.' But Brihaspati without listening to what that child in the womb said, sought the embraces of Mamata possessing the most beautiful pair of eyes. And the illustrious Brihaspati, beholding this, became indignant, and reproached Utathya's child and cursed him, saying, 'Because thou hast spoken to me in the way thou hast at a time of pleasure that is sought after by all creatures, perpetual darkness shall overtake thee.' And from this curse of the illustrious Brihaspati, Utathya's child who was equal unto Brihaspati in energy, was born blind and came to be called Dirghatamas (enveloped in perpetual darkness). And the wise Dirghatamas, possessed of a knowledge of the Vedas, though born blind, succeeded yet by virtue of his learning, in obtaining for a wife a young and handsome Brahmana maiden of the name of Pradweshi. And having married her, the illustrious Dirghatamas, for the expansion of Utathya's race, begat upon her several children with Gautama Dirghatamas as their eldest.
Marriage Laws

Dirghatamas' sons were all covetous. So the sages staying in his hermits left Dirghatamas for he had reared up unvirtuous sons. Dirgatamas became very sad at this incident, and asked his wife, Pradeshwari whether she was also upset with him or not. She answered that she was for DIrghatamas was blind and neither her protector (Pati) nor her supporter (Bhartri), hence she had to bring up their sons by herself. Hearing this Dirghatamas became angry and laid a new law regarding marriage, that a woman could only marry once whether her husband was alive or dead.

Hearing this, Pradeshwari became exceedingly angry and asked her sons to cast their father into the Ganga. So Gautama and his brother tied Dirghatamas with a raft and threw him into the stream. A king named Bali, who was performing his ablutions saw the sage and rescued him. In return, he asked Dirghatamas to raise sons from Sudeshna through the Niyoga tradition. But queen Sudeshna sent a Sudra woman to the sage knowing he was blind and the sage begat eleven sons through that woman, with Kakshivata as eldest. But on knowing Sudeshna's act he became angry and to pacify him the king asked his wife Sudeshna to go to Dirghatams. Then through Sudeshna he had five sons named Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Cumbha, who were given the kingdoms after their names.

Asya Vamasya Hymn

Dirghatamas is famous for his paradoxical apothegms. His mantras are enigmas: "He who knows the father below by what is above, and he who knows the father who is above by what is below is called the poet."

The Asya Vamasya (RgVeda 1.164) is one of the sage's most famous poems. Early scholars (such as Deussen in his Philosophy of the Upanishads) tried to say that the poems of Dirghatamas were of a later nature because of their content, but this has no linguistic support which has been argued by modern Sanskrit scholars (such as Dr. C. Kunhan Raja in his translation of the Asya Vamasya Hymn). The reason that earlier Western scholars believed them to be of a later origin is due to the monist views found there. They believed that early Vedic religion was pantheistic and a monist view of god evolved later in the Upanishads - but the poems of Dirghatamas (1.164.46) which say "there is One Being (Ekam Sat) which is called by many names" proves this idea incorrect.

Earliest Mention of the Zodiac

Some scholars have claimed that the Babylonians invented the zodiac of 360 degrees around 700 BCE, perhaps even earlier. Many claim that India received the knowledge of the zodiac from Babylonia or even later from Greece. However, as old as the Rig Veda, the oldest Vedic text, there are clear references to a chakra or wheel of 360 spokes placed in the sky. The number 360 and its related numbers like 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 108, 432 and 720 occur commonly in Vedic symbolism. It is in the hymns of the Rishi Dirghatamas (RV I.140 - 164) that we have the clearest such references.

Famous Sayings

A number of famous sayings originate from the verses of Dirghatamas.
Another one bites the dust

The first time the phrase "bites the dust" appears is in the Rigveda (1.158.4-5) where the poet Dirgatama has a prayer to the divine doctors and says ‘may the turning of the days not tire me, may the fires not burn me, may the wood-pyre not eat the earth, may the waters not swallow me’. There are disputes on what "bites the dirt" means in sayana’s commentary in the 14th century- which means the phrase had gone out of style in India at this time as most people began to be cremated instead of buried. But reading the padbandha, it's very clear that it refers to the wood-pyre eating earth, not the deceased human.

mā mām edho daśatayaś cito dhāk pra yad vām baddhas tmani khādati kśāṃ

Note the use of 3rd person singular verb ending -ti for khād (to eat). Dirghatama is using it as a prayer from death - such as don’t let me die and be burned. If it were a prayer saying "let me not eat the earth", the 1st person singular, -mi or -āni would have been used. Here, eating of earth effect is produced by charring of earth by burnt wood-pyre.

संत दुर्बल नाथ जी

(भाद्रपद सुदी एकादसी वि. स. १९१८-चेत्र सुदी पूर्णिमा वि.स. १९८६)

ज्ञान गुरज लिया हाथ में, शील शब्द तलवार।
शीश काल का कूटकर, "दुर्बल "उतरा पार।।--संत दुर्बल नाथ

युग प्रवर्तक संत दुर्बल नाथ

राजस्थान जितना वीरता के लिए प्रसिद्ध है उतना ही संतो के लिए। अरावली पर्वतमाला की तलहटी में बसे अलवर जिले की लक्ष्मण गढ़ की तहसील में एक गांव है जिसका नाम है बिचगंवा। कच्ची झोपड़ियो का एक समूह खटिक माडी में मा. फत्तुराम व मा. रूपा देवी के भाद्रपद सुदी एकादसी वि. स. १९१८ को एक सुंदर शिशु ने जन्म लिया।

यही बालक कालांतर में अपने तप एवं कर्म के बल पर युग प्रवर्तक दुर्बल नाथ के नाम से विख्यात हुआ।

आपका बचपन का नाम कल्या था। आप गाय चराते थे किन्तु ज्ञान की खोज में कई कई घंटे तप और साधना में बीत जाते थे। ये खबर जब घर वालों को लगी तो वो बहुत चिंतित होने लगे और सोचने लगे की हमारा कल्या साधू न बन जाये। अतः आपका बाल्यकाल में ही विवाह अलवर शहर की मानवती कन्या से कर दिया।

गृहस्थ का पालन करते हुए भी आपका मन निरंतर ज्ञान की खोज में लगा रहता। आपने अपने तपोबल से जानकर श्याम्दा गद्दी पर विराजमान साधू गरीबनाथ महाराज समर्थ गुरु को अपना गुरु बनाया। संत गरीबनाथ जी ने आपको मंत्र बोध करा कर नाम कल्या से दुर्बल नाथ किया। आपने आश्रम बांदीकुई में पूर्व घोषणानुसार चेत्र सुदी पूर्णिमा को वि.स..१९८६ भक्तो के सम्मुख शरीर त्याग दिया।

आपने ३९ वर्ष तक वैराग्य जीवन व्यतीत किया। अनपढ़ होकर भी आप ने अपने तपोबल से अनुभव करके १३९६ वाणियो की रचना की। आपकी पुस्तक का नाम "अनुभव आत्म प्रकाश" है।

आपने अपने वैराग्य जीवन में अलवर भरतपुर ,जयपुर सवाई माधोपुर ,दिल्ली करोली अम्बाला आदि स्थानों पर प्रवास किया। आपने श्याम्दा, थली ,जमुआ रामगढ, बांदीकुई आदि स्थानों पर आश्रमों का निर्माण किया इस दौरान विभिन्न दीन दुखियो के कष्ट-मुक्त करने के कार्य किये।

इस प्रकार आपने अपने तपोबल से जन जन का कल्याण किया आपके चिंतन अनुभव में समस्त आध्यात्मिक ज्ञान का सारांश नज़र आता है। आपकी खोज केवल परम ज्ञान की खोज है।

आपने तंत्र-मंत्र, जादू-टोना पाखंड का खंडन किया। आपने संत अखंडी पंथ की स्थापना कर नए युग का सूत्रपात किया। आप गोरक्ष नाथ एवं भरथरी वैराग्य के संत थे।

अंत में धन्य है वो धरा जिस पर दुर्बल नाथ जी महाराज जैसे संतो ने जन्म लिया।

हमें चाहिए की दुर्बल नाथ जी द्वारा निर्देशित ज्ञान मार्ग का पालन करते हुए संसार में उनके ज्ञान -विज्ञान का प्रचार -प्रसार करे।

यही हमारी दुर्बल नाथ जी के प्रति "निष्ठा" का रेखांकन होगा।

लेखक : छैल बिहारी किरार
from : alwarkhatikblogspotcom

आपने अपने वैराग्य जीवन में अलवर भरतपुर ,जयपुर सवाई माधोपुर ,दिल्ली करोली अम्बाला आदि स्थानों पर प्रवास किया . आपने भक्तो सेवको को उपदेश दिया आपने श्याम्दा, थली ,जमुआ रामगढ ,बांदीकुई आदि स्थानों पर आश्रमों का निर्माण किया इस दौरान विभिन्न दीन दुखियो के कष्ट -मुक्त कर चमत्कारिक कार्य किये ----

१ जब गुरु गरीबनाथ जी ने अपना रूप शेर का किया तो आपने स्वयं को गाय का रूप देकर गुरु को प्रणाम किया
२ करोली नरेश महाराज भंवरपाल सिंह के सामने भारी पत्थर की शिला को तैरा कर जन समूह को दिखाया
३ जमुआ रामगढ में शेर द्वारा मारी गई गाय को उसके बछड़े के रुदन से द्रवित होकर गाय को जीवन दान दिया
४ गोपाल गढ़ (जयपुर) के रणजीता गुर्जर के इकलोते मृत पुत्र को जन समूह के सामने जीवन दान दिया
५ बीजा राम सेवक जो की अँधा था को नेत्रों में ज्योति का संचार किया
६ जमुआ रामगढ में भादो सुदी एकादशी( जल झुलनी ) को सत्संग में भक्तो की मांग पर श्री कृष्ण के दर्शन कराये
७ बांदीकुई में आपने शारीर त्यागने का दिन ६ माह पहले हि घोषित कर दिया | और उसी दिन शारीर को त्याग दिया

इस प्रकार आपने अपने तपोबल से जन जन का कल्याण किया आपके चिंतन अनुभव में समस्त शाश्त्रो का सरांस नज़र आता है आपकी खोज केवल सर्व शक्तिमान एवं परम तत्त्व की खोज है

आपने तंत्र -मंत्र जादू - टोना पाखंड का खंडन किया आपने संत अखंडी पंथ की स्थापना कर नए युग का सूत्र पात किया

आप श्री गोरक्ष नाथ एवं भरथरी वैराग्य के संत थे

अंत में धन्य है वो धरा जिस पर अनंत श्री दुर्बल नाथ जी महाराज जैसे संतो ने जन्म लिया |
हमें चाहिए की अनंत श्री जी द्वारा निर्देशित मार्ग का पालन करते हुए संसार में उनके ज्ञान -विज्ञानं का प्रचार -प्रसार करे

यही हमारी अनंत श्री के प्रति "भक्ति व निष्ठां "का रेखांकन होगा

ज्ञान गुरज लिया हाथ में ,शील शब्द तलवार |
शीश काल का कूटकर "दुर्बल "उतरा पार ||

दया, गरीबी, आधीनता ,समता शील शंतोश |
यह गहना हरिभक्त का ,तो मिटे कर्म का दोष

अनंत श्री जी समाज गुरु हम सभी का कल्याण करें
इसी आशा एवं विस्वाश के साथ

छैल बिहारी किरार

Many writers has written on this Rishi : -

St Dhanurdasa (also Urangavilli)
by kazhiyur varadan,

Pillai Uranga Villidasan was a favorite disciple to Swamy Ramanuja .He became very close to his Master so rare that was his piety though belonged to a lower caste he had privileges conferred upon him .

The abundant compassion Jagath Acharyar Swamy Ramanuja had on Villidasan is presented in the movie clip below .Click and relish the pastime before reading the appended pastime …

Very often Swamy Ramanuja was seen returning from Kaveri leaning on the shoulders of Swamy MudaliAndaan and Villidasan .

A brahmana is unclean before bath and clean after a bath and the disciples watching were curious with their Masters way why they had not changed places while accompanying Swamy Ramanuja .

They took courage to question their Master for an explanation.

Swamy condescended to them saying , my children !

Have you not heard that learning , riches and high birth swell a fool with pride , but adorn the wise man ?

This man our villidasan is utterly destitute of this three fold vice but we are not .

Hence he is fit enough to be touched by me .

On hearing the golden words the disciples bent their head in shame and dared make any further protest , but all the same malice kindled their minds against the favorite disciple Villidasan who was a sudra and more close to their master than a Brahmin disciple could be .

They could not digest a sudra should stand so high to their masters estimation , as their own prestige as Brahmins was being jeopardized.Srirangam Sri Ranganathaswamy Kovil

Swamy Ramanuja was aware of the disciples grudge towards the advanced devotee who was a gem among all of them .

As a true Master he wanted to convince the error which is making them spiritually fatal .

He devised a plan and hence called a close disciple in private and ordered him to secrete all the clothes of the disciples in the night when they were fast asleep. ( these were the clothes which are washed and hanged high to be dried up ) .

The task was accomplished .

The next day all the disciples were aghast with the missing of their daily wear . Each one was accusing the other and the entire scene turned into chaos.

They were calling names against each other .

Swamy Ramanuja walked into the chambers hearing the unusual noise . All the disciples vented their anguish about the missing clothes .

Swamy Ramanuja calmed them and advised them to accept the same as Lords providence . Alternate arrangements were made .

Days passed , Villidasan who was living near to the Ashram was serving Acharyar with utmost devotion .

One day it got delayed as Villidasar was entrusted some jobs for some festival .

Swamy Ramanuja walked into the disciples chamber and told them that they all must go to Villidasars house located few metres away and make an attempt to rob the precious jewellery and other ornaments from Ponnachee his wife when she is asleep.

All of them knew Villidasar was a rich person and had gifted many golden jewellary to his wife Ponnachee in the past on several occasions and she was always bedecked with the ornaments .

It was decided that they need to rob the jewels when Villidasar was serving Swamy Ramanuja in the ashram .

The disciples were very happy . All of them marched hurriedly to Villidasars house .They could see Ponnachee fast asleep .

Ponnachi was sleeping on the floor of the hut using her hand as a pillow. She was bedecked with wonderful gold jewelry The moment one of the disciples bent down to unhook her ear-ring, she woke up.

Without any inhibitions they waited , collected all the jewellery from the chest and attempted to remove the jewellery worn by her during her sleep once again .

But , Ponnachee recognised the disciples and did not want to startle him. She thought ,when Swamy Ramanuja’s disciple committed such an act of theft it must have a divine sanction .

She then laid still and allowed them remove the ear-rings, bangles and the nose-ring she was wearing on the left side of her body.

She felt they were taking away their own property for whatever effects she owned in this world were not really hers but entrusted to her for their sake .

This is how Property is to be spiritually viewed . She gently rolled over for them to strip the other side of the jewellery she was wearing .

She was anxious that the vaishnavas should complete their work and not go away with half work done . But her movement however created a fright and put the disciples on their toes to leave the place .

The vaishnavas returned to the ashrama .Pillai dasar after completing all the works assigned to him submits his humble prayers to Acharya and takes leave . Meanwhile , the disciples entered the ashram and explain the happenings at Villidasars house in detail to Acharyar.

Swamy Ramanujar orders them to follow Villidasar immediately up to his house and watch all that might take place in the house . The disciples quickly left the jewellery in Ashram and followed him in the dark .

In the house Ponnachee was eagerly waiting for her husband as done daily.When she heard the footsteps of Villidasar , she hurriedly went to the entrance and welcomed him .She washed his feet with all affection .

Villidasar looked at her very strangely as she had decked jewellery one sided only.

He said , What is this lady ?? taken aback with her strange dress sense .

Nothing My Lord she replied soothingly .

I shall explain you in detail ……..

Please honor the prasada quickly as it is already too late .

She continued about the incident that happened few minutes back .

She pleasingly said that the vaishnavas who are our gurus had come to our house just now my dear …..while I was lying asleep.

May be they were in need of their jewels .I could hear them whisper that I was asleep and It was the right time to take the jewellery .

Lying down hearing their whisper , I pretended to be fast asleep so that they could complete their task .

They laid hands on me and took all the jewels from my right side as the left side was visible .

Our effects are theirs as you know , so to let them have all , I quietly turned around my right side with all my care doing so to make them believe that I was really fast asleep, but my bad luck it some how gave them a alarm and to my utter regret they left without completing the job they had come for .

On hearing this Pillai urangi got upset and was angry with her . He said ..Hey Foolish woman !!! you have spoiled the great opportunity to serve the vaishnavas .

You must have laid motionless till their work is completed …. …..

.If the jewels were theirs Its their wish to take them as they like . I am really very upset with your behaviour……

He said half the jewels have been best invested , the remaining are vanity .

The vaishnavas were observing the conversation behind the doors .

They hurriedly left back to Ashrama and gave a full report of the conversation .

Swamy Ramanuja the Acharyar now spoke to his disciples and asked them to remain awake. He then instructed them to wake up all the other disciples.

All of them should clean themselves and assemble before the Acharya for an important lesson. Eager to hear new lessons from the Acharya, they all gathered around him in no time.

Suddenly from no where Villidasan ran into the mutt with his wife . He fell down at the Acharya’s feet like an uprooted tree. He and his wife Ponnachee were with tears . The other disciples were stunned at the unusual sight. They had never seen Villidasan crying so much.

“We have committed a grace sin Acharya.

We have together sinned.

We are no longer fit to be your disciples.

Condemn us to the worst of hells; even then the retribution will not be
adequate.” cried Villidasan..

“What happened, my child? Why are you crying?

Why is your wife crying?”

Swamy Ramanuja asked the devotee disciple ..




“You showed LORD to me.

And I could not even give some worthless piece of yellow metal to you, when you needed it!

What a sinner I am!

There is no hope for me, there is no salvation for me!”he was uncontrollable ….

Swamy Ramanuja turned to his other disciples.

Please tell me whose wisdom is better , great yours or his ?


This is why I say ….

Even River Cauvery cannot clean me completely.

But this man’s touch can purify me.

That’s why I lean on him when I return from the river.

Villi, my child ….. please teach these people how to love.”

The disciple who first complained to Ramanuja about Villidasan prostrated to him and Ponnachi’s feet begging their pardon.

Swamy Ramanuja then returned the jewels to Ponnachi and commanded her to wear them then and there.

And also ordered that she should never be without those jewels.

The silence that reigned in the Ashram was pregnant with many lessons, many teachings
and many leanings….

It is told that Villidasan was called as Mahamati ( a human wiser than wisdom ) the wisdom blinded by love for Lord .

He was love blind as to fear any danger for one who is above all dangers .

Mahamati used to walk with his sword drawn in front of the Lord so that he may stop anyone who dared to do any act in the least offensive to the Lord of Lords………………..

More details about this great disciple can be read in this post linked below :


Pillai Uranga Villidasan was a powerful wrestler. Not just any ordinary wrestler but one of very high standing. Almost all the wrestlers in the Chola Kingdom used to pay him a ‘protection fee’.
A Famous Wrestler was majestic in his looks and a terror to his rivals naturally .There was a beautiful lady in the village Ponnachi. (Pon in Tamil means gold.) Every one who saw her swore that she richly deserved her name. Her complexion, came closest to the yellow metal. She was slightly on the plumpy side. Her dance-like walk, her height and her dimpled cheeks made her the much-acclaimed beauty in her village. But the most prominent feature of her face was her eyes , very large, round and from which you cannot take your eyes off.
Ponnachi’s beauty was at least as well known as Villi’dasan s prowess. Villidasan was a very good man and had never abused his strength or position. And yes, he was the most eligible, most sought after bachelor in his town. As it would happen in love stories, he heard of Ponnachi’s beauty and set out to see her, more out of curiousity than anything else. Once he saw her eyes, he could not think of anything else. As if possessed he sought her hand in marriage, something which Ponnachi was only too eager to give. Villidasan was virtually consumed by his love for the damsel.
He stopped fighting and was thinking of nothing else other than his lady love. Villidasan and Ponnachi got married on an auspicious day. Their married life was most blissful in karmic world , which never ended. They had been married for years. Still to Villidasan Ponnachi was the most beautiful woman in the world with the most beautiful eyes. It was spring time. Festival time at Capital town of Srivaishnavisim , Srirangam. Vasanthotsavam. Ponnachi wanted to see the festival.
To Villidasan her slightest whim was a Royal Command. He made elaborate arrangements to ensure a comfortable travel for Ponnachi. She was borne in a palanquin till the main street of Srirengam where she had to get down and walk. Ponnachi got down from the palanquin. Villidasan who was standing nearby was stunned by her beauty. She was dressed up in an exquisite silk saree. What captivated his attention even after years of marriage was her eyes. Villidasan could not take his eyes away from hers. As she started to walk towards the temple, Villidasan did the unthinkable. He was walking backwards facing her, unable to see anything else but her large eyes. Those who saw this amusing sight giggled. Some even laughed out aloud. Villidasan gave a damn to what others thought. After all Ponnachi was his lawfully wedded wife and what was wrong in seeing her eyes? Ponnachi was half consumed by shyness and half by pride. She too loved her husband so much that she did not have the mind to object to his act, though she knew that it made people laugh behind their backs.
This strange procession – Ponnachi walking forward, Villidasan walking backwards, and the palanquin bearers and the retinue following Ponnachi – was nearing the temple gate. On the other side of the street, a very great saint was walking away from the temple followed by 1000 of his disciples. The name of the great saint was Swamy Ramanujacharya. Swamy Ramanujacharya was amused by the strange sight..
Ponnachi walking towards the temple followed by her retinue and Villidasan walking backwards unable to take off his eyes from those of his beautiful wife! The great saint was moved on seeing this wonderful sight. He inquired about the couple and then sent word to Villidasan asking him to come and meet him in his Ashram alone.Swamy Ramanuja had decided to do something about that. Now why should Swamy Ramanuja do something about Villi’dasans love? As a spiritual Master of people he instinctively knew that Villi’s love was quite unique.
If only Swamy Ramanujacharya could make people love something as intensely as Villidasan did, yes, he would have made a difference in their lives.At the same time if he showed Villi’s love as an example to be followed,then ignorant people might mistakenly think that they also should love Ponnachi. In other words at the present level Villidasan’s love is not a copyable, replicable model. So Sri Ramanuja wanted to first shift Villi’dasans love to something else and then make people understand the greatness of love. And in order to make so many people understand the meaning of love, there is no harm in shifting one person’s object of love. Ramanuja was a highly respected Acharya. So Villidasan was excited came running to see him in his Ashram as soon as he got his call.It was late in the night. The Srirangam temple would be closed for the day in another half an hour. Swamy Ramanuja wanted to accomplish his missionwithin that time.
He asked Villidasan in a sarcastic tone,“Aren’t you ashamed , Villidasan , to be seeing your wife’s eyes, when God’sfestival is on?” Villidasans ’s reply was a correct blend of humility and the force of truth.“Is there anything more beautiful than my wife’s eyes?”Ramanujacharya was waiting for this question. “What will you do if I show something more beautiful than that?”Now Villi knew for sure that there was nothing like that and so hiswords came with confidence. “Then I will fall in love with those eyes. Ponnachi and I will be yourslaves for the rest of our lives.” “Deal. Come with me.” Swamy Ramanujar took Villidasan to the sanctum sanctorum of the temple.
The God of Love,Sri Ranganathar, Thiruvarangan, was sleeping in his comfortable snake-bed attended by his Devis. Then the great Acharyatook hold of Villidasan’s hands. The Acharya’s touch sent waves of electric shock in his body. Ramanujar closed his eyes and prayed to the Lord.

“Oh, Lord, here’s is an example of perfect love. And thewhole world is steeped in misery unaware of this kind of love. I want the people to know that there is something like this love and that every one of us is capable of it. For that you need to give these two people to me. “I know that these two people are as precious to you as your Devis and are holier than the holiest scriptures ever written on you. I promise you my Lord, I’ll give them the reverence they deserve. Now please, LORD Ranganatha show the beauty of your eyes to this man of love.”
A selfless prayer!

Two loving souls standing before Him! Ranganathar was helpless!
He had to grant the Acharya’s wish. And the great Lord, whose eyes are not to be seen even by the highest of Devas and the wisest of Rishis, whose Feet cannot even be touched by Vedas and all the knowledge in the world, opened his most beautiful eyes for Villidasan to see. Villidasan was awe-struck; no he was love-struck. The sight lasted for a fraction of a second. Villidasan instantly fell in love with those large, beautiful eyes, for which nothing in the world is even a pale comparison. Villi prostrated at Sri Ramanujar’s feet proclaiming his slavery to the saint.
Swamy Ramanuja lifted him as a loving father would lift his loving son. Swamy Ramanujar’s eyes were so full with tears, his heart so full with love that for a few seconds he could not talk.
Villidasan continued to be in a state of ecstasy. If God decides to show His eyes even for a nanosecond, the effect will last for centuries, extending into millions of life –times, for ever, for eternity and even thereafter. When he went back to Ponnachi that night and told about his experience, she was also transformed. She did not whine that her husband had found out another object of love.
She was ecstatic because she was the loving wife of a man to whom even the Great God had shown His eyes. The next morning Pillai Uranga Villidasan gives away his possessions, erects a small hut near Swamy Ramanuja’s Ashram and starts living there along with Ponnachi serving Swamy Ramanuja the entire life ….
Sri.Pillai Uranga Villidasar thiruvadigale sharanam.
Adiyen Ramanuja dasan

Pictures : Courtesy: Google
Dalai Lama
The 14th Dalai Lama was born Lhamo Döndrub, the 5th child of a large family in the farming village of Qinghai, China. At the age of two, he was picked out as the rebirth of the thirteenth Dalai Lama and sent for formal monastic training to become a Buddhist monk and eventually become the spiritual head of the Tibetan people. His spiritual name is Tenzin Gyatso, though he is mostly referred to as the ‘Dalai Lama’

“My religion is very simple. My religion is kindness.”
– Dalai Lama

He was formally enthroned as the Dalai Lama in 1950, shortly after the Chinese invasion of Tibet. He was thrust into a position of immense significance becoming both spiritual and political leader to a country under invasion and occupation.
After several years of Chinese occupation and persecution of the Tibetan religious practices, the Dalai Lama feared capture by the Chinese and so reluctantly decided to leave and fled over the border into India. It was a perilous journey – undertaken mostly on foot. After meeting with the prime minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, the Dalai Lama and up to 80,000 Tibetan exiles were allowed to stay and set up a government in exile in Dharamshala, India.

The Dalai Lama has followed a long campaign of non-violent resistance to the Chinese occupation. He has frequently called on the Chinese to respect the basic human rights of the indigenous Tibetans and end the migration of the ethnic Han Chinese into Tibet. In 1987 he proposed a five-point peace plan about the future of Tibet and called Tibet to be made into a zone of peace. He also secured United Nations resolutions to support the right for Tibetan self-determination.

As well as being the leader of the political struggle for Tibet, he has taught extensively on Buddhist philosophy, and in particular his teachings of loving kindness and the spiritual practice of Dzogchen.

As a monk, he follows a celibate lifestyle. He rises early every morning and undertakes periods of meditation according to his Buddhist teachings. He is a vegetarian and encourages others to adopt a vegetarian diet or at least reduce consumption of meat.

Interfaith Meetings

The Dalai Lama has met with many representatives of different religions. The Dalai Lama has been keen to stress the underlying unity of different religions; he has even said he is not keen to convert people to Buddhism.

“All major religious traditions carry basically the same message, that is love, compassion and forgiveness … the important thing is they should be part of our daily lives.” – As quoted in Especially for Christians: Powerful Thought-provoking Words from the Past (2005) by Mark Alton Rose, p. 19

“I am convinced that everyone can develop a good heart and a sense of universal responsibility with or without religion.”

“I don’t want to convert people to Buddhism — all major religions, when understood properly, have the same potential for good.” – from Nobel prize acceptance speech 1989

He said Pope John Paul II was sympathetic to his plight, even though he was reluctant to antagonise the Chinese because of the plight of Catholics in China.

The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Prize for peace in 1989.

He has remained active until his later years, frequently travelling around the world to talk on Buddhism and issues relating to human rights. Outside of religion, he has a great interest in technology and science, being fascinated with mechanical objects from an early age. He once remarked if he wasn’t a monk, he might have been an engineer. He has sought to develop a meaningful relationship between Buddhism and science. He has maintained an active interested in Mind & Life Institute – which investigates the scientific background to contemplative practices such as meditation.

The Dalai Lama has also spoken out about the importance of protecting the environment, avoiding war, the benefits of nuclear disarmament and has been critical of the worst excesses of capitalism.

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Biography of the 14th Dalai Lama”, Oxford, UK www.biographyonline.net. Published 10 Feb 2011. Updated 1 February 2018.
(Son of Dirghatamas and of a Dasi)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


God of Ayurveda
Physician of the Godsand Doctors

Pali ඕම් ධන්වන්තරි නමහ්
Affiliation Deva
Abode Samudra
Mantra नमामि...
Weapon Shankha, Chakra
Symbols Amrita, Leech
Mount Lotus
Festivals Dhanteras

Dhanvantari is the Hindu god of medicine and an avatar of Lord Vishnu. He is mentioned in the Puranas as the god of Ayurveda. He, during the Samudramanthan arose from the Ocean of Milk with the nectar of immortality. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantari seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others, especially on Dhanteras or Dhanwantari Trayodashi. The Indian Government has declared that Dhanwantari Trayodashii Kumara every year would be celebrated as "National Ayurveda Day"
Textual sources

"Ramayana Balakand" and Bhagavata Purana state that Dhanvantari emerged from the Ocean of Milk and appeared with the pot of amrita (elixer for immortality) during the story of the Samudra (or) Sagara Mathana whilst the ocean was being churned by the Devas and Asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki. The pot of Amrita was snatched by the Asuras, and after this event another avatar, Mohini, appears and takes the nectar back from the Asuras. It is also believed that Dhanvantari promulgated the practise of Ayurveda. Of special mention here is the treatise of Dhanvantari-Nighantu, which completely elucidates Dhanvantari's medicinal plants.


According to the ancient Sanskrit work Vishnudharamottara, Dhanvantari is a handsome individual and should usually be depicted with four hands, with one of them carrying Amrita, the ambrosia. Dhanvantari is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding Shankha, Chakra, Jalauka (leech) and a pot containing Amrita. He is often shown with a leech in his hand rather than the scriptures.

Birthday celebration

His birthday is celebrated by the practitioners of Ayurveda every year, on Dhanteras, two days before Diwali, the Hindu festival of lights. It is also celebrated as National Ayurveda Day in India. The National Ayurveda Day celebrations started since 2016.

Statue of Dhanvantari at Tarakeshwar temple
God Shri Dhanvantari at Ayurved Sankul Anand, which is a premier institute of Ayurveda situated in the Milk City of India, Anand, Gujarat.
Temples in India

Dhanvantari temple in Maharashtra:

In Konkan, There is a Dhanvantari temple at Dapoli, District Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. It belongs to Dongare family and is owned and run by Vaidya Aniruddha Dongare. Many devotees from konkan and rest of Maharashtra visit the temple and offer their prayers.

There are a few dedicated temples to Dhanvantari in South India especially in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, where ayurveda is highly practised and patronised. The Thottuva Dhanwanthari temple in Kerala is a particularly famous temple, where Lord Dhanvantari's idol is almost six feet tall and facing east. On the right hand the lord holds Amrith and with the left hand the lord holds Atta, Shanku and Chakra. The 'Ekadasi' day celebration, which falls on the same day as the 'Guruvayur Ekadasi' is of special significance.

In Tamil Nadu, in the courtyard of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple (Srirangam), there is a Dhanvantari shrine where daily worship of the deity is performed. In front of this temple there is an engraved stone believed to be from the 12th century. According to the writings on the stone, Garuda Vahana Bhattar, a great ayurvedic physician, established the statue inside the temple. A prasada or theertham, a herbal decoction, is given to the visitors. The shrine is the oldest Dhanvantari shrine in the state. Another Dhanvantari shrine is found in the second precinct of Varadaraja Perumal Temple in Kanchipuram.

Dhanvanthari temples in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry include:
Nelluvai Dhanwantari Temple, Wadakkanchery, Thrissur, Kerala
Sri Danvantri Arogya Peedam, Walajapet, Vellore District, Tamilnadu
Thevalakkadu Sree Dhanwanthari Temple, Kulasekharamangalam Post, Vaikom, Kottayam, Kerala

Aanakkal Dhanwanthari Temple, Thaniyathukunnu, Thrissur
Sree Dhanwanthari Temple, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Sree Dhanwanthari Temple, Maruthorvattom, Cherthala, Kerala
Sree Dhanwanthari Temple, Prayikara, Mavelikara, Alleppey, Kerala
Sree Dhanwanthari Temple Elanthoor, Pathanamthitta, Kerala
Sri Dhanvantri Swamy Sannidhi within the Sanjeevi Vinayakar Temple, JIPMER campus
Shri Aalkkalmanna Dhanwanthari Temple is situated at Eranthod Village, Angadippuram Panchayat, Perintalmanna Taluk of Malappuram District.
There is also Sri Murrari Dhanvantri Moorthi Kshetram temple in kollam district(boothakulam) paravur.It belongs to a family called Thundvilla, it is owned and run by the family members itself .People offer prayer for there beloved ones and offer paalpayasam to god .
Shri Dhanvantari Temple, Palluruthy, Kochi, Kerala is a small temple managed by Gowda Saraswath Brahmin Community.

In Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh state, one statue of Dhanvantari is present in the University museum. Two statues are at the headquarters of the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha at New Delhi. There is another statue inside the Ayurveda Maha Sammelan office, Dhanawantari Bhawan at New Delhi and one statue of Dhanvantari is present at Mohyal Ashram in Haridwar.
St Devar Dasimayya

From Wikipedia

Devar Dasimayya was an Indian mid-11th century poet and vachanakaara in Kannada. He was one of the first propogators of devangism. He was born in Mudanuru, a village in Shorapur Taluk, Yadagiri district in Karnataka. Being a weaver by profession, His village had a Ramanatha temple among its many temples, dedicated to Shiva as worshiped by Rama, the epic hero and incarnation of Vishnu. That is why Dasimayya's signature name (ankitanama) is Ramanatha, meaning Rama's Lord, i.e. Shiva. Dasimayya was performing intense ascetic practices in a jungle, when he claimed Shiva appeared to him. He allegedly told him to work in the practical world. As a result, Dasimayya renounced his practices and took up the trade of a weaver. He is also known as Jedar Dasimayya, “Dasimayya of the weavers”. Today there is a large community of weavers called Devanga spread across the southern states of India who follow Devara Dasimayya .

Today, popular tradition identifies several places where Dasimayya set up his weaver's looms in Mudanuru. Like most that followed him, he taught a life of complete nonviolence, even teaching local hunting tribes to renounce meat and provide for themselves through pressing and selling oil. Dasimayya married Duggale, who grew up in Shivapura. He later became a teacher, eventually giving initiation to the wife of the local Chalukya king Jayasimha, Suggale. Devara Dasimayya, the Pioneer of Vachana Literature Devara Dasimayya or Jedara Dasimayya, the pioneer of Vachana literature was born to Kamayya and Shankari in the village of Mudanuru now in Surapura taluq of Kalburgi district in Karnataka. The Devanga community consider him as an incarnation of Devanga Ganeshwara, an avatara purusha. Dasimayya lived during the period when the Kalyani Chalukyan ruler Jayasimha II (1015-43 A.D.) was ruling. The village Mudanuru was once a place where numerous temples and tirtas (Kalyanis or sacred ponds) existed and was famously known as Varanasi of south. Works like Basavapurana, Devangapurana, Shivatatva Chintamani and Kathamani Sutra Ratnakara provide information about Dasimayya.

Date of Dasimayya Dasimayya lived about 100 to 150 years before Basaveshwara and the latter has praised Dasimayya and his wife Duggale in many of his vachanas and has said that the devotion, conduct and charity displayed by Dasimayya was exemplary. Devara Dasimayya has reminisced sharanas like Kakaiyya, Madara Chenniah, Kumbara Gundiah and Kembhavi Boganna who probably were his contemporaries or lived earlier to him. Some scholars are of the view that Devara Dasimayya and Jedara Dasimayya are two different sharanas. While one lived before Basava, the other was his elderly contemporary and while one composed vachanas the other did not. Also two vachanas of Duggale the wife of Dasimayya with the ankitanama (pen-name) Dasayyapriya Ramanatha has reference to Basavanna, Chennabasavanna, Prabhudeva, Marula Shankaradeva and other sharanas. In her vachanas Duggale express her desire to lead the life of those referred above. This has made some scholars to infer that Dasimayya and Duggale were the elderly contemporaries of Basava and used to visit Kalyan where Dasimayya's memorial is also found. Followed the Profession of a Weaver Soon after his birth Dasimayya was blessed by a jangama who also named him and even as a child had an inclination towards spirituality. He was especially devoted to a Shiva temple at Mudanuru called Ramanatha. The temple was so called as there was a belief that Rama had worshipped Shiva here. Later Dasimayya went to Srishaila mountains to seek spiritual advancement. During his meditation, he had a vision wherein the Lord Sri Mallikarjuna gave him Shiva deeksha and asked him to follow the profession of weaving and utilize the money coming from that labour to fulfil the dasoha (feeding jangamas and Shivasharanas) obligation. After staying in Srishaila for some time in preaching Veerashaiva religion, he returned back to his native place.

As a composer of Vachanas Dasimayya is considered as the first vachanakara or composer of Vachanas. About 176 vachanas of Dasimayya have been discovered in which he has conveyed philosophical ideas in a few and simple words. They also tell us about the discipline of conjugal life, equality of man and women and importance of charity. In one of his vachanas he says Why worry about today and tommorrow? It is Shiva who provides And is he poor, Ramanatha? In another he says Just as milk is hidden in meat and becomes fragnant ghee God you are hidden in breath and body what can the ignorant of the world know about it, Ramanatha His vachanas have the mudrike (pen-name) Ramanatha after the God to which he was devoted to. All other composers of vachanas including Basava, Allama Prabhu and Sarvajna have been influenced by the style of Dasimayya’s vachanas. According to A. N. Krishna Rao, in his enthusiasm to uphold the superiority of Veerashaiva faith Dasimayya flawed in his approach by sharply criticizing and showing contempt towards other faiths in his vachanas. A Veerashaiva Missionary Dasimayya was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and was responsible for the propagation of Veerashaiva faith in Kalburgi and Bijapur districts of Karnataka. The ease in which Dasimayya defeated scholars of other faiths implies that he had insight about Vedas, Upanishads, Agamas and also about the philosophy of other faiths apart from a good knowledge of Sanskrit. He is said to have performed miracles and converted tribals, Brahmins and even rulers to Veerashaiva faith. According to Veerashaiva writers like Shadakshara and Bhimakavi,

Dasimayya converted the Kalyani Chalukyan ruler Jayasimha II (1015-43 A.D.) who was a Jaina to Veerashaivism. His queen Suggaladevi was the disciple of Dasimayya. It is said that after Jayasimha accepted Veerashaivism, about 20,000 Jainas became Shaivites and about 700 Jaina basadis (jain temples) were converted to Shiva temples. Though he converted king Jayasimha, Dasimayya did not wish to seek his patronage, position or rewards. He returned to his village and continued his work as a weaver. Dasimayya spent the rest of his life preaching people to develop good conduct, practice non-violence and attain spiritual advancement through the six stages known as shadstala. It is said that Dasimayya and his wife finally merged with Lord Ramanatha.

Devara Dasimayya
the Pioneer of Vachana Literature

Devara Dasimayya the pioneer of Vachana literature was born to Kamayya and Shankari in the village of Mudanuru now in Surapura taluq of Kalburgi district in Karnataka. The Devanga community consider him as an incarnation of Devanga Ganeshwara, an avatara purushaDasimayya lived during the period when the Kalyani Chalukyan ruler Jayasimha II (1015-43 A.D.) was ruling. The village Mudanuru was once a place where numerous temples and tirtas (Kalyanis or sacred ponds) existed and was famously known as Varanasi of south.  

Soon after his birth Dasimayya was blessed by a jangama who also named him and even as a child had an inclination towards spirituality. He was especially devoted to a Shiva temple at Mudanuru called Ramanatha. The temple was so called as there was a belief that Rama had worshipped Shiva here. Later Dasimayya went to Srishaila mountains to seek spiritual advancement. During his meditation, he had a vision wherein the Lord Sri Mallikarjuna gave him Shiva deeksha and asked him to follow the profession of weaving and utilize the money coming from that labour to fulfil the dasoha (feeding jangamas and Shivasharanas) obligation. After staying in Srishaila for some time in preaching Veerashaiva religion, he returned back to his native place. 

As a composer of Vachanas 

Dasimayya is considered as the first vachanakara or composer of Vachanas. About 176 vachanas of Dasimayya have been discovered in which he has conveyed philosophical ideas in a few and simple words. His vachanas have the mudrike (pen-name) Ramanatha after the God to which he was devoted to. Dasimayya lived about 100 to 150 years before Basaveshwara and the latter has praised Dasimayya and his wife Duggale in many of his vachanas and has said that the devotion, conduct and charity displayed by Dasimayya was exemplary. All other composers of vachanas including BasavaAllama Prabhu and Sarvajna have been influenced by the style of Dasimayya’s vachanas. According to A. N. Krishna Rao, in his enthusiasm to uphold the superiority of Veerashaiva faith Dasimayya flawed in his approach by sharply criticizing and showing contempt towards other faiths in his vachanas.  

Veerashaiva Missionary 

Dasimayya was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and was responsible for the propagation of Veerashaiva faith in Kalburgi and Bijapur districts of Karnataka. The ease in which Dasimayya defeated scholars of other faiths implies that he had insight about Vedas, Upanishads, Agamas and also about the philosophy of other faiths apart from a good knowledge of Sanskrit.  

He is said to have performed miracles and converted tribals, Brahmins and even rulers to Veerashaiva faith. According to Veerashaiva writers like Shadakshara and BhimakaviDasimayya converted the Kalyani