Dalits in Defence

Ambanattu panicker

- Chief commandor of chempakassery Kingdom. Ref: Pathonmpatham noottandile keralam by Bhaskaranunni

In the eighteenth century Travancore, there were many Ezhava warriors like Renakeerthy Chekavar (Chief Commander of Marthanda Varma’s army), Akathiyadi Panicker (Chief army Commander of Kottarakkara kingdom), Ambanattu Panicker (landlord and chief army commander of Chempakassery kingdom), Pappan Chekavar (Kalarippayyattu trainer, palace physician and commander of Chempazhanthy Pillai’s army), Lokanatha Panicker and his son Patheenatha Panicker of Varanapally tharavad (Chief army commanders of Kayamkulam kingdom). These great Ezhava warriors were totally ignored by the biased historians. These historians further suppressed the importance of Ezhavas in Kerala history but they could not succeed fully as nobody can hide the truth for ever. However, the records of Ezhava history before the nineteenth century were almost destroyed by them and their aim was to hide the prestigious past of Ezhavas. They also tried their best to establish that Ezhavas were of lower caste and thereby tarnished the dignity and self respect of Ezhavas. It is well known that Ezhavas were not a part of the four-tier caste system (Chathurvarniyam) of Aryan Hindus and hence Ezhava community cannot be categorized as a caste.

The great Arattupuzha Velayudha Panicker (Kalisseril Velayudha Chekavar) was born in an affluent Ezhava family of the famous Kalisseril tharavad in Arattupuzha village of Karthikapally in central Travancore in the year AD.1825. He was immensely rich, seven feet tall, fair complexioned, a Kalarippayyatu expert, Ayurveda, Astrology and Sanskrit scholar. His grandfather Vallikadavil Perumal Chekavar was a famous Tulunadan Kalarippayattu expert and his family members were also fierce warriors. It was impossible for his rivals to fight against him during his lifetime and hence the discrimination against Ezhavas could not be easily continued in Travancore during his period. He was a very powerful protector of Ezhavas and other oppressed communities in Travancore and he built the first Siva temple for them. The great Arattupuzha Velayudha Panicker was assassinated by treachery while sleeping in his boat in January 1874. The discrimination against Ezhavas ruthlessly continued again in Travancore after his assassination. The discrimination affected the progress of Ezhavas and they became a backward community. The nineteenth century (AD.1800-1900) was a terrible period for Ezhavas and during that period, many Ezhavas converted to other religions. It is believed that during the eighteenth century, seventy per cent of the population in Kerala (Travancore, Kochi and Malabar) was Ezhavas. Now the Ezhava population in Kerala is only twenty-seven per cent. However, Ezhavas are still the single largest Hindu community of Kerala. Following the teachings of the great Sree Narayana Guru and after many years of hard work, now Ezhavas are in the forefront of Kerala society. They have become the most powerful, major, wealthy, enlightened, patriotic and progressive Hindu community of Kerala.

(Information collected from various sources is included in the above article. Corrections if any are welcome)(Courtesy : https://www.facebook.com/patthissherilkavu/posts/in-the-eighteenth-century-travancore-there-were-many-ezhava-warriors-like-renake/571849402933509/)
Arjun Ray
From Wikipedia

Lt Gen (Rtd.) Arjun Ray
Born 1 January 1944

Calcutta, India
Nationality India
Education St Xavier School, Jaipur and graduated from the University of Rajasthan in Humanities
Occupation Army general, company executive, innovator in for Artificial Intelligence in education, and thought-leader in education for the 21st century


Arjun Ray is a former army general, and is presently the founder, Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of the Indus Trust, since 1 April 2002.

Lieutenant General Arjun Ray is a graduate of the prestigious British Army Staff College at Camberley, England, the Higher Command Course and the National Defence College*. He served as India's Deputy Military Advisor in London from 1986 to 1989. In his last assignment prior to retiring prematurely, Lieutenant General Arjun Ray was the General Officer Commanding of the newly raised 14 Corps in Ladakh, wherein he redefined the role of the armed forces in the 21st century as war-prevention. As part of Operation Sadbhavana (Goodwill), he set up 13 primary schools, 11 Women's Empowerment Centres, 60 Adult Education Centres for non-literate women; and a hospital in Siachen close to the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. This was achieved in just nine months.

He was awarded the Param Vishisht Seva Medal for distinguished service.

Early life

Arjun Ray was born 1 January 1944 in Calcutta. He completed his schooling at St Xavier School, Jaipur, and graduated from the University of Rajasthan with a degree in humanities. Before joining the Indian Military Academy in 1963, he was sponsored by Rotary International to visit New Zealand and Australia for three months, as a member of the Indian universities' debating team.

Army

Arjun Ray was commissioned into the 8th Battalion of the Kumaon Regiment on 09th February 1964. As a young officer, he participated in the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pakistan Wars. Later, he was selected to attend the Scientific Reorientation Course at Shrivenham, England; and the British Army Staff College at Camberley. He holds a Master's degree in Defence Studies from the University of Madras, and is a graduate of the Higher Command Course and the National Defence College, New Delhi.

Before commanding a mechanized brigade on the Western front, he was posted in London as the Deputy Military Advisor from 1986 to 1989. During this tenure, as a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, and the Royal United Services Institution, he was an active participant in international seminars and symposiums on international security.

The General’s command assignments have been varied: from armored units and formations – 13 Mechanized Infantry Battalion, 39 Mechanized Brigade and 33 Armored Division, to commanding 14 Corps at high altitudes in Ladakh. For distinguished command of his battalion and brigade, he was awarded the Commendation Card of the Chief of the Army Staff and the Vishisht Seva Medal, respectively.

Immediately after graduating from the National Defence College, he served as the Brigadier General Staff in 15 Corps in the Kashmir Valley. It was during this period that he wrote his first book, Kashmir Diary, The Psychology of Militancy. Thereafter, he was promoted to the rank of Major General, and was responsible for tactical training of company, squadron and battery commanders in the Junior Command Wing at the College of Combat, Mhow.

Soon after this instructional assignment, he was given the command of 33 Armored Division (October 1996 to March 1998). From instructional to command assignments, the General was side-stepped as a Major General to head Doctrine in Headquarters Army Training Command (ARTRAC), between March 1998 to June 2000. This was an excellent opportunity to be part of a team that was evolving war doctrine for the 21st century, including strategies and structures for higher defence organization.

At the time of the Kargil War (June to August 1999), the General was selected by the Army Chief to lead the information campaign, including media relations, on behalf of the Army.

On 12 June 2000, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General, and given command of the newly raised 14 Corps in Ladakh. Its troops were deployed at the Line of Control opposite Pakistan, and the Line of Actual Control in Western Tibet.

Arjun is happily married to Saroj for over 51 years. They have a daughter Sonali, who heads an early learning centre in Bangalore; and a son, Abhimanyu, a renowned casting director in Mumbai.

Operation Sadhbhavana

Soon after taking over the Corps, the General decided on winning over alienated communities, and thus forestalling insurgency from spilling over into Ladakh from the rest of Jammu and Kashmir. He focused on the people of Ladakh as his centre of gravity, as he believed that security and development were key elements of border management. Towards this end, he launched Operation Sadbhavana (Goodwill), a mass campaign to win over the hearts and minds of the local population by concentrating more on human development, than other forms of traditional development, as practiced in most countries. He emphasized primary education, health care up to the tertiary level, women's empowerment, community development and information technology for peace. He even succeeded in obtaining VSAT terminals to provide Internet connectivity in schools located in remote mountainous areas above heights of 10,000 feet. For his contribution to nation-building and command of troops in Ladakh, he was honored with the Param Vishisht Seva Medal, the highest award in the military for distinguished service. As a result of his contribution in women’s empowerment in conflict areas, he was also considered as India's entry for 2002 - for the Commonwealth Award on Women's Empowerment.

Retirement

The General’s second innings started on 2 April. 2002 as the CEO of the Indus Group of International Schools, with its head office in Bangalore. In the past two decades he has set up three International Baccalaureate schools in Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune. The fourth international school (IGCSE) is in Belgavi, Karnataka. The IB schools are among the first ten in India; and the Bangalore school has been ranked Number 1 in the country for ten consecutive years.

Lt General Ray’s distinction lies in transforming international education by building an effective ecosystem (the first of its kind in the world) comprising the Indus Training and Research Institute for pre-service and in service teacher training; the Indus Leadership School at Kanakapura, near Bangalore; and the Indus Equal Opportunity School for the less privileged.

The General has distinguished himself as one of the six game changers in the world in IB education. He is an intrapreneur, a rare example amongst CEOs. His mega innovative projects comprise (1) the introduction of teacher-robots to assist teachers in re-roling themselves to “teach the child and not the subject alone”; and StartupYou, a startup school for school students to be future-ready and become entrepreneurs as well. He is presently leading a team in designing the schools of the future.

He has authored three books: Kashmir Diary, The Psychology of Militancy; Peace is Everybody’s Business; and What Google Cannot Teach.
Albert Ekka
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Albert Ekka
Albert Ekka on a 2000 stamp of India
Born 27 December 1942
Jari, Gumla district, Bihar, British India,
present day Jharkhand), India
Died 3 December 1971 (aged 28)
Allegiance  India
Service/branch  Indian Army
Years of service 1962–1971
Rank  Lance Naik
Unit 14 GUARDS
Battles/wars Battle of Hilli
Spouse(s) Balamdine Ekka

Lance Naik Albert Ekka, PVC (27 December 1942 – 3 December 1971) was a soldier in the Indian Army. He was killed in action in the battle of Hilli, during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. He was posthumously awarded the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest award for valour in the face of the enemy.

Early life

Albert Ekka was born on 27 December 1942, in village Zari, Ranchi, Bihar. His parents were Julius Ekka and Mariam Ekka. Ekka's family belonged to an Adivasi tribe . Hunting was a common sport among the Adivasis, and Ekka was interested in it from his childhood. With his experience of hunting in jungles, he was able to be a better soldier with his skilful use of ground and movements. As he grew, Ekka developed interest for the army, and was enrolled in the Bihar Regiment on 27 December 1962.

Military career

After the 14th Battalion of the Brigade of the Guards was raised in January 1968, Ekka was transferred to that unit. He saw action in counter-insurgency operations while in the North East. During the preparations anticipation of Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Ekka was promoted to lance naik.

Battle of Gangasagar

As the war broke out, 14 Guards was attached to the IV Corps. The capture of Gangasagar, located 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the south Akhaura in the Brahmanbaria District, was crucial for the advancement of IV Corps, and 14 Guards was tasked for that. As the operation began, the unit placed itself south of Gangasagar, about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from Akhaura railway station, and formed its defences. The high ground around the railway station was their main defence, followed by anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. During a patrol, Pakistani troops were found moving on the railway tracks. Soon two companies of the battalion attacked the enemy positions along the track.

Citation

The Param Vir Chakra citation on the Official Indian Army Website reads as follows:

Lance Naik Albert Ekka was in the left forward company of a battalion of the Brigade of Guards during their attack on the enemy defences at Gangasagar on the Eastern front. This was a well-fortified position held in strength by the enemy. The assaulting troops were subjected to intense shelling and heavy small-arms fire, but they charged onto the objective and were locked in bitter hand-to-hand combat. Lance Naik Albert Ekka noticed an enemy light machine-gun (LMG) inflicting heavy casualties on his company. With complete disregard for his personal safety, he charged the enemy bunker, bayoneted two enemy soldiers and silenced the LMG. Though seriously wounded in this encounter, he continued to fight alongside his comrades through the mile deep objective, clearing bunker after bunker with undaunted courage. Towards the northern end of the objective one enemy medium machine-gun (MMG) opened up from the second storey of a well-fortified building inflicting heavy casualties and holding up the attack. Once again this gallant soldier, without a thought for his personal safety, despite his serious injury and the heavy volume of enemy fire, crawled forward till he reached the building and lobbed a grenade into the bunker killing one enemy soldier and injuring the other. The MMG however continued to fire. With outstanding courage and determination Lance Naik Albert Ekka scaled a side wall and entering the bunker, bayoneted the enemy soldier who was still firing and thus silenced the machine-gun, saving further casualties to his company and ensuring the success of the attack. In this process however, he received serious injuries and succumbed to them after the capture of the objective. In this action, Lance Naik Albert Ekka displayed the most conspicuous valour and determination and made the supreme sacrifice in the best traditions of the Army.

Legacy
Ekka's statue at Param Yodha Sthal, National War Memorial, New Delhi

Lance-Naik Albert Ekka was posthumously awarded India's highest wartime gallantry award, the Param Vir Chakra. In 2000, on the occasion of 50th Republic day, the Government of India issued a postal stamp in his memory. The son of Jharkhand was honored by naming the major intersection in front of Firayalal store as Albert Ekka Chowk, which also bears his statue. A block (district subdivision) in Gumla has also been created in his name. Sources says that the Government failed to take care of his family and they are not in healthy state. Due to utter corruption only words are being said on his birthdays and martyr days but no one is taking care of family. This represents the sad state of relatives of the brave martyrs of the Indian Army. They are promised thousands of benefits by politicians for their propaganda. However no one ensures that they receive it. When they go to offices to claim it, they are either refused or are sent from one office to another, who have consumed their benefits via corruption.
अब्दुल हमीद 
 (Abdul Hameed)
Published By : Jivani.org

अब्दुल हमीद का जन्म 1 जुलाई, 1933 को उत्तर प्रदेश के ग़ाज़ीपुर ज़िले में स्थित धरमपुर नाम के छोटे से गांव में एक गरीब मुस्लिम परिवार में हुआ था. और उनके पिता का नाम मोहम्मद उस्मान था. उनके यहाँ परिवार की आजीविका को चलाने के लिए कपड़ों की सिलाई का काम होता था.

लेकिन अब्दुल हमीद का दिल इस सिलाई के काम में बिलकुल नहीं लगता था, उनका मन तो बस कुश्ती दंगल और दांव पेंचों में लगता था. क्युकी पहलवानी उनके खून में थी जो विरासत के रूप में मिली उनके पिता और नाना दोनों ही पहलवान थे. वीर हमीद शुरू से ही लाठी चलाना कुश्ती करना और बाढ़ में नदी को तैर कर पार करना, और सोते समय फौज और जंग के सपने देखना तथा अपनी गुलेल से पक्का निशाना लगाना उनकी खूबियों में था. और वो इन सभी चीजों में सबसे आगे रहते थे.

उनका एक गुण सबसे अच्छा था जोकि दूसरो की हर समय मदद करना. जरूरतमंद लोगो की सहायता करना. और अन्याय के खिलाफ आवाज़ उठाना और उसे बर्दास्त ना करना. एसी ही घटना एक बार उनके गाँव में हुयी जब एक गरीब किसान की फसल को जबरजस्ती वहा के ज़मींदार के लगभग 50 गुंडे काट कर ले जाने के लिए आये तब हमीद को यह बात का पता चला और उन्हें यह बात बर्दास्त नहीं हुयी और उन 50 गुंडों से अकेले ही भीड़ गए. जिसके कारण उन सभी गुंडों को भागना पड़ा. और उस गरीब किसान की फसल बच गयी.

एक बार तो अपने प्राणों की बाजी लगा कर गाँव में आई भीषण बाढ़ में डूबती दो युवतियों की जान बचायी. और अपने साहस का परिचय दिया.

अब्दुल हमीद का बचपन -

अब्दुल हमीद की बचपन से ही इच्छा वीर सिपाही बनने की थी। वह अपनी दादी से कहा करते थे कि- "मैं फौज में भर्ती होऊंगा" दादी जब कहती-- "पिता की सिलाई की मशीन चलाओ" तब वह कहते थे-"हम जाएब फौज में ! तोहरे रोकले ना रुकब हम , समझलू"

दादी को उनकी जिद के आगे झुकना पड़ता और कहना पड़ता-- "अच्छा-अच्छा झाइयां फौज में"। हमीद खुश हो जाते इस तरह अपने पिता मोहम्मद उस्ताद से भी फौज में भर्ती होने की जिद करते थे, और कपड़ा सीने की धंधे से इंकार कर देते।

१९६५ का युद्ध

८- सितम्बर-१९६५ की रात में, पाकिस्तान द्वारा भारत पर हमला करने पर, उस हमले का जवाव देने के लिए भारतीय सेना के जवान उनका मुकाबला करने को खड़े हो गए। वीर अब्दुल हमीद पंजाब के तरन तारन जिले के खेमकरण सेक्टर में सेना की अग्रिम पंक्ति में तैनात थे। पाकिस्तान ने उस समय के अपराजेय माने जाने वाले "अमेरिकन पैटन टैंकों" के के साथ, "खेम करन" सेक्टर के "असल उताड़" गाँव पर हमला कर दिया।

भारतीय सैनिकों के पास न तो टैंक थे और नहीं बड़े हथियार लेकिन उनके पास था भारत माता की रक्षा के लिए लड़ते हुए मर जाने का हौसला। भारतीय सैनिक अपनी साधारण "थ्री नॉट थ्री रायफल" और एल.एम्.जी. के साथ पैटन टैंकों का सामना करने लगे। हवलदार वीर अब्दुल हमीद के पास "गन माउनटेड जीप" थी जो पैटन टैंकों के सामने मात्र एक खिलौने के सामान थी।

वीर अब्दुल हमीद ने अपनी जीप में बैठ कर अपनी गन से पैटन टैंकों के कमजोर अंगों पर एकदम सटीक निशाना लगाकर एक -एक कर धवस्त करना प्रारम्भ कर दिया। उनको ऐसा करते देख अन्य सैनकों का भी हौसला बढ़ गया और देखते ही देखते पाकिस्तान फ़ौज में भगदड़ मच गई। वीर अब्दुल हमीद ने अपनी "गन माउनटेड जीप" से सात पाकिस्तानी पैटन टैंकों को नष्ट किया था।

देखते ही देखते भारत का "असल उताड़" गाँव "पाकिस्तानी पैटन टैंकों" की कब्रगाह बन गया। लेकिन भागते हुए पाकिस्तानियों का पीछा करते "वीर अब्दुल हमीद" की जीप पर एक गोला गिर जाने से वे बुरी तरह से घायल हो गए और अगले दिन ९ सितम्बर को उनका स्वर्गवास हो गया लेकिन उनके स्वर्ग सिधारने की आधिकारिक घोषणा १० सितम्बर को की गई थी।

सेना में भर्ती

21 वर्ष के अब्दुल हमीद जीवन यापन के लिए रेलवे में भर्ती होने के लिए गये परन्तु उनके संस्कार उन्हें प्रेरित कर रहे थे, सेना में भर्ती होकर देश सेवा के लिए। अतः उन्होंने एक सैनिक के रूप में 1954 में अपना कार्य प्रारम्भ किया। हमीद 27 दिसंबर, 1954 को ग्रेनेडियर्स इन्फैन्ट्री रेजिमेंट में शामिल किये गये थे। जम्मू काश्मीर में तैनात अब्दुल हमीद पाकिस्तान से आने वाले घुसपैठियों की खबर तो लेते हुए मजा चखाते रहते थे, ऐसे ही एक आतंकवादी डाकू इनायत अली को जब उन्होंने पकड़वाया तो प्रोत्साहन स्वरूप उनको प्रोन्नति देकर सेना में लांस नायक बना दिया गया। 1962 में जब चीन ने भारत की पीठ में छुरा भोंका तो अब्दुल हमीद उस समय नेफा में तैनात थे, उनको अपने अरमान पूरे करने का विशेष अवसर नहीं मिला। उनका अरमान था कोई विशेष पराक्रम दिखाते हुए शत्रु को मार गिराना।

सम्मान और पुरस्कार

28 जनवरी, 2000 को भारतीय डाक विभाग द्वारा वीरता पुरस्कार विजेताओं के सम्मान में पांच डाक टिकटों के सेट में 3 रुपये का एक सचित्र डाक टिकट जारी किया गया। इस डाक टिकट पर रिकाईललेस राइफल से गोली चलाते हुए जीप पर सवार वीर अब्दुल हामिद का रेखा चित्र उदाहरण की तरह बना हुआ है। चौथी ग्रेनेडियर्स ने अब्दुल हमीद की स्मृति में उनकी क़ब्र पर एक समाधि का निर्माण किया है। हर साल उनकी शहादत के दिन यहां पर मेले का आयोजन किया जाता है। उत्तर निवासी उनके नाम से गांव में एक डिस्पेंसरी, पुस्तकालय और स्कूल चलाते हैं। सैन्य डाक सेवा ने 10 सितंबर, 1979 को उनके सम्मान में एक विशेष आवरण जारी किया है।
Why Havildar Abdul Hamid Is One of Indian Army’s Most Celebrated & Revered Soldiers of All Time

A mere 60 km separates the tiny village of Asal Uttar from Amritsar in Punjab. The village itself is as unremarkable as the flat plains abutting State Highway 21 that connects it to Amritsar. A couple of km short of it is a memorial to Havildar Abdul Hamid, arguably India’s greatest military hero.

While Hamid’s name is revered in India’s military circles but, his legacy remains largely unsung. It’s been over 50 years since this Param Vir Chakra Awardee died defending his country at Asal Uttar during the Indo-Pak war of 1965. However, few people know about this braveheart and his extraordinary acts in the battle field.

Here’s the story of Havildar Abdul Hamid, a soldier whose act of extraordinary courage and sacrifice was responsible for giving the Indian army a crucial edge in the Indo-Pak War of 1965.
Abdul Hamid was born on 1 July 1933 in Dhamupur village of district Ghazipur in Uttar Pradesh to Sakina Begum and Mohammad Usman, who had three more boys and two girls. Abdul’s father was a tailor by profession and Abdul would often help him stitch clothes before he decided to join the Army.

Hamid was 20 years old when he was recruited at Varanasi into the Army. After undergoing his training at the Grenadiers Regimental Centre at Nasirabad, he was posted to 4 Grenadiers in 1955. Initially, he served in a rifle company and was then posted to a recoilless platoon. He fought in the ’62 war in Thang La, then in the North-East Frontier Province, as part of the 7 Mountain Brigade, 4 Mountain Division.

After ceasefire was declared his unit moved to Ambala where Abdul was appointed Company Quarter Master Havildar (CQMH) of an administration company. Nevertheless, being the best shot with the 106 mm recoilless rifle, the battalion commander wanted him back as NCO of the rifle platoon.

In 1965, when war broke out between India and Pakistan, Abdul Hamid had already completed ten years of service in the Indian army and was serving in the 4th Grenadiers. The news came that the enemy had attacked Aknoor in Jammu with the goal of cutting off communication and supply routes to the Indian forces on the border of Jammu and Kashmir.

As Hamid’s battalion, the 4th Grenadiers occupied a vital area near Chima village on the road to Punjab’s Khem Karan sector, they were given the job of holding the enemy near the village of Asal Uttar. Firm hold of this area was essential for the Indian plan of defence and so the 4th Grenadiers was ordered to move forward and to collect their 106 RCL guns from the nearest ordnance depot. Hamid was one of the non-commissioned instructors. Due to absence of anti-tank detachment commanders, he was told to take over an antitank detachment.

On September 8, the enemy made repeated attacks on the Grenadiers’ position, but was repulsed each time. The most serious assault came when the enemy advanced with a regiment of Patton tanks. So intense was the attack that a shell littered every yard of ground occupied by the Indian battalion. Hamid was in command of a recoilless gun detachment. He moved out to a flank with his gun mounted on a jeep.

The moment the tanks came within shooting distance, Hamid fired and watched the trajectory of the shell as it hit its targets. The tank he hit went up in flames in front of his eyes while the remaining two are again abandoned by the enemy soldiers.

By the end of the day, Hamid had destroyed two tanks, while four had been abandoned. He then called army engineers and asked them to immediately lay out anti-tank mines in the area. The next morning he was back at his recoilless gun, even as his battalion faced an air attack from Pakistani Sabre jets. By the end of the day, Hamid had shot down two more tanks.

At 0800 hours on September 10, 1965, a battalion of Pakistani Patton tanks attacked the holding area of the 4th Grenadier positions. The Indian soldiers came under intense artillery bombardment but didn’t respond. Within an hour, the Pakistanis had penetrated forward Indian positions. The situation grew grim. In the melee, Hamid spotted six Pakistani tanks heading towards his men. He didn’t think twice, hopped on to his jeep which had a gun mounted on it and rushed towards the tanks to flank them.
Intense enemy firing did nothing to deter him. Using the the tall cotton crop growing in the fields to camoufalge his position, Hamid knocked out the leading tank with accurate fire. Then changing position, he disabled two more. By now the enemy had spotted him and employed machine guns and explosives to bring him down. As he hit another enemy tank, he was mortally wounded by a high explosive shell.

Throughout this blistering attack, Hamid had singlehandedly managed to destroy a total of eight enemy tanks, many more than what an armoured formation could take on. His unparalleled bravery and determination inspired his comrades to put up a gallant fight and to beat back the heavy tank assault by the enemy. Approximately 97 Pakistani tanks were destroyed or abandoned during this battle. The enemy was routed and they never made it past Khem Karan.
 

Abdul Hamid did not live to see the next day or share in the joy of victory that came after three days of intense fighting. A citation had been sent on September 9, 1965, crediting him for destroying four tanks but nobody knew that Hamid would again blow up three more tanks the very next day. As the citation was already sent, it gives him credit for destroying four tanks. He had, in fact, destroyed eight. For his selflessness, dogged determination and raw courage in the face of the enemy, Hamid was posthumously awarded independent India’s highest wartime gallantry award, Param Vir Chakra.

Buried at the battlefield, Hamid lies in a modest grave at Asal Uttar today. A brick-red roadside plaque with the words ‘memorial of CQMH (Company Quarter Master Havildar) Abdul Hamid’ announces its location. Inside a walled-in area of a little over an acre of land, a pathway lined by shrubs and trees leads to the actual memorial that houses his grave. An inscription on a tablet solemnly attests to his having given his life defending his motherland.

And so he lives on — in war trophies that stand in Army cantonments across India, in the sugarcane fields where he beat back intruders, in a memorial park in a village and in the proud reminiscences of a dearly-loved daughter. Interestingly, few people know that the renown social activist Anna Hazare was a comrade of Abdul Hamid during the war. His assignment was to carry firearms and bombs to the border!
Apparanda Aiyappa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lieutenant General
Apparanda Chengappa Aiyappa

MBE
Born 2 September 1913
Kodagu
Allegiance  India
Rank Lieutenant General
Battles/wars World War II
Other work Chief of Bharat Electronics Limited

Lieutenant General Apparanda Chengappa Aiyappa MBE (also known as A.C. Iyappa) was a World War II hero and the first Indian Signal officer in chief (Head of the Indian Army Corps of Signals). He was also the first chief of the Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL).

Early years

Iyappa was born on 2 September 1913  during the British Raj, into the wealthy and influential Apparanda family which belonged to the Kodava community of Kodagu. He studied in Bishop Cotton Boys' SchoolBangalore and later in Stamford School, Lincolnshire in England. After college he went on to join the Indian Military Academy and from there got a commission into the British Indian Army.

Brief history of Signals in India

At the turn of the 20th century there was no organised signal service in existence in India. As far back as 1857, there is a record of a Signals service in India, though it was not until 1911, as a result of the recommendations of Headlam Committee in 1910, that Signals in India came into being on a separate establishment under the auspices of the Corps of Sappers and Miners. The Corps was raised with a signal company for each Division and a nucleus of a wireless company for the line of communication.

Based on the recommendation of various committees, 2 Divisional Signals Companies (31 & 32) under Northern Army, were raised on 15 February 1911 at Fatehgarh, with Lieutenant Colonel S H Powell being conferred Commandant Designate. Two more Signal Coy (33 & 34) under Southern Army at Ahmednagar and One Wireless Company (40) at Roorkee, were raised on 1 March 1911. Composition of each Divisional Signal Company:British Officer: 5Indian Officer: 2Soldier Rank (British): 44Soldier Rank (Indian): 78

When the post World War I re-organization of the Indian Army was carried out, the Indian Signals Corps was formed as a separate corps on 17 April 1920.

On India attaining independence in 1947, the Corps was completely Indianised and on 26 January 1950, on India attaining full sovereignty, the Indian Signal Corps was redesignated as the Corps of Signals. It is presently stationed at Jabalpur. (https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Apparanda_Aiyappa)

Military career

On 7 July 1935 he was commissioned from Indian Military Academy on to the Indian Land Forces, Special List and on 12 August 1935 he was attached to the 1st battalion 7th Rajput Regiment and the Indian Signal Corps. He was promoted Lieutenant, Indian Land Forces, Special List on 2 December 1936. He was appointed to the Indian Army 23 November 1937. In early 1939 he was permanently appointed to the Indian Signal Corps.

Bharat Electronics Limited

Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was set up at Bangalore, by the Government of India under the Ministry of Defence in 1954 to meet the specialised electronic needs of the Indian Defence Services. Over the years, it has grown into a multi-product, multi-technology, multi-unit company serving the needs of customers in diverse fields in India and abroad. BEL is among an elite group of public sector undertakings which have been conferred the Navratna status by the Government of India. When it was first set up, the Government of India made Iyappa its first chairman; he remained in this position for 18 years.
Apparanda Aiyappa
Achievements

As a Captain, he saw action in 1941, in the Malayan Campaign against the Japanese in World War II, as Commander of a Signals Company under the 6th Indian Infantry Brigade.

He was held as a Prisoner of War and mistreated. He was awarded the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) in 1946.

After independence, he was promoted to Colonel and became Commander of the Signals Regiment under the 4th Infantry Division stationed in the forward areas of Punjab.

He became the Director of Signals and Signal Officer-in-Chief in 1954 as a Major General. He was the first Indian Signal Officer in Chief.

He became the Master General of Ordnance at the rank of Lt. General and was also the first Indian to be Colonel Commandant of the Corps of Signals.

The government of India appointed General Aiyappa as the first chairman of Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) where he served for 18 years until 1972. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was set up at Bangalore, India, by the Government of India under the Ministry of Defence in 1954 to meet the specialised electronic needs of the Indian Defence Services. BEL is among an elite group of public sector undertakings which have been conferred the Navratna status by the Government of India.

He lived upto the age of 104 years.

Awards

He was awarded the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) in 1946.

Legacy
Today there is a park named after him (General Iyappa Park) near BEL circle in Bangalore.
Ali Haidar (VC)
From Wikipedia

Bahdur Ali Haider
Born 21 August 1913
Died 15 July 1999 (aged 85)
Buried
Village Shahu Khel, Kohat District
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1931–1954
Awards  Victoria Cross

Ali Haidar VC (21 August 1913 – 15 July 1999) was a Pakistani Pashtun recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Details

He was 31 years old, and a Sepoy in the 6th battalion 13th Frontier Force Rifles, in the British Indian Army during World War II when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 9 April 1945 near Fusignano, Italy, at the start of the Allied spring 1945 offensive Haidar's battalion was tasked with a difficult assault crossing of the Senio River. Only Sepoy Ali Haidar and the two other men of his section managed to get across under heavy machine-gun fire. Then, Without orders, and on his own initiative, Sepoy Ali Haidar, leaving the other two to cover him, charged the nearest post which was about 30 yards away. He threw a grenade and almost at the same time the enemy threw one at him, wounding him severely in the back. In spite of this he kept on and the enemy post was destroyed and four of the enemy surrendered. With utter disregard of his own wounds he continued and charged the next post in which the enemy had one Spandau and three automatics, which were still very active and preventing movement on both banks. He was again wounded, this time in the right leg and right arm. Although weakened by loss of blood, with great determination Sepoy Ali Haidar crawled closer and in a final effort raised himself from the ground, threw a grenade, and charged into the second enemy post. Two enemy were wounded and the remaining two surrendered. Taking advantage of the outstanding success of Sepoy Ali Haidar's dauntless attacks, the rest of the Company charged across the river and carried out their task of making a bridgehead. Sepoy Ali Haidar was picked up and brought back from the second position seriously wounded. The conspicuous gallantry, initiative, and determination combined with a complete disregard for his own life shown by this very brave Sepoy in the face of heavy odds were an example to the whole Company. His heroism had saved the rest of the company. With the rapid advance which it was possible to make the Battalion captured 3 officers and 217 other ranks and gained their objectives. The rest of the company were then able to cross the river and establish a bridgehead.

Further information

He was born in Kohat to Pashtun, Bangash parents, in what is now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. He later achieved the rank of Naib Subedar in his parent battalion, 6th Royal Battalion 13th Frontier Force Rifles which later redesignated as 1st Battalion (Scinde) The Frontier Force Regiment. His VC is on display in the Lord Ashcroft Gallery at the Imperial War Museum, London. On 9 April 2017 the Mayor of Lugo di Romagna Davide Ranalli unveiled a Memorial dedicated to VC Ali Haidar upon the Senio River western bank in the vicinity of Sabbioni area. The ceremony was attended by Brigadier Yogi Sheoran, Defence Wing Attaché of the Indian Embassy in Rome

Official citation

The official citation for Haidar's award, published in the London Gazette in July 1945 reads:

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to: — No. 26534 Sepoy ALl HAIDAR, 13th Frontier Force Rifles, British Indian Army.

In Italy, during the crossing of the River Senio, near Fusignano, in daylight on 9 April 1945, a Company of the I3th Frontier Force Rifles were ordered to assault the enemy positions strongly dug in on the far bank. These positions had been prepared and improved over many months and were mainly on the steep flood banks, some 25 feet high.

Sepoy Ali Haidar was a member of the lefthand Section of the left-hand Platoon. As soon as the Platoon started to cross, it came under heavy and accurate machine gun fire from two enemy posts strongly dug in about 60 yards away. Sepoy Ali Haidar's Section suffered casualties and only 3 men, including himself, managed to get across. The remainder of the Company was temporarily held up. Without orders, and on his own initiative, Sepoy Ali Haidar, leaving the other two to cover him, charged the nearest post which was about 30 yards away. He threw a grenade and almost at the same time the enemy threw one at him, wounding him severely in the back. In spite of this he kept on and the enemy post was destroyed and four of the enemy surrendered. With utter disregard of his own wounds he continued and charged the next post in which the enemy had one Spandau and three automatics, which were still very active and preventing movement on 'both banks. He was "again wounded, this time in the right leg and right arm. Although weakened by loss of blood, with great determination Sepoy Ali Haidar crawled closer and in a final effort raised himself from the ground, threw a grenade, and charged into the second enemy post. Two enemy were wounded and the remaining two surrendered.

Taking advantage of the outstanding success of Sepoy Ali Haidar's dauntless attacks, the rest of the Company charged across the river and carried out their task of making a bridgehead.

Sepoy Ali Haidar was picked up and brought back from the second position seriously wounded.

The conspicuous gallantry, initiative, and determination combined with a complete disregard for his own life shown by this very brave Sepoy in the face of heavy odds were an example to the whole Company. His heroism had saved an ugly situation which would — but for his personal bravery — have caused the Battalion a large number of casualties at a critical time and seriously delayed the crossing of the river and the building of a bridge. With the rapid advance which it was possible to make the Battalion captured 3 officers and 217 other ranks and gained their objectives
Balaram Ramji Ambedkar
(?? - 12.11.1927)
Balaram Ramji Ambedkar, elder brother of Dr. Ambedkar, got a job in the army to educate his younger brother. They had three children, two of whom died in childhood and one daughter, Sakhubai, who was married to Tambushkar.

More information about Balaram Ji is not available. If a friend has information related to Balaram ji, then please write in the comment box.

Incidentally: Dr. Ambedkar family
Known generation first

Sakpal
wife Sakpal

Second generation

Son of Sakpal couple, 2 son, Sant Bairagi Kaka,
childless
son, Malo ji, Sakpal
wife, hundred. Sakpal

Third generation

Son of Malo ji Sakpal couple 4 son Anand Rao
child no information
son Balwant
child no information
daughter Mirabai
handicapped
son Ramji Maloji Satpal
wife Bhimabai
wife Jijabai

Fourth generation

Son of Ramji Sakpal / Bhimabai 14 son, Balaram
wife, Mrs. Balaram,
daughter, Gangabai,
husband, Lakhawadekar,
daughter, Ramabai,
husband, Malvankar,
daughter, Manjula,
husband, Yeshu Pandirakar,
daughter, Tulsa,
husband, Darma Kantekar,
son, Dr. Ambedkar,
wife, Ramabai,
wife, Savita
Anand,
wife of
children, Laxmibai.

Fifth generation
** Balaram / Misj Balaram of children 3
died in two childhood
daughter Skubai
husband Tambuskr
** Dokanbedkr / Ramabai of children 5
sons Gangadhar
Balmrityu
Ramesh
Balmrityu
Indu
Balmrityu
Rajratan
Balmrityu
Yashwantrao Ambedkar (brother of Honor)
wife Mira
** Anand Rao /
Son of Lakshmibai 2 son Gangadhar
Balamritu
son Mukundrao Ambedkar
wife Shailaja

Sixth generation
** Yashwantrao Ambedkar / Meera's child 4
sons Prakash Yashwant (Balasaheb) Ambedkar
wife Anjali
daughter Rama Bai
husband Anand Teltubande
son Bhimrao
wife Darshana
son Anandrao
wife Manisha
** Mukundrao Ambedkar / Shailaja's child 4
daughter Vidya
husband Kashinath Mohite
daughter Sujata
husband Ramesh husband Kadam
son Ashoka
wife Ashwini
son Dileep
wife Alka

Seventh generation
Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar / Anjali's child 1
son Sujat
** Rama Bai / Anand Teltuband's child 2
daughter Prachi
daughter Rashmi
** Bhimrao / Darshana's child 1
daughter Reetika
** Anandrao / Manisha's child 2
son Sahil
son Aman
** Ashoka /
Son of Ashwini 2 son
Sandesh wife Charulata
son Rajaratna
wife Amita
** Dileep wife /
son of Alka 2 son Akshay
daughter Akshata
Eighth generation
* -Sandesh / Charulata's progeny 2
sons Yash
son Mayank
**
Rajaratna / Amita's progeny 1 daughter Preisha

Balram Ramji Ambedkar Smriti
(?? - 12.11.1927)
B. Santosh Babu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bikkumalla Santosh Babu

Born 13 February 1983
(now in Telangana), India
Died 15 June 2020 (aged 37)
Service/branch  Indian Army
Years of service 2004-2020
Rank  Colonel
Service number IC-64405M
Unit 16 Bihar
Battles/wars Kivu conflict
Awards  Maha Vir Chakra (posthumous)

Colonel Bikkumalla Santosh Babu MVC (13 February 1983 – 15 June 2020) was an Indian Army officer and the commanding officer of 16 Bihar Regiment. He was killed in action during the 2020 China–India skirmishes, the first Indian Armed Forces commissioned officer since 1967 and among the first Indian soldiers to have been killed in action against the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) since 1975. He was posthumously decorated with India's second-highest wartime gallantry award, the Maha Vir Chakra.

Early and personal life

A native of Suryapet in Telangana, Babu was the only son of Bikkumalla Upender, a retired manager with the State Bank of India and his wife Manjula. From 1988 to 1993, during his Class I to Class V years, he studied in Sri Saraswathi Shishumandir School at Luxettipet in Mancherial district. He was described by his schoolmates and teachers as a brilliant student. After primary school, Santosh was accepted to a Sainik School in KorukondaVizianagaram district, where he studied through Class XII.

In 2009, Babu married Santoshi. The couple had a daughter Abhigna (aged nine at her father's death) and a son Anirudh (aged four). His family resided in Delhi.

Army career

On 27 November 2000, Babu joined the National Defence Academy 105 Course and subsequently went to the Indian Military Academy in 2004. During his time at the NDA, he belonged to the "November" squadron. He was commissioned a lieutenant in 16 Bihar on 10 December 2004, one of 105 successful cadets. After passing out, he was posted to Jammu and Kashmir state.

He was promoted to captain on 10 December 2006, followed by promotion to major on 10 December 2010. He attended the Defence Services Staff College at Wellington. During his service, he was attached to the Rashtriya Rifles in Jammu and Kashmir, and also served with the UN peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during the ongoing Kivu conflict. Colleagues who served with him described him as "empathetic, yet bold." During a major joint operation conducted by DRC and South African forces against Nduma Defense of Congo (NDC) rebels, Babu and his unit were caught in cross-fire, yet his bold actions prevented the rebels from inflicting casualties on the joint force. During his posting in the Congo, Babu was described as kind and generous towards local residents, assisting them with medical and other needs.

Babu was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 10 December 2017. After serving as a divisional officer and Instructor Class "B" at the NDA, he was appointed a GSO I at the HQ of 35 Infantry Brigade. He received another posting to Jammu and Kashmir in 2019, and assumed command of 16 Bihar on 2 December 2019. He was promoted full colonel in February 2020  At the time of his death, he was expecting to be posted to Hyderabad.

Death
PM Modi paying tribute to fallen soldiers in Ladakh. B. Santosh Babu can be seen in the photograph closest to the Prime Minister.

Following high-level talks during the 2020 skirmishes with the PLA in eastern Ladakh, 16 Bihar monitored the Chinese forces in the Galwan Valley to ensure their disengagement. On 14 June, a group of PLA troops erected tents and an observation post on the LAC in contravention of an agreement made on 6 June. After observing an apparent lack of inclination by PLA troops to move from their positions, Babu personally led a delegation to the Chinese on the night of 15 June, though normally a company commander with the rank of major would have been asked to handle the situation.

Observing the Chinese soldiers were different from those Babu and his soldiers had previously spoken with, Colonel Babu attempted to ask them why they had erected the observation post. A PLA soldier then reportedly shoved the colonel while cursing him in Chinese, causing the Indian soldiers to engage the PLA troops in a 30-minute fistfight. Both sides sustained injuries, though the Indian troops succeeded in beating the Chinese and destroying their observation post. Though Babu himself sustained severe wounds, he calmed his men down, sent the wounded soldiers back to base and called for reinforcements. The PLA troops then attacked the Indian troops, whom they outnumbered three to one, with sticks, stones and clubs wrapped in barbed wire. In response, the soldiers of 16 Bihar charged the PLA soldiers with bayonets, and also attacked them with their own iron rods and clubs. PLA reinforcements then began throwing large stones at the Indian troops. Apparently by chance, one struck Babu on the head at around 9 p.m., causing him to fall into the Galwan River. Two other soldiers, Havildar Palani and Sepoy Kundan Ojha, also suffered serious injuries and succumbed to wounds, while 17 other soldiers and junior commissioned officers also died from various injuries.

The Indian military said that in response, the soldiers of 16 Bihar reportedly killed 40 to 45 soldiers of PLA in hand to hand combat and inflicted heavy casualties upon them. The PLA admitted the death of at least 4 of its soldiers, months later, while U.S. intelligence and Russian sources estimated PLA losses from 20-35 killed (U.S. intelligence) to 45 (Russian state media). Chinese state run Global Times editor Hu Xijin rejected the Indian claims of 45 dead and called it "lies" and "fabricated" and said China did not reveal its single digit death toll to "avoid embarrassing the Indian military".

Babu's body was flown by military aircraft to the military airport at Hakimpet in Telangana, arriving at 7 p.m. local time on 17 June. From there, his remains were driven to his family's farm at Kesaram village in Suryapet. His body was cremated with full military honours at around 12 p.m. local time on 18 June, with his father lighting the funeral pyre. Despite the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, his funeral was attended by thousands of mourners from the area, with police on hand to ensure distancing and hygiene were maintained.

Following Babu's death, Telangana Chief Minister K. Chandrashekar Rao announced the state government would award his family an ex gratia payment of ₹5 crore (US$701,000), along with a residential plot and a Group-I government job for his wife Santoshi. The chief minister also announced the state would award ₹10 lakh (US$14,020) each to the families of the 19 other soldiers who had been killed. CM Chandrasekhar Rao visited Santosh Babu's home at Suryapet June 22 to give the strength and to assure the support of Telangana Government

In the 2021 Republic Day honours list, Babu was posthumously decorated with the Maha Vir Chakra (MVC), the second-highest Indian wartime gallantry decoration. His citation reads as follows:

IC-64405M COLONEL BIKKUMALLA SANTOSH BABU

On 15 June 2020 as Commanding Officer Colonel Bikkumalla Santosh Babu was deployed in Galwan Valley (Eastern Ladakh) in Operation Snow Leopard. He was tasked to establish an Observation Post in the face of the enemy. Undaunted by the violent and aggressive action by an overwhelming strength of enemy soldiers, he in true spirit of service before self continued to resist the enemy's attempt to push back the Indian troops. Despite being grievously injured, he led from the front, in hand to hand combat until his last breath.

Decorations

(clasp for Jammu and Kashmir)
Bhandari Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bhandari Ram
Born 24 July 1919
Died 19 May 2002 (aged 82)
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1941–1969
Rank Honorary Captain
Unit 16th Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Bhandari Ram VC (24 July 1919 – 19 May 2002) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Details

Bhandari Ram was born in 1919 at the village of Auhar, which was part of Bilaspur State (now Bilaspur district, Himachal Pradesh). He was 25 years old, and a Sepoy in the 16th Battalion 10th Baluch RegimentBritish Indian Army (now the Baloch RegimentPakistan Army), fighting against the Japanese Army in the Burmese Campaign during World War II, when he performed deeds during the Third Arakan Offensive for which he was awarded the VC.

The citation reads:

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to:-

No. 24782 Sepoy Bhandari Ram, 10th Baluch Regiment, Indian Army.

On the 22nd November, 1944, in East Mayu, Arakan, during a Company attack on a strongly held Japanese bunker position, Sepoy Bhandari Ram was in the leading section of one of the platoons. In order to reach its objective, his platoon had to climb a precipitous slope, by way of a narrow ridge with sheer sides.

When fifty yards from the top, the platoon came under heavy and accurate light machine gun fire. Three men were wounded, amongst them Sepoy Bhandari Ram, who received a burst of light machine gun fire in his left shoulder and a wound in his leg. The platoon was pinned down by the intense enemy fire.
Action by Sepoy Bhandari Ram, 22 November 1944, Arakan, Burma

This Sepoy then crawled up to the Japanese light machine gun, whilst in full view of the enemy, and approached to within fifteen yards of the enemy position. The enemy then hurled grenades at him, seriously wounding him in the face and chest. Undeterred, severely wounded by bullets and grenade splinters and bespattered with blood, this Sepoy, with superhuman courage and determination, crawled up to within five yards of his objective. He then threw a grenade into the position, killing the enemy gunner and two other men, and continued his crawl to the post. Inspired by his example, the Platoon rushed up and captured the position. It was only after the position had been taken that he lay down and allowed his wounds to be dressed.

By his cool courage, determination to destroy the enemy at all cost, and entire disregard for his personal safety, this young Sepoy enabled his Platoon to capture what he knew to be the key to the whole enemy position.
— London Gazette, 8 February 1945.

He continued to serve in the post-independence Indian Army, receiving promotion to subedar on 13 May 1958, and to subedar major on 30 March 1967. Bhandari Ram retired from the army in August 1969 with the honorary rank of captain. He died in 2002.

Awards
  

   
   
   

Raksha Medal Indian Independence Medal 20 Years Long Service Medal 9 Years Long Service Medal
Bhai Jiwan Singh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baba Jiwan Singh (Gurmukhi: ਬਾਬਾ ਜੀਵਨ ਸਿੰਘ; 30 November 1649 – 7 December 1704), born Bhai Jaita, was a Sikh general and companion of Guru Gobind Singh.

Baba Jiwan Singh
Born 30 November 1649

(present-day BiharIndia)
Died 7 December 1704 (aged 55)

(present-day Rupnagar districtPunjabIndia)
Parent(s) Sada Nand
Mata Premo

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Early life

Bhai Jaita was born in 1649 at PatnaBihar (India) to Sada Nand and mother, Mata Premo.[citation needed] He grew up at Patna where he got training in various weapons and learned the art of warfare. In addition, he learned horse-riding, swimming, music and Kirtan. When Sikh families staying at Patna returned to Punjab Bhai Jaita and his family went to Ramdas village and lived with Bhai Gurditta, the great grandson of Baba Buddha. Later, Jaita married Bibi Raj Kaur, daughter of Surjan Singh.

When Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru of Sikh, was martyred by the Mughals at Chandni ChowkDelhi, Singh along with two other Sikhs, recovered his dismembered body from a Muslim crowd and brought it back to his son, Guru Gobind Singh.

There after Guru Gobind honoured them with the title Mazhabi ("faithful") and said loudly, "Rangrete Guru Ke Bete"(The Rangretas are the Guru's sons) to the all Mazhabi Sikhs. After that, Singh was instructed by his father to behead him in order to swap the head of his father for that of Guru Tegh Bahadur. Bhai Jiwan Singh carries out his father's wish and carried the head of Guru Tegh Bahadur from Delhi to Gobind Rai in Anandpur Sahib.

Battles and Death

Singh was with the Guru during the evacuation of Anandpur Sahib and fought the battles of Bhangani, Nadaun, Anandpur Sahib, Bajrur, Nirmohgarh, all four wars of Anandpur Sahib, Bansali/Kalmot and Sarsa. He died in Battle of Chamkaur after Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave him the Kalghi and cholla, his clothes, for confusing Mughals.

Bhai Jiwan Singh also wrote about the exploits of Guru Gobind Singh, in his magnum opus the 'Sri Gur Katha'.

After his death in 1705 a tomb was erected to honor him at Gurudwara Shaheed Burj Sahib at Chamkaur.
C. D. Subbaiah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Air Marshal C Devaiah Subbaiah
Born 6 March 1924
Occupation Indian Air Force

Air Marshal Cheppudira Devaiah Subbaiah (born 6 March 1924) in an Indian veteran and pilot.

Early life

Air Marshal Devaiah Subbaiah, PVSM, VrC, was born as Cheppudira Devaiah Subbaiah on 6 March 1924, and was also known as C D Subbaiah. He was commissioned in April 1942 at the age of 18 and his service number was 1866.

World War II Pilot

He was one of the notable World War II pilots from British India. During the Second World War, he was a Flying Officer in the 8th Squadron of the IAF. During the Arakan campaign in the same war, he was a Spitfire pilot. He was awarded the Vir Chakra and later on the Param Vishisht Seva Medal. He was also part of Squadron 4 that was involved in operations against Japan.

Kashmir War 1947 (Vir Chakra Award)

During the 1947-48 Kashmir Operations Flt. Lieutenant C D Subbaiah was distinguished for the operational missions flown during the war.[5] He was made Squadron Leader and was known to inspire his Squadron Pilots. He flew 70 sorties for a month and a half. The resistance of the enemy at Gurais broke down. This contributed to the successful capture of Gurais by the Indian Army. For this he was awarded the Vir Chakra later on 26 January 1950, the first Republic Day.

Later life

In 1948, three Vampires arrived and were under a unit called the ATU which was under Sqn Ldr Subbaiah. In mid 1949, the ATU was merged with the 7 Squadron with Sqn Ldr Subbaiah taking command. As Group Captain, in 1962-1963, he was the Commanding officer for AFS Hyderabad and stationed at Begumpet. Later he was made Air Vice Marshal and took over command of the Western Air Command. He was involved in studying the air operations planning the missions in the Western Sector during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. For this and for his distinguished career he was awarded a Param Vishist Seva Medal in 1972. In 1977-1978, he was the commanding officer for MC and stationed at Nagpur as AOC-in-C. In May 1978, as AOC-in-C, he instated the phoenix crest for the Base Repair Depot of the maintenance units. He retired as Air Marshal in 1978 after serving a full tenure.
Chempil Arayan
(Admiral Of Travancore Navy)
Chempil Arayan - The Koli Admiral Of Travancore Navy And First Freedom Fighter Of Travancore State
Chempil Arayan/Chempil Arayar
Achievements
First Freedom Fighter Of Travancore Kingdom
Caste (Blood)
Kshatriya Koli

Subcaste
Arayan/Arayar

Title
Valiya Arayan
Rank
Admiral Of Travancore Navy (Admiral- The Highest Rank In Navy)
Wars
Travancore War
Attack On Bolghatty Palace

Full Name
Chempil Anantha Padmanabhan Valiya Arayan Kankumaran
Born
Chempu Village, Kottayan, Kerala

The Chempil Anantha Padmanabhan Valiya Arayan Kankumaran Known As Chempil Arayan. Chempil Arayan Was Admiral (Admiral- The Highest Rank In Navy) Of Navy Of Travancore Kingdom. The Travancore Royal Family Belong To Koli Because The Family Belong To Kolathiri Dynasty & Kolathiris Was Kolis. Chempil Arayan Was Born In Kshatriya Arayan/Arayar Koli Family. Arayan/Arayar Are Subcaste Of Koli Community In Kerala. Chempil Arayan Born In Chempu Village In Kattayam District Of Kerala State In India.

Chempil Arayan Involved In The Travancore War In 1809. He Led An Attack On Bolghatty Palace, The Residence Of Company Residence, Colin Macaulay. The Resident Escaped Narrowly With His Life. Eluding Attackers Through An Underground Tunnel & Fleeing In A Small Boat.

The Chempil Arayan Was Latter Captured & Freed After A Payment Of Ransome. Chempil Arayan Waged Many Battles Against Forces Of Company. He Died In Battle Against Forces Of Company.

Chempil Arayan Was Well Known For Naval Exploits Using Traditional Boats Of Kerala.

known As ,Odi Vallam, . As Per The G.o. Of Of The General Administration Department, Government Secretariat, Thiruvananthapuram, The Schedule Caste & Schedule Tribes Development Department Vide Letter No. 7215/E2/92ScSt Dated 12/08/1992 Conducted An Anthropological Investigation By Kirtdas About T.T. Pankajakshan (Chempil Pankajakshan), Who Was Accorded Honourable Title, Chempil Arayan AnanthaPadmanabhan Valiya Arayan,. The Government Had Then Notified That The Former Was The Recipient Special Honourable Title From The Rulers Of Travancore Kingdom, Including The Honorary Title ,Valiya Arayan,.
Chhelu Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chhelu Ram
Born 10 May 1905
Dinod, BhiwaniHaryanaIndia
Died 20 April 1943 (aged 37)
Djebel Garci, French Tunisia
Buried
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Unit 4th Battalion, 6th Rajputana Rifles
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Chhelu Ram VC (10 May 1905 – 20 April 1943) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was born to Ch Jiram Garhwal in a Jat family in Dinod village near Bhiwani then part of Hisar district of undivided Punjab.

Death

He was 37 years old, and a Company Havildar-Major in the 4/6th Rajputana Rifles, in the Indian Army during World War II when he performed the following deed for which he was awarded the VC.

On the night of 19–20 April 1943 at Djebel Garci, Tunisia, the advance of a battalion of the 5th Indian Infantry Brigade was held up by machine-gun and mortar fire. He gave the rallying cry "Jat aur Musalmano aage badho dhava bolo" [Jats and Mohammedans, there must be no withdrawal! We will advance! Advance!] while attacking. Company Havildar-Major Chhelu Ram dashed forward with a Tommy-gun, killed the occupants of a machine-gun post, and then went to the aid of his company commander who had become a casualty. While doing so he was himself wounded, but taking command of the company, he led them in hand-to-hand fighting. He was again wounded, but continued rallying his men until he died.
Darwan Singh Negi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Darwan Singh Negi
Image from The Illustrated War News of 23 December 1914 showing the injured Negi being carried into the Royal PavilionBrighton then in use as a hospital for wounded troops.
Born November 1881
Kafarteer, Uttarakhand, India
Died 24 June 1950 (aged 68)
Kafarteer
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Rank Subedar
Battles/wars World War I
Awards  Victoria Cross

Darwan Singh Negi VC (November 1881 – 24 June 1950) was the second Indian soldier ever to receive the Victoria cross from the hands of H.M. The King Emperor on the field of battle and was among the earliest Indian recipients of the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Negi was approximately 33 years old, and a naik (equivalent to corporal) in the 1st Battalion, 39th Garhwal RiflesBritish Indian Army during the First World War when he performed the deeds during the Defence of Festubert for which he was awarded the VC. The citation reads:

His Majesty the KING-EMPEROR has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned soldier of the Indian Army for conspicuous bravery whilst serving with the Indian Army Corps, British Expeditionary Force: —

1909, Naik Darwan Singh [sic] Negi, 1st Battalion, 39th Garhwal Rifles.

For great gallantry on the night of the 23rd–24th November, near Festubert, France, when the regiment was engaged in retaking and clearing the enemy out of our trenches, and, although wounded in two places in the head, and also in the arm, being one of the first to push round each successive traverse, in the face of severe fire from bombs and rifles at the closest range.
— London Gazette, 7 December 1914.

He was awarded the medal on the same day as Khudadad Khan VC; but the latter's VC action was of earlier date, so that he is regarded as the first Indian recipient.

Negi retired with the rank of subedar, equivalent to a British captain. Both his son Balbir and Balbir's son Nitin served in the Garhwal Rifles of the Indian Army; both achieved the rank of colonel.[citation needed] His Victoria Cross is held by his family. The regimental museum of The Garhwal Rifles in LansdowneUttarakhand is named the Darwan Singh Museum in his honour.
Gian Singh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gian Singh
VC
Born 5 October 1920
Sahabpur, Punjab, India
Died 6 October 1996 (aged 76)
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Gian Singh VC (5 October 1920 – 6 October 1996) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Singh's name on the "Memorial Gates" at Constitution Hill, London SW1


Biography

Singh was born into a Sikh family in Sahabpur, a village in the Nawanshahr district (now, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district) of eastern Punjab. He was 24 years old, and a Naik in the 15th Punjab Regiment in the British Indian Army, when during the Burma Campaign 1944–45 of World War II he performed the deeds for which he was awarded the VC. The citation reads:

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to:—

No. 11620 Naik Gian SINGH, 15th Punjab Regiment, Indian Army.

In Burma, on 2nd March, 1945, the Japanese were holding a strong position astride the road Kamye-Myingyan. Two Companies of the 15th Punjab Regiment carried out successfully a wide encircling movement and established themselves on some high ground about one and a half miles in the rear of this enemy position. As all water supply points were within the enemy position it was vital that he should be dislodged.

The attack on to the first objective was successful and one platoon was ordered to attack a village to the right. This platoon's attack, with the aid of tanks, advanced slowly under very heavy enemy fire. Naik Gian Singh was in command of the leading section.

The enemy were well concealed in foxholes along cactus hedges and Naik Gian Singh soon observed enemy some twenty yards ahead. Ordering his Light Machine Gunner to cover him, he, alone, rushed the enemy fox-holes, firing his Tommy Gun. He was met by a hail of fire and wounded in the arm. In spite of this he continued his advance alone, hurling grenades. He killed several Japanese including four in one of the enemy main weapon pits.

By this time a troop of tanks moved up in support of this platoon and came under fire from a cleverly concealed enemy antitank gun. Naik Gian Singh quickly saw the danger to the tanks and, ignoring the danger to himself and in spite of his wounds, again rushed forward, killed the crew and captured the gun single-handed. His section followed him and he then led them down a lane of cactus hedges, clearing all enemy positions which were being firmly held. Some twenty enemy bodies were found in this area, the majority of which fell to Naik Gian Singh and his section.

After this action, the Company reformed to take the enemy positions to the rear.

Naik Gian Singh was ordered to the Regimental Aid Post but, in spite of his wounds, requested permission to lead his section until the whole action had been completed. This was granted.

There is no doubt that these acts of supreme gallantry saved Naik Gian Singh's platoon many casualties and enabled the whole operation to be carried out successfully with severe losses to the enemy.

The magnificent gallantry of this Naik throughout, his devotion to duty and leadership, although wounded, could not have been surpassed.
— London Gazette, 22 May 1945. 

Refusing to be invalided from the Army, Singh received a mention in dispatches later that year. He was presented with his Victoria Cross by King George VI, in a ceremony at Buckingham Palace on 16 October 1945.

After Indian independence in 1947, Singh transferred to the 11th Sikhs when 15 Punjab was allocated to Pakistan. He was promoted to havildar (sergeant), with successive promotions to jemadar (now naib subedar in the Indian Army) on 29 December 1955, followed by promotion to subedar on 21 December 1961. He saw action in both the 1962 Sino-Indian War and in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Promoted to subedar major on 15 June 1967, Singh retired from the army in August 1969 with the honorary rank of captain. He died in 1996.

Awards
 
   
   
   

Samar Seva Star Raksha Medal Indian Independence Medal 20 Years Long Service Medal
9 Years Long Service Medal Victoria Cross 1939-45 Star Burma Star
Gordon Strachey Shephard
From Wikipedia
Gordon Strachey Shephard
Born 9 July 1885
Died 19 January 1918 (aged 32)
Auchel, France
Buried
Lapugnoy Military Cemetery
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army (1904–18)
Years of service 1904–1918
Commands held I Brigade RFC (1917–18)
12th (Corps) Wing RFC (1915–17)
Battles/wars First World War

Brigadier General Gordon Strachey Shephard, DSOMC (9 July 1885 – 19 January 1918) was a Royal Flying Corps commander. He was the highest-ranking officer of the flying services to be killed in service during the First World War.

Early life and military service

The second son of Sir Horatio Shephard, a judge, and Lady Shephard, of 58 Montagu Square, London, Shephard attended Eton College from 1898 to 1903, then the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He belonged to the Royal Cruising Club, where his skills as a yachtsman would prove useful later in life. He was gazetted second lieutenant to a Regular Army battalion of the Royal Fusiliers on 28 January 1905. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) in 1912, the year of its formation.[citation needed] However, in July 1914, he used his skills as a yachtsman for a quite different purpose, to surreptitiously assist his friend Erskine Childers (who was executed by the Free State government in 1922 during the Irish Civil War) in landing a consignment of weaponry at Howth aboard Childers' yacht, The Asgard, on behalf of the Irish Volunteers, an action which, had it become known, would have resulted in, at a minimum, the termination of Shephard's military career, if not far more drastic punishment. His covert operations came to an abrupt halt when he and a companion were briefly detained by the German authorities at Emden, after they were seen taking photographs in a sensitive area.

On 22 August 1914, Shephard landed near Maubeuge for petrol, where he was given first-hand accounts of the fighting from French cavalry falling back from the Sambre canal. On 24 August 1914, he and Lieutenant Ian Bonham-Carter reported to the Staff that General von Kluck's right wing would swamp the British Army unless the retreat was continued. On 4 November 1914, Shephard narrowly escaped after the longeron of his BE2b, "487", was shot through.

At the start of 1915 Shephard assumed command of the newly formed No. 10 Squadron, which was then assigned to a training role at Farnborough. Two months later and before No. 10 Squadron deployed to France, Shephard was reassigned to command No. 6 Squadron. In 1917 Shephard was promoted to command I Brigade RFC and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general, which gave him greater opportunity to further the careers of able pilots.

Death

On 19 January 1918, aged 32, Shephard decided to visit the aerodrome at Auchel, where three of his squadrons were stationed. His Nieuport Scout "B3610" spun into the ground. He was lifted from the wreckage but died several hours later in hospital. He was the highest-ranking officer of the flying services to be killed in a theatre of war in the First World War, and was buried in the Lapugnoy Military Cemetery, in the Pas de Calais, France (plot VI, B15).

Legacy

The Gordon Shephard Memorial Essay Prize was established as a memorial to Shephard. Shepard's father, Sir Horatio, left a sum of money in trust to award annual prizes for essays on reconnaissance and related subjects submitted by RAF officers and airmen.

Gabar Singh Negi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gabbar Singh Negi
Born 21 April 1895
Died 10 March 1915 (aged 19) 
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1913–1915
Rank Rifleman
Battles/wars First World War
Awards  Victoria Cross

Gabbar Singh Negi VC (21 April 1895 – 10 March 1915) was a soldier in the British Indian Army during the First World War and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Early life

Gabar Singh Negi, was born on 21 April 1895 at Manjaur village near Chamba, in the Indian district of Tehri. The area is in the Himalayas and was part of the original Kingdom of Garhwal, Uttarakhand. He joined the 2nd Battalion of The Garhwal Rifles, a regiment of the British Indian Army, in October 1913; the personnel of the regiment were mainly from the Himalayan people of garhwal region of Uttarakhand.

First World War

On the outbreak of the First World War, the 39th Garhwal Rifles was among the regiments selected for the Indian Expeditionary Force A, destined for the Western Front in France. By October 1914, the regiment, as part of the 7th (Meerut) Division, was in the frontlines during the First Battle of Ypres and later in the Pas-de-Calais sector where it would remain until going into reserve at the end of that year.

In March 1915, the 7th Division was selected to be involved in the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, which called for an assault on the German lines at Neuve Chapelle. The 7th Division was to help force a gap for the Cavalry Corps to exploit. On 10 March 1915, during the battle, Negi's 2nd Battalion was attacking to the southwest of Neuve Chappelle; an artillery barrage that preceded the attack was not effective and the German trenches were well defended. Parties with bombs had to clear the trenches; one such party included Negi. When the commander of his party was killed, he took over, leading from the front as the party took control of the German trenches. He was later killed. His actions on 10 March led to him being posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross (VC). The VC, instituted in 1856, was the highest award for valour that could be bestowed on a soldier of the British Empire. The citation for his VC read as follows:

For most conspicuous bravery on 10th March, 1915, at Neuve Chapelle. During our attack on the German position he was one of a bayonet party with bombs who entered their main trench, and was the first man to go round each traverse, driving back the enemy until they were eventually forced to surrender. He was killed during this engagement.
— London Gazette, 28 April 1915

Negi has no known grave; his name is recorded on the Neuve-Chapelle Memorial, as Gabar Singh [sic] Negi. His name was one of those included on the dome of the Memorial Gates in London, unveiled in 2002.

Victoria Cross

Negi's VC was sent to the India Office to be forwarded to his next of kin, Satoori Devi, his wife. The VC was acquired by his regiment which arranged for a replica to be sent to Devi. A letter of condolences from Queen Mary was also sent to Devi. The medal was a source of pride for Negi's widow, who would wear it until her death in 1981.

Legacy

Descendants of Negi have organised the Gabar Singh Negi Fair annually at Chamba in his memory, held every 20 or 21 April since 1925, depending on the Hindu calendar. His regiment, the Garhwal Rifles, have maintained a presence since 1971. A recruitment rally, stalls and army bands provide entertainment and many villagers, particularly the youths, attend the fair because of the drawcard of the recruitment rally.
Gabar Singh Negi
From Wikipedia
Gabar Singh Negi
Born 21 April 1895
Died 10 March 1915 (aged 19) 
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1913–1915
Rank Rifleman
Battles/wars First World War
Awards  Victoria Cross

Gabar Singh Negi VC (21 April 1895 – 10 March 1915) was a soldier in the British Indian Army during the First World War and a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Early life

Gabar Singh Negi, was born on 21 April 1895 at Manjaur village near Chamba in a rajput family,Tehri Garhwal State (present-day Tehri Garhwal districtUttarakhand). The area is in the Himalayas and was part of the original Garhwal Kingdom, Uttarakhand. He joined the 2nd Battalion of the Garhwal Rifles, a regiment of the British Indian Army, in October 1913; the personnel of the regiment were mainly from the Garhwali people of Uttarakhand.

First World War

On the outbreak of the First World War, the 39th Garhwal Rifles was among the regiments selected for the Indian Expeditionary Force A, destined for the Western Front in France. By October 1914, the regiment, as part of the 7th (Meerut) Division, was in the frontlines during the First Battle of Ypres and later in the Pas-de-Calais sector where it would remain until going into reserve at the end of that year.

In March 1915, the 7th Division was selected to be involved in the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, which called for an assault on the German lines at Neuve Chapelle. The 7th Division was to help force a gap for the Cavalry Corps to exploit. On 10 March 1915, during the battle, Negi's 2nd Battalion was attacking to the southwest of Neuve Chappelle; an artillery barrage that preceded the attack was not effective and the German trenches were well defended. Parties with bombs had to clear the trenches; one such party included Negi. When the commander of his party was killed, he took over, leading from the front as the party took control of the German trenches. He was later killed. His actions on 10 March led to him being posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross (VC). The VC, instituted in 1856, was the highest award for valour that could be bestowed on a soldier of the British Empire. The citation for his VC read as follows:

For most conspicuous bravery on 10th March, 1915, at Neuve Chapelle. During our attack on the German position he was one of a bayonet party with bombs who entered their main trench, and was the first man to go round each traverse, driving back the enemy until they were eventually forced to surrender. He was killed during this engagement.
— London Gazette, 28 April 1915.

Negi has no known grave; his name is recorded on the Neuve-Chapelle Memorial, as Gabar Singh Negi. His name was one of those included on the dome of the Memorial Gates in London, unveiled in 2002.

Victoria Cross

Negi's VC was sent to the India Office to be forwarded to his next of kin, Satoori Devi, his wife. The VC was acquired by his regiment which arranged for a replica to be sent to Devi. A letter of condolences from Queen Mary was also sent to Devi. The medal was a source of pride for Negi's widow, who would wear it until her death in 1981.

Legacy

Descendants of Negi have organised the Gabar Singh Negi Fair annually at Chamba in his memory, held every 20 or 21 April since 1925, depending on the Hindu calendar. His regiment, the Garhwal Rifles, have maintained a presence since 1971. A recruitment rally, stalls and army bands provide entertainment and many villagers, particularly the youths, attend the fair because of the drawcard of the recruitment rally.
Ganju Lama

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ganju Lama
Birth name Gyamtso Shangderpa
Born 22 July 1924
Died 1 July 2000 (aged 75)
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch

Years of service 1942–1968
Unit

Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles
Battles/wars World War II
Awards


Ganju Lama VC MM (22 July 1924 – 1 July 2000) was a Sikkim-born Nepali recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Enlistment

Ganju Lama was born in Sangmo, southern SikkimIndia, on 22 July 1924. He enlisted in British Gurkha Army in 1942 at the age of seventeen. His parents were both of Sikkimese Bhutia descent and lived in Sikkim, which made him unusual, as he was neither an ethnic Gurkha nor a Nepalese subject. At that time, however, Gurkha regiments were prepared to accept any recruit who closely resembled the Gurkha and lived near the border of Nepal. Ganju Lama's tribe lived in the kingdom of Sikkim. His name was Gyamtso Shangderpa, but a clerk in the recruiting office wrote it down as "Ganju", and the name stuck. After leaving the regimental center in 1943, he joined the 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles, near Imphal.

Victoria Cross

Ganju Lama was nineteen years old, and a rifleman in the 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles, in the Indian Army during World War II.

On 12 June 1944, near NingthoukhongIndia, 'B' Company was attempting to stem the enemy's advance when it came under heavy machine-gun and tank machine-gun fire. Ganju Lama, "on his own initiative with great coolness and complete disregard for his own safety", took his PIAT anti-tank weapon and crawled forward. Despite a broken wrist and two other serious wounds to his right leg and left hand he then moved forward, succeeded in bringing the gun into action within 30 yards of the enemy tanks, knocking out two of them (a third was taken out by an anti-tank gun). He continued forward and used grenades on the tanks crews who were trying to escape. Not until he "had killed or wounded them all did he allow himself to be taken back to the Regimental Aid Post" to have his wounds dressed.

A month earlier, during operations on the Tiddim Road, Ganju Lama's regiment had surprised a party of Japanese and killed several of them. He was awarded the Military Medal for his part in the action. This award was announced in the London Gazette after his Victoria Cross, appearing on 3 October 1944, almost a month later.

Later life

After India gained its independence, he joined the Indian 11th Gorkha Rifles, retiring in 1968, when he became a farmer in Sikkim. He was appointed honorary ADC to the President of India for life. He died at Gangtok following a battle with cancer on 1 July 2000, aged 75.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Gurkha Museum in Winchester, England along with those of other Gurkhas.
A memorial in his memory is being constructed in Sikkim.
Hira Lal Atal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hira Lal Atal
Born 26 January 1905
Died 23 January 1985
Nationality Indian
Occupation Soldier, writer

Hira Lal Atal (26 January 1905 – 23 January 1985) was an Indian soldier in the British Indian Army from 1925 until 1947 and the Indian Army from 1947. He became a Major General and the first indigenous Adjutant General of independent India. He was instrumental in designing the Indian Armed Forces’ highest award for bravery, the Param Vir Chakra.

Career
Early years

Hira Lal Atal attended the Rawlinson Section (renamed the Pratap Section in 1947) of the Rashtriya Indian Military College RIMC in DehradunIndia. RIMC was intended to prepare native Indians to take command of the British Indian Army and was earlier known as the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, which was established in 1921. Hira was the first cadet captain, or head boy. 

Atal attended Sandhurst and was commissioned a second lieutenant into the Unattached List, Indian Army on 29 January 1925.[citation needed] He was attached to the 1st battalion Gordon Highlanders from 20 March 1925, and appointed to the Indian Army on 31 March 1926, and the 16th Light Cavalry.

Atal became a lieutenant on 29 April 1927 and a quarter-master, serving in that post from 3 January 1928 until 1 October 1930. He attended an eight-month course at the Equestrian School, Saugor during 1929 and 1930. He was appointed adjutant on 1 October 1930 until being attached to the Rewa State Forces. He was promoted to captain on 29 January 1934. He was appointed chief of staff 16 February 1935, an appointment he relinquished in 1936. He was attached to the 15th Lancers, a training regiment, on 7 September 1937 until being appointed adjutant and quarter-master of the Equestrian School, Saugor on 4 December 1938 until the establishment was closed in September 1939.

War years

Atal attended the Command and Staff College in Quetta from 1940 to 1941 and joined the staff from 1941 to 1942. He became a major on 29 January 1942 and by 1943 was serving with the 47th Cavalry, a unit raised in April 1941 and later sent to Kohat as a frontier defense armored-car regiment. It was disbanded in August 1943 and he was sent back to the 16th Light Cavalry. He became an acting lieutenant colonel on 31 July 1944 and the commanding officer of the 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry until 13 February 1946. He commanded the 2nd Independent Armored Brigade from December 1947 until February 1948. He became a major general and commander of the 1st Armored Division from February 1948 until May 1948.

Adjutant General

Atal was the first indigenous Adjutant General of independent India, entrusted by Jawaharlal Nehru with the responsibility of designing (with Savitri Khanolkar) the Param Vir Chakra, the Indian equivalent of the Victoria Cross.

His brother, K.L. Atal, who went on to win the Maha Vir Chakra, was also a Rimcollian.

Post retirement

Atal was the Chief Commissioner of Tripura between 15 February 1955 and 8 November 1956.
Hambirrao Mohite
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hambirrao Mohite

Born c. May 01, 1632
Died December 16, 1687 (aged 57)
Allegiance Maratha Empire
Service/branch Maratha Army
Years of service 1670-1687
Rank Senapati (Military general)

Hambirrao Mohite was the chief military commander of Shivaji Maharaj army. An able military general, he executed several campaigns for Shivaji Raje and later served under Sambhaji Maharaj.

Early life

Hambirrao was born in Talbid 1630.[1][unreliable source?] Sambhaji Mohite had 3 sons Harifrao, Hambirrao, Shankarji and 2 daughters Soyarabai and Annubai. Hambirrao's father Sambhaji Mohite was a very mighty and courageous chief. Hambirrao inherited all the qualities from his father.

After the sacrifice of Prataprao Gujar, Shivaji Maharaj made Hambirarao his Sersenapati (commander).

Battle of Koppal

At that time, the Koppal province of Karnataka was under Adilshah's general Abdul Rahimkhan Miyana and his brother Hussain Miyana. Both brothers used to forcibly take the grain of the farmers. The people of Koppal complained to Shivaji Maharaj, when sent his Sersenapati Hambirrao. In Yelburga, on January 1677, both the armies collided. Hambirrao and Dhanaji Jadhav showed incomparable valor in this battle. More than half of Adilshah's army was killed in this battle. Hambirrao killed Abdul Miyana and imprisoned Hussain Miyana.

Battle between Hambir Rao and Venkoji

Hambirrao had two sisters, Soyarabai, who married Shivaji Maharaj and Annubai, who married Venkoji (step-brother of Shivaji Maharaj). Sometime later, Shivaji Raje came to Karnataka to the Dakshin Digvijay (South conquest). When Venkoji (Ekoji) refused to share his father's property with Shivaji Maharaj, war started between them. Hambirrao won major provinces of Venkoji such as Jagdevagad, Kaveripattam, Chidambaram, and Vriddhachalam. Venkoji was very upset that Shivaji Maharaj captured his states. On 6 November 1677, the battle started in Venkoji and Hambirrao. Venkoji seemed to win in battle, but later Hambirrao suddenly attacked Venkoji's army and won the defeated battle. After two months Shivaji Raje's intervention ended the fight.

Hambirrao won the important fort of Vellore on 22 July 1678 from Adilshahi general Abdullakhan.

Role of Hambirrao in coronation of Sambhaji Maharaj

Shivaji Maharaj died on 3 April 1680. On 21 April, the corrupt ministers of Swarajya crowned Rajaram Maharaj. At that time Rajaram Maharaj was only ten years old. Rajaram Maharaj was the nephew of Hambirrao. The ministers of Swarajya ordered Sambhaji Maharaj to be imprisoned. When Hambirrao came to know about this, Hambirrao captured all the ministers and presented them to Sambhaji Maharaj.

This shows how deep Hambirao's undying loyalty to Swarajya was.

Attack on Burhanpur

Burhanpur was a major trade center connecting southern and northern India. There were a total of 17 trade centers in Burhanpur. On 30 January 1681, commanders Hambirrao Mohite and Sambhaji Maharaj suddenly attacked Burhanpur. At that time the Subedar of Burhanpur was Khanjahan. For the protection of Burhanpur there was only an army of 200 and Hambirrao had an army of 20,000. The Mughals did not even have the strength to oppose Hambir Rao's army. The Marathas looted all the trade centers of Burhanpur for three days. Marathas got assets worth more than 1 crore hons in this battle.

On 17 March 1683, Hambirrao defeated Ranamast khan, one of the most powerful chieftains of Aurangzeb, in Kalyan Bhiwandi.

Death

In 1687, in a battle fought near Wai province, Hambirrao defeated With a heavy defeat of Rustumkhan, but a cannonball hit Sarsenapati HambirRao Mohite having a acedental death'
Jyoti Prakash Nirala
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jyoti Prakash Nirala

Born November 15, 1986
Died November 18, 2017 (aged 31)
Allegiance  India
Service/branch  Indian Air Force
Years of service 2005–2017
Rank  Corporal
Unit Rashtriya Rifles (deputed)
Awards  Ashok Chakra

Corporal Jyoti Prakash Nirala, AC (15 November 1986 - 18 November 2017) was a member of the Garud Commando Force. He was posthumously awarded the Ashoka ChakraIndia's highest peacetime military decoration in January 2018. He is the first airman to receive the award for ground combat and only the third one to receive it overall after Suhas Biswas and Rakesh Sharma.

Early and Personal life

Nirala was a resident of the Badladih village of Rohtas districtBihar. He was born on November 15, 1986 in Yadav family to Tej Narayan Singh Yadav and Malti Devi.

Jyoti Prakash Nirala was married to Sushma Nand Yadav in 2010 and they have a daughter Jigyasa Kumari.

Military service

Nirala joined the Garud Commando Force of the Indian Air Force in 2005. His unit was deputed to the 13 Rashtriya Rifles and stationed in Jammu and Kashmir under Operation Rakshak.

Ashok Chakra
Jyoti Prakash Nirala's wife and mother receive the Ashok Chakra from president Ram Nath Kovind on 26 January 2018.

A joint offensive was launched by the Garud detachment and the 13 Rashtriya Rifles in Chanderger village, Bandipora districtJammu and Kashmir based on technical intelligence. His detachment covertly approached the house that had suspected militants hiding in it and laid a close quarter ambush. Nirala, armed with a light machine gun, positioned himself close to the approach of the hideout, cutting off all escape routes.

In a bid to escape, the six militants rushed out, shooting and throwing grenades. He retaliated and shot down two category ‘A’ militants and injured two others. In the exchange, he was hit by a volley of small arms fire and kept firing despite being critically injured. Nirala subsequently succumbed to the fatal injuries received during the encounter in which all six militants were killed.

He was awarded the Ashok Chakra on 26 January 2018 for service and exhibiting bravery in fighting the militants. He is credited with eliminating the local leadership of Lakshar-e-Taiba. One of the militants killed during the operation was the nephew of Lashkar-e-Taiba commander Zaki-ur-Rehman Lakhvi, a major planner of the 2008 Mumbai attacks.
Sub Joginder Singh
Story of Paramvir Joginder Singh: The Chinese army which made the prisoner of war was also filled with respect





This is the story of Subedar Joginder Singh, the ending of which is most moving:
Talk starts from punjab

In Punjab, in Faridkot district, farmers Sher Singh and Bibi Krishna Kaur lived in Mehla Kalan, a village in Moga. Originally he came from Munka village of Hoshiarpur. His son Joginder was born on 26 September 1921. Joginder Nathu studied in primary school in Ala village and then in middle school in Darauli village. It is said that his father had his own land, but then it is also told that his family was not very prosperous and hence he could not do studies properly. This was the reason he thought that the army could be the right place for him. Then on 28 September 1936, he was admitted as a soldier in the Sikh Regiment. After coming into the army, he studied, took examinations and made a respectable place. He was made the education instructor of his unit. He was also married to Bibi Gurdial Kaur, who belonged to the Saini Sikh family of Kothe Rara Singh village near Kot Kapura.

 
Subedar Joginder Singh.

Joginder Singh was also posted in Kashmir
For the British Indian Army, they fought on fronts like Burma. In 1948, when Pakistani tribes attacked Kashmir after India became independent, they were also part of the Sikh regiment fighting there.

Indo-China war started
Then came the time of August 1962 when the People's Liberation Army of China attacked India. He laid claim to Aksai Chin and the eastern border (North-East Frontier Agency). The Chinese army captured the Thagla Ridge. Defense Minister V.K. On September 22, Krishna Menon, with the consent of Prime Minister Nehru, ordered the Chief of the Army to drive China out of Thagla Ridge. The new IV Corps of the Indian Army assembled troops for this impossible task. Although the Chinese army was in a more controlled position.

Nehru and Menon.

Sikh battalion stood in front of China
On 20 October, the Chinese army started simultaneous attacks on Namkha Chu sector and other parts of the eastern border including Ladakh. In three days he captured a lot of land and drove out the Indian presence from Dhola-Thagla. Now China had to capture Tawang, which was its biggest wish. The task of preventing him from reaching Tawang was given to the first Sikh battalion of the Indian Army.

Subedar Joginder Singh's entry
China started submitting an entire division of its army in Bamla area from where Tawang had a path of only 26 km to walk. But 3 kilometers southwest of that road of Bamla, there was a place called Twin Peaks on which every action of China could be monitored till the McMahon Line. Now stop the enemy from reaching the twin peaks from the bomb. There was an important place between these two named IB Ridge.

A Delta company of the first Sikh battalion formed its base on Tongpeng La, a kilometer southwest of Twin Peaks, whose commander was Lieutenant Haripal Kaushik. His 11th platoon of Delta Company was stationed on IB Ridge, whose commander was Subedar Joginder Singh. The 7th Bengal Mountain Battery was present to cover this platoon of Sikhs with cannons and shelling.

 
A news of China's attack on India then.

Mortars mouths open in the twilight of the morning
It was dawn of 20 October when a JCO of the Bamla Outpost of Assam Rifles noticed that hundreds of Chinese troops were gathering across the border. He cautioned the 11th platoon. Joginder Singh sent a section bomba post led by Turat Halvadar Sucha Singh. He then asked his company headquarters to provide 'second line' ammunition. Then everyone sat ready with their respective weapons.

Now at 4.30 in the morning of 23 October, the Chinese Army opened the mouth of mortar and anti-tank guns to destroy the Indian bunkers. Then at 6 o'clock he attacked the Assam Rifles post. Sucha Singh fought there but then met with his troop with the platoon of IB Ridge. With the first ray of dawn, the Chinese army again attacked IB Ridge so that Twin Peaks could be captured.

Subedar Singh's clever strategy
Anil Kumar, a flying officer of the Indian Airforce and Historian MP, wrote about Subedar Singh in one of his articles that he had understood the geographical location of the place very well and made good use of local resources with clever planning on the IB Ridge bunker And had made trenches. His platoon had only four days of ration. The shoes and clothes of those people were not good according to winter and that location. The cold Himalayan spine was about to shiver but Joginder encouraged his men, motivating them to maintain focus. So much prepared that he will give a memorable fight to the soldiers of the Abhubvi People's Liberation Army.

 One morning of the war, the Sikh jawans were spending tea in the fierce cold, on the other hand, the other Sikh platoon was engaged in facing the enemies in these difficult circumstances. (Photo: Larry Burrows / Pintrest)

Subedar Joginder Singh knew that the Chinese army was coming from Bamla with a sharp ascent and they are sitting on a much stronger IB ridge. That is, the Sikh platoon can crush the enemy with its outdated Lee Enfield 303 rifles. Apart from this, he had less bullets so he told his soldiers that every bullet should be accounted. Hold the fire until the enemy comes in range and then move.

First and second wave of Chinese attack
Soon the battle started on this front. In the first attack, about 200 Chinese soldiers were in front, while the Indian platoon was small. But it is said that Joginder Singh and his colleagues misbehaved with the Chinese army. Many of his soldiers were injured. His answer was so intense that the Chinese army had to hide first and then retreat. But it also damaged the Indian platoon. After this Joginder asked the command center of Tongpeng La to send more ammunition. It was happening that another sugar troop with a capacity of 200 regrouped and attacked again for the second time.

Joginder Singh was shot
Meanwhile, a Chinese team went up without coming into the eyes of the Indian platoon. Fierce firing took place. Joginder was shot in the thigh with a machine gun. They entered a bunker and tied it there. Even under the most adverse circumstances, he did not back down and kept shouting instructions to his colleagues. When his gunner was martyred, he took a 2-inch mortar himself and fired several rounds at the enemy. His platoon killed many Chinese soldiers, but most of his people were either killed or badly injured.

 
A scene of the India-China war. (Photo: pintrest)

Clashed with Chinese soldiers with bayonet
After a few breaks, a contingent of 200 soldiers of the Chinese army had regrouped and were going to snatch the IB ridge. Historian Anil Kumar writes that Lieutenant Haripal Kaushik, the commander of the Delta Company, sent a message on the radio sensing the imminent threat, which was received by Subedar Joginder Singh as 'Ji Saab', his last words to his platoon. After some time, the ammo near his platoon was exhausted. Subedar Singh prepared the remaining soldiers of his platoon and said the last attack on the enemy. It is said that he attacked Chinese soldiers and killed many people by placing a bayonet or knife on their guns and shouting slogans like 'Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal'. But Chinese soldiers kept coming. The badly wounded Subedar Joginder Singh was made a prisoner of war. Three Indian soldiers escaped from there who told the story of this battle of several hours.

Paramveer Joginder Singh ji, and Punjabi actor Gippy Grewal as him in the film made on him.

He got super speed
Subedar Joginder Singh died shortly thereafter as a prisoner of the People's Liberation Army. With this indomitable courage, he was posthumously awarded India's highest gallantry award, Param Vir Chakra.

Enemy Army filled with honor
When the Chinese Army came to know that Subedar Singh had got the adornment of Paramveer Chakra, he was also filled with respect. On 17 May 1963, China handed over his ashes to his battalion with full military honors. His urn was brought to the center of the Sikh Regiment in Meerut. The next day his tribute meeting was held at Gurdwara Sahib. Then a ceremony was organized where the urn was handed over to his wife Gurdial Kaur and son.


Statue of Subedar Joginder Singh in War Memorial of Tawang.

The Indian Army built a memorial on IB Ridge as a commemoration of his valor.



Koli Mard Maratha Kanhoji Angre
Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre
Cast
Koli

Subcaste
Mahadeo (Mahadev)

Born
1669 Suvarnadurg, Ratanagiri, Maharashtra, India

Died
4 July 1729 Alibag, Maharashtra, India

Titles
Lord Of Indian Pirates
Lord Of Indian Oceans
First Admiral Of Maratha Navy
Sarkhel

Family Profession
Piracy

Dynasty
Angre (Angria)

Father
Tukoji Angre

Mother
Amba Bai Angre

Kanhoji Angré (Marathi: कान्होजी आंग्रे) or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angré (Sarkhel is a title equal to Admiral of a fleet) (August 1669 – 4 July 1729) was the first notable Admiral of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. He fought against the British, Dutch and Portuguese naval interests on the coasts of India during the 18th century. As a result, his European enemies labeled him a pirate. Despite the attempts of the British and Portuguese to subdue Angre, he remained undefeated until his death.

Born in the village of Angarwadi, six miles from Pune in the year of 1669, in a Sankapal Kshatriya Koli family.They were guardians of small state named 'Vir Rana Sank' and therefore became known as Sankapal. His mother's name was Ambabai and his father, Tukoji, served at Suvarnadurg for Shivaji with a command of 200 posts.Little is known about his early life except that he was involved in daring exploits at sea with his father. He spent much of his childhood in the Suvarnadurg Fort, where would later become governor.

Naval career

He was originally appointed as Surkhel or Darya-Saranga (Admiral) by the chief of Satara in c. 1698.Under that authority, he was master of the Western coast of India from Mumbai to Vingoria (now Vengurla) in present-day state of Maharashtra, except for the property of the Muslim Siddis of Murud-Janjira who were affiliated with the powerful Mughal Empire.

Kanhoji started his long history of heroic feats by attacking merchant ships of the British East India Company and slowly gained respect from all the colonial powers. In 1702, he abducted a merchant vessel from Calicut with six English sailors and took it to his harbor.In 1707, he attacked the frigate, Bombay which was blown-up during fight. In time, the British feared as he could take any merchant ship except large European ships.When Maratha Chattrapati Shahu ascended the leadership of the Maratha Empire, he appointed Balaji Viswanath Bhatt as his Senakarta (Commander) and negotiated an agreement with Angre around 1707. This was partly to appease Angre who supported the other ruler, Tarabai, who claimed the Maratha throne. As per agreement, Angre became head of the Maratha Navy. He also played a role in the Maratha conflicts against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who was campaigning in the Deccan.

A painted scroll depicting different types of ships of the Marathan Navy, primarily grabs and gallivats, but also including some captured English ships.

When the Maratha empire was weak, Angre became more and more independent and in 1713, an army was sent headed by Peshwa Bhyroo Pant to control Angre, but Angre won the battle and captured and held Bhyroo Pant as his prisoner.Angre planned to march to Satara where Sahoojee was acting as a head of state and where Angre was requested to appear for negotiations, after which Angre was confirmed as Admiral (Surkhiel) of entire fleet.Angre was also placed as chief of 26 forts and fortified places of Maharashtra.

In 1720, Angre captured the vessel Charlotte along its owner, a merchant named Curgenven who had been bound to China from Surat. Curgenven would be imprisoned for 10 years.

Europeans on rolls

Angre employed Europeans, generally Dutch, to command his best vessels. He also employed a Jamaican and a pirate named James Plantain and entrusted him significant responsibilities such as the chief gunner post.Angre reemployed Manuel de Castro, who was considered as a traitor and punished by the (British) Bombay Council for his failure in capturing Khanderi Island, which was controlled by Kanhoji Angre.

Bases

In 1698, Angre located his first base at Vijayadurg ('Victory Fort') (formerly Gheriah), Devgad Taluka, located about 485 km from Mumbai.The fort which was originally built by Bijapur Kings and strengthened by Maratha ruler Shivaji,is located on the coast and has an entrance hollowed out in it to accommodate entry of a vessel from the sea.

Angre created an operating base from the fortified islands of "Kolaba" at Alibaug. Khanderi and Underi off the coast of Thal, Alibaug, and attempted to levy a tax on every merchant vessel entering the harbour.

He established a township called Alibag on seashore at southern tip of Mumbai.The main village at that time, was today's Ramnath. Kanhoji even issued his own currency in the form of a silver coin called the Alibagi rupaiya.

In 1724, Angre built a port at Puranagad, located in Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra.Seven guns and 70 cannonballs were found in the port.The port was also used for limited trading activities.
He attacked English, Dutch and Portuguese ships that were moving to and from East Indies.

Campaigns

Kanhoji intensified the attacks on colonial naval powers like Great Britain and Portugal on the western coast of India. On 4 November 1712, his navy even succeeded in capturing the armed yacht Algerine of the British President of Mumbai, William Aislabie, killing the chief of their Karwar factory, Thomas Chown, and making his wife a prisoner, not releasing the captured yacht and the lady until 13 February 1713 for a ransom of 30,000 Rupees.He seized EastIndiamen, Somers and Grantham, near Goa as these vessels were on their voyage from England to Bombay. In 1712, he disabled thirty-gun man-of-war which was conveying Portuguese "armado" and captured it.

Angre eventually signed a treaty with the East India Company President Aislabie to stop harassing the Company's fleet. Aislabie would eventually return to England during October 1715.

After the arrival of Charles Boone as the new Governor of Mumbai on 26 December 1715, Boone made several attempts to capture Angre. Instead of succeeding, in 1718 Angre captured three ships belonging to the British leaving them to claim that he a pirate. Angre blockaded the port of Mumbai and extracted a ransom of 8,750 pounds from the East India Company.

The British launched a fresh campaign in 1720, when shells from floating batteries burst in vain against the rocks of Vijaydurg fort. The attempt to land inside the fort ended in disaster, and the British squadron soon retired to Mumbai.

On 29 November 1721 a joint attempt by the Portuguese (Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro) and the British (General Robert Cowan) to humble Kanhoji also failed miserably. This fleet consisted of 6,000 soldiers in no less than four of the European's largest Man of war class ships led by Commander Thomas Mathews. Aided by Maratha warriors including Mendhaji Bhatkar and his navy, Angre continued to harass and plunder the European ships. Commander Matthews returned to Great Britain, but was accused and convicted of trading with the pirates in December 1723. Also, during 1723, Governor Boone returned to Great Britain. After Boone's departure, relative calm prevailed between the British and Angre, until Angre's death in 1729.

Battles
1702 - Seizes small vessel in Cochin with six Englishmen.
1706 - Attacks and defeats the Siddi of Janjira.
1710 - Captures the Kennery (now Khanderi) islands near Mumbai after fighting the British vessel Godolphin for two days.
1712 - Captured the yacht of the British President of Mumbai, Mr. Aislabie, releasing it only after obtaining a hefty ransom of Rs. 30,000 .
1713 - Ten forts ceded to Angre by British.
1717 - Angre captures British ship Success bombard Kennery island and Angre signs treaty with Company paying Rs. 60,000.
1718 - Blockaded Mumbai port and extracted ransom. British storm Vijaydurg fort but lose the battle/ Governor Boom returns empty hand to Mumbai
1720 - British attack Vijaydurg (Gheriah), unsuccessfully.
1721 - British fllet reaches Mumbai. `British and Portuguese jointly attack Alibag, but are defeated.
1722 - Angre attacks 4 yachts and 20 ships of British near Chaul
1723 - Angre attacks two British vessels, Eagle and Hunter.
1724 - Maratha and Portugees pact.Dutch attack Vijaydurg but get defeated.
1725 - Kanhoji Angre and Siddi sign a pact.
1729 - Kanhoji Angre Won Palgad Fort.

Death

A British-Portuguese-Indian naval force attacks the fort of Geriah, 1756

By the time of his death on 4 July 1729, Kanhoji Angre had emerged as a master of the Arabian Sea from Surat to south Konkan. He left behind two legitimate sons, Sekhoji and Sambhaji; three illegitimate sons, Tulaji, Manaji, and Yeshaji. Angre's Samadhi (tomb) is situated at Alibag, Maharashtra.

After Kanhoji, his son Sekhoji continued Maratha exploits at sea till his death in 1733. After Sekhoji's death, Angre's holdings were split between two brothers, Sambhaji and Manaji, because of divisions in the family. With the Marathas neglecting naval concerns, the British soon found it easier to defeat the remnants of the kingdom. Angre and his sons' reign over the Western coast ended with the capture of Tulaji in a joint British / Peshwa attack on the fort of Gheriah (now Vijaydurg) in February 1756.

Legacy

The Samadhi (mausoleum) of Kanhoji Angre at Alibag, Maharashtra.

Kanhoji Angre stands as one of the most notable admirals of the Maratha Navy who offered significant competition and damage to the prestige of the colonial powers. Historically, these same British and other European shipping powers who fought with Angre would later claim that he was nothing but a troublesome pirate or privateer. In so doing they deliberately and conveniently forgot that he had been appointed an admiral in the Maratha Navy by its legitimate leaders. This is a case of the ultimate victors being able to write the "final history" to slant things in their interest - ignoring any uncomfortable facts.

Kanhoji is also credited with the foresight that a Blue Water Navy's ultimate and strategic role is to keep the enemy engaged far from the shores of the homeland. At one time, Kanhoji was so successful that he attracted enterprising Europeans in his fleet as mercenaries, including one Dutchman, whom he appointed to the rank of Commodore. At the height of his power, Kanhoji commanded hundreds of warships and thousands of sailors at a time when the Royal Navy had little in the way of naval resources in far-away India that could significantly offset the growing strength of the Maratha Navy.

Kanhoji's harassment of British commercial interests (who hence called him a pirate) and the Battle of Swally led them to establish a small naval force that eventually became the modern Indian Navy. Today, a statue of Angre proudly stands in Indian Naval Dockyard in Mumbai. While the original fort built by Angre that overlooked the Naval Docks has vanished, its boundary wall is still intact and within it lays the Headquarters of Indian Western Naval Command and is called INS Angre (Indian Naval Station Angre).

The end of Angre family influences

The descendents of Angres continued to hold Kolaba till the 1840s and in 1843, it was annexed to British East India Company as per a despatch to Governor General of Bombay dated 30 December 1843.

Publication of family history

Chandrojirao Angre, a descendent of Kanhoji Angre and a contemporary Jijabai of same family supported the publication of History of the Angres in 1939 at Alibag Mumbai.

Tributes

Angria Bank, a submerged atoll structure located on the continental shelf 105 km west of the coast of Vijaydurg, Maharashtra, was named after Kanhoji Angre.

The Western Naval command of the Indian Navy was named INS Angre on 15 September 1951 in honour of Kanhoji Angre. Other important naval offices are also located at INS Angre.His statue is erected at the old Bombay Castle located within the enclave located at the Naval Dockyard, South Mumbai.

During April 1999, the Indian Postal Service released a Rupee 3 stamp showing a ghurab of Kanhoji Angre's fleet as depicted in a c. 1700 AD painting.

The old Kennery Lighthouse, on Khanderi Island which marks the southern boundary of the Mumbai Port, was renamed as Kanhoji Angre Light House.

The large residential colony of Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers at Alibaug is named as " Sarkhel Kanhoji Angre Nagar".

During the Malwani Jatrotsav festival in 1995 at Parel, Mumbai, a simulation of the naval battle between Angre and the British fleet led by Charles Boon was conducted using remote-control wooden boats in an open tank (70' x 30'). Radio Controlled boats carved out of Teak wood and powered by high torque motors were constructed by Vivek S. Kambli and Vishesh S. Kambli. A thrilling soundtrack complemented this Audio Visual 3 Dimensional depiction of an important chapter from Maratha Naval history. The show lasted 10 days and was witnessed by thousands of eager Mumbai citizens.

An all-weather port at Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, named as Angre port, was inaugurated on 24 April 2012 by 9th descendent of Kanhoji Angre

JAI KANHIJI AGREJU
JAI KOLI SAMAJ
HAR HAR MAHADEV
JAI EKVIRADEVI
JAI SHIVAJI- JAI BHAVANI
JAI SHIVAJI - JAI TANAJI- JAI KANHAJI AGREJI
VANDE MATRAM
DMKOLI PREDIDENT OF ADIM KOLI SAMAJ RAPID ACTION FORCE MAHARASTRA

9552558222
WE PROUD AND SALUTE ON NAVY DAYReply
Karam Singh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Karam Singh

Singh 2000 on a stamp of India
Born 15 September 1915
Sehna, BarnalaPunjab, India
Died 20 January 1993 (aged 77)
Sehna, Barnala, Punjab, India
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1941–1969
Rank  Subedar
Service number 22356 (enlisted)
JC-6415 (junior commissioned officer)
Unit 1st Battalion (1 Sikh)
Battles/wars World War II

Subedar and Honorary Captain Karam Singh PVCMM (15 September 1915 – 20 January 1993), an Indian soldier, was a recipient of the Param Vir Chakra (PVC), India's highest award for gallantry. Singh joined the army in 1941, and took part in the Burma Campaign of World War II, receiving the Military Medal for his actions during the Battle of the Admin Box in 1944. He also fought in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, and was awarded the PVC for his role in saving a forward post at Richhmar Gali, south of Tithwal. He was also one of the five soldiers chosen to raise the Indian flag for the first time after independence in 1947. Singh later rose to the rank of subedar, and was conferred the rank of honorary captain before his retirement in September 1969.

Early life

Karam Singh was born on 15 September 1915 in the village of SehnaBarnala district, in PunjabBritish India. His father, Uttam Singh, was a farmer. Singh also intended to become a farmer, but he decided to join the army after being inspired by the stories of World War I veterans from his village. After completing his primary schooling in his village, in 1941, he joined the Army

Military career

On 15 September 1941, he enrolled in the 1st battalion of the Sikh Regiment. For his conduct and courage in the Battle of the Admin Box during the Burma Campaign of World War II, he was awarded the Military Medal.As a young, war-decorated sepoy, he earned respect from fellow soldiers in his battalion. He was one of the five soldiers selected by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to raise the Indian flag for the first time after independence in 1947.

War of 1947

In the aftermath of the independence of India in 1947, India and Pakistan fought over the princely state of Kashmir for a brief period. During the initial stages of the conflict, Pakistan's Pashtun tribal militias crossed the border of the state, occupying several villages, including Tithwal. That village, being on the Line of Control in the Kupwara Sector, was a strategically important point for India.

On 23 May 1948, the Indian Army captured Tithwal from Pakistan troops, but the Pakistans quickly launched a counter-attack to recapture the area. The Indian troops, unable to withstand the attack, withdrew from their positions to the Tithwal ridge, preparing to regain their positions at the right moment.

As the battle at Tithwal continued for months, the Pakistanis grew desperate and launched a massive attack on 13 October, hoping to drive the Indians from their positions. Their primary objective was to capture the Richhmar Gali, located south of Tithwal, and the Nastachur Pass, east of Tithwal. During the fierce battle on the night of 13 October at Richhmar Gali, Lance Naik[a] Singh was commanding a 1 SIKH forward post.

Although outnumbered ten-to-one by the Pakistani troops, the Sikhs repelled their attacks multiple times. With their ammunition running out, Singh ordered his men to join the main company, knowing that reinforcement was impossible under Pakistani shelling. With the help of another soldier, he brought two injured men along, though he himself was wounded. Under the heavy Pakistani fire, Singh moved from position to position, boosting the morale of his men and intermittently throwing grenades. Despite being wounded twice on both the hands, he refused evacuation and continued to hold the first line of trenches.

During the fifth wave of attacks, two Pakistani soldiers closed on Singh's position; Singh jumped out of his trench and killed them with his bayonet, greatly demoralizing the Pakistanis. Singh and his men then successfully repelled three more enemy attacks before the Pakistani troops finally retreated, unable to capture their position.

Param Vir Chakra
Singh's statue at Param Yodha Sthal, National War Memorial, New Delhi

On 21 June 1950, Singh's award of the Param Vir Chakra was gazetted. The citation read:

Tithwal in Jammu and Kashmir was captured on 23 May 1948. After that date, the enemy made numerous attempts to recapture Richmar Gali, and thence Tithwal. On 13 October 1948, coinciding with Eid al-Adha, the enemy decided to launch a brigade attack to retake Richmar Gali, and bypassing Tithwal, advance into the Srinagar Valley. Lance Naik Karam Singh was commanding a section at Richmar Gali. The enemy commenced its attack with heavy shelling of guns and mortars. The fire was so accurate that not a single bunker in the platoon locality was left unscathed. Communication trenches caved in. Bravely, Lance Naik Karam Singh went from bunker to bunker, giving succor to the wounded and urging the men to fight. The enemy launched eight separate attacks that day. In one such attack, the enemy managed to obtain a foothold in the platoon locality. Immediately, Lance Naik Karam Singh, who was severely wounded by then, with a few men, hurled himself in a counter-attack and evicted the enemy after a close quarter encounter which accounted for many enemy dead, having been dispatched by the bayonet. Lance Naik Karam Singh proved himself to be a dauntless leader of men in crisis. Nothing could subdue him and no amount of fire or hardship could break his spirit.

— Gazette Notification: 2 Pres/50, 21.6.50, 

On 10 January 1957, now a havildar (sergeant), Singh was promoted to the junior commissioned officer (JCO) rank of jemadar (later redesignated naib subedar) with the service number of JC-6415.[2] He was promoted to subedar on 1 March 1964, and was later promoted to subedar-major. On 26 January 1969, he received an honorary commission in the rank of captain.[14] Singh retired in September 1969.

Later life

Singh died on 20 January 1993 in his village, and was survived by his wife, Gurdial Kaur, and children.

Other honours


In the 1980s, the Shipping Corporation of India (SCI), a Government of India enterprise under the aegis of the Ministry of Shipping, named fifteen of its crude oil tankers in honour of the PVC recipients. The tanker MT Lance Naik Karam Singh, PVC was delivered to SCI on 30 July 1984, and served for 25 years before being phased out. The government also built a memorial in his honour at the District Administrative Complex in Sangrur.
Kodandera Subayya Thimayya
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kodendera Subayya Thimayya
General KS Thimayya

In office
8 May 1957 – 7 May 1961
Succeeded by General PN Thapar
Personal details
Born 31 March 1906
Died 17 December 1965
Military career
Allegiance  British Indian Empire
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1926 – 1961
Rank  General
Commands held  Eastern Army

General Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, DSO was a distinguished soldier of the Indian Army who served as Chief of Army Staff from 1957 to 1961 in the crucial years leading up to the conflict with China in 1962. Gen. Thimayya was the only Indian to command an Infantry brigade in battle during the Second World War and is regarded as the most distinguished combat officer the Indian Army has produced. After the Korean War, Thimayya headed a United Nations unit dealing with the repatriation of prisoners of war. After his retirement from the Army, he was appointed Commander of the United Nations Peace Keeping Force in Cyprus from July 1964 to December 1965 and died in Cyprus while on active duty on 18th Dec 1965.
Early life and education

Kodandera Subayya Thimayya was born in Madikeri, the district town of Kodagu (formerly known as Coorg), Karnataka, on 31 March 1906, to Subayya and Sitamma. His family was one the leading coffee planters in the area. His mother, Sitamma, was highly educated and a social worker. She was the recipient of Kaisar-e-Hind Medal. Thimayya was the third child of six children in his family. The eldest was Ponappa(m) (known as Ponnu), then Thimayya (known in the family as Dubbu, and by the British as Timmy), followed by Gangu(f), Dachu(f), Amava(f) (known as Amie) and finally Somayya(m) (known as Freddie). All the three boys of the family rose to become officers in the Indian Army.

On his father's side, he belonged to the Kodendera clan to which India's first commander-in-chief Cariappa also belonged (His uncle in fact). His mother Cheppudi Chittauwa was from the Cheppudira family. His wife Mrs Nina Thimayya was a recipient of the Kaisar-e-Hind Medal for her philanthropic contribution during the 1935 Quetta earthquake. His maternal uncle C B Ponnappa was in first batch of commissioned Indian officers from the Indore defence school and a batchmate of Cariappa. Desiring that he receive a good education, he was sent at the age of eight years to St Joseph's College in Coonoor a convent run by Irish brothers. Later, Thimayya was sent to Bishop Cotton Boys' School in Bangalore, along with his brothers. After completing school, Thimayya was sent to the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, a necessary stepping stone for a commission in the Indian Army. His elder brother Ponappa (later joined INA) as well as younger brother Somayya (died in a mine accident in 1947–48 Kashmir operations) joined Indian army. Following his graduation from RIMC, "Timmy", as he was affectionately known, was one of only six Indian cadets selected for further training at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.

Early career

After completing his training, he was commissioned into the Indian Army on 4 February 1926 as a Second Lieutenant. Amongst the other newly commissioned officers in his batch was Pran Nath Thapar, who would one day succeed Thimayya as Chief of Army Staff. Thimayya was subsequently attached to the Highland Light Infantry as was the norm then, prior to a permanent posting with a regiment of the British Indian Army. He was soon posted to the 4th Battalion of the 19th Hyderabad Regiment (now Kumaon Regiment), with date from 28 May 1927. Appointed the regimental adjutant in September 1930, Thimayya honed his soldiering skills on that famous training ground in the Northwest Frontier (present-day Pakistan), battling recalcitrant Pathan tribals.

In January 1935, Thimayya married Nina Cariappa (no relation to K M Cariappa). On 20 March 1936, they had a daughter, Mireille. The same April, Thimayya was posted as an Adjutant at the University Training Corps in Madras, as a fitting example for young Indian undergraduates interested in joining the Indian Army, of what a good soldier should be.

Second World War

After this tenure, Thimayya was posted to his battalion in Singapore. In early 1941, he was promoted to the acting rank of Major, and at his request, was transferred to India in October. Thimayya was posted as the Second-in-Command of a new raising at the Hyderabad Regimental Centre in Agra. He was then detailed to attend the Staff College at Quetta where he and his wife had earlier made a name for themselves by selfless service during the 1935 Quetta earthquake. He then served as GSO2 (Ops) (a Grade II Staff Officer) of 25th Indian Division, the first Indian officer to get this coveted staff appointment.

His infantry division was conducting jungle warfare training and was preparing to go into Burma to face the Japanese Army during the Second World War, serving in the Second Arakan campaign. In Burma, he was posted to his old regiment as Commanding Officer of 8/19th Hyderabad, which he led with outstanding success in battle. For a short while the battalion was under the command of the 3rd Commando Brigade, with Brigadier C. R. Hardy at the helm, who during the height of a battle presented a trophy to the battalion. It was a green beret — the command's head dress — with a little typed message on a card, "We cannot buy anything here but we would like you to accept this as a token of our great admiration for the bravery and achievement of your battalion." For his outstanding service in battle, he was awarded the much coveted Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O) and also a Mention-in-Dispatches.

Thimayya represented the country during the surrender of the Japanese in Singapore, followed by the surrender of the Japanese in the Philippines. At the ceremony of Japanese surrender in Singapore, he signed on behalf of India. He was awarded the 'Keys to Manila' when he was sent to the Philippines. His innate talents of professional soldiering and leadership were soon recognized by Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army. He was specially selected to lead the 268th Indian Infantry Brigade as part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan after World War II. He got this assignment due to his outstanding battle experience as a Brigadier and being the only Indian to command a battle formation in the field. As a matter of policy, the British avoided giving operational command to Indians. Thimmayya was the only exception.

As an independent brigade, the 268th had done excellent work in the Burma Campaign and was detailed as part of BRINDIV led by Maj Gen D. T. "Punch" Cowan. Brig. Thimayya proved to be an outstanding commander and his diplomatic skills emerged as he had to deal with General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Allied Commander of the Southwest Pacific Theatre, the other Allies and the vanquished Japanese. Thimayya's personality, charm of manners and unassailable reputation, impressed the Japanese of the calibre of Indian commanders. Thimayya was called on to defuse the sit-down strike by the 2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles at the palace of the Emperor of Japan in Tokyo when the battalion refused to obey its British officers.

As Indian Independence approached, he was recalled to India by then Commander-in-chief of British India, Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck.

Role in independent India

He returned to India in 1947, during the Partition, as member of the committee to agree to the allotment of weapons, equipment and regiments that were to remain in India, or to be allotted to Pakistan. Soon after the commission was completed, he was promoted to the acting rank of Major-General in September 1947 and was then assigned the command of the 4th Infantry Division and also to take over the Punjab Boundary Force, dealing with the exodus and intake of refugees fleeing to their respective countries. In 1948 he was one of the active officers in the actions against the forces of Pakistan in the conflict over Kashmir. His next appointment was command of the 19th Infantry Division in Jammu & Kashmir where he succeeded in driving the raiders and the Pakistan Army out of the Kashmir Valley. Personally leading the attack in the forward-most tank, the surprise attack on Zoji La on 1 November 1948 by a brigade with Stuart Light Tanks of the 7th Light Cavalry, succeeded in driving out the entrenched raiders and Pakistan Army regulars and the eventual capture of DrasKargil and Leh. He established the best of relations with Sheikh Abdullah and Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad and even Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, but his pleas to give him three more months to drive the raiders back to Muzaffarabad fell on deaf ears and instead, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru went to the United Nations.

Thereafter, Thimayya served as the Commandant of the prestigious Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun. On 1 January 1950, he was promoted to substantive major-general from his rank of brigadier. On 1 October 1951, Thimayya was appointed Quartermaster General. The experience gained by him in Japan stood him in good stead when he was specially selected by the United Nations to head the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission in Korea. It was a very sensitive and delicate task dealing with unruly Chinese and Korean prisoners. Here again, through sheer charisma, impartiality, firmness and diplomacy, he completed this task to the satisfaction of the world body. He returned to India and was promoted to General Officer Commanding-in-ChiefSouthern Command, with the rank of Lieutenant-General, in January 1953. In 1954, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan for Civil Service. He took over the reins of the Indian Army on 7 May 1957.

Chief of Army Staff

General Kodandera Subayya Thimayya assumed charge of the Indian Army, as the 6th Chief of the Army Staff, on 7 May 1957. He briefly resigned his post in 1959 over a dispute with V. K. Krishna Menon, the then Minister of Defence (India). Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru refused to accept his resignation and persuaded him into withdrawing it. However, little action was taken on Thimayya's recommendations and he continued as the Army Chief till his retirement on 7 May 1961, completing 35 years of distinguished military service. Hence retired from the army in 1961, almost 15 months before the Chinese invasion of India in November 1962.

After retirement

After retirement from the Indian Army, the United Nations sought his services yet once again when he was appointed as the Commander of UN Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP) in July 1964. He died during his tenure at UNFICYP in December 1965 and his mortal remains were flown to Bangalore for the last rites. The street perpendicular to East Street (a road parallel to MG road in Pune), Richmond Road in Bangalore, and the main road through Larnaca/Cyprus (East to West) were renamed as Gen Thimmayya Road in his memory. The Republic of Cyprus, also honored him by issuing a commemorative stamp in his memory in 1966. The General K.S. Thimayya Memorial Trust, a Trust instituted by some Old Boys of Bishop Cotton Boys' School, annually hold the General K S Thimayya Memorial Lecture Series in his memory. General Thimayya enjoys an unmatched legacy in the Indian Army. Of all the eulogies for him, the late Lieutenant General Premindra Singh Bhagat, VC (Retd.) summed it up best, "A General Thimayya is not born in every generation. The likes of him there will seldom be a soldier. The General is a man's man, the Army his soul and his soul the Army."
Awards and Decorations
  

   


Dates of rank
InsigniaRankComponentDate of rank
 Lieutenant British Indian Army 4 May 1928.
 Captain British Indian Army 4 February 1935
 Major British Indian Army 1941 (acting)
1 April 1942 (temporary)
4 February 1943 (substantive)
 Lieutenant-Colonel British Indian Army 19 May 1944 (acting)
19 August 1944 (temporary)
1 October 1946 (war-substantive)
 Colonel British Indian Army 1 April 1945 (temporary)
 Brigadier British Indian Army 1 April 1945 (acting)
1 October 1946 (temporary)
 Major Indian Army 15 August 1947
 Major-General Indian Army September 1947 (acting)
1 January 1950 (substantive; seniority from 4 February 1949)
 Major-General Indian Army 26 January 1950 (recomissioning and change in insignia)
 Lieutenant-General Indian Army January 1953
(COAS) Indian Army 8 May 1957
Kamal Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kamal Ram
King George VI pinning the Victoria Cross on Sepoy Kamal Ram, 26 July 1944
Born 17 December 1924
Died 1 July 1982 (aged 57)
Bholupura, RajasthanIndia
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 194?-1972
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Kamal Ram also Known as Kamal Ram Gurjar VC (17 December 1924 – 1 July 1982) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the second-youngest Indian recipient of the award.

Life
Kamal Ram's name is inscribed on the Memorial Gates at Constitution Hill in London.

Kamal Ram was born into a Gurjar family on 17 December 1924, in the village of Bholupura, Karauli districtBritish India (now in RajasthanIndia). His father's name was Shiv Chand. During the Second World War, he served in the 3rd Battalion, 8th Punjab RegimentBritish Indian Army (now the 3rd Battalion, Baloch RegimentPakistan Army). He was 19 years old, with the rank of Sepoy, when, on 12 May 1944, his battalion assaulted the formidable German defences of the Gustav Line, across the River Gari in Italy; and he performed the deeds for which he was awarded the VC.  The citation reads as follows:

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to:–

No. 35408 Sepoy Kamal Ram, 8th Punjab Regiment, Indian Army.

In Italy, on 12 May 1944, after crossing the River Gari overnight, the Company advance was held up by heavy machine-gun fire from four posts on the front and flanks. As the capture of the position was essential to secure the bridgehead, the Company Commander called for a volunteer to get round the rear of the right post and silence it. Volunteering at once and crawling forward through the wire to a flank, Sepoy Kamal Ram attacked the post single handed and shot the first machine-gunner; a second German tried to seize his weapon but Sepoy Kamal Ram killed him with the bayonet, and then shot a German officer who, appearing from the trench with his pistol, was about to fire. Sepoy Kamal Ram, still alone, at once went on to attack the second machine-gun post which was continuing to hold up the advance, and after shooting one machine-gunner, he threw a grenade and the remaining enemy surrendered. Seeing a Havildar making a reconnaissance for an attack on the third post, Sepoy Kamal Ram joined him, and, having first covered his companion, went in and completed the destruction of this post. By his courage, initiative and disregard for personal risk, Sepoy Kamal Ram enabled his Company to charge and secure the ground vital to the establishment of the bridgehead and the completion of work on two bridges. When a platoon, pushed further forward to widen the position, was fired on from a house, Sepoy Kamal Ram, dashing towards the house, shot one German in a slit trench and captured two more. His sustained and outstanding bravery unquestionably saved a difficult situation at a critical period of the battle and enabled his Battalion to attain the essential part of their objective.

— London Gazette, 27 July 1944.
King George VI is driven past cheering Indian troops on his way to a ceremony to invest Sepoy Kamal Ram with the Victoria Cross, Italy, 26 July 1944.

King George VI presented him with the medal in Italy in 1944. He remained in the Indian Army post-independence, rising to the rank of Havildar (sergeant) before receiving a promotion to Jemadar (now Naib subedar) on 18 May 1960, and further promotions to Subedar on 1 March 1964 and to Subedar-major on 1 January 1970. He retired in 1972 with the rank of Honorary Lieutenant, and died in 1982.

The medal

His Victoria Cross is on display in the Lord Ashcroft Gallery at the Imperial War Museum, London.

References

^ Bawa 1972, pp. 84.
^ Ahmad 2006, pp. 280.
^ "No. 36627"The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 July 1944. p. 3501.
^ "Sepoy Kamal Ram VC". nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 26 October2014.
^ "Part I-Section 4: Ministry of Defence (Army Branch)". The Gazette of India. 6 August 1960. p. 197.
^ "Part I-Section 4: Ministry of Defence (Army Branch)". The Gazette of India. 12 December 1964. p. 503.
^ "Part I-Section 4: Ministry of Defence (Army Branch)". The Gazette of India. 7 March 1970. p. 313.
^ "Part I-Section 4: Ministry of Defence (Army Branch)". The Gazette of India. 15 August 1972. p. 101.
Bibliography[edit]
Bawa, Sundar Singh (1972). Tradition never dies: the genesis and growth of the Indian army. Lalvani Publishing House. ISBN 978-0856550775.
Ahmad, Rifat Nadeem (2006). Unfaded Glory: The 8th Punjab Regiment 1798-1956. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1783311045.
Mariappan Saravanan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Major
Mariappan Saravanan

Nickname(s) "Hero of Batalik"
Born 10 August 1972
Died 29 May 1999 (aged 26)
Batalik Sector, Kargil
Allegiance  Republic of India
Service/branch  Indian Army
Years of service 1995–1999
Battles/wars Kargil War
Awards  Vir Chakra

Major Mariappan Saravanan (10 August 1972 – 29 May 1999), was an officer in the prestigious Bihar Regiment of the Indian Army who was martyred during the Kargil War. He was killed in hand-to-hand combat with intruders after killing four intruders in the Batalik area of Kargil Sector on 29 May 1999, along with 33 soldiers and four other officers. Saravanan had just completed four years of service on 10 March 1999.

Major Saravanan was possibly the first officer killed in the Kargil War. The attack led by him came in the early stages of the conflict when adequate information was not available. His actions have led to him being referred to as the "Hero of Batalik".

Early life

Born on 10 August 1972 on the island of Rameswaram in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Saravanan began his schooling at Kendriya Vidyalaya in Gaya district and continued his high school in Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School in Tiruchirapalli and later graduated from St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirapalli in 1992. Saravanan was also the president of the student union at St. Joseph's College in 1992 and was a C certificate holder of NCC. His father Lt. Colonel Adi Mariappan died in a road accident in Bangalore on 19 June 1989 while serving in the Indian Peace Keeping Force during Operation Pawan in Sri Lanka. He has two sisters.

Military career

Saravanan graduated from the OTA in 1995 and joined 1 Bihar as a lieutenant in 1995. After joining the army he was posted to Tamulpur, Cooch Behar and Bhutan before moving to Kargil. He was promoted to captain in 1996 and to major in 1999.

The Kargil War

1 Bihar was in Assam when the Kargil War broke out. They were ordered to move to KargilJammu and Kashmir. On the night of 28 May 1999, Major Saravanan was assigned the task of capturing a well-fortified Pakistani position at 14,229 feet (4,337 m) in the Batalik sector. He and his men launched an attack at 04:00 IST. Despite intensive firing from the enemy with artillery and automatic weapons, they charged into a volley of bullets. Saravanan fired a rocket launcher into the enemy position that killed two enemy soldiers. During the combat, he was hit by shrapnel and injured but continued fighting. His commanding officer ordered him to retreat because too many Indian soldiers had been injured. He killed two more invaders but this time he was hit by a bullet in the head and died at around 06:30 IST.

Vir Chakra

The Vir Chakra was awarded to Saravanan posthumously and presented to his mother by President K. R. Narayanan. It reads:

Gazette Notification: 113Pres/98,15-8-99

Operation: –

Date of Award: 15 Aug 1999

Citation:

Major M Saravanan was the Company Commander of one of the companies of 1 Bihar launched in the battalion attack on Point 4268 In the Batalik sector during "Operation Vijay” While moving forward to eliminate the last position held by the enemy, Major Saravanan was fired upon by the enemy with a heavy volume of small arms fire. Unmindful of the enemyfire, he crawled forward to destroy the last remaining enemy position and before being fatally hit by an enemy bullet, killed two enemy soldiers.

Major M Saravanan displayed exceptional bravery, valour and exemplary leadership, fighting from front, destroying two enemy sagars and killing few enemy soldiers before laying his life for the motherland and in the process eliminating an important enemy position.

Trust and memorial

A trust has been created on his name, meant for the welfare of the poor, indigent and needy to serve the society at large without any discrimination as to caste, color and creed. Also, it aims at motivating the youngsters to "Join the Army and serve the nation". Eight years post Kargil war, a memorial was unveiled on the collector office road in Tiruchirapalli. The memorial was constructed and is maintained by Major Saravanan Memorial Trust. On the occasion of Kargil Vijay Divas on 26 July 2008, the Postal Department brought out a special cover in memory of Major M. Saravanan.
Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren VrC

Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren hailed from Bada Champauda village of Bijatala block in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha. Son of Shri Kahanu Soren amd Smt Raimath Soren, he was born on 02 Apr 1977 and was the youngest among four siblings. He joined the Army on 27 Apr 1996 at the age of 19 years after completing his education at Rairangpur College. He was recruited into the 16 Bihar battalion of the Bihar Regiment, an infantry Regiment well known for its fearless soldiers and numerous battle exploits. After serving for a few years he got married to Ms. Laxmimani and the couple had three daughters Gyaneshwari, Maansi, and Sonali.

Besides having soldierly skills, he was a keen sportsman and excelled in football and hockey. He was a cross country runner too and took part in various regimental competitions. He was a caring father and a family man who took care of his other family members too. By the year 2020, he had put in over 22 years of service and had been promoted to the rank of Naib Subedar. In the service career spanning over two decades, Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren had served in various operational areas and developed into a professionally competent and dependable junior commissioned officer.

Operation Snow Leopard: 15 June 2020

During June 2020, Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren’s unit 16 Bihar was deployed in eastern Ladakh close to the Line of Actual Control(LAC) as part of Operation Snow Leopard. Since early June the tension along the LAC was building up due to construction work in Galwan valley close to the road going from Leh to Daulat Beg Oldie. The Chinese had a serious objection to the construction of a bridge across the Galwan river into the Aksai Chin area. The area held strategic importance to India as well as China as it dominated the road from Leh to Daulat Beg Oldie an airstrip of great military significance to India. There had been many rounds of talks between senior military officials from both sides to diffuse the tensions. On 15/16 June 2020 night, hectic Chinese activities were noticed across the bridge in Galwan valley and the Indian Army decided to take up the matter with Chinese forces to ask them to respect the LAC and adhere to the position as agreed earlier during the talks.

Considering the gravity of the situation, Col Santosh Babu the Commanding Officer of 16 Bihar battalion deployed in the area decided to lead the negotiations. However, an altercation during the discussion raised the tempers leading to a scuffle. Soon the scuffle turned into a violent clash with the Chinese soldiers attacking Col Santosh Babu and his men with deadly clubs and rods. The Indian soldiers were greatly outnumbered and the Chinese soldiers seemed to be prepared for the attack. As the clashes escalated Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren and other soldiers joined the beleaguered Indian troops to take on the Chinese soldiers. The clashes went on for many hours during which many Indian soldiers including Nb Sub Satnam Singh got seriously injured. Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren, the CO, Col Santosh Babu, and 18 other soldiers later succumbed to their injuries and were martyred. The other brave hearts included Nb Sub Mandeep Singh, Hav Bipul Roy, Hav Sunil Kumar, Hav K Palani, Naik Deepak Singh, Sep Ganesh Hansda, Sep Chandan Kumar, Sep CK Pradhan, Sep Aman Kumar, Sep Kundan Kumar, Sep Rajesh Orang, Sep Ganesh Ram, Sep KK Ojha, Sep Jai Kishore Singh, Sep Gurtej Singh, Sep Ankush, and Sep Gurbinder Singh. Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren was a gallant soldier and a committed JCO who laid down his life in the line of his duty. Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren was given the gallantry award, “Vir Chakra” on 26 Jan 2021 for his exceptional courage, determination, devotion to duty, and supreme sacrifice.

Nb Sub Nandu Ram Soren is survived by his father Shri Kahanu Soren, mother Smt Raimath Soren, wife Smt Laxmimani Soren and three daughters Gyaneshwari, Maansi, and Sonali.
Nand Singh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nand Singh

Nand Singh in 1944
Born 24 September 1914
Died 12 December 1947 (aged 33)
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Rank Acting Naik (British Indian Army)
Jemadar (Indian Army)
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Jemadar Nand Singh, VCMVC (24 September 1914 – 12 December 1947) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Military career
World War II

He was 29 years old, and an Acting Naik in the 1/11th Sikh Regiment, in the Indian Army during World War II when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 11/12 March 1944 on the Maungdaw-Buthidaung Road, Burma (now Myanmar), Naik Nand Singh, commanding a leading section of the attack, was ordered to recapture a position gained by the enemy. He led his section up a very steep knife-edged ridge under very heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and although wounded in the thigh, captured the first trench. He then crawled forward alone and, wounded again in the face and shoulder, nevertheless captured the second and third trenches.

Indo-Pakistan War

He later achieved the rank of Jemadar in the post-independence Indian Army, and his unit 1 Sikh was the first to be involved in the Jammu & Kashmir Operations or Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 which began in October 1947 as Indian troops went into action to repel a planned invasion of J&K by raiders from Pakistan.

On 12 December 1947 Nand Singh led his platoon of D Coy in a desperate but successful attack to extricate his battalion from an ambush in the hills SE of Uri in Kashmir. He was mortally injured by a close-quarters machine-gun burst, and posthumously awarded the Maha Vir Chakra (MVC), the second-highest Indian decoration for battlefield gallantry. This makes Nand Singh unique in the annals of VC winners.

The Pakistanis recognised Jemadar Nand Singh because of his VC ribbon. His body was taken Muzaffarabad where it was tied spreadeagled on a truck and paraded through the city with a loudspeaker proclaiming that this would be the fate of every Indian VC. The soldier's body was later thrown into a garbage dump, and was never recovered.

Citations
Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross citation reads as follows:
War Office, 6th June, 1944.

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the VICTORIA CROSS to: —

No. 13068 Sepoy (acting Naik) Nand Singh, 11th Sikh Regiment, Indian Army. In Burma on the night of the 11th/12th March, 1944, a Japanese platoon about 40 strong with Medium and Light Machine-Guns and a Grenade Discharger infiltrated into the Battalion position covering the main Maungdaw-Buthidaung road and occupied a dominating position where they dug foxholes and underground trenches on the precipitous sides of the hill.

Naik Nand Singh commanded the leading section of the platoon which was ordered to recapture the position at all costs. He led his section up a very steep knife-edged ridge under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire. Although wounded in the thigh he rushed ahead of his section and took the first enemy trench with the bayonet by himself. He then crawled forward alone under heavy fire and though wounded again in the face and shoulder by a grenade which burst one yard in front of him, took the second trench at the point of the bayonet.

A short time later when all his section had been either killed or wounded, Naik Nand Singh dragged himself out of the trench and captured a third trench, killing all the occupants with his bayonet.

Due to the capture of these three trenches the remainder of the platoon were able to seize the top of the hill and deal with the enemy. Naik Nand Singh personally killed seven of the enemy and owing to his determination, outstanding dash and magnificent courage, the important position was won back from the enemy

Maha Vir Chakra

The citation for the Maha Vir Chakra reads as follows:

Gazette Notification: 2 Pres 50, 26.1.50,

Operation: 1947 Indo Pak Kashmir War, Date of Award: 12 Dec 1947,

Citation:

On 12 December 1947,l Sikh was out on a fighting patrol at Uri against the tribesmen in Kashmir State. The enemy, who was occupying previously prepared bunker position, opened fire on the leading company of the battalion killing 10 men on the spot and wounding another 15. These 15 wounded soldiers were lying within 10 yards of enemy position. The enemy was attempting, under very heavy covering fire, to pull in these casualties and capture their arms and was at the same time carrying out an encircling movement round this position. Counter-attacks by the company on these bunkers had failed, resulting in even heavier casualties. Another company was then ordered to attack from the left flank. Jemadar Nand Singh, VC, was commanding one of its forward platoons.

His platoon went into attack like a band of Trojans with himself to the fore. The fire was intense and his men were falling left and right of him. Yet he pressed on. His men followed him shouting cries of "Sat Sri Akal" and closed in on the enemy. He carried on. Fierce hand to-hand fighting ensued. Jemadar Nand Singh was the first to draw blood with his bayonet. Although wounded, he killed five of the enemy. By this fine example, his men were inspired to frenzy and fought like fiends, bayoneting right and left. The enemy broke and fled, but very few of them could escape.

This brave VCO had captured his objective, but as he stood there on top of the bunker, a burst of enemy LMG hit him in the chest and killed him on the spot. However, his mission had been completed. The valour, leadership and selfless devotion to duty displayed by this son of India in this little action was something that cannot be described, much less matched.

He was VC of the last war and had more than lived up to the reputation of one.

Legacy

Nand Singh belonged to Village Bahadurpur now in Mansa district, Punjab. The nearest town to his village is Bareta, where a local bus stand is named as Shaheed Nand Singh Viktoria Bus Stand. A statue in Bathinda (locally known as Fauji Chowk) stands as a memorial.
Nirmal Kumar Verma
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nirmal Kumar Verma

Admiral Verma as CNS 2009.
Born 14 November 1950 
Allegiance India
Service/branch Indian Navy
Years of service 1 July 1970 – 31 August 2012
Rank   Admiral
Commands held Chief of Naval Staff
Relations Vice Admiral Bimal Verma (brother)

Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma (born 14 November 1950) is a former senior naval officer who served as the Chief of the Naval Staff of Indian Navy, from 31 August 2009 to 31 August 2012. In November 2012, he was appointed as the High Commissioner to Canada.

Early life

Born on 14 November 1950, he joined the Indian Navy at the age of 19. He studied at Goethals Memorial School KurseongRoyal Naval Staff College in the United Kingdom, and the Naval War College in 1993 in the United States.

Military career
Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Adm. Gary Roughead, right, and Chief of Naval Staff of the Indian Navy Adm. Nirmal Verma, middle left, tour various aircraft and facilities at Naval Air Station Paxtuxent River

Verma took charge of the Naval Academy in Goa, and subsequently became commander of a series of Indian Navy ships, including INS Ranvir (D54) and INS Viraat, India's only aircraft carrier. He then took over as the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief (FOC-in-C) of the Eastern Naval Command, and was appointed Chief of the Indian Navy upon the retirement of Sureesh Mehta on 31 August 2009. During his career he has been awarded several decorations, including the Param Vishisht Seva Medal and the Ati Vishisht Seva Medal. He took over as the Chairman, Chief's of Staff Committee on 30 July 2011 from the then outgoing Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal P V Naik.

Awards
   
   
  
 



Namdeo Jadhav
Born : 18 September 1921, Virgaon, India.

Died : 02 February 1984 Pune, India.
Namdao Jadhav (1921-1964) was born on 18th November 1921 in Virgaon, India. Little is known about his early life prior to the Second World War, when he enlisted with the 5th Mahratta Light Infantry as a Sepoy (Private). He was posted with his Regiment to Italy when he became involved in the latter stages of the battle for the country.

On the evening of the 9th April, 1945, a Company of the 5th Mahratta Light Infantry assaulted the east floodbank of the Senio river, north of S. Polito. Three minutes afterwards another Company was to pass through and assault the west floodbank. In this sector the Senio river is about 15 feet broad, 4 to 5 feet deep and flows between precipitous floodbanks 30 to 35 feet high. Both floodbanks were honeycombed with an intricate system of German dugouts and defence posts, with a mine belt on the inner face of the east floodbank above the dugout entrances.

Sepoy Namdeo Jadhav was a Company runner and when his Company crossed the river he was with his Company Commander close behind one of the leading sections. When wading the river and emerging on the west bank the party came under heavy fire from at least three German posts on the inner face of the east bank. The Company commander and two men were wounded .and the rest, with the exception of Sepoy Namdeo Jadhav, were killed. This giallant Sepoy immediately carried one of the wounded men through the deep water and up the precipitous slope of the bank through the mine belt to safety. He then made a second trip to bring back the other wounded man. Both times he was under heavy mortar and machine gun fire. He then determined to eliminate the machine gun posts, which had pinned down the Companies, and to avenge his dead comrades, so, crossing the exposed east bank a third time; he dashed at the nearest enemy post and silenced it with his Tommy Gun. He was, however, wounded in the hand and, being unable to fire his gun any further, threw it away and resorted to grenades. With these he successively charged and wiped out two more enemy posts, at one time crawling to the top of the bank to replenish his stock of grenades from his comrades on the reverse slope. Having silenced all machine gun fire from the east bank, he then climbed on to the top of it and, in spite of heavy mortar fire, stood in the open shouting the Mahratta war cry and waving the remainder of the Companies across the river. This Sepoy not only saved the lives of his comrades, but his outstanding gallantry and personal bravery enabled the two Companies to hold the river banks firmly, and eventually the Battalion to secure a deeper bridgehead, which in turn ultimately led to the collapse of all German resistance in the area.

Namdao Jadav was gazetted for the Victoria Cross on 15th June 1945, and was later presented with his VC by King George VI. He was later promoted to Havildar before his retirement back to his native India. Namdeo Jadav died suddenly on 2nd August 1984, aged 63 and was cremated in Pune. His medal group is not publicly held. On 9th April 2017 the Mayor of Lugo di Romagna Davide Ranalli unveiled a Memorial dedicated to VC Namdeo Jadhav upon the Senio River eastern bank in the vicinity of San Potito. The ceremony was attended by Brigadier Yogi Sheoran, Defence Wing Attaché of the Indian Embassy in Rome.

BURIAL PLACE: CREMATED AT PUNE, INDIA. ASHES SCATTERED.
http://www.vconline.org.uk/namdeo-jadav-vc/4587706685
Namdeo Jadav VC
A. D. Loganathan

From Wikipedia
Arcot Doraiswamy Loganadan
In office
30 December 1943 - 18 August 1945
Prime Minister Subhas Chandra Bose (Head of State and Prime Minister)
Personal details
Born 12 April 1888
Died 9 March 1949 (aged 60)
Relations Saroja (m. 1919)
Military service
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Branch/service Indian National Army (World War II)
Rank Major General (World War II)
Battles/wars World War I

Major General Arcot Doraiswamy Loganadan (12 April 1888 – 9 March 1949) was an officer of the Indian National Army, and a minister in the Azad Hind Government as a representative of the Indian National Army. He also served briefly as the Azad Hind Governor for the Andaman islands and Burma.

Loganadan (spelled 'Loganathan' in most historical references) attended the RBANM'S School and subsequently the Central College of Bangalore before enrolling as a student of medicine in the Madras Medical College and later training in London as a doctor of tropical diseases.

History

Loganathan received a temporary commission as a lieutenant into the Indian Medical Service on 27 August 1917, and was later promoted temporary Captain. He was appointed to a regular commission in the Indian Medical Service 1 March 1922. He was promoted Major 27 February 1929. Loganadan served during World War I.

By April 1940 he had been promoted Lieut-Col 15 December 1939.

During World War II, Loganadan joined the Indian National Army following the fall of Singapore and joined the Azad Hind Government under Subhas Chandra Bose to free India from British rule. He was also appointed the Governor of the Andamans and Nicobar Islands during its brief occupation during World War II when it was transferred to Azad Hind authority from the Japanese Navy.

Bad health and severe differences with the Japanese Forces of Occupation led ultimately to Loganadan relinquishing authority and returning to Burma. Later, towards the end of the successful Allied Burma Campaign, Loganadan was appointed the G.O.C(General officer commanding) of the Indian National Army's Burma Command as the Azad Hind Government withdrew from Rangoon. Without a regular police force or security forces, his troops, an INA Contingent 6,000 strong INA contingent formally surrendered to released British PoWs held in the city and manned the Burmese Capital, successfully maintaining law and order between 24 April and 4 May 1945.

Loganadan was later repatriated to India and held at the Red Fort as preparations for were made to try the men of the Indian National Army for treason. He returned to his family in Bangalore in 1946 after the completion of the trials and his acquittal. He was however removed from the Indian Army as a Lt-Col, IMS in the London Gazette 20 September 1946. He declined a diplomatic assignment to New Zealand under the Nehru Government because of failing health.

Family

Loganadan was married to Saroja Loganadan, with whom he had five children - Sampath Loganadan, Lalitha Loganadan, Sukumar Loganadan, Menaka Loganadan and Coomalatha Loganadan (m. C. D. Gopinath).

Legacy

Bangalore's Edward Road was renamed Major General A D Loganadan Road by then Chief Minister S. M. Krishna, in honour of the former's life and work. This was the road on which the Loganadan residence once stood, until it gave way to a building called Cunningham Apartments in the 1980s.
Paramvir Joginder Singh
Story of Paramvir Joginder Singh: The Chinese army which made the prisoner of war was also filled with respect



This is the story of Subedar Joginder Singh, the ending of which is most moving:

Talk starts from punjab
In Punjab, in Faridkot district, farmers Sher Singh and Bibi Krishna Kaur lived in Mehla Kalan, a village in Moga. Originally he came from Munka village of Hoshiarpur. His son Joginder was born on 26 September 1921. Joginder Nathu studied in primary school in Ala village and then in middle school in Darauli village. It is said that his father had his own land, but then it is also told that his family was not very prosperous and hence he could not do studies properly. This was the reason he thought that the army could be the right place for him. Then on 28 September 1936, he was admitted as a soldier in the Sikh Regiment. After coming into the army, he studied, took examinations and made a respectable place. He was made the education instructor of his unit. He was also married to Bibi Gurdial Kaur, who belonged to the Saini Sikh family of Kothe Rara Singh village near Kot Kapura.

Subedar Joginder Singh.

Joginder Singh was also posted in Kashmir

For the British Indian Army, they fought on fronts like Burma. In 1948, when Pakistani tribes attacked Kashmir after India became independent, they were also part of the Sikh regiment fighting there.

Indo-China war started

Then came the time of August 1962 when the People's Liberation Army of China attacked India. He laid claim to Aksai Chin and the eastern border (North-East Frontier Agency). The Chinese army captured the Thagla Ridge. Defense Minister V.K. On September 22, Krishna Menon, with the consent of Prime Minister Nehru, ordered the Chief of the Army to drive China out of Thagla Ridge. The new IV Corps of the Indian Army assembled troops for this impossible task. Although the Chinese army was in a more controlled position.

Nehru and Menon.

Sikh battalion stood in front of China

On 20 October, the Chinese army started simultaneous attacks on Namkha Chu sector and other parts of the eastern border including Ladakh. In three days he captured a lot of land and drove out the Indian presence from Dhola-Thagla. Now China had to capture Tawang, which was its biggest wish. The task of preventing him from reaching Tawang was given to the first Sikh battalion of the Indian Army.

Subedar Joginder Singh's entry

China started submitting an entire division of its army in Bamla area from where Tawang had a path of only 26 km to walk. But 3 kilometers southwest of that road of Bamla, there was a place called Twin Peaks on which every action of China could be monitored till the McMahon Line. Now stop the enemy from reaching the twin peaks from the bomb. There was an important place between these two named IB Ridge.

A Delta company of the first Sikh battalion formed its base on Tongpeng La, a kilometer southwest of Twin Peaks, whose commander was Lieutenant Haripal Kaushik. His 11th platoon of Delta Company was stationed on IB Ridge, whose commander was Subedar Joginder Singh. The 7th Bengal Mountain Battery was present to cover this platoon of Sikhs with cannons and shelling.

 
A news of China's attack on India then.

Mortars mouths open in the twilight of the morning

It was dawn of 20 October when a JCO of the Bamla Outpost of Assam Rifles noticed that hundreds of Chinese troops were gathering across the border. He cautioned the 11th platoon. Joginder Singh sent a section bomba post led by Turat Halvadar Sucha Singh. He then asked his company headquarters to provide 'second line' ammunition. Then everyone sat ready with their respective weapons.

Now at 4.30 in the morning of 23 October, the Chinese Army opened the mouth of mortar and anti-tank guns to destroy the Indian bunkers. Then at 6 o'clock he attacked the Assam Rifles post. Sucha Singh fought there but then met with his troop with the platoon of IB Ridge. With the first ray of dawn, the Chinese army again attacked IB Ridge so that Twin Peaks could be captured.

Subedar Singh's clever strategy

Anil Kumar, a flying officer of the Indian Airforce and Historian MP, wrote about Subedar Singh in one of his articles that he had understood the geographical location of the place very well and made good use of local resources with clever planning on the IB Ridge bunker And had made trenches. His platoon had only four days of ration. The shoes and clothes of those people were not good according to winter and that location. The cold Himalayan spine was about to shiver but Joginder encouraged his men, motivating them to maintain focus. So much prepared that he will give a memorable fight to the soldiers of the Abhubvi People's Liberation Army.

 One morning of the war, the Sikh jawans were spending tea in the fierce cold, on the other hand, the other Sikh platoon was engaged in facing the enemies in these difficult circumstances. (Photo: Larry Burrows / Pintrest)

Subedar Joginder Singh knew that the Chinese army was coming from Bamla with a sharp ascent and they are sitting on a much stronger IB ridge. That is, the Sikh platoon can crush the enemy with its outdated Lee Enfield 303 rifles. Apart from this, he had less bullets so he told his soldiers that every bullet should be accounted. Hold the fire until the enemy comes in range and then move.

First and second wave of Chinese attack

Soon the battle started on this front. In the first attack, about 200 Chinese soldiers were in front, while the Indian platoon was small. But it is said that Joginder Singh and his colleagues misbehaved with the Chinese army. Many of his soldiers were injured. His answer was so intense that the Chinese army had to hide first and then retreat. But it also damaged the Indian platoon. After this Joginder asked the command center of Tongpeng La to send more ammunition. It was happening that another sugar troop with a capacity of 200 regrouped and attacked again for the second time.

Joginder Singh was shot

Meanwhile, a Chinese team went up without coming into the eyes of the Indian platoon. Fierce firing took place. Joginder was shot in the thigh with a machine gun. They entered a bunker and tied it there. Even under the most adverse circumstances, he did not back down and kept shouting instructions to his colleagues. When his gunner was martyred, he took a 2-inch mortar himself and fired several rounds at the enemy. His platoon killed many Chinese soldiers, but most of his people were either killed or badly injured.

 A scene of the India-China war. (Photo: pintrest)

Clashed with Chinese soldiers with bayonet

After a few breaks, a contingent of 200 soldiers of the Chinese army had regrouped and were going to snatch the IB ridge. Historian Anil Kumar writes that Lieutenant Haripal Kaushik, the commander of the Delta Company, sent a message on the radio sensing the imminent threat, which was received by Subedar Joginder Singh as 'Ji Saab', his last words to his platoon. After some time, the ammo near his platoon was exhausted. Subedar Singh prepared the remaining soldiers of his platoon and said the last attack on the enemy. It is said that he attacked Chinese soldiers and killed many people by placing a bayonet or knife on their guns and shouting slogans like 'Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal'. But Chinese soldiers kept coming. The badly wounded Subedar Joginder Singh was made a prisoner of war. Three Indian soldiers escaped from there who told the story of this battle of several hours.

Paramveer Joginder Singh ji, and Punjabi actor Gippy Grewal as him in the film made on him.

He got super speed

Subedar Joginder Singh died shortly thereafter as a prisoner of the People's Liberation Army. With this indomitable courage, he was posthumously awarded India's highest gallantry award, Param Vir Chakra.

Enemy Army filled with honor

When the Chinese Army came to know that Subedar Singh had got the adornment of Paramveer Chakra, he was also filled with respect. On 17 May 1963, China handed over his ashes to his battalion with full military honors. His urn was brought to the center of the Sikh Regiment in Meerut. The next day his tribute meeting was held at Gurdwara Sahib. Then a ceremony was organized where the urn was handed over to his wife Gurdial Kaur and son.

Statue of Subedar Joginder Singh in War Memorial of Tawang.

The Indian Army built a memorial on IB Ridge as a commemoration of his valor.
Pradeep Vasant Naik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Air Chief Marshal

P V Naik
PVSM, VSM
Born July 22, 1949 (age 70)
Nagpur, Maharashtra
Allegiance  India
Service/branch  Indian Air Force
Years of service June 21, 1969 – 2012
Rank  Air Chief Marshal
Commands held Central Air Command
AFS Bidar
26 Squadron
Battles/wars Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Awards

Param Vishisht Seva Medal
Vishisht Seva Medal
Other work Honorary Aides-de-Camp (ADC) to the President of India

Air Chief Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik, PVSM, VSM served as the 22nd Chief of the Air Staff of the Indian Air Force. He took office on 31 May 2009 following the retirement of Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major and was succeeded in office by Air Chief Marshal Norman Anil Kumar Browne.

Career

Air Chief Marshal Naik was born on 22 July 1949 at Nagpur, Maharashtra and was commissioned into the Indian Air Force on June 21, 1969 as a fighter pilot. He is an alumnus of Sainik School, Satara and National Defence Academy, Khadakwasla in Maharashtra. During his 42 years of service, he has served in a variety of command staff and instructional appointments.

He has over 3,000 hrs of flying on his log. The Air Chief also took part in 1971 war air actions in the Eastern and Western sector. Before taking over as Chief of Air Staff, he was the Vice Chief of Air Staff of the Indian Air Force. He has also served as the Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Allahabad-based, Central Air Command.

Besides being a fellow of the National Defence College, New Delhi, he is a Qualified Flying Instructor and a Fighter Combat Leader.He has served as Directing staff at DSSC Wellington, India and at Tactics & Air Combat Development Establishment( TACDE).

Personal life

Air Chief Marshal Naik and his wife Madhubala Naik have two sons; the elder was a fighter pilot with the Indian Air Force and later transferred to the transport stream, and the younger, a Chief Officer in the Merchant Navy.

Awards

 
   
   
   

Padmanabha Gautam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Padmanabha Gautam

MVC (Bar), VM (G)
Born 23 July 1933
Died 25 November 1972 (aged 39)
Allegiance  India
Service/branch  Indian Air Force
Years of service 1953-1972
Rank  Wing Commander
Unit
Jet Bomber Conversion Unit (JBCU)

Battles/wars

Awards

 Vayu Sena Medal (Gallantry)

Wing Commander Padmanabha Gautam, MVC (Bar), VM (23 July 1933 – 25 November 1972), was an officer in the Indian Air Force.

He was born on 23 July 1933 in ChennaiTamil Nadu to Neelkanta Padmanabha and was commissioned into the Indian Air Force on 1 April 1953. In 1961, he served as a Flight Lieutenant which as deployed in Congo and was awarded the Vayu Sena Medal for his service.[6] On 25 November 1972, he died in an air-crash due to internal bleeding. The engine of his MIG-21FL flamed shortly after take-off and he was forced to crash land.

Maha Vir Chakra

The citation for the first Maha Vir Chakra awarded to him reads:

Gazette Notification: 126 Pres/65,22-9-65

Operation: Operation Riddle, Date of Award: 6 September 1965

Citation: Squadron Leader P. Gautam, Commanding Officer of a bomber conversion-training unit led it in a number of difficult and dangerous missions. He undertook six important offensive and tactical close-support operations over Pakistani territory during the period from 6 to 21 September 1965. In complete disregard of personal safety in the face of heavy enemy ground fire and of the risk of attack by Pakistani Sabrejets, he carried out his missions successfully with courage and determination. These missions included reconnaissance deep into enemy territory and the bombing of Akwal and Gujarat airfields and enemy troops concentrations in the Gujarat and Chawinda areas.

Throughout the operations, Squadron Leader P Gautam's devotion to duty, professional skill and gallantry were in the finest traditions of the Air Force.

The citation for the second Maha Vir Chakra awarded to him reads:

Gazette Notification: 22 Pres/72,12-2-72

Operation: 1971 Cactus Lily Date of Award: 5 December 1971

Citation:

Commander P/ Gautam, Commanding Officer of a bomber squadron, led many missions deep into enemy territory. Notable among these were two raids on the night of the 5 and 7 December 1971 when Wing Commander Gautam led attacks on the Mianwali airfield. On both these occasions, he and his formation were met with intense anti-aircraft fire. Despite that, the target was attacked with great precision, at low level and heavy damage was inflicted. On the other missions, he carried out rocket and four gun attacks on railway marshalling yards in the Montgomery-Raiwind area with conspicuous success. Throughout the operation, Wing Commander Gautam displayed conspicuous gallantry, exemplary flying skill and leadership in the highest traditions of the Air Force.
Richhpal Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Richhpal Ram
Born 20 August 1899
Died 12 February 1941 (aged 41)
Buried
Keren Cremation Memorial, Senafe Debub, Eritrea
Allegiance  British India
Service/branch  British Indian Army
Years of service 1920–1941 
Rank Subedar (Captain)
Unit 4th Battalion, 6th Rajputana Rifles
Battles/wars World War II
Awards  Victoria Cross

Richhpal Ram VC (20 August 1899 – 12 February 1941) was an Indian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

His family

Richhpal Ram came from Barda village, tehsil Satnali district Bhiwani in Haryana.[1] He belongs to Jat family of Lamba. He had 2 sons & 1 daughter.

Career

Ram enlisted on 20 August 1920 in the 4/6th Rajputana Rifles.

He was 41 years old, and a Subedar in the 6th Rajputana Rifles, in the Indian Army during World War II when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC during the Battle of Keren.

On 7 February 1941 at KerenEritrea, Subadar Richhpal Ram led a successful attack on the enemy and subsequently repelled six counter-attacks and then, without a shot left, brought the few survivors of his company back. Five days later, when leading another attack, his right foot was blown off, but he continued to encourage his men until he died.

The official citation for the award, published in The London Gazette on 4 July 1941 reads:

The KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the posthumous award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: —

Subadar Richpal Ram, 6th Rajputana Rifles, Indian Army.

During the assault on enemy positions in front of Keren, Eritrea, on the night of 7-8th February, 1941, Subadar Richpal Ram, who was second-in-command of a leading company, insisted on accompanying the forward platoon and led its attack on the first objective with great dash and gallantry. His company commander being then wounded, he assumed command of the company, and led the attack of the remaining two platoons to the final objective. In face of heavy fire, some thirty men with this officer at their head rushed the objective with the bayonet and captured it. The party was completely isolated, but under the inspiring leadership of Subadar Richpal Ram, it beat back six enemy counter-attacks between midnight and 0430 hours. By now, ammunition had run out, and this officer extricated his command and fought his way back to his battalion with a handful of survivors through the surrounding enemy.

Again, in the attack on the same position on 12th February, this officer led the attack of his company. He pressed on fearlessly and determinedly in the face of heavy and accurate fire, and by his personal example inspired his company with his resolute spirit until his right foot was blown off. He then suffered further wounds from which he died. While lying wounded he continued to wave his men on, and his final words were " We'll capture the objective ".

The heroism, determination and devotion to duty shown by this officer were beyond praise, and provided an inspiration to all who saw him.

The medal

The Victoria Cross Medal is displayed in Delhi Cantonment Raj Rifles Officer Mess (Museum).

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