Dalit Politician

Ashok Chavan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ashok Chavan
Ashok Chavan
Incumbent
Assumed office
30 December 2019
Minister
Public Works (Excluding Public Undertakings)
Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray
Constituency Bhokar
Guardian minister of Nanded District Government of Maharashtra

Assumed office
09 January 2020
Constituency Bhokar
In office
8 December 2008 – 15 October 2009
Governor S. C. Jamir
Preceded by Vilasrao Deshmukh
Succeeded by Himself
In office
7 November 2009 – 9 November 2010
Governor S. C. Jamir
Preceded by Himself
Succeeded by Prithviraj Chavan
In office
1 November 2004 – 20 February 2009
Succeeded by Narayan Rane
Constituency Mudkhed
In office
19 October 1999 – 20 October 2004
Constituency Mudkhed
In office
2014–2019
Constituency Nanded
In office
1987–1989
Preceded by Shankarrao Chavan
Succeeded by Venkatesh Kabde

Personal details
Born
Ashokrao Shankarrao Chavan
28 October 1958
Political party Indian National Congress
Children Sujaya & Sreejaya
Parents Kusum & Shankarrao Chavan
Residence Anand Nilayam, Shivaji Nagar, Nanded
Alma mater Hazarimal Jomani College (BSc)

Ashokrao Shankarrao Chavan (born 28 October 1958) is an Indian politician from Maharashtra. He is one of the most influential leaders of Indian National Congress in Maharashtra and he is the current PWD Minister of Maharashtra. He also served as the Chief Minister of Maharashtra state from 8 December 2008 to 9 November 2010. Also, he has served as Minister for Cultural Affairs, Industries, Mines and Protocol in the Vilasrao Deshmukh government.

On 9 November 2010, the Congress Party asked him to resign from office over corruption allegations relating to Adarsh Housing Society scam. In the 2014 general elections, despite the allegations and anti-incumbency wave, he won the Lok Sabha election from his Nanded constituency with a comfortable margin. In 2015, he was appointed as the president of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee.Chavan lost his Nanded seat in the 2019 Lok sabha election to Pratap Patil Chikhalikar of the BJP. 

Chavan belongs to an influential political family based in Nanded district of Maharashtra state. He is the son of Shankarrao Chavan, a former Chief Minister of Maharashtra himself; they are the first father–son duo in the state's history to become chief ministers. His brother-in-law Bhaskarrao Bapurao Khatgaonkar Patil was a three-time Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) and a three-time MP, and Chavan's wife, Amita is MLA from Bhokar constituency in Nanded for year 2014-19.

Personal life

Chavan did his schooling at the St. Xavier's High School, Fort. He graduated in Science and has obtained his Master's in Business Management from Hazarimal Jomani College and B.Y.K. College of Commerce.

Chavan belongs to a political dynasty that includes his father and wife. Chavan's father, Shankarrao Chavan had a long career as a minister and twice, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra. He had also served as a senior minister in the national government under various Congress governments. Ashok Chavan is married to Ameeta (née Sharma). Ameeta is current member of Maharashtra Legislative Assembly from Bhokar constituency which has previously been represented by both Shankarrao Chavan and Chavan himself. The couple has twin daughters Srijaya and Sujaya.

Political career
Organisational

He started carrier as student leader of University of Pune occupying post of University Representative (UR).

He started his political career in Congress Party as General Secretary, Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee from 1995 to 1999.

President: Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee from 2014 to 2019.

Electoral politics

In 1987–89, he held post of Member of Parliament from Nanded Lok Sabha constituency.

In 1992, he was elected as M.L.C to the Maharashtra Legislative Council and later joined as Minister of State for Public works, Urban Development and Home in March 1993.

In 2003, Vilasrao Deshmukh appointed Chavan as Minister for Transport, Ports, Cultural Affairs and Protocol.

In November 2004, he was given the portfolio of Industries, Mining, Cultural Affairs & Protocol in Maharashtra cabinet.

As a cabinet minister
2003: Transport Minister.
2019: Sworn as Cabinet Minister in Uddhav Thackeray's Ministry.

Tenure as Chief Minister of Maharashtra
The Prime Minister , Dr. Manmohan Singh along with the Chief Minister of Gujarat , Shri Narendra Modi , the Chief Minister of Maharashtra , Shri Ashok Chavan and the Union Minister for Parliamentary Affairs and Water Resources, Shri Pawan Kumar Bansal at the signing ceremony of a tripartite MoU for preparation of DPR of Damanganga-Pinjal Link Project and Par-Tapi-Narmada Link Project, in New Delhi on May 03, 2010.

In the aftermath of the November 2008 Mumbai attacksVilasrao Deshmukh took the moral responsibility and offered to resign, which was then accepted by the party and Chavan was elected as Chief Minister of Maharashtra.

After winning assembly elections in 2009, Congress President Sonia Gandhi once again nominated Chavan as the Chief Minister of MaharashtraSharad Pawar, the leader of rival coalition partner NCP party, had been lukewarm towards Chavan, after his first choice of union power minister Sushil Kumar Shinde was ignored well before the race began.

Congress had clearly plumped for a Maratha to lead the party in the state, and had ignored the NCP view that a non-Maratha should be selected for the position to set right the social combination.

As a result, NCP chose a non-Maratha, Chhagan Bhujbal to occupy the deputy Chief Minister's post and gave the home ministry to Jayant Patil. The latter being a Maratha balanced the NCP's own bid to remain the community's first choice.[citation needed] Chavan was asked to resign as Chief Minister during a meeting with Congress president, Sonia Gandhi, after it emerged that three of his relatives owned apartments in the Adarsh Housing Society which was created specifically to house Indian war veterans in the upmarket Colaba area of Mumbai. He was succeeded by Prithviraj Chavan.

Post Chief Minister

Despite the corruption allegations, the Congress party put him up as a party candidate for the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections. He won the election by a huge margin. In Maharashtra, Rajiv Satav and Chavan were the only Congress candidates elected.

In 2015, he took over as the chief of the Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee.

Chavan contested the 2019 Lok Sabha Elections from Nanded Constituency but lost the election to BJP's Prataprao Patil Chikhalikar. He is one of the 9 former Chief Ministers of Congress who lost in Lok Sabha 2019 Election.

Controversy, scams and allegations

Apart from the much discussed Adarsh Housing Society Scam, Chavan was accused of using his office to fund his relatives' bank. Recently High court of Maharashtra state denied permission to the agency investigating the Adarsh scam to question Chavan.

In 2009 Assembly Elections, he was accused of hiding expenses on a paid supplement titled Ashok Parva in a leading Marathi daily. However, he denied the allegation by the Election Commission of India of having inserted favourable Paid News in newspapers.

Legislative assembly election's record

SI No.YearLegislative AssemblyConstituencyMarginPartyPost
2. 2019 14th Bhokar 97,445 Indian National Congress PWD Minister of Maharashtra
Ashok Tanwar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ashok Tanwar

MP of Lok Sabha from Sirsa
In office
2009 - 2014
Constituency Sirsa
Personal details
Born 12 February 1976 
Spouse(s)
Avantika Maken
​(m. 2005)​
Children 2, including Adikarta Tanwar
Parent(s) Dilbag Singh
Residence Haryana
Education M.A.(History), M.Phil (History), Ph.D.
Alma mater Educated at Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi

Ashok Tanwar (born 12 February 1976) is an Indian politician, former President of Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee, Member of Parliament from Sirsa and Secretary, All India Congress Committee. He was also a former president of Indian Youth Congress and NSUI. He was the youngest person to become the president of Indian Youth Congress.

Early life

He was born in a chamar caste to a family of farmer in Chimni, Jhajjar districtHaryana to Dilbag Singh and Krishna Rathi. He did his BA from the Kakatiya University, Warangal. He went to Jawaharlal Nehru University's centre for Historical studies and completed his M.A., M.Phil. and Ph.D. (Medieval Indian History).

Political career

Tanwar started his career as an activist of the NSUI in JNU.

Youth politics

Tanwar rose to prominence when he won the election for the president of student union of JNU. He became NSUI's secretary in 1999 and its president in 2003. Under his leadership, the NSUI won two elections in the Delhi University Students' Union (DUSU) since he took over in 2003 and improved its performance in the Left dominated JNU.

During Ashok Tanwar's term as president, the Indian Youth Congress tried to strengthen its network at block, district and state level through workshops, seminars, street plays and social work related to the public issues.

Lok Sabha elections

In 2009 he won the Lok Sabha elections from Sirsa in Haryana as a Congress party's candidate with a margin of 35499 votes. However he lost the 2014 Lok Sabha elections as Congress Party's candidate to Charanjeet Singh Rori of Indian National Lok Dal.

President of Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee

He became the president of Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee on 14 February 2014. He was succeeded by Selja Kumari as party president on 4 September 2019. He quit the Indian National Congress on 5 October 2019.

Personal life

In June 2005, Ashok Tanwar married Avantika Maken, daughter of Lalit Maken and maternal granddaughter of former Indian President, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma. They have three children, two sons and one daughter, Anirudh, Adikarta and Abhistada.
Anusuiya Uikey
Date of Birth: 10-Apr-1957
Place of Birth: Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, India
Profession: politician
Nationality: India
Zodiac Sign: Aries

Anusuiya Uikey (born 10 April 1957) is a politician from Bharatiya Janata Party and currently serving as the governor of Chhattisgarh. She was appointed as Governor of Chhattisgarh on 16 July 2019.
Annai Meenambal Sivaraj
The Tamil Dalit Woman Leader


By

Annai Meenambal Sivaraj, India’s first Dalit woman leader is one of the most important figures in the Indian Dalit History and the fight towards inclusion of Dalit women at the national forefront. However very less is known about her contribution in the mainstream media.

Early Life & Education:

Born on 26th December 1904 to Mr. V.G. Vasudevapillai and Meenakshi, her early childhood was spent in Rangoon, Burma where her family had migrated from Tamil Nadu in order to escape the oppression of the dominant caste system prevailing in colonial India.

Annai Meenambal comes from a family of renowned Dalit leaders. Her grandfather P.M. Madurai Pillai, was a well known benefactor. Meenambal’s father had been the first elected person to the corporation of Madras from the aboriginal people, was a member of the Tamil Nadu Assembly and had been involved in the Adi-Dravida movements from an early age. Meenambal was thus aware of the struggles of the movement from an early age.

Finishing her Bachelors in Fine Arts in Rangoon, Meenambal, shifted to Madras in order to gain an insight on the political scenario of the country and to understand and put forward a Dalit woman’s perspective within the existing political framework of the Indian struggle against caste system.

Political Career:

Meenambal’s first attempt to engage with the caste struggle in the public sphere came in 1928 when she gave a speech in favour of the Simon Commission. As opposed to the upper caste leaders of the time, who boycotted the commission citing that it did not represent the Indian interests by excluding them, she presented an appeal to the Commission for the recognition and implementation of affirmative action for the Dalits.

In the years that followed, she became joined hands with Dr. Ambedkar and E.V.R Ramasamy in spreading the Dalit consciousness, and the message of anti-caste revolution in Tamil Nadu. At the Tirunelveli Adi-Dravidian conference which was convened on 31st January 1937, she said:

“It is said that a family without unity will perish. For this reason it must be known that a society, nation or anything else needs the strength of unity to gain its progress. Although it will take a long time to do away with this sin of case consciousness from our country, all the people of our community must unite together with each other to prove that we are too human beings.”

Meenambal became the first Scheduled Caste woman to become a member of the Madras Corporation representing Madras University Senate. Apart from this, she became the first Dalit woman President of the All India Scheduled Castes Federation (AISCF), the first all India political party exclusively for the Scheduled Class started by Dr. Ambedkar. She presided the AISCF’S national women’s conference at Madras in 1944 alongside Dr. Ambedkar and then the subsequent session on May 6, 1945 held at Bombay, all the while strongly articulating the need for women’s education.

Meenambal held positions like the honorary magistrate for Madras province, member of the post-war rehabilitation committee, Director of Scheduled Castes Cooperative Bank and leader of the anti-Parry corporation labour struggle. Known fondly as the beloved sister of Dr. Ambedkar, it was she who gave the title of ‘Periyar‘ or the Great One to E.V. Ramasamy. She was married to N. Sivaraj, the known lawyer, politician and the right hand of Dr. Ambedkar.

Work and Later Years:

A strong proponent of the Self-Respect Movement (started in 1925 by E.V. Ramasamy) and a feminist at heart, she encouraged the women on the importance of their active participation in the fight against untouchability, oppression, caste inequality through education. She tirelessly worked throughout her life for the Dalit community, retiring at the age of 80.

It was on 30th November, 1992 that the Meenambal fondly referred to as ‘Annai’ or mother expired, leaving behind a rich legacy of her struggles which still serve as a beacon for the contemporary fight against caste oppression.
Ankita Singh
Ankita is pursuing her postgraduation degree in French literature at JNU and is an intern at FII; trying to understand what feminism is all about. She loves reading, travelling and is a theater enthusiast.

References: Dalit Women Fight
Buddha Priya Maurya
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Buddha Priya Maurya
In office
1971–1977
Preceded by Prakash Vir Shastri
Constituency Hapur
Personal details
Born 28 September 1928
Political party Indian National Congress
Other political
Spouse(s) Kanta Maurya
Parent(s)

Bipti Ram Maurya (father)
Residence(s) Misal Garhi, Ghaziabad

Buddha Priya Maurya (born September 12, 1928) is an Indian politician and a member of the 3rd Lok Sabha and 5th Lok Sabha. He was elected to the Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India from HapurUttar Pradesh in the 1971 Indian general election as a member of the Indian National Congress, defeating senior Prakash Vir Shastri leader Bharatiya Kranti Dal.
Banwari Lal Bairwa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Banwari Lal Bairwa

In office
1998 - 2003
Member of Parliament
for Tonk
In office
1980 - 1989
Personal details
Born 19 January 1933
TonkRajasthan, India
Died 22 July 2009 (aged 76)
JaipurRajasthan, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Occupation Politician

Banwari Lal Bairwa (19 January 1933 – 22 July 2009) as an Indian politician and former Deputy Chief Minister of Rajasthan. He is a former Member of Parliament from Tonk (Lok Sabha constituency) in Rajasthan. Leader of Indian National Congress.
B. Parameswaran
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

B. Parameswaran ( 20 January 1913 – 15 September 1966) was an Indian politician and former Member of the Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu. He was elected to the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly from Maduranthakam constituency as an Indian National Congress candidate in 19461952, and 1962 elections. He was the grandson of Rettamalai Srinivasan, a pioneer in the Scheduled Caste movement. He was educated at the St. Gabriels High School and Presidency College, Madras. He served as private secretary to another Scheduled Caste leader M. C. Rajah. During 7 April 1949 – 9 April 1952, he was the minister for Firka development, Khadi, Cottage industries, Fisheries, Cinchona and Harijan uplift in the P. S. Kumaraswamy Raja cabinet. During 1952–54, he was the mayor of Madras. From 13 April 1954 until 31 March 1957, he was the minister for Transport, Harijan Uplift, Hindu Religious Endowments, Registration and Prohibition in K. Kamaraj's first cabinet. During 1958–62, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha – the upper house of the Indian parliament.
Bob Saroya
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bob Saroya


Member of the Canadian Parliament

Assumed office
October 19, 2015
Preceded by John McCallum
Personal details
Born February 3, 1952 (age 68)
Political party Conservative
Residence Markham, Ontario

Babar "Bob" Saroya MP (born February 3, 1952) is a Canadian politician, who was elected to represent the riding of Markham—Unionville in the House of Commons of Canada in the 2015 Canadian federal election. During the 42nd Canadian Parliament he has been a member of the Conservative Party official opposition and sponsored one private member bill, C-338, An Act to amend the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (punishment), which would have increased mandatory minimum sentences for those convicted of importing controlled drugs and substances. The bill was debated at second reading but defeated by the Liberals; only members from the Conservative Party voted in favour.

His election in 2015 was unique, Markham—Unionville was originally held by John McCallum who Saroya came close to upsetting in 2011. After re-distribution, McCallum chose to run in the neighbouring riding of Markham—Thornhill. Saroya's election was considered to be an anomaly because he was the only candidate in Canada to pick up a seat from the Liberals. Saroya was re-elected in the 2019 Canadian federal election.

Saroya immigrated to Canada from India in 1974. He eventually went on to own several restaurants and became a Director with a multi-billion dollar Canadian company before first running for office in 2008

बाबू जगदेव प्रसाद

बाबू जगदेव प्रसाद ( 2 फरवरी 1922 - 5 सितम्बर 1974) भारत के बिहार प्रान्त में जन्मे के एक क्रन्तिकारी राजनेता थे। इन्हें 'बिहार लेनिन' के नाम से जाना जाता है जिन्होने एक अच्छे समाज को गढने में जी जान लगा दिया।

जीवन परिचय

जगदेव प्रसाद का जन्म 2 फरवरी 1922 को बोध गया के समीप कुर्था प्रखण्ड के कुरहारी ग्राम में कोइरी('दांगी') समुदाय के परिवार परिवार में हुआ था। इनके पिता प्रयाग नारायण पास के प्राथमिक विद्यालय में शिक्षक थे तथा माता रासकली अनपढ़ थीं। अपने पिता के मार्गदर्शन में बालक जगदेव ने मिडिल की परीक्षा पास की। हाईस्कूल के लिए जहानाबाद चले गए। निम्न मध्यमवर्गीय परिवार में पैदा होने के कारण जगदेव जी की प्रवृत्ति शुरू से ही संघर्षशील तथा जुझारू रही तथा बचपन से ही विद्रोही स्वाभाव' के थे।


60 एवं 70 के दशक में पूरे भारत भर में ऐतिहासिक परिवर्तन हुए। अंतरराष्ट्रीय स्तर पर जहां हमने पाकिस्तान के दो टुकड़े किए तो वहीं राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर हरित क्रांति को अपने देश में पंजाब हरियाणा और पश्चिमी उत्तर प्रदेश में सफलतापूर्वक लागू किए तो वही बिहार की परिपेक्ष में अगर बात करें तो कई तरह के क्रांतिकारी बदलाव सामने आते हैं 1970 आते-आते भिखारी ठाकुर समाज में सांस्कृतिक बदलाव ला चुके थे तमाम तरह की कुरीतियां को मिटाने के लिए उन्होंने अपने नाटक गीत संगीत के माध्यम से लोगों में जागरूकता लाने का काम किया तो वही सामंतियों के खिलाफ जगदेव प्रसाद और जगदीश मास्टर समेत तमाम लोगों ने बिगुल फूंका था। बिहार में बहुत बड़े बदलाव 1970 के आसपास देखा जा सकता है जमींदारी प्रथा के तहत जो गरीब वंचित तबका था उसे प्रताड़ित करने की जो परंपरा थी उसके विरुद्ध जगदेव बाबू , जगदीश मास्टर, रामेश्वर यादव ,रामनरेश राम, विनोद मिश्रा,नागभूषण पटनायक समेत लोगों ने जबरदस्त जन संघर्ष किया , आज भी जब भी किसी वंचित तबके के लिए आवाज उठाने की बात होती है बिना जगदेव प्रसाद के नाम लिए बातों को पूरा नहीं किया जा सकता।


एक उद्घाटन समारोह में पूर्व केंद्रीय मंत्री, नागमणि कुशवाहा( जगदेव प्रसाद के पुत्र )
राजनीति

जब वे शिक्षा हेतु घर से बाहर रह रहे थे, उनके पिता अस्वस्थ रहने लगे। जगदेव जी की माँ धार्मिक स्वाभाव की थी। जगदेव जी ने तमाम घरेलू झंझावतों के बीच उच्च शिक्षा ग्रहण किया। पटना विश्वविद्यालय से स्नातक तथा परास्नातक उत्तीर्ण किया। वही उनका परिचय चन्द्रदेव प्रसाद वर्मा से हुआ। चंद्रदेव ने जगदेव बाबू को विभिन्न विचारको को पढने, जानने-सुनने के लिए प्रेरित किया। अब जगदेव जी ने सामाजिक-राजनीतिक गतिविधियों में भाग लेना शुरू किया और राजनीति की तरफ प्रेरित हुए। इसी बीच वे शोसलिस्ट पार्टी से जुड़ गए और पार्टी के मुखपत्र 'जनता' का संपादन भी किया। एक संजीदा पत्रकार की हैसियत से उन्होंने दलित-पिछड़ों-शोषितों की समस्याओं के बारे में खूब लिखा तथा उनके समाधान के बारे में अपनी कलम चलायी। 1955 में हैदराबाद जाकर अंग्रेजी साप्ताहिक 'सिटिजेन' तथा हिन्दी साप्ताहिक 'उदय' का संपादन आरभ किया। प्रकाशक से भी मन-मुटाव हुआ लेकिन जगदेव बाबू ने अपने सिद्धान्तों से कभी समझौता नहीं किया। संपादक पद से त्यागपत्र देकर पटना वापस लौट आये और समाजवादियों के साथ आन्दोलन शुरू किया।

बिहार में उस समय समाजवादी आन्दोलन की बयार थी, लेकिन जे.पी. तथा लोहिया के बीच सद्धान्तिक मतभेद था। जब जे. पी. ने राम मनोहर लोहिया का साथ छोड़ दिया तब बिहार में जगदेव बाबू ने लोहिया का साथ दिया। उन्होंने सोशलिस्ट पार्टी के संगठनात्मक ढांचे को मजबूत किया और समाजवादी विचारधारा का देशीकरण करके इसको घर-घर पहुंचा दिया।

जगदेव बाबू ने 1967 के विधानसभा चुनाव में संसोपा (संयुक्त सोशलिस्ट पार्टी), 1966 में प्रजा सोशलिस्ट पार्टी और सोशलिस्ट पार्टी का एकीकरण हुआ था) के उम्मीदवार के रूप में कुर्था में जोरदार जीत दर्ज की। उनके अथक प्रयासों से स्वतंत्र बिहार के इतिहास में पहली बार 'संविद सरकार ' बनी तथा महामाया प्रसाद सिन्हा को मुख्यमंत्री बनाया गया। [7] जगदेव बाबू तथा कर्पूरी ठाकुर की सूझ-बूझ से पहली गैर-कांग्रेस सरकार का गठन हुआ, लेकिन पार्टी की नीतियों तथा विचारधारा के मसले लोहिया से अनबन हुयी और 'कमाए धोती वाला और खाए टोपी वाला' की स्थिति देखकर संसोपा छोड़कर 25 अगस्त 1967 को 'शोषित दल' नाम से नयी पार्टी बनाई। उस समय अपने भाषण में उन्होने कहा था-

जिस लड़ाई की बुनियाद आज मै डाल रहा हूँ, वह लम्बी और कठिन होगी। चूंकि मै एक क्रांतिकारी पार्टी का निर्माण कर रहा हूँ इसलिए इसमें आने-जाने वालों की कमी नहीं रहेगी परन्तु इसकी धारा रुकेगी नहीं। इसमें पहली पीढ़ी के लोग मारे जायेगे, दूसरी पीढ़ी के लोग जेल जायेगे तथा तीसरी पीढ़ी के लोग राज करेंगे। जीत अंततोगत्वा हमारी ही होगी।"

Buta Singh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Buta Singh

In office
1986–1989
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
Preceded by P. V. Narasimha Rao
Succeeded by Mufti Mohammad Sayeed
In office
1984–1986
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
In office
2004–2006
Succeeded by Gopalkrishna Gandhi
In office
2007–2010
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Suraj Bhan
Succeeded by P. L. Punia
In office
1982–1984
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
In office
1981–1982
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi
In office
1995–1996
Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao
Personal details
Born 21 March 1934 (age 85)
Mustafapur, Jalandhar districtPunjab
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Manjit Kaur
Residence 11-A Teen Murti Marg New Delhi

Buta Singh (born 21 March 1934) is an Indian politician and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress. He was the Union Home Minister of India, Governor of Bihar and was chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes from 2007–2010.

Early life

Buta Singh was born on 21 March 1934 in the village of Mustafapur in Jalandhar districtPunjabBritish India. He was educated at Lyallpur Khalsa College in Jalandhar, from where he was awarded a B.A. (Hons), and at Guru Nanak Khalsa College in Bombay, where he earned a M.A. Singh then gained a Ph.D. from Bundelkhand University. He married Manjit Kaur in 1964; the couple had three children.

He worked as journalist before joining politics. He fought his first elections as an Akali Dal member and joined the Indian National Congress in the late 1960s at the time when that party was split.

Political career

Buta Singh was first elected to the Indian Parliament from the Sadhna constituency. He has been involved with the Congress party since Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister and he was close to former Indian Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. He has been elected eight times as a member of the Lok Sabha in 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 10th, 12th and 13th Lok Sabha. He became General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee (AICC) General Secretary (1978-1980), Home Minister of India and later Governor of Bihar (2004-2006). Other portfolios that he has held include those for railways, commerce, parliamentary affairs, sports, shipping, agriculture, communications and housing. He was chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (ranked as Cabinet Minister) from 2007-2010.

He has written a book Punjabi Speaking State - A Critical Analysis and a collection of articles on Punjabi literature and Sikh history. Indira Ganhi chose him to select a new party symbol when Congress was split. He was very closely involved with her in Operation Blue Star and as a minister he oversaw reconstruction of the Golden Temple following that exercise. His name was also in the finalists for the post of President of India along with Giani Zail Singh in the Indira era. He was also the chairperson of Asian Games organizing committee when the competition was held in India in 1982.

He was involved in the Indian general election of 2014 from Jalore District.

Controversies

In 1998, as Communications Minister he was indicted in the JMM bribery case, and forced to resign.

As the Governor of Bihar, Singh's decision to recommend the dissolution of the Bihar Assembly in 2005 was sharply criticised by the Supreme Court of India. The court ruled that Singh had acted in haste and misled the federal cabinet because he did not want a particular party claiming to form the government, to come to power. Singh however claimed that the party was resorting to unfair means to secure support to form the government. On 26 January 20

Positions held

1962 : Elected to 3rd Lok Sabha.Moga
1966-68 : Member, Public Accounts Committee.
1967 : Re-elected to 4th Lok Sabha (2nd term)Ropar (Lok Sabha constituency)
1971 : Re-elected to 5th Lok Sabha (3rd term).Ropar (Lok Sabha constituency)
1971 : Chairman, Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
1973-74 : Convenor, All India Congress Committee (Indira) [AICC(I)], Harijan Cell.
1974-76 : Union Deputy Minister, Railways.
1976-77 : Union Deputy Minister, Commerce.
1978-80 : General-Secretary, AICC(I).
1980 : Re-elected to 7th Lok Sabha (4th term).Ropar (Lok Sabha constituency)
1980-82 : Union Minister of State, Shipping and Transport.
1982 : Union Minister of State, Supply and Rehabilitation (Independent Charge).
1982-83 : Union Minister of State, Supply and Sports (Independent Charge).
1983-84 : Union Cabinet Minister, Parliamentary Affairs, Sports and Works and Housing.
1984 : Re-elected to 8th Lok Sabha (5th term).Jalore (Lok Sabha constituency)
1984-85 : Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture and Rural Development.
1985-86 : Union Cabinet Minister, Agriculture.
1986-89 : Union Cabinet Minister, Home Affairs.
1991 : Re-elected to 10th Lok Sabha (6th term).Jalore (Lok Sabha constituency)
1994-95 : Chairman, Parliamentary Committee on Defence.
1995-96 : Union Cabinet Minister, Civil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution.
1998 : Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha (7th term).Jalore (Lok Sabha constituency)
Mar-Apr' 1998: Union Cabinet Minister, Communications.
1998-99 : Member, Committee on Subordinate Legislation and Member, Committee on Finance.
1999 : Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (8th term).Jalore (Lok Sabha constituency)
1999-2000 : Member, Committee of Privileges and Member, Committee on Communications.
1999-2001 : Member, Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
2002-2003 : Chairman, Public Accounts Committee, Room No.-51, Parliament House, New Delhi.
2004-2006 : Governor Of Bihar
2006-2007 : Permanent Invitee Congress Working Committee
2007-2010 : Chairman National Commission For Schedule Cast (rank of Cabinet Minister)
Bhaurao Gaikwad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dadasaheb Gaikwad


Gaikwad on a 2002 stamp of India
Personal details
Born


Bhaurao Krishnaji Gaikwad
15 October 1902
Died 29 December 1971 (aged 69)
Willingdon Hospital, New Delhi
Nationality Indian
Political party Republican Party of India
Spouse(s) Seetabai (m. 1912 – d. 1968)
Geetabai (m. 1921)
Occupation politician

Profession Social activist

Bhaurao Krishnaji Gaikwad (15 October 1902 – 29 December 1971) popularly known as Dadasaheb Gaikwad, was an Indian politician and social worker from Maharashtra. He was founder member of the Republican Party of India and was a member of parliament in both the Lok Sabha (1957 - 1962) and Rajya Sabha(1962 - 1968). He was a close colleague and follower of human rights leader B. R. Ambedkar. The people of Maharashtra honoured him with the sobriquet Karmaveer(King of actions) and the Government of India awarded him with Padma Shri in 1968 for his dedicated service to society.

Life
Gaikwad (right) with Babasaheb Ambedkar (left) at Nashik railway station, November 1945
Gaikwad was born on 15 October 1902 at Ambe village in Dindori tehsil, Nashik district of Maharashtra.

Conversion

Gaikwad embraced Buddhism at the hands of Babasaheb Ambedkar at DeekshabhoomiNagpuron 14 October 1956. He imparted Buddha Dhamma Diksha to thousands at Chaitya BhoomiMumbai on 7 December 1956.

Legacy

Government of Maharashtra gives special assistance to socially and economically backward people on his name, Karmaveer Dadasaheb Gaikwad Sabalikaran & Swabhiman Yojana.
The Government of India issued a commemorative stamp in his honour in 2002
Basanta Kumar Das
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Basanta Kumar Das

In office
1952–1957
Succeeded by Pramathanath Banerjee
In office
1962–1967
Succeeded by Samar Guha
Constituency ContaiWest Bengal
In office
9 December 1946 – 24 January 1950
Personal details
Born 1 March 1898
Died 1 December 1984
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Residence Ra

Basanta Kumar Das (1898 – 1 December 1984) was an Indian Politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Lok Sabha, the Lower house of Indian Parliament from Contai constituencyWest Bengal in 1952 and 1962. He was earlier a member of the Constituent Assembly of India representing West Bengal.
Bangaru Laxman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bangaru Laxman
Born 17 March 1939

Died 1 March 2014 (aged 74)

Secunderabad, Telangana, India
Nationality Indian
Education BA & LLB
Occupation Politician
Political party Bharatiya Janata Party
Spouse(s) Bangaru Sushila
Children 3 daughters and a son
Parent(s) Bangaru Narasimha
Bangaru Shivamma

Bangaru Laxman (17 March 1939 – 1 March 2014) was an Indian politician. He was a member of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). He was President of party from 2000 to 2001 and served as a minister of state for railways in Government of India from 1999 to 2000. He was sentenced to four years in jail for defence deal corruption case.

Early life

Bangaru Laxman was born in Madiga caste in Andhra Pradesh.[3] His father was B. Narasimha and mother was B. Shivamma. He did his BA and LLB in Hyderabad. His wife Susheela Laxman Bangaru was a member of 14th Lok Sabha. She was elected from Jalore constituency in Rajasthan as a candidate of Bharatiya Janata Party. He had a son and three daughters.

Career

Laxman joined politics at a young age. He was jailed during emergency in 1975. He was elected to Rajya Sabha in 1996. He has held many party positions including the party president during 2000–2001. He was the first Dalit president of BJP. He was member of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council from 1980–85. He was member of Rajya Sabha representing Gujarat from 1996–2002. He served in the Council of Ministers as Minister of State for Planning, Statistics and Programme Implementation from October- November 1999 and Ministry of Railway from November 1999 to August 2000.

At the age of 12, in 1953, he joined the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and held several organisational responsibilities. and became active member of Jan Sangh Party in 1969. In the meanwhile he joined the government service in Electricity Department, in Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1958. He had his primary education in government high school in Nampally in Hyderabad and did BA from Osmania University. He also completed his LLB in evening college of Law, Osmania University in Hyderabad. He was actively associated with working class movement and headed trade union activities.

Controversy

Laxman was involved in a major controversy when a private TV network Tehelka allegedly showed him taking bribes from Mathew Samuel on a hidden camera while he was the president of the BJP. He was convicted by a Special CBI Court on 27 April 2012 for taking bribe under Prevention of Corruption Act and was taken into custody.

Bangaru Laxman was convicted in defence deal Tehelka corruption case. Laxman was sentenced to 4-year rigorous imprisonment in prison for his crimes.

Laxman was sentenced to four years in jail on 28 April 2012. 72-year-old Bangaru, who was held guilty in the case, was produced from Tihar Jail before Special CBI Judge Kanwal Jeet Arora. Bangaru was convicted for taking bribe from fake arms dealer to recommend to the defence ministry to award them a contract to supply thermal binoculars to the Army. Soon after the judgment Bangaru Laxman resigned from the party's National Executive. He was granted bail under Justice A K Pathak with a bail bond of ₹ 50,000.

Death

Bangaru Lakshman died on 1 March 2014 at Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad in Hyderabad, from a prolonged illness and respiratory problems. He was out on bail due to health concerns.
Bhalchandra Mungekar
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Former nominated MP of the Rajya Sabha

In office

22 March 2010 to 21 March 2016

Preceded by

Dara Singh, BJP

Personal details

Born : 2 March 1946

Deogad, Sindhudurg district

Political party

Indian National Congress

Spouse(s)

Leena Bhalchandra Mungekar

Children 3

Bhalchandra Laxman Mungekar (born 2 March 1946) is an Indian economist, educationist, social worker and Rajya Sabha member. He specialises in agricultural economics and is an expert on B. R. Ambedkar.

Early life

Mungekar was born in Munge village, in the Konkan region of Maharashtra.

Career

He has been Vice-Chancellor of the Mumbai University and has served in the Planning Commission, the Agricultural Price Commission of India. Mungekar has also been the Chairman and President of Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Simla.

Personal life


He is an Ambedkarite and Babasaheb Ambedkar is an influence in his life. Mungekar is a Buddhist
Chaudhary Sadhu Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chaudhary Sadhu Ram, is an Indian politician and five-times Member of Parliament.

Chaudhary Sadhu Ram

In office
1957-1977
Succeeded by Bhagat Ram
Constituency PhillaurPunjab
Personal details
Born January 1909
Died August 1975
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Rao Kaur
Children

Early life

Chaudhary Sadhu Ram was born in Chamar caste to Jawahar Mal at Domeli, Kapurthala, Punjab. He had studied at Khalsa High School, Domeli and invested in leather trade from Jalandhar. He became one of the first and richest Dalit from Doaba.

Movement

In late 1920s he joined Ad-Dharm movement founded by Mangu Ram Mugowalia. He became an active member of the movement but due to rifts among the leaders he led a separate faction, "All Indian Ad Dharm Mandal", headquartering at LyallpurPunjab.

He became a close aid of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and joined Scheduled Castes Federation and became its president of state unit in 1942.

Politics

In 1946, he joined Indian National Congress and in 1954 became convenor of Depressed Classes League for PEPSU state.

In 1952, he fought his first election from Phagwara constituency of PEPSU Legislative Assembly and became Deputy Minister for Home Affairs.

In 1957 India general elections he won Jullundar Lok Sabha constituency and in 3rd4th and 5th Lok Sabha elections from Phillaur constituency of Punjab
Chhedi Paswan
Constituency:SasaramBorn : 4-2-1956

Party:Bharatiya Janata Party

Father's Name:Late Ramchandra Paswan

Mother's Name:Late Lakshmina Devi

Birth Place:Takiya, Distt. Rohtas, Bihar

Spouse Name:Smt. Premkali Devi

SONS:3DAUGHTERS:

State Name:Bihar

Permanent Address:Vill. & P.O. Takiya Bazar (Sasaram), Distt. Rohtas, Sasaram-821113, BiharTelefax : (06184) 221102 09934774400, 0901386992 (M)

Present Address:07, Balwant Rai Mehta Lane, Near K.G. Marg, New DelhiNew Delhi-110001Telefax : (011) 23782092, 09013869992 (M)V+PO- Takiya (SASARAM),Dist- Rohtas (Sasaram), Bihar-821113Telefax- (06184) 221102,9013869992, 09934774400

Email Id:chhedi[dot]paswan[at]sansad[dot]nic[dot]in chhedipaswan[dot]mp[at]gmail[dot]com

Education Qualifications:M.A. (Labour and Social Welfare) Educated at Patna University (Bihar)

Countries Visited:Malaysia, Nepal, North Korea, Singapore

Positions Held:

OTHER INFO:* Four times elected Member of Legislative Assembly * Three times elected Members of Parliament (Lok Sabha) * Two times Members of the Council of Minister * Patron, All India Bihar Association (AIBA) * Member, South Asia Peace Foundation * Member, Monitoring and Vigilance Committee on SC/ST, Govt. of Bihar * Chairman, Monitoring and Vigilance Committee of District Kaimoor (Bihar) under the Ministry of Rural Development, Goverment of India *Attended 13th International Youth and Olympia festival at Pyongyang,DPK/North Korea.

Dakshayani Velayudhan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dakshayani Velayudhan (4 July 1912 – 20 July 1978) was an Indian parliamentarian and leader of the Depressed Classes. Belonging to the Pulaya community, she was among the first generation of people to be educated from the community. She holds several distinctions including becoming the first woman from her community to wear an upper cloth, the first Scheduled Caste woman graduate in India, a science graduate, a member of the Cochin Legislative Council and of being one of nine female members of the Constituent Assembly of India.

Honouring Dakshayani Velayudhan, the first and only Dalit woman MLA, the Kerala government has constituted the ‘Dakshayani Velayudhan Award’ which will be given to women who contributed in empowering other women in the state. The budget earmarked Rs 2 crore for the award. This was announced by the Kerala Finance Minister Dr. Thomas Isaac during the presentation of Kerala Budget 2019 in the Legislative Assembly on 31st January 2019.

Early life and education

Dakshayani was born in the Mulavukad village of the Kanayannur taluka of Ernakulam district in 1912. She completed her B.A. in 1935 and went on to complete her teachers' training course from the Madras University three years later. Her studies were supported by scholarships from the government of the Cochin State. From 1935 to 1945 she worked as a teacher at the Government High Schools in Trichur and Tripunithura.

Family

Dakshayani belonged to the Pulaya community, just like her contemporary social worker KPVallon K. P. Vallon.[1]She married R. Velayudhan a Scheduled Caste leader and later Member of Parliament. Their wedding was held at Sevagram in Wardha with Gandhi and Kasturba as witnesses and a leper standing in as the priest. The couple had five children Dr. Reghu (previously doctor for Smt. Indira Gandhi), Prahladan, Dhruvan, Bhagirath [Secretary General, The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)] and Meera. She was also related to K R Narayanan who later became the President of India.

Parliamentary career

In 1945 Dakshayani was nominated to the Cochin Legislative Council by the government of the State.

Participation in the Constituent Assembly

Velayudhan was elected to the Constituent Assembly of India by the Council in 1946. She was the first and only Scheduled Caste woman to be elected to the constituent assembly.From 1946-1952 she served as a member of the Constituent Assembly and the Provisional Parliament of India. In Parliament she took special interest in the matters of education especially that of the Scheduled Castes.

Interventions in the Constituent Assembly

Although a staunch Gandhian, Dakshayani sided with B R Ambedkar on many issues relating to the Scheduled Castes during the Constituent Assembly debates. She agreed with Ambedkar giving up the demand for separate electorates arguing instead for 'moral safeguards' and the immediate removal of their social disabilities.

On 8 November 1948, after Dr BR Ambedkar introduced the draft Constitution for discussion, she expressed her appreciation for the draft while calling for greater decentralisation. She also suggested that the final draft of the Constitution should be adopted following a ratification through a general election.

She intervened again on 29 November 1948, during discussions on draft Article 11, which aimed at prohibiting discrimination on the basis of caste, and was permitted to exceed the time limit by the Vice President of the Constituent Assembly who said, "It is only because you are a lady I am allowing you." Velayudhan called for implementation of non-discrimination provisions through public education and pointed out that it would send a great public signal if the Constituent Assembly were to endorse a resolution condemning caste discrimination. "The working of the Constitution," she said, "will depend on how people conduct themselves in the future, not on the actual execution of the law."

She also contested the general elections of 1971 from the Adoor Lok Sabha constituency but ended up fourth in a fray of five candidates.

Later life and death

Dakshayani was president of the Depressed Classes Youths Fine arts Club and the Managing Editor of The Common Man in Madras from 1946-49. She later became the founder president of the Mahila Jagriti Parishad. Dakshayani died in July 1978. She was 66.

Dakshayani Velayudhan with R Velayudhan and children. Pics Courtesy: Meera Velayudhan FB Page
On November 26, Constitution Day, Kerala is commemorating Dakshayani Velayudhan, the Dalit woman who forged her own path and stood up for the rights of women and people from oppressed castes. At a time when the state is grappling with the Sabarimala row, and women in the menstruating age bracket have been prevented from entering the temple despite the Supreme Court's order allowing them to do so, Dakshayani's fight takes on new significance.

The socila reform movements in Kerala, which were led by great visionaries, have been cited often by the Kerala CM to explain to the public why some traditions deserve to be broken. Among these leaders is Dakshayani Velayudhan who was a member of BR Ambedkar's Constituent Assembly, the body that formulated the Constitution of India. Of the 299 members in this Assembly, only 15 were women. And of the 15, she was the only Dalit woman.

On November 29, 1948, Dakshayani delivered a speech in the Assembly about untouchability. But before she could finish, she was interrupted by the Chair, Vice President of the Constituent Assembly HC Mookherjee. The Vice President said she had exceeded her time limit, and that he was letting her continue “only because you are a lady.”

However, her first speech in the Constituent Assembly focused on slavery.

Speaking to TNM, Dakshayani's daughter Meera said, "This speech was a clear articulation of what was to become Article 15 of the Constitution. Meeting Ambedkar was momentous in her life. From being Editor of Gandhi Era publication in early 1940s in Madras, she became editor of Jai Bheem publication, also from Madras."
Dinanath Bhaskar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dinanath Bhaskar

Minister of Uttar Pradesh
In office
1993–1995
Minister Health Minister
Constituency Chandauli
In office
2004 – 2007[citation needed]
In office
2002–2007
Constituency Bhadohi
Minister of State
In office
2002–2004
Constituency Aurai

Assumed office
2017
Personal details
Born 10 March 1963
Chandauli, Uttar Pradesh, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Bharatiya Janta Party (2015–present)
Bahujan Samaj Party (2009–2015)
Samajwadi Party (1996–2009)
Profession Politician

Dinanath Bhaskar (born 10 March 1963)[citation needed] is an Indian politician active in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Once a close associate of Kanshi Ram, he was a founding member of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) and was Minister for Health during the state's coalition government of the Samajwadi Party (SP) and BSP in 1993. He quit the BSP to join the SP in 1996, rejoined the BSP around 2009 and in 2015 joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

In the 2017 state elections, Bhaskar was elected as Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Aurai constituency as a BJP candidate. This was his third successful election to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly.

Career

In Jan Sabha

Once a close associate of Kanshi Ram, Dinanath Bhaskar was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh from the Chandauli constituency in 1993 on a BSP ticket. Around that time he was noted as a controversial character in the caste-ridden politics of Uttar Pradesh, much disliked by upper castes for his alignment with Dalits and other minorities and his exhortations to them to become militant.

Bhaskar left the BSP after Mayawati accused Mulayam Singh Yadav of trying to induce support from Bhaskar. Standing as an SP candidate in the 1996 assembly elections, he lost the contest in the Bhadohi constituency to Purnmasi Pankaj of the BJP. He then successfully contested the 2002 elections in the same constituency to become a Member of the Legislative Assembly for a second time. He lost the seat to the BSP candidate, Archana Saroj, in 2007 and left the party after being denied a Vidhan Sabha ticket in a 2009 by-election. He then re-joined the BSP and was made Coordinator of Allahabad zone, Mirzapur zone and Varanasi Zone respectively.

Bhaskar resigned from the BSP on 4 April 2015, accusing it of selling its election candidacies, and joined the BJP one month later. He won the Aurai constituency in the 2017 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly elections as a BJP candidate.

Offices held

1993 to 1995: Member of Legislative Assembly Chandauli
2002 to 2007: Member of Legislative Assembly Bhadohi
1993: Health, Health Education, Family welfare and Village Development Minister (Uttar Pradesh)
2003 to 2004: Minister of State2004 to 2007: Chairman Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe (SC/ST) Commission, Uttar Pradesh
2002 to 2007: Member, Joint Standing Committee Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribe and extinct Castes (Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
March 2017 – present: BJP MLA for Aurai
20017 to Present: Member, Joint Standing Committee Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribe and extinct Castes (Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
2018–Present: Member State working Committee BJP Uttar Pradesh
Ella Jones
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ella Jones

Assumed office
June 17, 2020
Preceded by James Knowles III
Personal details
Political party Democratic

Ella Jones is an American chromatographer, pastor, and politician who serves as the 12th Mayor of Ferguson, Missouri on June 2, 2020. A member of the Ferguson City Council, Jones is the first African-American and woman elected mayor of the city.

Education

Jones earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Chemistry from the University of Missouri–St. Louis.

Career

Prior to entering politics, Jones was a high pressure liquid chromatographer. She worked at the Washington University School of Medicine and KV Pharmaceutical before becoming a Sales Director with Mary Kay. In April 2015, Jones was elected to the Ferguson City Council as the first African American elected to the Council, representing Ward 1. In February 2020, Jones was selected to serve on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Local Government Advisory Committee.

In the 2017 municipal election, Jones ran for Mayor, receiving 42.77% of the vote. It was the city's first election after the shooting of Michael Brown and subsequent Ferguson unrest.

In the June 2, 2020 mayoral election, Jones defeated fellow council member Heather Robinett. Jones succeeded incumbent James Knowles III, a Republican who was unable to seek re-election due to term limits. On June 17, 2020, Jones was sworn in as the first black and female Mayor of Ferguson.

She is also a pastor in the African Methodist Episcopal Church.

Electoral history

2020 Ferguson Mayoral Election[10]PartyCandidateVotes%
Democratic Ella Jones 1,504 53.9%
Democratic Heather Robinett 1,286 46.1%

Personal life

Jones moved to Ferguson, Missouri with her husband, Tim. In October 2013 her husband passed away. Jones has one daughter and has lived in Ferguson for over 40 years
Eshwari Bai
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eshwari Bai
Personal details
Born Hyderabad State, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Republican Party of India
Children Geeta Reddy, daughter
Occupation Politician

Jetti Eshwari Bai (1 December 1918 – 25 February 1991) was an Indian politician, a Member of the Legislative Assembly and president of the Republican Party of India. She worked for the upliftment of the backward classes who were subjected to slavery and caste discrimination for generations by the upper castes.

Life

Eshwari Bai was born on 1 December 1918. She started her career as a teacher in Paropakarini School in Secunderabad and later started a school named Geetha Vidyalaya in Chilkalguda, Secunderabad. She held workshops for the poor women of the locality, who learned crafting, tailoring, painting etc., helping economically poor women to secure to support themselves and their families.

Bai was elected as a councillor of the Secunderabad Municipal Corporation in 1950.

She founded the Civic Rights Committee (CRC) in the 1960s to contest the Hyderabad municipal elections as an apolitical party. It won four seats in those elections.

Inspired by B. R. Ambedkar, Bai joined the Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF) and in 1958, when SCF was renamed as the Republican Party of India (RPI), she was elected as General Secretary. She went on to become the President of RPI later. In 1962 general elections she lost on RPI ticket from Yellareddy Assembly constituency, but won in the 1967 polls. She was the Vice Chairperson of the Telangana Praja Samithi (TPS) and won a ticket in 1972 elections again from Yellareddy on an RPI – TPS ticket.

As a chairperson of the Women and Child Welfare, Bai was instrumental in bringing legislation for free education of girl students up to higher education. She was the secretary of Indian Conference of Social Welfare and member of the Indian Red Cross Society. She also fought for separate statehood for Telangana in 1969 and was imprisoned at the Chanchalguda jail in Hyderabad.

Personal life

Bai had four brothers and a sister. She was married to Jetti Laxminarayana, a dentist from Pune, at the age of 13.[citation needed] Her daughter, J. Geeta Reddy, is a politician with the Indian National Congress party.

Bai died on 25 February 1991. The Eshwari Bai Memorial Award was instituted in her honour.

Faguni Ram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dr. Faguni Ram



Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)
In office
3
Constituency Aurangabad, Bihar
Personal details
Born 2 January 1945
Gaya Bihar
Died 25 February 2018 (aged 73)
New Delhi
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Dr. Sushila Das

Dr. Faguni Ram (2 January 1945 - 25 February 2018) was an Indian politician. He was a minister of state, Bihar and member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India representing Bihar as a member of the Indian National Congress for three terms.

Dr. Faguni Ram, whose father was Baijnath Ram (Freedom Fighter), was born on 2 January 1945. He obtained BA and MA degrees in Geography, as well as a Ph.D., and married Dr. Sushila Das.

He had four sons and three daughters.

Ram was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Bihar between 1972-77 and served as a minister of state in the Government of Bihar in 1973, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha from 1985-1988, 1988-1994 and from 2000.

He and his wife were among the first members of a Scheduled Caste in the state to hold a Ph.D. degree. They always stressed education as a means to self-development and the development of people they served. He served in Bihar State Administrative Services but left to become MLA from Aurangabad.

Ram breathed last on 25 February 2018 in Ram Manohar Lohia hospital. He was cremated in Nigambodh Ghat.

Outside politics, Ram wrote Development of Irrigation and its Impact on Agriculture and was co-author of the 25 volumes of Instant Encyclopaedia of Geography.

Awards and recognition
National Integration Award, 1987-88
Citizen of India, 1992
Several colleges and schools named after him in his home town and state.

G. M. C. Balayogi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi


12th Speaker of the Lok Sabha
In office
24 March 1998 – 3 March 2002
Deputy P. M. Sayeed
Preceded by Purno Agitok Sangma
Succeeded by Manohar Joshi
Constituency Amalapuram
Member of the Indian Parliament
for Amalapuram
In office
1991–1996
Preceded by Kusuma Krishna Murthy
Succeeded by K. S. R. Murthy
In office
1998–2004
Preceded by K. S. R. Murthy
Succeeded by G.V. Harsha Kumar
Personal details
Born 1 October 1951
Yedurulanka, Madras Presidency, India
(now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
Died 3 March 2002 (aged 50)
Kaikalur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Political party Telugu Desam Party
Spouse(s) Vijaya Kumari Ganti

Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi ( pronunciation (help·info); 1 October 1951 – 3 March 2002) was an Indian lawyer and politician. Growing up in a small Village, Balayogi had to travel to Guttenadeevi village for his primary education. He received his Post Graduate in Kakinada and a law degree from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He was serving as the speaker of 12th Lok Sabha when he died in a helicopter crash.

Early career

Balayogi began practicing law in 1980 in Kakinada under the guidance of Gopalaswamy Shetty, and in 1985, was selected as a First Class Magistrate. He then resigned from this post and returned to the bar to resume legal practice. In 1986, he took over as the Vice-Chairman of the Cooperative Town Bank of Kakinada, and in 1987, was elected as the Chairman of the East Godavari Zilla Praja Parishad. He was the First Dalit speaker in Loksabha

Politics

In 1991, Balayogi was elected to the 10th Lok Sabha lower house parliament under the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) ticket. He lost this seat in the 1996 general elections, but continued political work in his community and was soon elected to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in a by-election from the Mummidivaram Assembly constituency. Subsequently, he was appointed as the Minister of Higher Education in the Government of Andhra Pradesh.

In 1998, Balayogi was elected into parliament; he became the 12th Speaker of Lok Sabha (24 March 1998) and again for the 13th Lok Sabha (22 October 1999). As the Speaker, he chaired the Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee, General Purposes Committee and Standing Committee of the Conference of Presiding Officers of Legislative Bodies in India, and he presided over the Indian Parliamentary Group, National Group of Inter-Parliamentary Union and India Branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. Along with these duties, Balayogi headed many Indian Parliamentary Delegations to foreign countries, while hosting visiting countries as well.

Death

On 3 March 2002, Balayogi died in crash of a Bell 206 helicopter in Kaikalur, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh. He was aged 50. G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium was named in his memory.
Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar
G.V. Mavalankar in June 1942

In office
15 May 1952 – 27 February 1956
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Deputy M. A. Ayyangar
Preceded by Office Established
Succeeded by M. A. Ayyangar
Constituency Ahmedabad
Personal details
Born 27 November 1888
Died 27 February 1956 (aged 67)
Political party Indian National Congress
As of 5 July, 2009

Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar (27 November 1888 – 27 February 1956) popularly known as Dadasaheb was an independence activist, the President (from 1946 to 1947) of the Central Legislative Assembly, then Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of India, and later the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India. His son Purushottam Mavalankar was later elected to the Lok Sabha twice from Gujarat.

Early life
Balvantrai Thakore, Sardar Patel and Ganesh Mavalankar at a ceremony held to celebrate the centenary year of the Ahmedabad Municipality, 1935

Mavalankar hailed from a Marathi family but lived and worked in Ahmedabad, former capital of Gujarat. His family originally belonged to Mavalange in Sangameshwar in the Ratnagiri district of the Bombay Presidency in British India. After his early education in Rajapur and other places in Bombay Presidency, Mavalankar moved to Ahmedabad in 1902 for higher studies. He obtained his B.A. Degree in science from the Gujarat College, Ahmedabad, in 1908. He was a Dakshina Fellow of the College for one year in 1909 before beginning his law studies in the Government Law School, Bombay. He passed his law examination as First Class in 1912 and entered the legal profession in 1913. Soon, he came into contact with eminent leaders like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Mahatma Gandhi. He became the honorary secretary of the Gujarat Education Society in 1913 and the secretary of the Gujarat Sabha in 1916. Mavalankar was elected to the Ahmedabad Municipality for the first time in 1919. He was a member of the Ahmedabad Municipality during 1919–22, 1924–27, 1930–33 and 1935–37.

with the Non-Cooperation Movement. He was appointed secretary of the Gujarat Provincial Congress Committee during 1921–22. Although he temporarily joined the Swaraj Party in the 1920s, he returned to Gandhi's Salt Satyagraha in 1930. After the Congress abandoned its boycott of elections to the pre-independence legislative councils in 1934, Mavlankar was elected to the Bombay Province Legislative Assembly and became its Speaker in 1937. Mavalankar remained Speaker of the Bombay Legislative Assembly from 1937 to 1946. In 1946, he was elected also to the Central Legislative Assembly.

Mavalankar remained the President of the Central Legislative Assembly until midnight of 14–15 August 1947 when, under the Indian Independence Act 1947, the Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of States ceased to exist and the Constituent Assembly of India assumed full powers for the governance of India. Just after independence, Mavalankar headed a committee constituted on 20 August 1947 to study and report on the need to separate the constitution-making role of the Constituent Assembly from its legislative role. Later, on the basis of this committee's recommendation, the legislative and constitution-making roles of the Assembly were separated and it was decided to have a speaker to preside over the Assembly during its functioning as a legislative body. Mavalankar was elected to the office of speaker of the Constituent Assembly (Legislative) on 17 November 1947. With the adoption of the Constitution of India on 26 November 1949, the nomenclature of the Constituent Assembly (Legislative) was changed to the Provisional Parliament. Mavalankar became the Speaker of the Provisional Parliament on 26 November 1949 and continued to occupy the office till the First Lok Sabha was constituted in 1952.

On 15 May 1952, after the first general elections in independent India, Mavalankar, who was representing Ahmedabad for Congress, was elected the Speaker of the first Lok Sabha. The House carried the proposal with 394 votes, against the opponents' 55. In February 1956, Mavalankar died in Ahmedabad after cardiac arrest, aged 67.

His wife, Sushila Mavalankar, won the by-poll caused by his death in 1956 unopposed. But she did not contest in 1957. His son Purushottam Mavalankar would later win this seat in 1972 by-poll.

Education front

Mavalankar was one of the guiding forces with Patel in the educational sphere of Gujarat and was co-founder of the Ahmadabad Education Society along with Kasturbhai Lalbhai and Amritlal Hargovindas. Further, he along with Gandhi, Patel, and others was also one of the proposers of an institution like Gujarat University as early as the 1920s, which later came to be founded in 1949.
Ganapati Ram
From Wikipedia
Ganpati Ram
In office
1952-1967
Succeeded by Nageshwar Dwivedi
Constituency MachhlishahrUttar Pradesh
Personal details
Born 26 July 1926
Died 03 April 1983
Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Manarawati Devi
Children Dr. Vijay Pratap Singh, Saroj Bala, Abhai Pratap Singh, Surendra Pratap Singh
Residence(s) Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh

Ganapati Ram is an Indian politician. He was elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India from the MachhlishahrUttar Pradesh as a member of the Indian National Congress.
George Gilbert Swell
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Gilbert Swell

Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha
In office
1969–1977
Preceded by R.K.Khadilkar
Succeeded by Godey Murahari
Member of ParliamentLok Sabha
In office
1962–1977
Succeeded by Biren Singh Engti
Constituency Autonomous DistrictAssam
In office
1984–1989
Preceded by Bajubon Kharlukhi
Succeeded by Peter G. Marbaniang
In office
1996–1998
Preceded by Peter G. Marbaniang
Succeeded by Paty Ripple Kyndiah
Constituency ShillongMeghalaya
Member of ParliamentRajya Sabha
In office
1990–1996
Constituency Meghalaya
Personal details
Born 5 August 1923
Laitkynsew, Khasi HillsAssamBritish India
Died 25 January 1999 (aged 75)
ShillongMeghalayaIndia
Nationality Indian
Alma mater Scottish Church College
University of Calcutta

George Gilbert Swell (5 August 1923 – 25 January 1999) was a college professor, an Indian politician, an ambassador to several countries, a former Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha and its member from Shillong in Meghalaya. Over a span of more than 35 years, he represented India at high levels nationally and internationally. Though arising from a modest and rural background in far Northeast India, Swell quickly rose to prominence in every field he entered.

Early life

He was born at Laitkynsew Village near Cherrapunji in the present-day state of Meghalaya. He completed his earlier years of schooling at the Ramakrishna Mission School at Cherrapunji. After passing the Bachelor of arts examination from the Scottish Church College, Kolkata, he completed his Master of Arts degree in English from the University of Calcutta in 1946. Within months thereafter, he married a Shillong beauty, Lajopthiaw ("Victorious Conqueror") Lyngdoh, second daughter of Phrolibon Lyngdoh and Wellington Kearney. Soon after, their first child, Lakyntiew ("She Who Has Uplifted Us"), was born (1947), followed by a son, Sanbor, in 1950. In 1952, they moved to Ethiopia, part of a cadre of instructors recruited to teach in Ethiopia in the early nineteen fifties. Swell taught English at the high school level. They returned to Shillong in 1956, and G. G. Swell threw himself into his new positions as a professor of English at several Shillong area colleges. It wasn't long before he entered into the political world of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. His contribution to the formation of the state of Meghalaya, breaking away from the parent state of Assam, is incontrovertible. He, with his wife's uncle, Brington B Lyngdoh, and Stanley Nichols Roy, as well as other community leaders, conducted a fierce campaign for the separate identity of their proposed state which would combine the peoples of the Khasi and Janintia Hills and other tribes from the Garo Hills and adjacent areas. To their credit, the campaign was bloodless, nonviolent and successful. It was not long before G. G. Swell moved into national politics, having earned recognition for his intellect and passion for leadership, and for his principled and ethical way of life.

Political career

He was elected to the Lok Sabha from the Autonomous Districts (Lok Sabha) constituency in 1962, 1967 and 1971 and from the Shillong (Lok Sabha) constituency in 1984 and 1996. He was the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha from 9 December 1969 to 27 December 1970 in the 4th Lok Sabha and again 27 March 1971 to 18 January 1977.

Swell served as India's ambassador to Norway and Iceland from 1977 to 1980 (appointed by PM Moraji Desai), and Burma, 1980 to 1984 (appointed by PM Indira Gandhi). Subsequently, he was appointed as ambassador-designate to Canada, then Spain, but instead chose to return to national political life in India. In 1985, as a member of parliament, he served as the head of the Indian delegation to the United National General Assembly, New York. In 1992 he contested the Indian presidential election as a joint opposition candidate against Shankar Dayal Sharma but lost. He was member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) from Meghalaya during 1990-1996.

The worsening health of his wife, Lajopthiaw, who passed away in early 1998, was a factor in his withdrawal from political life.

Death

He died on 25 January 1999. To honor his many years of public service, his daughter, Lakyntiew Lyngdoh Watrous, and his granddaughter, Yarissa Lyngdoh Sommer, established a museum in the town of his birth, Laitkynsew, in 2016. Through photography, artifacts, and documentary films it depicts the chronology and achievements of his lengthy career.
Hukam Ram
From Wikipedia

Hukam Ram Meghwal (born 23 March 1926 – 2005) was a Member of Parliament from Jalore (Lok Sabha constituency) constituency. He was a member of Janata Party. He died due to heart attack on 12 May 2005.

Hukam Ram

In office
1977 - 1980
Succeeded by Virda Ram Phulwariya
Constituency Jalore
Personal details
Born 23 March 1926 
Bali, Pali
Nationality Indian
Political party Janata Party
Spouse(s) Kasturi Devi
Hardial Bains
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hardial Bains
Bains in 1979

Leader of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist)
In office
1970–1997
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Sandra Smith
Personal details
Born 15 August 1939
Died 24 August 1997 (aged 58)
Nationality Indo-Canadian
Other political
Spouse(s) Sandra Smith
Alma mater University of British Columbia
Occupation Politician
Profession Professoor, microbiologist, university lecturer

Hardial Bains (Punjabi: ਹਰਦਿਆਲ ਬੈਂਸ; 15 August 1939 – 24 August 1997) was an Indian-born Canadian microbiology lecturer, but was primarily known as the founder of a series of left-wing movements and parties foremost of which was the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist) (CPC (ML)). Presenting himself as staunchly anti-revisionist and pro-Stalinist, until his death, Bains acted the spokesperson and ideological leader of the CPC (ML) — known in elections as the Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada. During his lifetime, Bains' outlook swung from supporting the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin, to Mao Zedong's China, then later to Enver Hoxha's Albania. Shortly before he died, and abandoning his previous sharp criticisms of the country, Bains turned to Fidel Castro's Cuba for inspiration. Spending most of his life in Canada, Bains was also politically active in EnglandIrelandUnited States and India.

Biography

Born in India into a communist Sikh family in the Punjab, Bains became a member of the youth wing of the Communist Party of India (CPI). He was dismayed by what he saw as the revisionism of Nikita Khrushchev following the death of Joseph Stalin. He broke with the party when the CPI, during an underground period, supported Khrushchev's criticisms of Stalin. Shortly after, Bains immigrated to Canada and enrolled as a graduate student in bacteriology at the University of British Columbia, where he was an elected student leader.

In 1963, he helped found the Internationalists, which evolved from a UBC political discussion group into an anti-revisionist organization that supported Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China in the Sino-Soviet split. This organisation (in Canada) became the CPC (ML) with Bains as its founding leader.

In 1965, Bains founded the Internationalists in Ireland, while he was working as a lecturer in microbiology at Trinity College, Dublin. In 1970, they renamed themselves the Communist Party of Ireland (Marxist–Leninist).

In 1967, Bains held a small conference of students in London with the express objective determining the future of the anti-revisionist movement, the "Necessity for Change" conference. While the Irish Communist Organisation disagreed with the other delegates and walked out of the meeting, Bains became known as a leader of the anti-revisionist movement internationally, and assisted in establishing Marxist–Leninist parties around the world.

In addition to founding the CPC (ML) and CPI(ML), Bains is regarded as a major influence on the Revolutionary Communist Party of Britain (Marxist–Leninist), the Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago, and the Communist Ghadar Party of India. Bains was also responsible for the founding of the Hindustani Ghadar Party (Organisation of Indian Marxist–Leninists Abroad). He held a leading influence in the Marxist–Leninist Party, USA in the 1970s, although it later split from the CPC (ML) and dissolved in 1993. Left publications such as Modern Communism have written articles on this legacy.

Political affiliations

As a young man, Bains was a member of the Communist Party of India, but after the party accepted Nikita Khrushchev's speech, "On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences", he apparently quit, adopting a pro-Stalinist viewpoint.

Later, following the Sino-Soviet split, Bains' groups and parties held a strident pro-China position from the 1960s and into the 1970s. Bains himself openly identified as Maoist. The CPC (ML) was the first significant Maoist formation in Canada, although it was joined by two other Maoist groups in the mid-1970s and Bains engaged in polemics against these groups as well.

With Mao Zedong's death in 1976 and the subsequent Sino-Albanian split, Bains renounced Maoism. Following the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour of Albania (PLA), he became a prominent spokesperson of the PLA's line internationally, agreeing with the conclusion that numerous communist parties had devolved into "social imperialism" (such as Leonid Brezhnev's USSR, Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia, Kim Il-sung's North Korea and Fidel Castro's Cuba), while condemning Chinese revisionism, and Eurocommunism.

After the overturn of socialism in Albania, Bains again re-appraised his ideological outlook. He visited Cuba and announced he had changed his outlook towards the country and now viewed it as a successful example of socialism. The CPC (ML) also re-appraised its view of North Korea into a positive light. By the end of his life, Bains' writings made fewer and fewer references to anti-revisionism and socialist revolution, and developed the theme of democratic renewal and the self-empowerment of the people.

Death and legacy

After his death, a memorial was erected in the honour of Bains and other CPC (ML) "fallen comrades" in Ottawa's Beechwood Cemetery which is also the national cemetery of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Poet George Elliot Clarke published a poem titled "Homage to Hardial Bains" in 2000 in the Oyster Boy Review. Bains' legacy is debated today, and he has been criticized posthumously by a number of writers such as Ben Seattle, a US leftist and former supporter.

Bains wrote several books, including Necessity for Change!, Modern Communism, Visiting Cuba, If You Love Your Class and Thinking About the Sixties, and many articles, pamphlets and speeches.

Sandra L. Smith, his widow, also served as leader of the CPC (ML).

NFC thought

Hardial Bains identified his main line of thinking as "Necessity for Change" or NFC thought. Formulated in the early 1960s, NFC thought brought together a variety of Marxist phraseology and addressed some existentialist ideas popular during that time. His primary concern was how to bring about social revolution and the relationship of this process with the individual. "A successful revolution can transform the world in some very definite direction, but whether it will happen, in the final analysis, is still dependent on the world," Bains wrote, arguing that "Unless it is profoundly appreciated that there is a Necessity for Change at each point [in history and the struggle], and theoretical and practical measures are taken to bring about the change, there is no possibility of creating the subjective conditions for revolution."

The recognition of the Necessity for Change, which created those subjective conditions for revolution, would create a new level of consciousness which broke with the anti-consciousness of bourgeois thought. "The [human] brain reflects the sharpening class contradictions in the society and other developments. Either the individual transforms this reflection into social consciousness and becomes part of the human factor/social consciousness or remains part of the anti-human factor/anti-consciousness," he said, writing that:The battle cry of The Internationalists was "Change the World," while the battle cry of the capitalist class was "change the individual." The NFC analysis of the "I", of the existence of this "relate or relationship" placed the task of changing the world on a profound social basis. A "relate" or "relationship," if it is to be true to itself, must be objective, independent of everyone and dependent on the world. This relate or relationship must be continuously discovered and rediscovered in the course of struggle. It constitutes the centre around which all other consciousness is placed.

But for Bains individual consciousness alone was not sufficient and needed to be joined with a political party. "The crucial ingredient for victory is the human factor/social consciousness, but this factor cannot exist in a vacuum. This factor finds its highest expression in an organisation, which is strengthened on an on-going basis with the sound foundation of a new, modern and revolutionary culture in ideological and social forms," he wrote, adding that "A Communist Party, if it is to realise its tasks in a mature, professional and on-going manner, must develop revolutionary culture in ideological form, on the one hand, and the revolutionisation of culture in social form, on the other."

Bains strongly decried what he termed revisionist parties. "Revisionists and opportunists of various kinds," he wrote, "present the bourgeois social forms as the ideal motivating humanity [...] Besides fighting for "a bigger slice of the pie" and for job security which this system can never provide, these people, as dogmatists and fanatics, oppose everyone fighting for social revolution." Instead, "The act of joining CPC(ML) will itself be a great leap forward for the creation of a new and affirmed humanity, in which every act of human beings becomes another act for that affirmation, the measure of what is truly human." During his time as leader, the CPC (ML) swung from actively supporting Maoist China, to denouncing Maoism and embracing Enver Hoxha's Albania and later, after the over-turn of socialism in that country, a more muted support of North Korea and Cuba.

Bains remained true, however, to his pro-Stalinist orientation, asserting in the late 1980s that "They say that Stalin had a plan to conquer the world. Stalin was alive until 1953. There is not one single country in the world which was occupied by the Soviet Union while Stalin was alive.
जगदेव प्रसाद
जगदेव बाबू एक महान राजनीतिक दूरदर्शी थे, वे हमेशा शोषित समाज की भलाई के बारे में सोचा और इसके लिए उन्होंने पार्टी तथा विचारधारा किसी को महत्त्व नहीं दिया। मार्च 1970 में जगदेव बाबू के दल के समर्थन से दरोगा प्रसाद राय मुख्यमंत्री बने।

बिहार में राजनीति का प्रजातंत्रीकरण को स्थाई रूप देने के लिए उन्होंने सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक क्रान्ति की आवश्यकता महसूस किया। वे रामस्वरूप वर्मा द्वारा स्थापित 'अर्जक संघ' (स्थापना 1 जून, 1968) में शामिल हुए। 7 अगस्त 1972 को शोषित दल तथा रामस्वरूप वर्मा जी की पार्टी 'समाज दल' का एकीकरण हुआ और 'शोषित समाज दल' नमक नयी पार्टी का गठन किया गया। एक दार्शनिक तथा एक क्रांतिकारी के संगम से पार्टी में नयी उर्जा का संचार हुआ। जगदेव बाबू पार्टी के राष्ट्रीय महामंत्री के रूप में जगह-जगह तूफानी दौरा आरम्भ किया। वे नए-नए तथा जनवादी नारे गढ़ने में निपुण थे. सभाओं में जगदेव बाबू के भाषण बहुत ही प्रभावशाली होते थे, जहानाबाद की सभा में उन्होंने कहा था-

दस का शासन नब्बे पर, नहीं चलेगा, नहीं चलेगा.सौ में नब्बे शोषित है, नब्बे भाग हमारा है।धन-धरती और राजपाट में, नब्बे भाग हमारा है॥

-जगदेव प्रसाद

मानववाद की क्या पहचान- ब्रह्मण भंगी एक सामान, पुनर्जन्म और भाग्यवाद- इनसे जन्मा ब्राह्मणवाद।

-जगदेव प्रसाद

इसी समय बिहार में कांग्रेस की तानाशाही सरकार के खिलाफ जे.पी. के नेतृत्व में विशाल छात्र आन्दोलन शुरू हुआ और राजनीति की एक नयी दिशा-दशा का सूत्रपात हुआ। मई 1974 को 6 सूत्री मांगो को लेकर पूरे बिहार में जन सभाएं की तथा सरकार पर भी दबाव डाला गया लेकिन भ्रष्ट प्रशासन पर इसका कोई असर नहीं पड़ा, जिससे 5 सितम्बर 1974 से राज्य-व्यापी सत्याग्रह शुरू करने की योजना बनी।

मृत्यु

'5 सितम्बर 1974' को जगदेव बाबू हजारों की संख्या में 'शोषित समाज' का नेतृत्व करते हुए अपने दल का काला झंडा लेकर आगे बढ़ने लगे। कुर्था में तैनात डी.एस.पी. ने सत्याग्रहियों को रोका तो जगदेव बाबू ने इसका प्रतिवाद किया और विरोधियों के पूर्वनियोजित जाल में फंस गए। सत्याग्रहियों पर पुलिस ने अचानक हमला बोल दिया। जगदेव बाबू चट्टान की तरह जमें रहे और और अपना क्रांतिकारी भाषण जरी रखा, निर्दयी पुलिस ने उनके ऊपर गोली चला दी। गोली सीधे उनके गर्दन में जा लगी, वे गिर पड़े। पुलिस घायलावस्था में उन्हें पुलिस स्टेशन ले गयी। पानी-पानी चिल्लाते हुए जगदेव जी ने थाने में ही अंतिम सांसे ली।

लोकप्रिय संस्कृति में

बिहार में विभिन्न स्थानों का नाम बाबू जगदेव प्रसाद के नाम पर रखा गया है। उनकी याद में कई प्रतिमाओं का भी अनावरण किया गया है।

Jhuma Solanki
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jhuma Solanki

Member of the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly
Incumbent
Assumed office
Constituency Bhikangaon
Personal details
Born 2 April 1967
Badia
Nationality India
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Dr. Dhyan singh Solanki
Education LLB
Profession Politician
As of 27 July, 2018
Source: ["Biography:Solanki, Jhuma" (PDF). Vidhan Sabha, Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly.]

Jhuma Solanki is an Indian politician and a member of the Indian National Congress party.
Personal life
She is married to Dr. Dhyan Singh Solanki and has two daughters.
Political career
She became an MLA for the first time in 2013.
Jual Oram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jual Oram

In office
26 May 2014 – 24 May 2019
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Preceded by Kishore Chandra Deo
Succeeded by Arjun Munda
In office
13 October 1999 – 22 May 2004
Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Preceded by Post created
Succeeded by Paty Ripple Kyndiah

Assumed office
26 May 2014
Preceded by Hemananda Biswal
Constituency Sundargarh
In office
10 March 1998 – 18 May 2009
Preceded by Frida Topno
Succeeded by Hemananda Biswal
Constituency Sundargarh
Personal details
Born 22 March 1961
Sundargarh, OdishaIndia
Nationality Indian
Political party Bharatiya Janata Party
Spouse(s) Jhingia Oram
Children 2

Jual Oram (born 22 March 1961) is a member of the 17th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Sundargarh constituency of Odisha and is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He was also a member of the 12th13th14th Lok Sabha and 16th Lok Sabha. He was chosen as one of the Cabinet Ministers of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. He is a former Cabinet Minister in the Government of India. He is now the Vice-President of the Bharatiya Janata Party and is one of the party's senior most leaders from the State of Odisha, being one of two founding Legislative Assembly Members from the Bharatiya Janata Party in the state of Odisha. He has served as the president of the Bharatiya Janata Party in the state of Orissa for over four years. He served as leader of opposition party from BJP side in Odisha legislative assembly.

Early life

Oram was born on 22 March 1961 into a poor tribal family at the village of Kendudihi, Sundergarh districtOrissa (present-day Odisha) to Dilga and Bhutuki Oram. He received a diploma in Electrical Engineering from Utkalmani Gopabandhu Institute of Engineering. Before entering politics, he was employed as an assistant foreman in Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. In an interview to The Telegraph (Calcutta), Oram said that he would have continued his job in the organization if he had not entered politics.

Political career

In 1989, Oram joined Bharatiya Janata Party. He was elected to the Odisha Legislative Assembly from Bonai constituency in the following year and served for two terms until 1998.[6] He served as the party's national vice-president for the BJP ST Morcha (Scheduled Tribes wing) between 1993 and 1995. After serving two years as national secretary of the party, he was appointed party president for the state unit in 1997 and remained in that position until 1999.

In 1998, Oram was elected to the Lok Sabha from Sundargarh constituency. He was re-elected to the parliament in the following year. After Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee created the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, he was sworn as its first ever minister on 13 October.

In 2004, Oram was re-elected as party president for the state unit and served for two years. On 17 May of the same year, he was re-elected to the Lok Sabha for the third time from his constituency. From 2006 to 2009, he served as the party's national vice-president.

Oram lost from his Sundargarh constituency in 2009. On 22 December 2009, he was made the party president of the state unit for the third time. In July 2012, he alleged that former Chief Minister of Odisha Hemananda Biswal had forged his caste certificate. On 1 April 2013, he was appointed vice president of the party.

On 18 May 2014, Oram was re-elected to the Lok Sabha from the Sundargarh constituency after defeating Dilip Tirkey of the Biju Janata Dal. He was also the only candidate of Bharatiya Janata Party to win from Odisha. On 26 May, he took oath as the Tribal Affairs minister in the Narendra Modi ministry. In the following month, he announced that the central government would create a tribal map of India which would help in introducing new projects and schemes for the tribals.

Personal life

On 8 March 1987, he married Jhingia Oram and they have two daughters.
Controversies

In 2015, Oram stoked a controversy by equating Sarnaism with Hinduism. Carrying black flags and banners, nearly 300 tribals gathered around the state guesthouse in Ranchi on 31 October and demanded an apology from him for allegedly hurting their sentiments
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jual_Oram
J. Geeta Reddy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Early life

Geeta Reddy is the daughter of Eshwari Bai, a former Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) and President of the Republican Party of India. She studied medicine at Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad and became a Member of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London in 1989.

Career

Reddy worked as a gynaecologist. She lived in Australia from 1971 to 1977, in London from 1977 to 1980 and in Saudi Arabia from 1980 to 1982. She then returned to India.

Political career

Reddy and her husband, Ramachandra Reddy, established a medical practice in Saudi Arabia. In 1985, upon the request of Rajiv Gandhi, the couple returned to India so that Geeta could work on behalf of the Indian National Congress party. She contested elections for the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1989 and became MLA for Gajwel in Medak district. She won that constituency again in 1999 and 2004.

In the 2009 elections, Reddy was parachuted into the Zahirabad constituency, which had elected INC candidates in every election bar one since 1957. Converted to a seat reserved for candidates from the Scheduled Castes, the constituency had been held for a decade by the INC's Mohammed Fareeduddin, who commanded much local respect but was forced by this decision to contest the election elsewhere and lost. She won the seat and did so again in 2014, despite allegations that Fareeduddin had been encouraging his local supporters to vote for any party except the INC. On this occasion, the election was for a seat in the newly created Telangana Legislative Assembly that was created as part of the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.
.
Reddy was a minister in the She was INC leader in the legislative assembly during the Rosaiah government.

Member of Legislative Assembly

YearConstituencyPolitical Party 1989 Gajwel INC
2004 Gajwel INC
2009 Zahirabad INC
2014 Zahirabad INC

Portfolios held

1989-1994: Minister for Tourism, Culture, Social Welfare, Sports, Secondary Education and Protocol.
1995-1998: General Secretary, Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC)
1998-2000: Executive Member of PCC
2000-2004: President, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee.
2004-2009: Minister for Tourism, Sugar and Major Industries commerce and Export promotion.
2009–2010: Minister for Information and Public relations, Tourism, Culture, FDC, Archaeology, Museums & Archives, Cinematography.
2010–2014: Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export promotion
Reddy was also for some time around 2013 in charge of the Home department in the Andhra Pradesh government whilst also holding the Major Industries portfolio. In the same year, the Telugu Desam Party had demanded that she be dismissed as a minister due to her being one of the co-accused named by the Central Bureau of Investigation in its work on a case relating to alleged illegal assets held by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy. The matter was dropped, with one of her co-accused, Mopidevi Venkataramana Rao, claiming that the Chief Minister, Kiran Kumar Reddy, had intervened.
In April 2016, Reddy was appointed as chairman of the Telangana Legislative Assembly's Public Accounts Committee.

Personal life

J. Geeta Reddy is married to Dr. Ramachandra Reddy. Her husband owns Geetha Multi Speciality Hospital Secunderabad, Eashwari Bai Memorial Center Hospital, Eashwari Bai School Of Nursing and Eashwari Bai College Of Nursing. She has a daughter.

Around 1980, after Reddy's husband had suffered a stroke and was not responding well to conventional medicine, the couple visited Sathya Sai Baba. She has expressed admiration for him, noting that her husband's health began to improve soon after the meeting, and has been described as a devotee.

Sports

President of Andhra Pradesh Women's Cricket Association
Social service

Vice President Indian Red Cross Society, Andhra Pradesh
Branch, Life Trustee, Indian Council of Child Welfare
Chairperson, Eashwari Bai Memorial Trust.
Former member of Central Social Welfare Board.
Former Senate member of Osmania University.

Awards

Mahila Shiromani
Unity award for National Integration Forum
2008: Indira Gandhi Sadbhavana Award
2008: Millennium Star Award
2014: ALL Ladies League, Hyderabad Women of the Decade Achievers Award for Excellence in Public Administration
JV Pawar

JV Pawar interview: ‘The government is saying that anyone who supports Dalits will be jailed’
The BJP government wants to teach a lesson to Dalit activists and their supporters, says the co-founder of the Dalit Panther party.

Ajaz Ashraf

JV Pawar/Facebook

On May 29, 1972, a group of young men in Bombay established the Dalit Panther, a social and cultural organisation. Until it was disbanded five years later, the organisation blazed a trail, organising protests against the atrocities committed on Dalits, and fighting pitched street battles against the state. Its combative approach inspired Dalits to demand the rights guaranteed to them under the Constitution.

Among the Dalit Panther’s founders was JV Pawar, whose recent book, Dalit Panthers: An Authoritative History, narrates the story of the Dalit movement that he and others spearheaded. Pawar is now 75 years old and is advisor and spokesperson of the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh, an outfit headed by Prakash Ambedkar, the grandson of BR Ambedkar.

Pawar has dedicated his entire life to the Dalit movement. It provided him a perch to track the changing nature of both Dalit assertion and the Indian state’s tactics to tackle it. In an interview with Scroll.in, Pawar deciphered what the arrest of human rights activists in June and August implies for society in India at large and Dalits in particular. Do Dalits need a new movement to address the problems and aspirations that are different those they encountered in the 1970s?

 Excerpts:

Five human right activists were arrested in June and another five in August. Their arrests have been linked to the Elgaar Parishad, which was held on December 31, 2017. The police hold the Parishad responsible for the violence in Bhima Koregaon village on January 1, and claim it was part of a Maoist strategy to overthrow the Narendra Modi government. What implications does this accusation have for Dalits and their politics?

The 10 who have been arrested are not known to me personally. I am only acquainted with Anand Teltumbde, who was raided but not arrested. He is a Maharashtrian and writes for the Economic and Political Weekly. But if you were to identify [the ideological orientation of] the 10 through [their association with] Teltumbde, you cannot but conclude that their aim could not have been the destruction of the country.

Why do you say that?

Teltumbde is an Ambedkarite. The raid on him was part of the action the state took against the other 10. This can only mean that they too subscribe to Teltumbde’s line. Teltumbde works for the social reconstruction of India, not its destruction.

Why do you think the police have linked all of them to a Maoist conspiracy against the Indian state?

All of them, regardless of whether they were arrested or merely raided, believe in the Constitution. This means they believe in democracy and value equality. Those opposing them are not democratic. They do not subscribe to democracy’s essence – which is equality. No Hindu can be democratic and no democratic man considers himself a Hindu.

Why do you say that?

I say it because Hinduism is based on the inequality [of the caste system]. On the other hand, the Constitution is based on the principle of equality. The current government considers itself as a Hindu government. The people who run this government belong to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Since its establishment in 1925, its goal has been to establish a Hindu Raj. So the human rights activists are paying a price for being democratic.

Will the crackdown on them have an impact Dalit politics?

They have not come from or belong to Dalit politics as, for instance, I do.

Sure, but the crackdown on them is linked to the Bhima Koregaon violence. It consequently does become an attack on Dalit politics, doesn’t it?

Listen brother, I was there on the stage on December 31 when the Elgaar Parishad was held. I did not hear the [compere announce the] names of any of these 10 people. Even Teltumbde was not there. I know him. I would have identified him. What I am trying to say is that there is absolutely no link between the Elgaar Parishad and the violence on January 1.

The police are saying just the opposite.
On the night of December 31, I stayed at a friend’s place in Pune. Early morning on January 1, I started for Bhima Koregaon. I am now 75 years old. I was thirsty. Not a single hotel was open. I had run out of water. I could not get water to quench my thirst. It was all pre-planned – it was ensured that those going to Bhima Koregaon should not get food to eat or water to drink.

Are you suggesting that it was the state government that had planned the shutdown?

The government knew there would be a shutdown on January 1. The gram panchayats had passed resolutions to keep business establishments closed. This they did to create difficulties for visitors to Bhima Koregaon. No amenities were provided. In the melee caused by stone throwing, I saw someone with a bottle of water. I requested him to give me a gulp.

I say it was pre-planned for another reason – there were helicopters flying over the road to Bhima Koregaon. Why were the helicopters flying? Who were the people inside the choppers? Were they ministers? These questions have not been asked, nor any inquiry done.

So if it was all planned, what do you think was the motive behind arresting human rights activists five months later, in June, and then another five in August?

What is the history of Bhima Koregaon? Five-hundred Dalit soldiers defeated an army of 25,000 caste Hindus. Lakhs visit Bhima Koregaon. The caste Hindus want to avenge that defeat – the defeat of their ancestors.

There is also the angle of Sanatan Sanstha, whose members have been apprehended for storing arms and bombs. Its members are also alleged to have been involved in the murder of intellectuals. The Sanatan Sanstha members who have been arrested are all caste Hindus. Their possession of bombs and arms suggests the danger they pose to the nation. It is to divert the nation’s attention from them that the theory of Maoists hatching a conspiracy to recruit Dalits for overthrowing the Modi government was hatched.

What message does the arrest of human rights activists convey to society at large and Dalits in particular?

Since the arrested human rights activists believe in the Constitution, the message being conveyed is that they [the Bharatiya Janata Party government] do not recognise the Constitution and, yes, will take revenge for the defeat of Bhima Koregaon.

Isn’t it also like telling people that anyone who supports Dalits will meet the same fate as the 10 human rights activists?

I believe that anyone who has faith in the Constitution and democracy, regardless of which caste or religion he belongs to, is also a Dalit supporter. By arresting the 10 activists, the government is saying that anyone who supports Dalits will be jailed, that their Constitutional rights will be curtailed.

Is there a difference in the nature of atrocities committed against Dalits in the 1970s, when the Dalit Panther surfaced, and what we see today?

The atrocities against Dalits have been continuing for the last 3,000-3,500 years. But what began happening in the 1970s was that some newspapers, not all, began reporting these atrocities. No doubt, the atrocities that the newspapers reported constituted just the tip of the iceberg. But it had an impact – democratic people thought it was unacceptable that such atrocities should be committed against Dalits. For instance, in one particular case the eyes of Dalits were gouged out.

Are you referring to the Gavai brothers, whose eyes were gouged out in Dhakli village in Akola district in 1974?

Yes, you are right. I raised the issue of Gavai brothers. I took them to [then Prime Minister] Indira Gandhi. On seeing them, her eyes welled up with tears. I told her, “Look at the atrocities committed under your rule.”

Are the atrocities against Dalits any different now?

Atrocities against Dalits were committed before the 1970s, during the 1970s and continue even today. But the crucial difference was that in the 1970s, regardless of whether there were Congress or non-Congress governments in the states or at the Centre, those in power believed in democracy, accepted it and consequently gave importance to it. By the way, the BJP did not have a government of its own in any of the states then.

We would take out protest marches and present memoranda to the government, which would accept it. They did not give us bullets in return. The governments of the 1970s also filed cases against us. But they did not invoke laws to prevent us from getting bail. We did not languish in jail for six, eight months – yeh nahin ki, aap jail gayein to gayein. [Not that if you go to jail you would be gone for good.]

But the BJP government is non-democratic. It wants to teach a lesson to Dalit activists and those who support them. They want to teach a lesson to them not of the court and law – that lesson we were given earlier.

But in your book you write that you were beaten by police after the riots in Worli, Bombay, in 1974.

Yes, I was beaten. There were young boys around me. In the melee of protests the police would react instinctively, at times violently. But it was not the case that they would impose an IPC [Indian Penal Code] provision because of which I could not get out of jail for seven or eight months. They would arrest you and you would soon get bail.

Take the five activists who were arrested in June. It just seems they are doomed to stay in jail. This government is scary, this government is revengeful.

Is Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s idea of power similar to that of Indira Gandhi?

Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, who admired Buddhism, applied the principles of Panchsheel, and was a democrat. Indira Gandhi, too, believed in democracy in the initial years of her political career. But when she grew in strength and acquired greater power, she turned against democracy.

By contrast, Modi acquired great strength at the very beginning of his tenure and consequently became undemocratic at the very inception of his government.

But Gandhi imposed Emergency.

At least, she imposed the Emergency. There was a provision in the Constitution for imposing an Emergency. But these people do not talk of imposing an Emergency. Yet they work against people in a far worse way than what happened during Emergency.

Ideologically, Mrs Gandhi was against democracy. Yet she would sit in Parliament, which also used to function. But Parliament does not even function now. Modi goes to Parliament sirf safai dene ke liyen [to justify his actions]. For Modi, democracy means holding elections every five years.

Has the Dalit mindset changed from what it was in the 1970s?

When [the poet Namdeo] Dhasal and I formed the Dalit Panther in 1972, even people in cities would live in jhuggi-jhopris. They were poor and uneducated. Over the last 40-50 years, they educated their children, some of whom even became IAS officers. So those who were in jhuggi-jhopris moved to chawls, those in chawls shifted to flats and some to bungalows. These are the people who do not face the problems of the 1970s.

What kind of problems do they face now?

Yes, their problem is what I call the white-collar problem. He has a government job, but his service record is spoilt so that he does not get a promotion. Earlier, untouchability was visible. Today, untouchability has become invisible. It has not disappeared, mind you. It means the non-Dalit’s mindset has not changed – what he or she used to think of Dalits he or she still does.

Has not this changed the outlook of Dalits towards politics?

The Dalits I have described to you constitute about 5%-10% or so. They do not readily join street-protests or a movement. In the 1970s, when I was the secretary of the Dalit Panther, I would give a call that we have to go to so and so village. There were no mobiles then. Yet thousands would come. People had problems. They were [economically] insecure. Life has now become relatively secure. People do not wish to risk the security they have achieved. It is not that the percentage of Dalits whose lives have become secure is high. It is not. Yet you do not find the kind of street protestors and fighters the 1970s produced.

However, when a problem that is historical in nature surfaces, the Dalit community unites. Bhima Koregaon is an example. Prakash Ambedkar’s Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh gave a call to observe Maharashtra bandh on Jan 3. Whether a Dalit Brahmin…

...Dalit Brahmin?
People who no longer face the daily problems of life, who do not come out on the street to protest, who do not always support those engaged in the Dalit movement.

So when the call was given to observe the Maharashtra bandh on January 3, Brahmin Dalits and ordinary Dalits united to ensure its success. Maybe some of them did not come out on the street, but they supported us in other ways.

If the life of Dalits has changed from the 1970s, what shape should their politics take?

We want all people to come together to save the Constitution. If we do not save the Constitution we will even lose the right to raise our voice [against injustices], you will not able to write and I will not able to speak to you. We will not have democracy.

Saving the Constitution is not just the responsibility of Dalits, although the entire world knows its architect was Dr BR Ambedkar. It is the responsibility of everyone. Democracy in India is dying. Dalits and others must come together to save it.Support our journalism by subscribing to Scroll+. We welcome your comments at letters@scroll.in.
Jaglal Choudhary
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Choudhary on a 2000 stamp of India

Jaglal Choudhary (5 Feb 1895 – 1 Jan 1975) was an Indian independence activistdalit leader and politician from BiharIndia. He was also a reformer who championed the causes of women's rights, emancipation of dalits, education and land reforms in Bihar.

Early life and education

Jaglal was born in the Garkha village of Saran district in Bihar to Mushan Choudhary, a Toddy seller of the Pasi caste. He was educated at the Chapra Zilla School, Patna College and the Medical College Calcutta.

Freedom fighter

Choudhary discontinued his medical education and joined the Non Cooperation Movement in 1921 heeding Gandhi's call. He became a member of the District Congress Committee and was arrested for his participation in the Salt Satyagraha. In 1941 he was arrested and jailed for taking part in the Individual Satyagraha and in 1942 at the height of the Quit India Movement he led a satyagraha and captured the police station and post office at Garkha. For this he was arrested and sentenced to five years imprisonment. One of Choudhary's sons was shot dead by the police during the movement. From 23 August 1942 until his release on 30 March 1946 Choudhary remained in prison.

Parliamentarian

Jaglal was first elected to the Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1937 as a Congress candidate and he went on to become the fourth Minister, incharge of Public Health and Excise in the Congress Ministry headed by Premier S K Singh.During his tenure as minister for excise Choudhary introduced prohibition in several districts of Bihar. He was reelected to the Assembly again in 1946 and became Minister for Public Health and Harijan Welfare in the second Congress ministry. Following independence, he successfully contested the General elections of 1952 and was subsequently reelected to the Assembly in the elections of 1957, 1962, 1967 and 1969 from the Garkha reserved constituency.

Reformer

Choudhary was an advocate of social reform in Bihar. During his term as excise minister, he introduced prohibition in Bihar. He was opposed to the caste system and advocated land reforms in Bihar calling for a land ceiling of three acres per family. In 1953 he wrote A Plan to Reconstruct Bharat.

Death and commemoration

Jaglal Choudhary died in 1975. The Jaglal Choudhary College in Chapra is named after him. A commemorative postage stamp on Jaglal Choudhary was released the Department of Posts in 2000.
Jogendra Nath Mandal
(Indian-Pakistani Legislator)

Jogendra Nath Mandal popularly known as Minister of Law and Justice, Minister of Labour, Minister of Commonwealth and Kashmir Affairs who was born on 29 January 1904 in Bengal, British India. He was also a politician from Muslim League political party and belong to Dalit Community.
Jogendra Nath Mandal: Chosen by Jinnah, banished by bureaucracy


Akhtar Balouch


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Jogendra Nath Mandal has the distinction of representing the Muslim League as minister in the 1946 pre-partition political setup of India.

Later, he presided over the historic session of the Constituent Assembly on 11th August 1947, where Mohammed Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan.


Jinnah trusted Mandal – who belonged to the lowest tier of the Hindu religious hierarchy – the Untouchables or Dalits – for his vision and righteousness.


Years earlier, Gandhi had tried to replace the word Dalit by ‘Harijans’ or the children of the Hindu god Hari. The euphemism was later considered condescending by the community in question.


Dr B. R. Ambedkar, the principal architect of the constitution of India and himself a Dalit, had accused Gandhi of deceiving the Untouchables.


He believed that Gandhi was using tactics to keep them tied to Hinduism. Later, Ambedkar and his 3,000 followers converted to Buddhism.

Renowned historian Mubarak Ali says that long after Partition, the Untouchables chose to be called ‘Dalits’ or the oppressed.

To this day, the social and financial conditions of the Dalits, in both India and Pakistan, have not changed much. However, these people – having been oppressed for centuries – are now fighting for their rights.

Coming back to my topic, Jogendra Nath Mandal not only held important law positions before Partition, but also became the first Law and Labour Minister of Pakistan.

In the newly formed country, Hindus had now become a minority. On 11th August 1947 when Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was to be sworn in as the first Governor General, he wanted Mandal, a Hindu member of the Assembly, to preside over the session.
Jinnah’s decision reflected his desire to bring religious minorities into the mainstream.


Ahmed Saleem, on page 104 of his book ‘Pakistan aur Aqliatien’ (Pakistan and Minorities), discusses this episode in history:


“The fact that one of the minority members was elected to preside over the session hints at the progressive attitude of the new state, and it augurs well for the future. Pakistan itself was brought into existence by the unrelenting efforts of a minority of the Indian Subcontinent.

“I would like to point out that people, from not only from Pakistan and India but all over the world, are taking notes of the business of the Constituent Assembly. The Muslims of the Subcontinent wanted a separate homeland for themselves. Now, the world wants to see whether they would treat their minorities generously.

“The Muslim League leaders, particularly Quaid-i-Azam, have assured minorities of not only justice and tolerance but also of generosity. The minorities, too, are duty-bound to honour their allegiance to the state and work responsibly for national building."


After the 1946 elections, an interim government was setup under the British Raj. Both Congress and the Muslim League had to nominate their representatives to function as ministers in the government.


Muslim League named Jogendra Nath Mandal, besides others.


For a political party that championed the Muslim cause, it was quite unusual to nominate a scheduled caste Hindu as its minister Zahid Chaudhry writes on page 47 of ‘Pakistan Kee Siasi Tareekh’ (Pakistan’s political history); (vol. 2):


“Leave aside the fire that [Muslim] League’s decision to include an ‘Untouchable’ in the government drew from the Congress Leaders. A greater trouble was caused to the Labour government in London, which feared that an angry Congress would walk away from the government that was yet to be formed. Consequently, Lord Pethick-Lawrence wrote to [Governor-General] Lord Wavell, ‘We may encounter a situation in which Congress refuses to stay in the interim government, saying that an Untouchable cannot be a Muslim League representative.’


“On 15th October, Wavell sent the five nominations of the League to London for the King’s approval. Pethick-Lawrence replied to him, ‘I truly believe that the royal consent cannot be granted unless you declare these names to Nehru. There is a possibility that Congress will take issue with the nomination of an Untouchable, and withdraw from the government. At this stage, the King should not be dragged into this issue.’”


In March 1949, Mandal supported the Objective Resolution – the same resolution that today continues to generate political debates in Pakistan where the progressives believe that it has been exploited to transform Jinnah’s ‘secular Pakistan’ into a ‘religious state’.


He later helped the government counteract the political power of the Hindu minority when he successfully campaigned for a separate electorate for the Untouchables.


In return he was booted out of office as government minister. It left him dejected. His situation can best be explained by a Sindhi proverb, “Jini laey moasi, sey kandi nah thia” (You have died for them, but they won’t bother to attend your funeral).

Soon after Pakistan came into being, the manipulative bureaucracy of the country began to position itself to usurp power. Its first target was non-Muslim politicians and officials with any perceptible authority.

To turf them out of the corridors of power, the bureaucracy underhandedly created doubts about their patriotism.

It was a warning to the Hindus and other minorities – that their support for the government made no difference, and that they were simply no longer welcome in Pakistan.

For all the pain he went through, little did Mandal know that soon he will have to leave the land he had chosen to call home.

When a resolution was tabled in the Constituent Assembly to award the title of ‘Quaid-i-Azam’ or The Great Leader to Jinnah, almost all of the minority members opposed it, but Mandal threw his weight behind the resolution. On Jinnah’s death, he said,

Fate has ruthlessly taken Quaid-i-Azam from us at a time when he was most needed.

Not long after Jinnah passed away, Mandal migrated to India. What made him take that step? Ahmed Salim writes in his book:

“Pakistan’s first Law Minister and the leader of the ‘Untouchables’ Jogandra Nath Mandal had been a tried and tested supporter of the government. He was a hero for the oppressed.

“In 1940 after being elected to Calcutta Municipal Corporation, he proved particularly helpful to the Muslim population. He cooperated with the [Bengal] governments of A. K. Fazalul Haq and Khawaja Nazimuddin (1943-45) and served Muslim League (in 1946-47) when Quaid-i-Azam had to nominate five ministers for the interim government. Quaid-i-Azam wanted to nominate Mandal from Muslim League. By accepting Quaid-i-Azam’s offer, Mandal countered a similar move by Congress, which had nominated Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

“After the 3rd June 1947 announcement, Sylhet District was to vote in a plebiscite to join either Pakistan or remain in Assam [the state that was to become part of India]. The Hindus and the Muslims of the district equalled each other in terms of population. However, there were a large number of Untouchables, whose vote could sway the poll to either side.

Following the instructions from Quaid-i-Azam, Mr Mandal arrived in Sylhet to influence the opinion of the Untouchables; when he departed from Sylhet it had voted to join Pakistan.”

After the Partition, the bureaucrats in Pakistan had started making inroads into politics. Those who questioned their policies, irrespective of religious or social background, were not tolerated. Thus began a campaign to undermine every righteous individual in politics.

Mandal, too, fell prey to such ploys. Pir Ali Mohammed Rashidi states in his book Rodaad-i-Chaman (A Garden’s Tale):

“Late Chaudhry Mohammad Ali had spent a major portion of his life in the service of the British Raj when he arrived in Pakistan from Delhi. As Secretary-General of the Cabinet Secretariat, he quickly garnered fame as the ‘architect’ and leader of the Pakistani bureaucracy. He was still a cabinet secretary – even though in the years to come he was to be appointed Finance Secretary, Finance Minister, and Prime Minster – when one day it dawned on him that Mandal was not a genuine patriot. Such a deduction implied that Chaudhry Sahib had eyes more trained than that of Jinnah to evaluate a person’s character and faithfulness.

“Consequently, he tried to keep many cabinet documents away from the Law Minister. It was too much for Mandal. His pride was hurt. Hitherto, he had lived as a self reliant man, who knew his self-worth. Before becoming a minister, he had offered huge sacrifices and as a Hindu, swum against the tide to support our Quaid in the Pakistan Movement.

“How could he possibly pocket the insult from a cabinet secretary, who had taken it upon himself to judge a Hindu minister for his political character and loyalty to his country? Mandal quit as minister and went back to Calcutta to spend the rest of his life being taunted by Hindus.”

Mandal’s support for Muslim League, his sacrifices for Pakistan, and his love for Muslims cannot be discredited. His ill-treatment at the hands of a bureaucrat is a dark chapter in our history.

In Pakistan, there still exist many Jogendras who have exhausted their energies in vain to prove that they are as patriotic as everyone else.

Do we need another Jinnah to take cognisance of the services rendered by our minorities?

Jogendra Nath Mandal: Chosen by Jinnah, banished by bureaucracy
Later, he presided over the historic session of the Constituent Assembly on 11th August 1947, where Mohammed Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan.

जोगेन्द्र नाथ मंडल _(In hindi)मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से

प्रथम कानून मंत्री, पाकिस्तान
पद बहाल
15 अगस्त 1947 – 8 अक्टूबर 1950
प्रधानमंत्री लियाकत अली खान

पाकिस्तान के श्रम मंत्री
पद बहाल
15 अगस्त 1947 – 8 अक्टूबर 1950
राजा जॉर्ज षष्ठम्
राष्ट्रपति लियाकत अली खान

राष्ट्रमंडल मंत्री, कश्मीर मामलें
पद बहाल
1 अक्टूबर 1949 – 8 अक्टूबर 1950
राजा जॉर्ज षष्ठम्
गर्वनर जनरल मोहम्मद अली जिन्ना
ख़्वाजा नज़ीमुद्दीन
प्रधानमंत्री लियाकत अली खान

जन्म 29 जनवरी 1904
मृत्यु 5 अक्टूबर 1968 (उम्र 64)
नागरिकता ब्रिटिश भारत (1904–1947)
पाकिस्तानी (1947–1950)
भारतीय (1950-1968)
राष्ट्रीयता भारतीय पाकिस्तानी
राजनीतिक दल मुस्लिम लीग
व्यवसाय राजनीतिज्ञ
जोगेन्द्र नाथ मंडल पाकिस्तान के आधुनिक राज्य के मध्य और प्रमुख संस्थापक पिता में से एक थे, और देश के पहले कानून मंत्री और श्रमिक के रूप में सेवा करने वाले विधायक थे और यह राष्ट्रमंडल और कश्मीर मामलों के दूसरे मंत्री भी थे। एक भारतीय और बाद में पाकिस्तानी नेता जो पाकिस्तान में कानून और श्रम के पहले मंत्री थे। अनुसूचित जातियों (दलितों) के नेता के रूप में, जोगेंद्रनाथ ने मुस्लिम लीग के साथ पाकिस्तान के लिए अपनी मांग के साथ आम कारण बना दिया था, उम्मीद करते थे कि अनुसूचित जातियों को इसके लाभ मिलेगा और पाकिस्तान के पहले कैबिनेट में शामिल हो गए थे। कानून और श्रम पाकिस्तान के तत्कालीन प्रधानमन्त्री लियाकत अली खान को अपना इस्तीफा देने के बाद पाकिस्तान के विभाजन के कुछ सालों बाद वह भारत में आकर चले गए, पाकिस्तानी प्रशासन के कथित हिंदू-विरोधी पूर्वाग्रह का हवाला देते हुए।

प्रारंभिक जीवन

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का जन्म बिरिसल जिले में हुआ था, उस समय बंगाल प्रेसीडेंसी, ब्रिटिश भारत, 1904 में बांग्लादेश का जन्म हुआ था। उनके शुरुआती सालों के बारे में कुछ नहीं पता है कि वह नमूसूरा समुदाय के एक परिवार के थे। Namasudras हिंदू जाति व्यवस्था के बाहर माना जाता था लेकिन इसके भीतर एक स्थिति का दावा करने के लिए एक आंदोलन शुरू कर दिया था।

भारत में राजनीतिक कैरियर (1937-1947)

मंडल ने 1937 के भारतीय प्रांतीय विधानसभा चुनाव में एक स्वतंत्र उम्मीदवार के रूप में अपना राजनीतिक कैरियर शुरू किया। उन्होंने बखरागंज उत्तर पूर्व ग्रामीण निर्वाचन क्षेत्र को बंगाल विधान सभा में एक सीट पर चुनाव लड़ा और भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की जिला समिति के अध्यक्ष सरकल कुमार दत्ता को पराजित किया। (कांग्रेस) और स्वदेशी नेता अश्विनी कुमार दत्ता के भतीजे थे।

सुभाष चंद्र बोस और शरतचंद्र बोस दोनों ने इस समय मंडल को काफी प्रभावित किया था। जब पूर्व को 1940 में कांग्रेस से निष्कासित कर दिया गया था, मंडल मुस्लिम लीग (एमएल) के साथ जुड़ गया, जो एकमात्र अन्य महत्वपूर्ण राष्ट्रीय पार्टी थी, और एमएल के मुख्यमंत्री, हुसैन शहीद सुहरावर्दी के मंत्रिमंडल में एक मंत्री बने।


यह भी इस समय के आसपास था कि मंडल और भीमराव अांबेडकर ने अनुसूचित जाति संघ की बंगाल शाखा की स्थापना की, जो स्वयं राजनीतिक सत्ता की इच्छा रखते थे। जबकि नममुद्दी समुदाय को हिंदू महासभा द्वारा दी गई थी, और प्रांत में राजनीति में दलित और मुस्लिम लोगों का वर्चस्व था, मंडल ने सांप्रदायिक मामलों और कांग्रेस और एमएल से जुड़े राजनैतिक विवादों के बीच अंतर देखा। जब 1946 में दंगे फैल गए, तो उन्होंने पूर्वी बंगाल के चारों ओर यात्रा की ताकि दलितों को मुसलमानों के खिलाफ हिंसा में भाग न लेने का आग्रह किया। उन्होंने तर्क दिया कि एमएल के साथ अपने विवाद में कांग्रेस के जाति हिंदुओं द्वारा प्यादे के रूप में इस्तेमाल किया जा रहा है।
पाकिस्तान में राजनीतिक कैरियर (1947-1950)
15 अगस्त 1947 को ब्रिटिश भारत के विभाजन के बाद, मंडल पाकिस्तान के संविधान सभा के सदस्य और अस्थायी अध्यक्ष बने, और कानून और श्रम के लिए नए राज्य के पहले मंत्री के रूप में सेवा करने पर सहमत हो गए - सरकार का उच्चतम स्थान वाला हिंदू सदस्य 1947 से 1950 तक वह पाकिस्तान की तत्कालीन राजधानी कराची के बंदरगाह शहर में रहते थे।
भारत लौटें (1950)
1950 में, पाकिस्तान के तत्कालीन प्रधानमंत्री लियाकत अली खान को अपना इस्तीफा देने के बाद मंडल वापस भारत लौट आये, जिसमें पाकिस्तानी प्रशासन के विरोधी हिंदू पूर्वाग्रह का हवाला दिया गया था। उन्होंने अपने इस्तीफे पत्र में सामाजिक अन्याय और गैर-मुस्लिम अल्पसंख्यकों के प्रति पक्षपातपूर्ण व्यवहार से संबंधित घटनाओं का उल्लेख किया।


जब पाकिस्तान बना तो लाखो दलित पाकिस्तान चले गये जिन्हें विश्वास था मुसलमान उनका साथ देंगे, उन्हें अपनाएंगे । लेकिन उनके साथ क्या हुआ, इसे जानना जरूरी है ।


दिल दहला देने वाली इस सच्चाई को वहां के कानून मंत्री ने ही लिखा था ।


दलित मुस्लिम भाईचारे के पैरोकार मंडल को मुसलमानो ने दिया था धोखा ।


जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का जन्म बंगाल के बरीसल जिले के मइसकड़ी में हुआ था । वो एक पिछड़ी जाति से आते थे, इनकी माता का नाम संध्या और पिताजी का नाम रामदयाल मंडल था । जोगेन्द्रनाथ मंडल 6 भाई बहन थे जिनमे ये सबसे छोटे थे । जोगेंद्र ने सन 1924 में इंटर और सन 1929 में बी. ए. पास कर पोस्ट ग्रेजुएशन की पढ़ाई पहले ढाका और बाद में कलकत्ता विश्व विद्यालय से पूरी की थी । सन 1937 में उन्हें जिला काउन्सिल के लिए मनोनीत किया गया । इसी वर्ष उन्हें बंगाल लेजिस्लेटिव काउन्सिल का सदस्य चुना गया । सन 1939,40 तक वे कांग्रेस के शीर्ष नेतृत्व के करीब आये मगर, जल्दी ही उन्हें एहसास हो गया कि कांग्रेस के एजेंडे में उसके अपने समाज के लिए ज्यादा कुछ करने की इच्छा नहीं है । इसके बाद वो मुस्लिम लीग से जुड़ गये । जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल मुस्लिम लीग के खास सदस्यों में से एक थे ।


1946 में चुनाव के ब्रिटिशराज में अंतिम सरकार बनी तो कांग्रेस और मुस्लिम लीग दोनों ने अपने प्रतिनिधियों को चुना जो कि मंत्री के तौर पर सरकार में काम करेंगे । मुस्लिम लीग ने जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का नाम भेजा । पाकिस्तान निर्माण के बाद मंडल को कानून और श्रम मंत्री बनाया गया । जिन्ना को जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल पर भरोसा था । वो मुहम्मद अली जिन्ना के काफी करीबी थे । दरअसल जोगेंद्र ने ही अपनी ताकत से असम के सयलहेट को पाकिस्तान में मिला दिया था । 3 जून 1947 की घोषणा के बाद असम के सयलहेट को जनमत संग्रह से यह तय करना था कि वो पाकिस्तान का हिस्सा बनेगा या भारत का । उस इलाकें में हिंदू मुस्लिम की संख्या बराबर थी । जिन्ना ने इलाके में मंडल को भेजा, मंडल ने वहां दलितों का मत पाकिस्तान के पक्ष में झुका दिया जिसके बाद सयलहेट पाकिस्तान का हिस्सा बना आज वो बांग्लादेश में हैं ।


पाकिस्तान निर्माण के कुछ वक्त बाद गैर मुस्लिमो को निशाना बनाया जाने लगा । हिन्दुओ के साथ लूटमार, बलात्कार की घटनाएँ सामने आने लगी । मंडल ने इस विषय पर सरकार को कई खत लिखे लेकिन सरकार ने उनकी एक न सुनी । जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल को बाहर करने के लिये उनकी देशभक्ति पर संदेह किया जाने लगा । मंडल को इस बात का एहसास हुआ जिस पाकिस्तान को उन्होंने अपना घर समझा था वो उनके रहने लायक नहीं है । मंडल बहुत आहात हुए, उन्हें विश्वास था पाकिस्तान में दलितों के साथ अन्याय नहीं होगा । करीबन दो सालों में ही दलित मुस्लिम एकता का मंडल का ख्बाब टूट गया । जिन्ना की मौत के बाद मंडल 8 अक्टूबर, 1950 को लियाकत अलीखां के मंत्री मंडल से त्याग पत्र देकर भारत आ गये ।


जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल ने अपने खत में मुस्लिम लीग से जुड़ने और अपने इस्तीफे की वजह को स्पष्ट किया, जिसके कुछ अंश यहाँ है । मंडल ने अपने खत में लिखा, 'बंगाल में मुस्लिम और दलितों की एक जैसी हालात थी । दोनों ही पिछड़े, मछुआरे, अशिक्षित थे । मुझे आश्वस्त किया गया था लीग के साथ मेरे सहयोग से ऐसे कदम उठाये जायेंगे जिससे बंगाल की बड़ी आबादी का भला होगा । हम मिलकर ऐसी आधारशिला रखेंगे जिससे साम्प्रदायिक शांति और सौहादर्य बढ़ेगा । इन्ही कारणों से मैंने मुस्लिम लीग का साथ दिया । 1946 में पाकिस्तान के निर्माण के लिये मुस्लिम लीग ने 'डायरेक्ट एक्शन डे' मनाया । जिसके बाद बंगाल में भीषण दंगे हुए । कलकत्ता के नोआखली नरसंहार में पिछड़ी जाति समेत कई हिन्दुओ की हत्याएं हुई, सैकड़ों ने इस्लाम कबूल लिया । हिंदू महिलाओं का बलात्कार, अपहरण किया गया । इसके बाद मैंने दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । मैने हिन्दुओ के भयानक दुःख देखे जिनसे अभिभूत हूँ लेकिन फिर भी मैंने मुस्लिम लीग के साथ सहयोग की नीति को जारी रखा ।


14 अगस्त 1947 को पाकिस्तान बनने के बाद मुझे मंत्रीमंडल में शामिल किया गया । मैंने ख्वाजा नजीममुद्दीन से बात कर ईस्ट बंगाल की कैबिनेट में दो पिछड़ी जाति के लोगो को शामिल करने का अनुरोध किया । उन्होंने मुझसे ऐसा करने का वादा किया । लेकिन इसे टाल दिया गया जिससे मै बहुत हताश हुआ ।


मंडल ने अपने खत में पाकिस्तान में दलितों पर हुए अत्याचार की कई घटनाओं जिक्र किया उन्होंने लिखा, 'गोपालगंज के पास दीघरकुल (Digharkul ) में मुस्लिम की झूटी शिकायत पर स्थानीय नमोशूद्राय लोगो के साथ क्रूर अत्याचार किया गया । पुलिस के साथ मिलकर मुसलमानों ने मिलकर नमोशूद्राय समाज के लोगो को पीटा, घरों में छापे मारे । एक गर्भवती महिला की इतनी बेरहमी से पिटाई की गयी कि उसका मौके पर ही गर्भपात हो गया निर्दोष हिन्दुओ विशेष रूप से पिछड़े समुदाय के लोगो पर सेना और पुलिस ने भी हिंसा को बढ़ावा दिया । सयलहेट जिले के हबीबगढ़ में निर्दोष पुरुषो और महिलाओं को पीटा गया । सेना ने न केबल लोगो को पीटा बल्कि हिंदू पुरुषो को उनकी महिलाओं सैन्य शिविरों में भेजने के मजबूर किया ताकि वो सेना की कामुक इच्छाओं को पूरा कर सके । मैं इस मामले को आपके संज्ञान में लाया था, मुझे इस मामले में रिपोर्ट के लिये आश्वस्त किया गया लेकिन रिपोर्ट नहीं आई ।


खुलना (Khulna) जिले कलशैरा (Kalshira) में सशस्त्र पुलिस, सेना और स्थानीय लोगो ने निर्दयता से पुरे गाँव पर हमला किया । कई महिलाओं का पुलिस, सेना और स्थानीय लोगो द्वारा बलात्कार किया गया । मैने 28 फरवरी 1950 को कलशैरा और आसपास के गांवों का दौरा किया । जब मैं कलशैरा में आया तो देखा यहाँ जगह उजाड़ और खंडहर में बदल गयी । यहाँ करीबन 350 घरों को ध्वस्त कर दिया गया । मैंने तथ्यों के साथ आपको सूचना दी ।
ढाका में नौ दिनों के प्रवास के दौरान में दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । ढाका नारायणगंज और ढाका चंटगाँव के बीच ट्रेनों और पटरियों पर निर्दोष हिन्दुओ की हत्याओं ने मुझे गहरा झटका दिया । मैंने ईस्ट बंगाल के मुख्यमंत्री से मुलाकर कर दंगा प्रसार को रोकने के लिये जरूरी कदमों को उठाने का आग्रह किया । 20 फरवरी 1950 को मैं बरिसाल (Barisal) पहुंचा । यहाँ की घटनाओं के बारे में जानकार में चकित था । यहाँ बड़ी संख्या में हिन्दुओ को जला दिया गया । उनकी बड़ी संख्या को खत्म कर दिया गया । मैंने जिले में लगभग सभी दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । मधापाशा (Madhabpasha) में जमींदार के घर में 200 लोगो की मौत हुई और 40 घायल थे । एक जगह है मुलादी (Muladi ), प्रत्यक्षदर्शी ने यहाँ भयानक नरक देखा । यहाँ 300 लोगो का कत्लेआम हुआ । वहां गाँव में शवो के कंकाल भी देखे नदी किनारे गिद्द और कुत्ते लाशो को खा रहे थे । यहाँ सभी पुरुषो की हत्याओं के बाद लड़कियों को आपस में बाँट लिया गया । राजापुर में 60 लोग मारे गये । बाबूगंज (Babuganj) में हिन्दुओ की सभी दुकानों को लूट आग लगा दी गयी ईस्ट बंगाल के दंगे में अनुमान के मुताबिक 10000 लोगो की हत्याएं हुई । अपने आसपास महिलाओं और बच्चो को विलाप करते हुए मेरा दिल पिघल गया । मैंने अपने आप से पूछा, 'क्या मै इस्लाम के नाम पर पाकिस्तान आया था ।''


मंडल ने अपने खत में आगे लिखा, 'ईस्ट बंगाल में आज क्या हालात हैं? विभाजन के बाद 5 लाख हिन्दुओ ने देश छोड़ दिया है । मुसलमानों द्वारा हिंदू वकीलों, हिंदू डॉक्टरों, हिंदू व्यापारियों, हिंदू दुकानदारों के बहिष्कार के बाद उन्हें आजीविका के लिये पलायन करने के लिये मजबूर होना पड़ा । मुझे मुसलमानों द्वारा पिछड़ी जाति की लडकियों के साथ बलात्कार की जानकारी मिली है । हिन्दुओ द्वारा बेचे गये सामान की मुसलमान खरीददार पूरी कीमत नहीं दे रहे हैं । तथ्य की बात यह है पाकिस्तान में न कोई न्याय है, न कानून का राज इसीलिए हिंदू चिंतित हैं ।


पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के अलावा पश्चिमी पाकिस्तान में भी ऐसे ही हालात हैं । विभाजन के बाद पश्चिमी पंजाब में 1 लाख पिछड़ी जाति के लोग थे उनमे से बड़ी संख्या को बलपूर्वक इस्लाम में परिवर्तित किया गया है । मुझे एक लिस्ट मिली है जिसमे 363 मंदिरों और गुरूद्वारे मुस्लिमों के कब्जे में हैं । इनमे से कुछ को मोची की दुकान, कसाईखाना और होटलों में तब्दील कर दिया है मुझे जानकारी मिली है सिंध में रहने वाली पिछड़ी जाति की बड़ी संख्या को जबरन मुसलमान बनाया गया है । इन सबका कारण एक है । हिंदू धर्म को मानने के अलावा इनकी कोई गलती नहीं है ।


जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल ने अंत में लिखा, 'पाकिस्तान की पूर्ण तस्वीर तथा उस निर्दयी एवं कठोर अन्याय को एक तरफ रखते हुए, मेरा अपना तजुर्बा भी कुछ कम दुखदायी, पीड़ादायक नहीं है । आपने अपने प्रधानमंत्री और संसदीय पार्टी के पद का उपयोग करते हुए मुझसे एक वक्तव्य जारी करवाया था, जो मैंने 8 सितम्बर को दिया था । आप जानतें हैं मेरी ऐसी मंशा नहीं थी कि मै ऐसे असत्य और असत्य से भी बुरे अर्धसत्य भरा वक्तव्य जारी करूं । जब तक मै मंत्री के रूप में आपके साथ और आपके नेतृत्व में काम कर रहा था मेरे लिये आपके आग्रह को ठुकरा देना मुमकिन नहीं था पर अब मै इससे ज्यादा झूठे दिखाबे तथा असत्य के बोझ को अपनी अंतरात्मा पर नहीं लाद सकता । मै यह निश्चय किया कि मै आपके मंत्री के तौर पर अपना इस्तीफे का प्रस्ताव आपको दूँ, जो कि मै आपके हाथों में थमा रहा हूँ । मुझे उम्मीद है आप बिना किसी देरी के इसे स्वीकार करेंगे । आप बेशक इस्लामिक स्टेट के उद्देश्य को ध्यान में रखते हुए इस पद को किसी को देने के लिये स्वतंत्र हैं ।

पाकिस्तान में मंत्रिमंडल से इस्तीफे के बाद जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल भारत आ गये । कुछ वर्ष गुमनामी की जिन्दगी जीने के बाद 5 अक्टूबर, 1968 को पश्चिम बंगाल में उन्होंने अंतिम सांस ली ।

दलित मुस्लिम गठबंधन से बने पाकिस्तान ने दलितों का सबकुछ लुट लिया

इस्लाम का सबसे बड़ा धोखा :

दलित+मुस्लिम गठजोर के कारण ही पाकिस्तान बना था।

जब पाकिस्तान बना तो लाखो हिन्दू पाकिस्तान चले गये इनमे अधिकतर दलितों के परिवार थे जिन्हें विश्वास था मुसलमान उनका साथ देंगे, उन्हें अपनाएंगे ।

लेकिन उनके साथ क्या हुआ, इसे जानना जरूरी है ।

दिल दहला देने वाली इस सच्चाई को वहां के कानून मंत्री ने ही लिखा था ।

दलित मुस्लिम भाईचारे के पैरोकार मंडल को मुसलमानो ने दिया था धोखा ।

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का जन्म बंगाल के बरीसल जिले के मइसकड़ी में हुआ था । वो एक पिछड़ी जाति से आते थे । इनकी माता का नाम संध्या और पिताजी का नाम रामदयाल मंडल था । जोगेन्द्रनाथ मंडल 6 भाई-बहन थे जिनमे ये सबसे छोटे थे ।

जोगेंद्र ने सन 1924 में इंटर और सन 1929 में बी. ए. पास कर पोस्ट-ग्रेजुएशन की पढ़ाई पहले ढाका और बाद में
कलकत्ता विश्व-विद्यालय से पूरी की थी । सन 1937 में उन्हें जिला काउन्सिल के लिए मनोनीत किया गया ।

इसी वर्ष उन्हें बंगाल लेजिस्लेटिव काउन्सिल का सदस्य चुना गया । सन 1939-40 तक वे कांग्रेस के शीर्ष नेतृत्व
के करीब आये मगर, जल्दी ही उन्हें एहसास हो गया कि कांग्रेस के एजेंडे में उसके अपने समाज के लिए ज्यादा कुछ करने की इच्छा नहीं है । इसके बाद वो मुस्लिम लीग से जुड़ गये । जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल मुस्लिम लीग के खास सदस्यों में से एक थे ।

1946 में चुनाव के ब्रिटिशराज में अंतिम सरकार बनी तो कांग्रेस और मुस्लिम लीग दोनों ने अपने प्रतिनिधियों को चुना जो कि मंत्री के तौर पर सरकार में काम करेंगे । मुस्लिम लीग ने जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का नाम भेजा । पाकिस्तान निर्माण के बाद मंडल को कानून और श्रम मंत्री बनाया गया । जिन्ना को जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल पर भरोसा था । वो मुहम्मद अली जिन्ना के काफी करीबी थे । दरअसल जोगेंद्र ने ही अपनी ताकत से असम के सयलहेट को पाकिस्तान में मिला दिया था । 3 जून 1947 की घोषणा के बाद असम के सयलहेट को जनमत संग्रह से यह तय करना था कि वो पाकिस्तान का हिस्सा बनेगा या भारत का । उस इलाकें में हिंदू-मुस्लिम की संख्या बराबर थी । जिन्ना ने इलाके में मंडल को भेजा, मंडल ने वहां दलितों का मत पाकिस्तान के पक्ष में झुका दिया जिसके बाद सयलहेट पाकिस्तान का हिस्सा बना । आज वो बांग्लादेश में हैं ।

पाकिस्तान निर्माण के कुछ वक्त बाद गैर मुस्लिमो को निशाना बनाया जाने लगा । हिन्दुओ के साथ लूटमार, बलात्कार की घटनाएँ सामने आने लगी । मंडल ने इस विषय पर सरकार को कई खत लिखे लेकिन सरकार ने उनकी एक न सुनी ।

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल को बाहर करने के लिये उनकी देशभक्ति पर संदेह किया जाने लगा । मंडल को इस बात का एहसास हुआ जिस पाकिस्तान को उन्होंने अपना घर समझा था वो उनके रहने लायक नहीं है । मंडल बहुत आहात हुए, उन्हें विश्वास था पाकिस्तान में दलितों के साथ अन्याय नहीं होगा । करीबन दो सालों में ही दलित-मुस्लिम एकता का मंडल का ख्बाब टूट गया ।

जिन्ना की मौत के बाद मंडल  8 अक्टूबर, 1950 को लियाकत अलीखां के मंत्री-मंडल से त्याग पत्र देकर भारत आ गये ।

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल ने अपने खत में मुस्लिम लीग से जुड़ने और अपने इस्तीफे की वजह को स्पष्ट किया, जिसके कुछ अंश यहाँ है ।

मंडल ने अपने खत में लिखा, 'बंगाल में मुस्लिम और दलितों की एक जैसी हालात थी । दोनों ही पिछड़े, मछुआरे, अशिक्षित थे ।

मुझे आश्वस्त किया गया था लीग के साथ मेरे सहयोग से ऐसे कदम उठाये जायेंगे जिससे बंगाल की बड़ी आबादी का भला होगा ।

हम मिलकर ऐसी आधारशिला रखेंगे जिससे साम्प्रदायिक शांति और सौहादर्य बढ़ेगा । इन्ही कारणों से मैंने मुस्लिम लीग का साथ दिया ।

1946 में पाकिस्तान के निर्माण के लिये मुस्लिम लीग ने 'डायरेक्ट एक्शन डे' मनाया । जिसके बाद बंगाल में भीषण दंगे हुए ।

कलकत्ता के नोआखली नरसंहार में पिछड़ी जाति समेत कई हिन्दुओ की हत्याएं हुई, सैकड़ों ने इस्लाम कबूल लिया ।
हिंदू महिलाओं का बलात्कार, अपहरण किया गया । इसके बाद मैंने दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । मैने हिन्दुओ के भयानक दुःख देखे जिनसे अभिभूत हूँ लेकिन फिर भी मैंने मुस्लिम लीग के साथ सहयोग की नीति को जारी रखा ।

14 अगस्त 1947 को पाकिस्तान बनने के बाद मुझे मंत्रीमंडल में शामिल किया गया । मैंने ख्वाजा नजीममुद्दीन से बात कर ईस्ट बंगाल की कैबिनेट में दो पिछड़ी जाति के लोगो को शामिल करने का अनुरोध किया । उन्होंने मुझसे ऐसा करने का वादा किया । लेकिन इसे टाल दिया गया जिससे मै बहुत हताश हुआ ।

मंडल ने अपने खत में पाकिस्तान में दलितों पर हुए अत्याचार की कई घटनाओं जिक्र किया उन्होंने लिखा, 'गोपालगंज के पास दीघरकुल में मुस्लिम की झूटी शिकायत पर स्थानीय नमोशूद्राय लोगो के साथ क्रूर अत्याचार किया गया ।

पुलिस के साथ मिलकर मुसलमानों ने मिलकर नमोशूद्राय समाज के लोगो को पीटा, घरों में छापे मारे । एक गर्भवती महिला की इतनी बेरहमी से पिटाई की गयी कि उसका मौके पर ही गर्भपात हो गया निर्दोष हिन्दुओ विशेष रूप से पिछड़े समुदाय के लोगो पर सेना और पुलिस ने भी हिंसा को बढ़ावा दिया । सयलहेट जिले के हबीबगढ़ में निर्दोष पुरुषो और महिलाओं को पीटा गया ।

सेना ने न केबल लोगो को पीटा बल्कि हिंदू पुरुषो को उनकी महिलाओं सैन्य शिविरों में भेजने के मजबूर किया ताकि वो सेना की कामुक इच्छाओं को पूरा कर सके । मैं इस मामले को आपके संज्ञान में लाया था, मुझे इस मामले में रिपोर्ट के लिये आश्वस्त किया गया लेकिन रिपोर्ट नहीं आई ।

खुलना जिले कलशैरा में सशस्त्र पुलिस, सेना और स्थानीय लोगो ने निर्दयता से पुरे गाँव पर हमला किया । कई महिलाओं का पुलिस, सेना और स्थानीय लोगो द्वारा बलात्कार किया गया । मैने 28 फरवरी 1950 को कलशैरा और आसपास के गांवों का दौरा किया । जब मैं कलशैरा में आया तो देखा यहाँ जगह उजाड़ और खंडहर में बदल गयी ।

यहाँ करीबन 350 घरों को ध्वस्त कर दिया गया । मैंने तथ्यों के साथ आपको सूचना दी ।

ढाका में नौ दिनों के प्रवास के दौरान में दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । ढाका-नारायणगंज और ढाका-चंटगाँव के बीच ट्रेनों और पटरियों पर निर्दोष हिन्दुओ की हत्याओं ने मुझे गहरा झटका दिया ।

मैंने ईस्ट बंगाल के मुख्यमंत्री से मुलाकर कर दंगा प्रसार को रोकने के लिये जरूरी कदमों को उठाने का आग्रह किया । 20 फरवरी 1950 को मैं बरिसाल पहुंचा । यहाँ की घटनाओं के बारे में जानकार में चकित था । यहाँ बड़ी संख्या में हिन्दुओ को जला दिया गया । उनकी बड़ी संख्या को खत्म कर दिया गया । मैंने जिले में लगभग सभी दंगा प्रभावित इलाकों का दौरा किया । मधापाशा में जमींदार के घर में 200 लोगो की मौत हुई और 40 घायल थे । एक जगह है मुलादी प्रत्यक्षदर्शी ने यहाँ भयानक नरक देखा । यहाँ 300 लोगो का कत्लेआम हुआ । वहां गाँव में शवो के कंकाल भी देखे ।

नदी किनारे गिद्द और कुत्ते लाशो को खा रहे थे । यहाँ सभी पुरुषो की हत्याओं के बाद लड़कियों को आपस में बाँट लिया गया |

राजापुर में 60 लोग मारे गये । बाबूगंज में हिन्दुओ की सभी दुकानों को लूट आग लगा दी गयी । ईस्ट बंगाल के दंगे में अनुमान के मुताबिक 10000 लोगो की हत्याएं हुई । अपने आसपास महिलाओं और बच्चो को विलाप करते हुए मेरा दिल पिघल गया । मैंने अपने आप से पूछा, क्या मै इस्लाम के नाम पर पाकिस्तान आया था "

मंडल ने अपने खत में आगे लिखा, 'ईस्ट बंगाल में आज क्या हालात हैं? विभाजन के बाद 5 लाख हिन्दुओ ने देश छोड़ दिया है । मुसलमानों द्वारा हिंदू वकीलों, हिंदू डॉक्टरों, हिंदू व्यापारियों, हिंदू दुकानदारों के बहिष्कार के बाद उन्हें आजीविका के लिये पलायन करने के लिये मजबूर होना पड़ा । मुझे मुसलमानों द्वारा पिछड़ी जाति की लडकियों के साथ बलात्कार की जानकारी मिली है ।

हिन्दुओ द्वारा बेचे गये सामान की मुसलमान खरीददार पूरी कीमत नहीं दे रहे हैं । तथ्य की बात यह है पाकिस्तान में न कोई न्याय है, न कानून का राज इसीलिए हिंदू चिंतित हैं ।

पूर्वी पाकिस्तान के अलावा पश्चिमी पाकिस्तान में भी ऐसे ही हालात हैं । विभाजन के बाद पश्चिमी पंजाब में 1 लाख पिछड़ी जाति के लोग थे उनमे से बड़ी संख्या को बलपूर्वक इस्लाम में परिवर्तित किया गया है । मुझे एक लिस्ट मिली है जिसमे 363 मंदिरों और गुरूद्वारे मुस्लिमों के कब्जे में हैं ।

इनमे से कुछ को मोची की दुकान, कसाईखाना और होटलों में तब्दील कर दिया है मुझे जानकारी मिली है सिंध में रहने वाली पिछड़ी जाति की बड़ी संख्या को जबरन मुसलमान बनाया गया है । इन सबका कारण एक है । हिंदू धर्म को मानने के अलावा इनकी कोई गलती नहीं है ।

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल ने अंत में लिखा, 'पाकिस्तान की पूर्ण तस्वीर तथा उस निर्दयी एवं कठोर अन्याय को एक तरफ रखते हुए, मेरा अपना तजुर्बा भी कुछ कम दुखदायी, पीड़ादायक नहीं है ।

आपने अपने प्रधानमंत्री और संसदीय पार्टी के पद का उपयोग करते हुए मुझसे एक वक्तव्य जारी करवाया था, जो मैंने 8 सितम्बर को दिया था ।

आप जानतें हैं मेरी ऐसी मंशा नहीं थी कि मै ऐसे असत्य और असत्य से भी बुरे अर्धसत्य भरा वक्तव्य जारी करूं । जब तक मै मंत्री के रूप में आपके साथ और आपके नेतृत्व में काम कर रहा था मेरे लिये आपके आग्रह को ठुकरा देना मुमकिन नहीं था पर अब मै इससे ज्यादा झूठे दिखाबे तथा असत्य के बोझ को अपनी अंतरात्मा
पर नहीं लाद सकता । मै यह निश्चय किया कि मै आपके मंत्री के तौर पर अपना इस्तीफे का प्रस्ताव आपको दूँ, जो कि मै आपके हाथों में थमा रहा हूँ ।

मुझे उम्मीद है आप बिना किसी देरी के इसे स्वीकार करेंगे । आप बेशक इस्लामिक स्टेट के उद्देश्य को ध्यान में रखते हुए इस पद को किसी को देने के लिये स्वतंत्र हैं '

पाकिस्तान में मंत्रिमंडल से इस्तीफे के बाद जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल भारत आ गये । कुछ वर्ष गुमनामी की जिन्दगी जीने के बाद 5 अक्टूबर, 1968 को पश्चिम बंगाल में उन्होंने अंतिम सांस ली ।

जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल ने लिखा था पाकिस्तान का संविधान
मीडिया डेस्क

संघ से जुड़े थिंकटैंक इंडियन पॉलिसी फाउंडेशन (आईपीएफ) ने अपनी नई पत्रिका ‘पाकिस्तान वॉच’ के पहले अंक में पाकिस्तान के प्रथम कानून मंत्री जोगेंद्र नाथ मंडल का इस्तीफा छापा है। यही नहीं संस्था के निदेशक राकेश सिन्हा के मुताबिक, पत्रिका के हर अंक में वे पाकिस्तान निर्माण और विभाजन से जुड़ा एक दस्तावेज जरूर छापेंगे, ताकि लोगों को उस दौर की पूरी हकीकत समझ आ सके।

कौन थे जोगेंद्रनाथ मंडल?

स्वाधीनता से पहले मंडल डॉ. अंबेडकर की तरह दलित आंदोलन के प्रमुख चेहरा थे। बंगाल की सियासत में पहली बार मंडल ने दलित-मुस्लिम गठबंधन का प्रयोग किया था। अंबेडकर से उलट उनका इस नए गठबंधन पर अटूट विश्वास था। 1937 में पहली बार बंगाल असेंबली में मंडल को ख्वाजा निजामुद्दीन की सरकार में कैबिनेट मंत्री बनाया गया था। उसके बाद वे 1946 में एचएस सुहरावर्दी की सरकार में भी मंत्री रहे।


मंडल के कद का पता इसी बात से चल जाता है कि जिन्ना ने 1946 में अविभाजित भारत की अंतरिम सरकार में मुस्लिम लीग की तरफ से जिन पांच नामों को भेजा था, उनमें एक नाम मंडल का भी था। यही नहीं, भारत की संविधान सभा के चुनाव में अंबेडकर जब बंबई में हार गए थे, तो ये मंडल ही थे जिन्होंने अंबेडकर को बंगाल असेंबली के जरिये चुनकर संविधान सभा में भेजा था। विभाजन के बाद मंडल न सिर्फ पाकिस्तान के पहले कानून मंत्री बने, बल्कि पाकिस्तान के संविधान लिखने वाली कमेटी के अध्यक्ष भी रहे थे। लेकिन, 1950 में मंडल ने पाकिस्तान सरकार से इस्तीफा दिया और वापस कलकत्ता आ गए और फिर लौट कर कभी पाकिस्तान नहीं गये।

आईपीएफ ने जेएन मंडल का इस्तीफा छाप कर बुद्धिजीवी वर्ग औऱ आधुनिक इतिहासकारों के बीच बहस छेड़ दी है। जेएनयू, जामिया और इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ डिफेंस स्टीज़ जैसे प्रतिष्ठित संस्थानों में पाकिस्तान को लेकर विशेष केंद्र बहुत पहले से काम करते आ रहे हैं। लेकिन, आजतक पाकिस्तान निर्माण की पूरी प्रक्रिया को लेकर कोई बड़ा अध्ययन यहां से नहीं निकला है। यही नहीं, मुस्लिम लीग और पाकिस्तान में विभाजन के बाद जाने वाले हिन्दू दलित समाज को लेकर भी आजतक कोई ठोस रिसर्च या अध्ययन इन केंद्रों ने नहीं किया है। कुल मिलाकर जेएनयू, जामिया और आईडीएफ के जानकारों पर अब इन विषयों पर अपनी स्थिति साफ करने का दबाव बढ़ा दिया गया है। खास बात यह है कि न तो आधुनिक इतिहास की किताबों में और न ही राजनीतिक शास्त्र की किताबों में पाकिस्तान निर्माण और आजादी से पहले के दलित आंदोलन के संबंध पर कुछ विशेष लिखा मिलता है।

उत्तर प्रदेश में आगामी विधानसभा चुनाव को लेकर बड़ी हलचल मची हुई है। ऐसे में आईपीएफ के ‘पाकिस्तान वॉच’ पत्रिका ने यूपी में बन रहे संभावित दलित-मुस्लिम गठजोड़ के सिद्धांत पर प्रश्न चिह्न लगा दिये हैं। संघ विचारक और आईपीएफ के निदेशक राकेश सिन्हा के मुताबिक, देश विभाजन के वक्त पाकिस्तान में दलित-मुस्लिम गठबंधन का जो प्रयोग किया गया था, वह इतिहास में पहला और आखिरी था। मंडल ने उस वक्त इसमें अहम भूमिका निभाई थी। लेकिन, फिर उन्होंने ही कहा कि पाकिस्तान में हिंदू सुरक्षित नहीं हैं। यूपी में जो संकेत मिल रहे हैं, उसे देखते हुए लग रहा है कि बीएसपी और कांग्रेस इस कोशिश में हैं कि दलित-मुस्लिम की सोशल इंजीनियरिंग के सहारे सत्ता हासिल की जाये।

Krishna Tirath
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Krishna Tirath

Smt. Krishna Tirath

In office
May,2009 – May,2014
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Succeeded by Maneka Gandhi (BJP)
Personal details
Born 3 March 1955
Karol Bagh, New Delhi
Political party INC(2019-present)
BJP (2015-2019)
Spouse(s) Vijay Kumar
Children 3 daughters Jigisha tirath,kriti tirath,yashvi tirath
Residence New Delhi

Krishna Tirath (born 3 March 1955) is an Indian politician from Indian National Congress. She was a member of the 15th Lok Sabha of India representing the North West Delhi constituency of Delhi. She was Minister of State (Independent Charge) in Ministry of Women and Child Development in the second Manmohan Singh ministry. She left the Indian National Congress (INC) political party, and on 19 January 2015 she joined Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Later on in March 2019 she rejoined the Indian National Congress.

She began her political career as a M.L.A in Delhi and was a member of the Delhi Legislative Assembly between 1984–2004. In 1998, she became the Minister for Social Welfare, SC & ST and Labour & Employment in the Sheila Dikshit-led Delhi government. The Chief Minister saw her as a part of the dissident group and forced to resign from her post by dissolving her entire Cabinet. On her resignation in 2003, she became Deputy Speaker of the Delhi Assembly.

In the 2004 elections she beat Anita Arya of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and was elected to parliament. In 2009 elections, she was again elected from North West Delhi by defeating Meera Kanwaria of BJP.

Minister of Women and Child Development

As Minister for Women and Child Development, Tirath stated that the government's priorities would be to "support holistic empowerment of women, ensure adequate and universal availability of supplementary nutrition for children, adolescent girls and expectant mothers and build a protective environment for children where they can develop and flourish as responsible and happy citizens of the society."

Tirath has proposed that working Indian husbands pay a portion of their income to their wives. The goal is to calculate the value of housework, and to socially empower women for the work they do at home.

In a 2012 meeting with United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius, Tirath stated her concern for malnutrition among children in India. She emphasized the importance of agencies like Integrated Child Development Services for implementing improvements in education, immunization and supplementary nutrition, to alleviate child mortality.

National Girl Child Day photograph

On 24 January 2010 a photograph of former Pakistan Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed in uniform appeared along with those of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Congress president Sonia Gandhi in a full-page newspaper advertisement (see External Links below) given by Ministry of Women and Child Development to mark the National Girl Child Day. Initially Mrs.Tirath refused to accept the error on behalf of her ministry, accused the media of hair-splitting, and stated, "[the] message is more important than the image. The photograph is only symbolic. The message for the girl child is more important. She should be protected." She later apologised on behalf of her ministry for publishing a photograph of a former Pakistan Air Force chief in a government advertisement and said an inquiry will bring out who was responsible for it. The former air marshal, upon learning of the publication, "..wasn't aware about this [and felt it was] an innocent mistake."

Controversy over misuse of power

On 13 September 2010, Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) cancelled the appointment of Krishna Tirath's daughter Yashvi Tirath for the post of anchor-cum-correspondent in state run telecaster Doordarshan News.

A tribunal, headed by chairman V K Bali, cancelled the selection of the journalists working with DD News, finding "misuse of marks in the interview" and "irregularities having vitiated the whole process."

Kalidas Nag
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kalidas Nag
In office
1952-1954
Personal details

Kalidas Nag Bengali: Kalidas Nag (16 January 1892 – 9 November 1966) was an Indian historian, author and parliamentarian. He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1952 and served till 1954.

Early years

Kalidas was born to Babu Matilal Nag and Shrimati Santa Devi.

Education and career


Kalidas Nag in a group photo of Monday Club founded by Sukumar Roy
First row sitting from left: Subinoy Ray, Prasanta Chandra MahalanobisAtul Prasad Sen, Shishir Kumar Datta, Sukumar Ray

Middle row from left: Jatindranath Mukhopadhyay, Amal Home, Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay, Jibanmoy Roy

Standing from left: Hiran Sanyal, Ajitkumar Chakrabarty, Kalidas Nag, Pravat Chandra Gangoadhyay, Dr. Dwijendranath Maitra, Satish Chandra Chattopadhyay, Shrish Chandra Sen, Girija Shankar Roy Choudhury

After graduating in history from the Scottish Church College, he earned a postgraduate degree from the University of Calcutta, and a doctorate from the University of Paris. A prolific author, he taught history at the Scottish Church College and at University of Calcutta, and was nominated as an Officer d’ Academic by the Government of France.

Bibliography

Kalidas Nag (1957). Discovery of Asia, The Institute of Asian African Relations, Calcutta.
Krishna Kohli
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Senator

Krishna Kolhi

Member of the Senate of Pakistan

Assumed office
12 March 2018
Personal details
Born 1 February 1979 (age 41)
NagarparkarSindh, Pakistan
Nationality Pakistani
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party
Nickname(s) Kishoo Bai

Krishna Kumari Kolhi (Sindhi: ڪرشن ڪماري ڪوهلي‎ Urdu: کرشنا کماری کوہلی‎; born 1 February 1979), also known by the nickname Kishoo Bai, is a Pakistani politician who has been the member of the Senate of Pakistan since March 2018. She is the first Hindu Dalit woman and the second Hindu woman to hold this position. She is known for her campaigns for women's rights and against bonded labour.

Early life and education

Kolhi was born on 1 February 1979 to a poor Koli family hailing from a village in Nagarparkar. When she was a child and a student of grade three, she and her family were held captive for three years as bonded labourers in a private jail allegedly owned by a landlord in Umerkot District. They were only released after a police raid on their employer's land. She received her early education initially from Umerkot district and then from Mirpurkhas District.

She got married at the age of 16 in 1994 while she was studying in grade nine. She continued her education after her marriage and in 2013 earned a master's degree in Sociology from the University of Sindh.

In 2007, she attended the third Mehergarh Human Rights Youth Leadership Training Camp in Islamabad in which she studied the government of Pakistan, international migration, strategic planning and learned about the tools that could be used to create social change.

Political career

Kolhi joined the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) as a social activist to campaign for the rights of marginalised communities in the Thar region. She also campaigns for women's rights, against bonded labour, and against sexual harassment in the workplace. In 2018, she was elected to the Senate of Pakistan in the Pakistan Senate elections as a PPP candidate on a reserved seat for women from Sindh.She took oath as Senator on 12 March 2018. She became the first Hindu Dalit woman and the second Hindu woman elected to the Senate after Ratna Bhagwandas Chawla.

In 2018, BBC named her one of the BBC's 100 most influential women.
Khatu Mal Jeewan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Khatu Mal Jeewan

Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan
In office
2011–2013
In office
1990–1999
Personal details
Born October 1, 1956 
Umerkot DistrictSindh
Nationality Pakistani
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party

Khatu Mal Jeewan is a Pakistani politician who served as member of the National Assembly of Pakistan and member of the Senate of Pakistan.
Early life and education
He was born on 1 October 1956 in Umerkot, Sindh.
He is a doctor by profession and hold MBBS degree. He graduated from the Dow University of Health Sciences.
Political career
He began his political career after joining the student wing of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in the 1980s.
He was elected to the Provincial Assembly of Sindh in 1988 Pakistani general election as a candidate of PPP[3] on a minority seat.
He was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan as a candidate of PPP for the first time in 1990 Pakistani general election. He was disappeared during his tenure in 1991 and was forced to quit PPP.
He was elected to the National Assembly for the second time in 1993 Pakistani general election and for the third time in 1997 Pakistani general election. In 1998, he became federal Parliamentary Secretary for Population Welfare.
After PPP formed government following 2008 election, he was made advisor to Chief Minister of Sindh for Mines and Minerals Development Department in 2008.
He was elected to the Senate of Pakistan in 2009 as a candidate of PPP where he continued until his resignation in 2011.
He was re-elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan on a seat reserved for minorities as a candidate of PPP in 2011.
He is the only Hindu Dalit politician in Pakistan who elected as a public representative for seven times.
K. H. Muniyappa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
K.H. Muniyappa
K.H. Muniappa takes over the charge of Minister of State for Road Transport and Highways in New Delhi on May 24, 2004

Union Minister of State(Independent charge), Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises
In office
28 October 2012 – 26 May 2014
Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Vayalar Ravi
Succeeded by Kalraj Mishra
In office
1991–2019
Constituency Kolar
Personal details
Born 7 March 1948
Kammadhalli shidlaghatta, Karnataka
Political party INC
Spouse(s) M. Nagarathnamma
Children 1 son and 4 daughters
Residence Bangalore
Awards Doctorate
As of 25 September, 2006
Source:

K.H. Muniyappa (born 7 March 1948) was a member of the 10th,11th,12th,13th, 14th, 15th,16th Lok Sabha of India. He has consecutively represented the Kolar constituency of Karnataka in the Lok Sabha since 1991 and is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party. He was the Union Minister of State (Independent charge) of Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.

Political career

He belongs to Madiga (Sakkiliar) community.

Muniyappa has represented Kolar seven times consecutively: (10th Lok Sabha11th Lok Sabha12th Lok Sabha13th Lok Sabha14th Lok Sabha15th Lok Sabha and 16th Lok Sabha). He lost the 2019 elections to a largely unknown face S. Muniswamy by more than one lakh votes. Muniyappa blamed his own partymen for his defeat. He said his party's legislators worked against him, resulting in his defeat.

Muniyappa was the Union Minister of state for Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. He was administered the oath of office along with 59 other ministers on 28 May 2009 by President of India Pratibha Patil.

Degrees and posts held

1969 onwards Vice-Convenor, Congress (I) Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) Cell, District. Kolar, Karnataka.

1978-83 Vice-President, Taluk Development Board, Sidlaghatta, District. Kolar, Karnataka.

1991 Elected to 10th Lok Sabha

Member, Pradesh Congress Committee (P.C.C.) (I), Legal Cell, Karnataka

Member, Executive Committee, P.C.C. (I) SC and ST Cell, Karnataka

Vice-President, Taluk Congress (I) Committee, Sidlaghatta, District. Kolar, Karnataka

Member, District Congress Committee (D.C.C.) (I), Dist. Kolar, Karnataka

Member, Food and Civil Supplies (Eradication of Adulteration Committee), District. Kolar, Karnataka

1994 Joint Secretary, All India Congress Committee (A.I.C.C.)

1996 Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha (2nd term)

1996-97 Member, Committee on Industry

Member, Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Welfare

1998 Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha (3rd term)

1998-99 Member, Committee on Industry

Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment

Special Invitee, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Steel and Mines

1999 Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (4th term)

1999-2000 Member, Committee on Industry

2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha(5th term)

23 May 2004 onwards Union Minister of State, Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport & Highways

2009 Re-elected to 15th Lok Sabha (6th term)

2009 - 28 Oct. 2012 Union Minister of State, Railways

28 Oct. 2012 Union Minister of State (Independent Charge), Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

2014 Re-elected to 16th Lok Sabha (7th term)
Awards
Honorary Doctorate - 32nd Annual Convocation of Gulbarga University (2014)
Kshama Sawant
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kshama Sawant
Member of the Seattle City Council

Assumed office
January 1, 2016
Preceded by Bruce Harrell
Constituency District 3
In office
January 1, 2014 – January 1, 2016
Preceded by Richard Conlin
Succeeded by Bruce Harrell
Constituency Position 2
Personal details
Born October 17, 1973 
Pune, India
Political party Socialist Alternative
Spouse(s)
Calvin Priest
​(m. 2016)​
Education University of Mumbai (BS)
Signature 
Website Official

Kshama Sawant (/kʃʌmɑː sɑːˈwʌnt/; born October 17, 1973) is an Indian-American politician and economist who has served on the Seattle City Council since 2014. She is a member of Socialist Alternative, the first and only member of the party to date to be elected to public office.

A former software engineer, Sawant became an economics instructor in Seattle after immigrating to the United States from her native India. She ran unsuccessfully for the Washington House of Representatives in 2012 before winning her seat on the Seattle City Council in 2013. She was the first socialist to win a citywide election in Seattle since Anna Louise Strong was elected to the school board in 1916.

Early life and career

Born to H. T. and Vasundhara Ramanujam into a middle-class Tamil Brahmin family in the city of Pune, India. Sawant was raised mostly in Mumbai Her mother is a retired principal and her father, a civil engineer, was killed by a drunk driver when she was 13 years old.[10] She describes her family as “full of doctors and engineers and mathematicians” but says that “I wasn’t exposed to any particular ideology growing up.”

Sawant graduated with a bachelor's degree in computer science from the University of Mumbai in 1994. After moving to the United States with her husband Vivek Sawant, a Microsoft software engineer, she decided to turn her attention to economics following a year and a half stint as a programmer. She received her PhD in economics from North Carolina State University in 2003. Her dissertation was titled Elderly Labor Supply in a Rural, Less Developed Economy.

After moving to Seattle, she taught at Seattle University and University of Washington Tacoma and was an adjunct professor at Seattle Central College. She was also a visiting assistant professor at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia.

Political career

Sawant has indicated that the genesis of her becoming a socialist began in India, a country plagued by immense poverty. This development was furthered when she arrived in the United States, which she describes as "the wealthiest country in the history of humanity", and was surprised to encounter poverty and homelessness. In 2006, she attended a Socialist Alternative meeting after reading a pamphlet and proceeded to become a member.

In 2012, Sawant ran unsuccessfully for Position 1 in the 43rd district of the Washington House of Representatives, representing Seattle. Sawant also ran and advanced past the primaries as a write-in win for Position 2. Washington state law allowed her to choose the election in which she would run, but as a write-in candidate, she was not permitted to state her party preference. Sawant successfully sued the Washington secretary of state for the right to be listed as a Socialist Alternative member on the ballot. Sawant challenged incumbent Democratic House speaker Frank Chopp in the general election on November 6, 2012. She received 29% of the vote to Chopp's 70%.

Seattle City Council
2013 election

After her unsuccessful run for the House, Sawant entered the race for Seattle City Council with a campaign organized by the Socialist Alternative. She won 35% of the vote in the August primary election, and advanced into the general election for the at-large council position 2 against incumbent Richard Conlin, making her the first socialist to advance to a general election in Seattle since 1991. On November 15, 2013, Conlin conceded to Sawant when returns showed him down by 1,640 votes or approximately 1% of the vote.

Sawant's victory made her the first socialist to win a citywide election in Seattle since Anna Louise Strong was elected to the School Board in 1916 and the first socialist on the City Council since A. W. Piper, elected in 1877. She was sworn into office on January 6, 2014.
Sawant on $15/hr National Day of Action in 2015

Sawant declared a victory in May 2014 after Seattle Mayor Ed Murray announced an increase in the minimum wage to $15, which was the cornerstone of her campaign for City Council, but she is not pleased that large corporations will be allowed a few years to phase in the wage hike. During a speech at the City Council on the day of the vote she said, "We did this. Workers did this. Today’s first major victory for 15 will inspire people all over the nation."

Several Democrats endorsed her candidacy. Celebrity endorsements included Rage Against the Machine guitarist Tom Morello and System of a Down frontman Serj Tankian.

Sawant received no endorsements from sitting councilmembers, while Mike O'Brien expressed support of the idea of third party candidates but explicitly declining to extend an endorsement of Sawant. The Stranger alt-weekly endorsed both her State House and her City Council candidacy. Councilman Nick Licata also declined to endorse her but spoke positively of her campaign saying, "she has been able to craft a message that is understandable, simple and eschews most of the rhetoric", and when her eventual election victory seemed unlikely, he expressed his hope that Sawant would not "disappear after the election if she loses. She represents the poor, the immigrants, the refugees—the folks who are not in our City Council offices lobbying us."

Tenure

During her campaign, Sawant said that, if elected, she would donate the portion of her salary as a City Council member that exceeded the average salary in Seattle. On January 27, 2014, she announced that she would live on $40,000 of her $117,000 salary. She places the rest into a political fund that she uses for social justice campaigns. As of September 19, 2021, she cited her current city-allotted salary as $140,000, while she continues to take home $40,000 of that amount.

Sawant called for the expansion of bus and light rail capacity with a millionaire's tax. She has also called for "transit justice", which would include free user fares; an increase in free transit services to the poor, especially communities in south Seattle; and restriction of transit options to communities that "can afford other options" until the foregoing measures are implemented.

During the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, Sawant urged the Seattle City Council to condemn both Israel's attacks on Gaza and Hamas's attacks on Israel, and called on President Obama and Congress to denounce the Israeli blockade of Gaza and to cut off all military assistance to Israel. Sawant's call to condemn Israel's actions prompted a response from Israeli ambassador Ron Dermer, calling for Sawant to retract the statement.

2015 election

The core issues of Sawant's campaign were a successful minimum wage increase to $15/hour, a successful "millionaire's tax" or income tax on wealthy Seattleites, and an unsuccessful rent control program. Back during the 2013 campaign, Sawant had said rent control is "something everyone supports, except real estate developers and people like Richard Conlin" and compared the legal fight for its implementation to same-sex marriage, and the legalization of marijuana in the United States, both of which she supports. Her campaign for a $15 an hour minimum wage has been credited for bringing the issue into the mainstream and attracting support for the policy from both Seattle former Mayors Michael McGinn and Ed Murray. In response to criticism that a $15 an hour minimum wage could hurt the economy, she said, "If making sure that workers get out of poverty would severely impact the economy, then maybe we don't need this economy." She is also a supporter of expanding public transit and bikeways, ending corporate welfare, ending racial profiling, reducing taxes on small businesses and homeowners, protecting public sector unions from layoffs, living wage union jobs, and social services.

Sawant's platform of non-local Seattle issues, like rent control, income tax, corporate welfare, supporting the minimum wage outside Seattle, in SeaTac, and other cities, and participating in the Seattle Arctic drilling protests drew criticism from Sawant's opponents and favor with her liberal supporters. Her District 3 opponent Pamela Banks criticized Sawant's status as a national figure was a distraction from her primary duty to serve her constituents. The Seattle Times, in their endorsement of Banks, said the City Council "isn't a job for an ideologue" and that "the District 3 seat is more than a podium", that it "needs a collaborative leader to work with other districts and balance resources and investment." On April 7, 2015, journalist Chris Hedges endorsed Sawant.

Sawant advanced through the primary election for City Council District 3 representative on August 4, 2015 with 52% of the vote, 18 percentage points ahead of her closest opponent, Pamela Banks at 34%. Voters returned Sawant to the City Council and made her the first District 3 representative in November 2015, with 17,170 votes counted for Sawant and 13,427 for Banks, or 56% to 44%. With incumbent O'Brien elected to District 6, and former Licata aide Lisa Herbold elected to District 1, they, along with Sawant, became the new progressive bloc of the Council, which became majority female with the addition of two other women, Debora Juarez and Lorena González. Sawant, as one of the four people of color on the new Council, also became part of a younger and more diverse Council, the first to seat members by district in more than 100 years.

2019 election

In 2019, Sawant ran against Egan Orion, a small business advocate and organizer of the city's annual LGBT pride festival.

The 2019 Seattle City Council election gained national attention after Amazon spent an unprecedented $1.5 million on the campaign. The company, which is the largest private employer in the city, contributed the funds to a political action committee operated by the Seattle Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce which backs candidates the chamber considers to be more "business-friendly". The PAC supported Sawant's opponent in the race. Amazon became increasingly involved in city council politics after the passage of the Seattle head tax in 2018, which would have cost the company $11 million annually in order to fund public housing and homeless services. Shortly after enacting the tax, the city council voted 7–2 to repeal it, with Sawant being one of the two dissenters.

On November 5, 2019, Sawant was elected to a third term on the Seattle City Council.

2020

Sawant and Mayor Jenny Durkan have repeatedly clashed, and in June 2020, Sawant said that the mayor should resign. In a letter to the Council president on June 30, 2020, Durkan asked the City Council to investigate Sawant under its city charter authority to punish members for "disorderly or otherwise contemptuous behavior," writing that Sawant had participated in a march to her home, knowing that her address "was protected under the state confidentiality program because of threats against me due largely to my work as U.S. Attorney." The mayor accused Sawant and others of acting "with reckless disregard of the safety of my family and children." Additionally, Sawant led protesters into Seattle City Hall, which was closed to the public due to the coronavirus pandemic, on the evening of June 9, 2020. Durkan also alleged that Sawant had used her council office to promote the "Tax Amazon" ballot initiative, urged protesters to occupy the East Precinct police station, and involved Socialist Alternative in her council office staffing decisions. Durkan said that she respected policy disagreements with members, but that these disagreements, "do not justify a council member who potentially uses their position in violation of law or who recklessly undermines the safety of others, all for political theatre." In response, Sawant accused Durkan of being the leader of a "pro-corporate political establishment" and of carrying out "an attack on working people's movements."

In August 2020, petitioner Ernie Lou submitted a petition to the King County Elections Office to recall Sawant, which was allowed to proceed in a decision by the Washington Supreme Court on April 1, 2021. Sawant responded by denying the charges in the petition and claiming that the recall effort is backed by right-wing billionaires. The recall campaign was criticised by journalist Liza Featherstone, who characterised it as being controlled by "tech corporations, real estate interests, and business lobbyists". In September 2021, the King County Elections Office set the recall election date for December 7.

Political positions

Sawant has advocated the nationalization of large Washington State corporations such as BoeingMicrosoft, and Amazon and expressed a desire to see privately owned housing in "Millionaire's Row" in the Capitol Hill neighborhood turned into publicly owned shared housing complex saying, "When things are exquisitely beautiful and rare, they shouldn't be privately owned." During an election victory rally for her City Council campaign, Sawant criticized Boeing for saying it would move jobs out of state if it could not get wage concessions and tax breaks. She called this "economic terrorism" and said in several speeches that if the company moved jobs out of state, the workers should take over its facilities and bring them into public ownership. She has said they could be converted into multiple uses, such as production for buses. Sawant maintains that a socialist economy cannot exist in a single country and must be a global system just as capitalism today is a global system.
Sawant greeting students that are touring Seattle City Hall

Sawant unsuccessfully opposed the construction of the Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel calling it "environmentally destructive" and "something most people were against, most environmental groups were against".

She unsuccessfully opposed the Seattle Public Schools Measures of Academic Progress test in public schools, and supported the teachers' boycott of the standardized tests. Sawant has called for a revolt against student debt saying that "the laws of the rich are unenforceable if the working class refuses to obey those laws". She is an active member of the American Federation of Teachers union and has been critical of American labor union leadership, saying the leadership, "in the last 30 years has completely betrayed the working class. They are hand in glove with the Democratic Party, pouring hundreds of thousands of dollars into their campaigns, and they tell rank and file workers that you have to be happy with these crumbs". Sawant believes the American Labor movement should break with the Democratic Party and run grassroots left-wing candidates.

Sawant advocates for a moratorium on deportations of undocumented immigrants from Seattle and granting unconditional citizenship for all persons currently in the United States without citizenship. She opposes the E-Verify system.

Political ideology

Sawant is a member of Socialist Alternative, the United States section of the Trotskyist international organization the International Socialist Alternative, formerly the Committee for a Workers' International (CWI).

Sawant said she rejects working with either the Democratic or the Republican party and advocates abandoning the two-party system. She has called for "a movement to break the undemocratic power of big business and build a society that works for working people, not corporate profits—a democratic socialist society." In 2013, Sawant urged other left-wing groups, including Greens and trade unions, "to use her campaign as a model to inspire a much broader movement".

On February 20, 2019 she published an article in Socialist Alternative backing Bernie Sanders' run for the Democratic nomination. In 2020, she spoke at a campaign rally for him at the Tacoma Dome in Tacoma, Washington. She joined the Democratic Socialists of America in February 2021.

Occupy movement
Sawant at Transgender Pride Day Proclamation

Before running for office, Sawant received attention as an organizer in the local Occupy movement. She praised Occupy for putting "class," "capitalism," and "socialism" into the political debate. After Occupy Seattle protesters were removed from Westlake Park by order of Seattle Mayor Michael McGinn, Sawant helped bring them to the Capitol Hill campus of Seattle Central Community College, where they remained for two months. She joined with Occupy activists working with local organizations to resist home evictions and foreclosures, and was arrested with several Occupy activists including Dorli Rainey on July 31, 2012 for blocking King County Sheriff's deputies from evicting a man from his home.

The Sawant state campaign criticized the raiding of Occupy Wall Street activists' homes by the Seattle Police Department's SWAT team. She also advocated on LGBT, women's, and people of color issues, and opposed cuts to education and other social programs. She gave a teach-in course at an all-night course at Seattle Central Community College.

Civil disobedience

On November 19, 2014, Sawant was arrested on a charge of disorderly conduct at a $15 minimum wage protest in Seatac, Washington. She was released on $500 bail. On May 1, 2015, a SeaTac municipal court judge dismissed charges against her. The judge determined that testimony provided by police demonstrated that it was technically the police themselves, not protesters, who had blocked traffic.

In a February 2017 article in the socialist magazine Jacobin, Sawant called for a "wave of protests and strikes" on May Day, including "workplace actions as well a mass peaceful civil disobedience that shuts down highways, airports, and other key infrastructure". Her statement was controversial: Seattle Mayor Ed Murray said that it was "unfortunate and perhaps even tragic for an elected official to encourage people to confront and engage in confrontations with the police department" and the Washington State Patrol called the writings "irresponsible" and "reckless".

In June 2020, Sawant was criticized by the Trotskyist World Socialist Web Site (WSWS) for supposedly working "along politically harmless channels by promoting illusions in local police reform" and for promoting "the anarchistic commune" known as the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone (CHAZ). Following a June 20 shooting in the zone that left one man dead and another critically wounded, Sawant said there were "indications that this may have been a right-wing attack," for which President Trump would bear "direct responsibility, since he has fomented reactionary hatred specifically against the peaceful Capitol Hill occupation". Two days later, The Seattle Times reported, Sawant "walked back her unfounded claim that the shooting 'may have been a right-wing attack.' She now says that appears to be incorrect".

Personal life

Sawant is often reticent to speak about her personal life and background, preferring to stick to political issues. She has said that her entire family remains in India with her mother currently residing in Bangalore. During her 2013 campaign for the Seattle City Council, she indicated that she and her husband Vivek Sawant, had been separated for nearly six years. In 2014, Sawant and Calvin Priest, a Seattle Socialist Alternative organizer, purchased a home together in the Leschi neighborhood. In 2016, Sawant took time off to be out of the country for their wedding.

Kshama became a United States citizen in 2010.
K.L. Balmiki
From Wikipedia
Kanhaiya Lal Balmiki

In office
1952—1967
Succeeded by Ram Charan
Constituency KhurjaUttar Pradesh
Personal details
Born 14 March 1919
Village Khanai, BaluchistanBritish India
Died 2 September 1985 (aged 66)
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Ramavati Devi
Children 3

Kanhaiya Lal Balmiki (14 March 1919 — 2 September 1985) was an Indian politician. He was elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India from the Khurja constituency of Uttar Pradesh as a member of the Indian National Congress.

Balmiki was born 14 March 1919 in the village of Khanai (Baluchistan). He was educated in Government Intermediate CollegeAllahabad and Meerut College. Married to Ramavati Devi on June 15, 1941, they have two sons and two daughters.

Balmiki actively participated in the Quit India Movement. As a student, he participated several times in Hartal and Satyagraha. He was imprisoned as a political detainee during 1943—1945.
Kailash Chandra Meghwal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kailash Chandra Meghwal

Speaker of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
In office
22 January 2014 – 15 January 2019
Preceded by Deependra Singh Shekhawat
Succeeded by C. P. Joshi
Constituency Shahpura, (SC)
Union Minister of State, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
In office
2003-2004
Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Home Minister, Government of Rajasthan
In office
1993 - 1998
Member of Parliament
for Tonk
In office
2001-2009
Member of Parliament Lok sabha
In office
1989 to 1991
Constituency Jalore
Member of Legislative Assembly
In office
2008 to incumbent
Constituency Shahpura
Personal details
Born 22 March 1934 (age 86)
UdaipurUdaipur StateBritish India
Political party Bharatiya Janata Party
Residence UdaipurRajasthanIndia
Website http://rajassembly.nic.in/KailashMeghwal.htm
As of 14 September, 2006

Kailash Chandra Meghwal (born 22 March 1934) was former Speaker of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly, former union minister of state in Government of India and a national vice president of Bharatiya Janata Party. He represents MLA of Shahpura, Bhilwara constituency of Rajasthan in 14th Rajasthan Legislative Assembly & Ex-MP Tonk constituency of Rajasthan in 14th Lok Sabha. He was minister of state for social justice and empowerment from 2003 to 2004.

Born in 1934 in Udaipur District he did MA and LLB from University of Rajasthan. He was imprisoned in emergency in 1975 and released in 1977. He was president of Udaipur Bar Association and a member of senate of Udaipur University.

Membership
1977-1985 Member, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (two term)
1989 Elected to 9th Lok Sabha from Jalore
1990 Member, Rajasthan Lagislative Assembly (3rd term)
1993-1998 Member, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (4th term)
22 Sept. 2001 Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (in by-election, 2nd term)
2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha, (3rd term)
2013 Member, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (5th term)
2018 Member, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (6th term)
Positions held
1962 Joint Secretary, Praja Socialist Party. Rajasthan
1969-1975 Joint Secretary,Bharatiya Jansangh, Rajasthan
1977 Minister of State with Independent Charge of Ministry of Mines & Geology, Panchayati Raj & Sheep and Wool, Government of Rajasthan
1978 Cabinet Minister, Sahakarita and Mines and Geology, Government of Rajasthan
1980-1982 Secretary, Bharatiya Janata Party, Rajasthan
1981-1984 Member, Public Accounts Committee, Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
1982-1985 General Secretary, B.J.P., Rajasthan
1987 onwards Vice-President, B.J.P., Rajasthan
1991-1992 Cabinet Minister, Irrigation and Relief, Government of Rajasthan
1994-1998 Cabinet Minister, Ministry of Home, Mines and Printing, Government of Rajasthan
2003-2004 Union Minister of State, Social Justice and Empowerment
Cabinet Minister of Mines and Geology,Government of Rajasthan (20.12.2013-21.01.2014)
Speaker of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
Laxmanrao Pandurang Patil
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Laxmanrao Pandurang Jadhav (Patil)
In office
1999–2009
Preceded by Abhaysinh Bhosale
Succeeded by Udayanraje Bhosale
Constituency Satara
Personal details
Born 25 February 1938
Spouse(s) Suman Tai Patil
Children 3 sons Makrand Patil, Milind Patil and Nitin Patil
Residence Vikas Nagar, P.O. Krishnanagar, SataraMaharashtra
Education Matriculate
Alma mater Dravida High School, Wai
Profession Agriculturist

Laxmanrao Pandurang Jadhav (Patil) (born 25 February 1938) was a member of the 13th Lok Sabha and 14th Lok Sabha of India till 2009. He represented the Satara constituency of Maharashtra and is a member of the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) political party.

He was also a member of the 13th Lok Sabha from Satara. His son, Makrand Patil is 3 times sitting in MLA from Wai from 2009 till now.

Positions held

1972-80 President, Panchayat Samiti, Wai, District. Satara, Maharashtra
1980-90 President, Zila Parishad, Satara, Maharashtra
1999 Elected to 13th Lok Sabha
President, Nationalist Congress Party, District. Satara, Maharashtra
1999-2000 Member, Committee on Food, Civil Supplies and Public Distribution
2000 onwards Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Communications
L. N. Hardas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
L. N. Hardas
Portrait of L.N. Hardas
Born 6 January 1904

Kamthi, British India
Died 12 January 1939 (aged 35)

British India
Nationality Indian
Known for Pioneer of the greeting phrase Jai Bhim
Spouse(s) Sahubai

Hardas Laxmanrao Nagrale (6 January 1904 – 12 January 1939), popularly known as Babu Hardas, was an Indian Dalit leader, politician and social reformer. He was an ardent follower of B. R. Ambedkar and was pioneer of the practice of exchanging the greeting Jai Bhim amongst the Dalits. He was also a prominent labour leader in the Central Province and was the general secretary of the Independent Labour Party in the province. Hardas was also the first Member of the Legislative Assembly to be elected from Nagpur Kamptee constituency in 1937.

Life

Hardas born in a Mahar family at Kamthi on 6 January 1904. His father, Laxmanrao Nagrale, was a clerk in the Railway Department. He passed his matriculation from Patwardhan High School, Nagpur. He also studied Sanskrit with Swami Brahmanand of the Arya Samaj at Nagpur.

Consistent with the social customs of that time, in 1920, aged 16, he married Sahubai.

Social reformer

At the age of 17, Hardas founded a weekly publication titled Maharatha, distributed from Nagpur with a view to spreading social awareness among the Dalits. He tried to organise the Mahar community by founding the Mahar Samaj organisation in 1922. He also formed one Mahar Samaj Pathak, a voluntary corps group, to bring together the disorganised Mahar youth to protect the Dalits against atrocities. He opened a Mahila Ashram in order to imparting training to Dalit women in daily activities. Also, in order to avoid exploitation of beedi workers, he started the beedi work on cooperative basis, which became very successful in the area.

Hardas was a strong opponent of irrational and superstitious customs. He was strongly opposed to the sub-caste barriers amongst the depressed classes. He arranged annual community dinners that crossed these lines on the death anniversary of Chokhamela, a 14th-century saint from the Mahar community. He was against idol worship. He organised a meeting of his brethren in 1927 at Ramtek under the presidency of Kisan Faguji Bansod. At this meeting, Hardas exhorted his people to start idol worship at the temple of Ramtek and stop bathing in the dirty Ambada tank there. However, he sent a group of his followers under the leadership of Shankar Mukunda Bele to participate in the Kalaram Temple Entry Satyagraha led by B. R. Ambedkar on 2 March 1930. He argued that this was against inequality and not to worship idols.

Hardas was also a strong advocate of education for Dalits. He himself had completed matriculation, which was then a rare thing for Dalits. He started night schools at Kamthi in 1927 at the behest of the Mahar community. There were 86 boys and 22 girls learning in his school at a time. He also started one Sant Chokhamela Library at Kamthi around the same time.

Hardas was a prolific writer and mostly used his writing skills for creating social awareness in the depressed classes. He penned a book Mandal Mahatme in 1924 to create awareness amongst the people against the evils in society. He distributed free copies of this book among the people. This book created a significant impact on the people and the Dalit people in the area stopped watching and enjoying plays based on Hindu gods. He also wrote a play Veer Balak (Brave Child) and staged it to create a new wave of awareness among the people. He wrote and published Songs of the Market and Songs of the Hearth. His articles were also published in Weekly Janta, which was edited by Ambedkar.

Political career

Hardas met Dr. B. R. Ambedkar in 1928 for the first time. Though he started his social activities long back, his political career get a push with this meeting. In the same year, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar requested him to give his witness in front of Simon Commission. Later in year 1930–31, with regards to the Second Round Table Conference, when question arose about the real leadership of untouchables, Hardas sent a telegram to Ramsay MacDonald, the then prime minister of the United Kingdom, that Dr. B. R. Ambedkar is the real leader of untouchables and not Mahatma Gandhi. He also created an opinion about this in different parts of the country and sent a total of 32 telegrams to McDonald by various untouchable leaders. Like B. R. Ambedkar, Hardas wanted greater participation of the depressed classes in the legislative assemblies. He appealed the governor of Central Provinces and Berar to nominate members among the depressed classes to the legislative council, district local boards, and municipalities. He was among the main organisers of the Conference of the Depressed Classes at Nagpur on 8 August 1930 presided over by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. This conference passed the resolution to have separate electorates for the depressed classes. This conference formed All India Depressed Classes Federation and Hardas was elected as a joint secretary of the federation. The second conference of All India Depressed Classes was held at Kamthi on 7 May 1932 and Hardas was the president of its reception committee. At this meeting, he was elected as a secretary of the national body of the federation.

Hardas became secretary of CP and Berar branch of Independent Labour Party (ILP) in 1936. He fought the assembly elections in 1937 from Nagpur-Kamthi constituency and won.[8] In 1938, he was also nominated as the president of the CP and Berar branch of ILP. In 1939, he fell sick with tuberculosis and died on 12 January 1939.

Legacy

Hardas left a significant impact on the depressed classes even after his death. Moon notes that "Just as a comet appears, bringing light throughout the sky, and then vanishing in instant, so it happened with Hardas." The greeting phrase Jai Bhim coined by him has become a general term of greeting amongst the Dalits in India. It is also a formal greeting phrase of Bahujan Samaj Party, a Dalit prominent and National Level party in India.

Film depiction

In 2016, producer Dhananjay Galani made a film titled Bole India Jai Bhim which portrayed the life and work of Hardas.
Maragatham Chandrasekar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maragatham Chandrasekar

Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Thiruvallur
In office
1962–1967
Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded by None
Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Thiruvallur
In office
1951–1957
Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded by None
Personal details
Born 11 November 1917
Died 27 October 2001 (aged 83)
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) R. Chandrasekar
Profession Politician

Maragatham Chandrasekar (11 November 1917 – 27 October 2001) was an Indian politician and Member of Parliament from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Personal life
Maragatham Chandrasekar was born Maragatham Muniswami to Vidwan Kalathur Muniswami on 11 November 1917. She obtained her Bachelor of Science degree in India and completed diplomas in free-lance, domestic science and dietitics course in London. She also did a course on Specialized Institution Management and Administration at London. Maragatham married R. Chandrasekar and had a son and a daughter, Lata Priyakumarwho also served as a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu
Politics
Maragatham Chandrasekar joined the Indian National Congress and was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruvallur in the 1951 parliamentary elections. She served as the Member of Lok Sabha for Tiruvallur from 1951 to 1957 and 1962 to 1967 and Member of the Rajya Sabha from 1970 to 1984. She served as the Union Deputy Minister for Health from 1951 to 1957, Home Affairs from 1962 to 1964 and Social Welfare from 1964 to 1967. In 1972, Maragatham was elected General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee.
Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
As former Member of Parliament from Sriperumbudur, Maragatham hosted the former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi during his visit to Sriperumbudur in 1991. She was present at the rally in Sriperumbudur where Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated.
Death
Maragatham died on 27 October 2001
Masuriya Din
From Wikipedia

Masuriya Din Pasi (born 2 October 1911) was an Indian politician, a fighter for independence who served as a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, the Constituent Assembly of India, the Provisional Parliament, and the first four Indian parliaments.

Masuriya Din Pasi (मसूरिया दिन पासी) was born in Jondhval, Allahabad. He belonged to Pasi community, the second most numerous Scheduled Caste grouping in UP, second only behind the Jatav(जाटव) community. He was educated at the Government Normal School in Allahabad. A businessman, he took part in the Indian independence movement , taking part in against the criminal tribe act and was imprisoned several times between 1932 and 1944. He was a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 1946 to 1952, while also serving in the national Constituent Assembly and its successor, the Provisional Parliament. He was then elected to the firstsecondthird and 4th Lok Sabha, where he represented Phulpur and later Chail seats in Uttar Pradesh. He was a member of the Congress Party.

Masuriya Din

In office
1962–1971
Succeeded by Chhotey Lal
Constituency Chail
In office
1952–1962
Succeeded by Jawaharlal Nehru
Constituency Phulpur
Personal details
Born 2 October 1911
Died 21 July 1978 (aged 66)
Political party INC
Spouse(s) Laxmi Devi
Children 6 son, 5 daughter including, Shashi Prakash

He was married to Laxmi Devi; they had 11 children. Masuriya Din 'Pasi' (1911 - 1978) was an Indian politician and Indian independence activist.

Early life

Masuriya Din Pasi was born in 2 October 1911 to Bindeshwari Prasad at Jondhval, Allahabad, United Provinces, British India. He belonged to Pasi caste and was a follower of Arya Samaj. He was president of All India Pasi Mahasabha.

He was educated at the Government Normal School and started a small business in Allahabad. He took part in the Indian independence movement , taking part in against the Criminal Tribes Act and was imprisoned several times between 1932 and 1944. He was one of the prominent Dalit leaders from eastern Uttar Pradesh.

He was married to Laxmi Devi, they had 11 children. His son, Shashi Prakash also been M.P from Chail Lok sabha constituency .

Political life

He joined Congress and been member of All India Congress Committee and President of Allahabad Dist Congress Committee. He was part of the Constituent Assembly of India and the Provisional Parliament of India.

He also served as the member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 1946 - 52. He was then elected to the 1st Lok Sabha and 2nd Lok Sabha from Phulpur constituency bysharing seat with Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. He also got elected to the 3rd Lok Sabha and 4th Lok Sabha from Chail constituency in Uttar Pradesh.

He also served as the member of All India Depressed Classes League, Harijan Welfare Board and was part of working committee in Iswar Saran Harijan Ashram (Allahabad), President of Allahabad University Court, M.E.S. Union and Post Men Union in Allahabad.
Minimata Agam Dass Gur
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Minimata Agam Dass Guru (15 March 1916 - 1973) was an Indian politician from the Indian National Congress Party, and a member of parliament in the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Lok Sabha (lower house of the Parliament of India).

Early life
Minimata was born in Nawagaon district in Assam in 1916. She was educated at Girls School, Nawagon and Raipur.

Political career

Minimata was elected to the first Lok Sabha in a bye-election in 1955 after the death of the sitting MP, her husband, Guru Agamdas] She contested the same constituency on a Congress party nomination and won. In 1962, she contested for the Indian National Congress party in Madhya Pradesh state, in Baloda Bazar, a Scheduled Caste reserved constituency. She won with more than 52% of the vote, defeating the Prajya Socialist Party candidate. In 1967, she contested for the Indian National Congress Party in the Schedule Caste reserved constituency of Janjgir, then in Madhya Pradesh state, winning with more than 62% of the vote. Minimata contested the same constituency of Janjgir in 1971, again for the Indian National Congress Party, and again winning the election. She died in 1973 before the end of her parliamentary term, prompting a by-election.

Besides her parliamentary work, she served as General Secretary, State Congress Committee; President of Guru Ghasidas Seva Sangh; President of Harijan Education Society; Vice-President, State Depressed Classes League; Secretary, Mahila Mandal, Raipur. She was also a member of the Social Welfare Board, Raipur and a member of District Congress Committee, Raipur.

Minimata was associated with Satnami politics, a form of Ambedkarite Dalit self-assertion.After the death of her husband, she took on the leadership of the community. She stood against casteism and untouchability, as well as child marriage and dowry
.
Personal life

She married Shri Agam Dass Guru on July 2, 1930. Her parliamentary profile listed her hobbies as reading, knitting, embroidery, cooking and gardening, and debating and discussion on social and political affairs.

Minimata died in an airplane crash on a flight from Raipur to Delhi; the plane crashed as it tried to land at Palam airport
Meira Kumar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Meira Kumar


In office
4 June 2009 – 18 May 2014
Deputy Kariya Munda
Preceded by Somnath Chatterjee
Succeeded by Sumitra Mahajan
In office
22 May 2009 – 25 May 2009
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Saifuddin Soz
Succeeded by Pawan Kumar Bansal
In office
22 May 2004 – 22 May 2009
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Satyanarayan Jatiya
Succeeded by Selja Kumari
for Sasaram
In office
2004–2014
Preceded by Muni Lall
Succeeded by Chhedi Paswan
In office
1996–1999
Preceded by Kalka Dass
Succeeded by Anita Arya
for Bijnor
In office
1985–1989
Preceded by Chowdhary Girdhari Lal
Succeeded by Mayawati
Personal details
Born 31 March 1945
PatnaBiharBritish India (present day PatnaBiharIndia)
Political party Indian National Congress
Other political
Spouse(s) Manjul Kumar
Children Anshul Kumar
Devangana Kumar
Swati Kumar

Meira Kumar (born 31 March 1945) is an Indian politician and former diplomat. A member of the Indian National Congress, she was the Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment from 2004 to 2009, the Minister of Water Resources for a brief period in 2009, and the 15th Speaker of Lok Sabha from 2009 to 2014. Kumar became just the second woman to be nominated for president of India by a major political bloc when she secured the United Progressive Alliance's nomination in 2017.

Prior to being a member of the 15th Lok Sabha, Kumar had been elected earlier to the 8th11th12th and 14th Lok Sabha. Kumar was the joint presidential candidate by the leading opposition parties for 2017 presidential election and lost the election to the NDA nominee Ram Nath Kovind, but made a record for obtaining the most votes ever by a losing candidate (3,67,314 Electoral votes).

Early life

Meira Kumar was born on 31 March 1945 in a Chamar family, in Patna districtBihar of the British India (present day Bihar, India) to Jagjivan Ram, a dalit leader and former Deputy Prime Minister and Indrani Devi, a prominent leader of the Indian freedom struggle. Growing up, Kumar shared a close relationship with her mother, who she spent most of her time with. She discussed the impact that her mother had on her in an interview with Manoj Tibrewal of the Doordarshan News, calling her the biggest influence from her childhood.

Kumar attended the Welham Girls SchoolDehradun and Maharani Gayatri Devi Girls' Public School in Jaipur. She studied at Banasthali Vidyapith for a short duration. She completed her Master's degree and Bachelors of Law from Indraprastha College and the Faculty of Law, University of Delhi respectively. She also received an honorary doctorate from Banasthali Vidyapith in 2010.

Kumar worked as a social worker during her youth, actively participating in movements supporting social reformshuman rights, and democratic ideas. She was appointed as the Chairperson of National Drought Relief Committee constituted by the Congress during 1967 famine in region of Bihar. As the head of the commission, Kumar launched a Family Adoption Scheme under which drought-affected families were provided support from volunteering households.

Career
Foreign Service

Kumar joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1973 and was the ambassador to Embassy of India in Madrid, Spain, a position that she held from 1976 to 1977. During her time in Madrid, Kumar graduated with an advanced diploma in Spanish. Following that, Kumar was appointed as the High Commission of India to the United Kingdom in 1977. She was stationed in the India House, London for two years until the end of her term in 1979. After working as an ambassador for a little over a decade, Kumar quit the Indian Foreign Services in 1985 and decided to enter politics after being encouraged by her father and the then Prime Minister of IndiaRajiv Gandhi.

Political career

Kumar entered electoral politics in 1985, when she received an Indian National Congress' nomination for the Lok Sabha from the Bijnor constituency bye-poll in Uttar Pradesh. She defeated, as a newcomer, two veteran dalit leaders including Ram Vilas Paswan of the Janata Dal and Mayawati of the Bahujan Samajwadi Party. Following her election to the Lok Sabha, Kumar was appointed as member of the Ministry of External Affairs' Consultative Committee in 1986.

Meera Kumar lost elections for 9th Lok Sabha (1989) and 10th Lok Sabha from Sasaram, but went on to win elections for the 11th (in 1996) and the 12th Lok Sabhas from Karol Bagh in Delhi. She lost her seat to the candidate from the Bhartiya Janata Party in 1999 election, but was able re-elected with a significant majority from her father's former constituency of Sasaram in Bihar in 2004 and 2009. In the 2014 general election and in 2019, Kumar contested from Sasaram and lost both times to her nemesis Chhedi Paswan who has defeated her in Sasaram four times.

Kumar meeting Burmese leader Aung Suu Kyi in 2013.

Following the Congress party's win in the 2004 Indian general elections, Kumar served in the United Progressive Alliance's Government as the Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment from 2004 to 2009, under the premiership of Manmohan Singh.

In 2009, the United Progressive Alliance returned to power after an improved performance in the general election and Kumar was, on May 22, 2009, briefly inducted as member of the centre's cabinet as the Minister for Water Resources.

However, she was later nominated for the position of the Speaker of Lok Sabha and she submitted her resignation three days after assuming ministerial office. Kumar was then elected as the first ever woman speaker of Lok Sabha and remained in office from 2009 to 2014.

2017 presidential election

Kumar secured the United Progressive Alliance's nomination for the 2017 Indian presidential election, becoming just the third woman to be nominated for president of India by a major political bloc,[a] after Pratibha Patil. Although she received support from most of the major opposition parties for her election to the office, she went on to lose to the National Democratic Alliance nominee Ram Nath Kovind.

Kovind received a total of 2,930 votes (which included both Members of Parliament and Members of the Legislative Assemblies) amounting to electoral college votes of 702,044. He defeated Kumar, who received a total of 1,844 votes amounting to 367,314 votes in terms of electoral college. Kumar's total of 367,314 votes remain the highest number polled by any losing candidate in the history of presidential elections in India.
Mallikarjun Kharge
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mallikarjun Kharge


Assumed office
16 February 2021
Chairman Venkaiah Naidu
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Preceded by Ghulam Nabi Azad

Assumed office
12 June 2020
Preceded by Rajeev Gowda
Constituency Karnataka
In office
4 June 2014 – 16 June 2019
In office
2016–2019
Preceded by K V Thomas
General Secretary of
AICC and Incharge for Maharashtra
In office
22 June 2018 – 11 September 2020
Preceded by Position Created
Succeeded by H. K. Patil
In office
17 June 2013 – 26 May 2014
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by C. P. Joshi
Succeeded by D. V. Sadananda Gowda
In office
29 May 2009 – 16 June 2013
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Oscar Fernandes
Succeeded by Sis Ram Ola
In office
31 May 2009 – 23 May 2019
Preceded by Iqbal Ahmed Saradgi
Succeeded by Umesh. G. Jadhav
Constituency Gulbarga
In office
2005–2008
Preceded by Janardhana Poojary
Succeeded by R. V. Deshpande
In office
1972–2008
Preceded by N. Yenkappa
Succeeded by Baburao Chinchansur
Constituency Gurmitkal
In office
2008–2009
Succeeded by Valmiki Naik
Constituency Chittapur
In office
19 December 1996 – 7 July 1999
Preceded by B. S. Yediyurappa
Succeeded by Jagadish Shettar
In office
5 June 2008 – 28 May 2009
Preceded by N. Dharam Singh
Succeeded by Siddaramaiah
In office
1999–2004
In office
1978–1980
In office
1990–1992

Personal details

Born 21 July 1942 
Varwatti, Bidar districtHyderabad StateBritish India (present-day KarnatakaIndia))
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s)
Radhabai Kharge
​(m. 1968)​
Children 5
Alma mater Government College, Gulbarga

Mapanna Mallikarjun Kharge (born 21 July 1942) is an Indian politician who is the current Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from Karnataka and Leader of the Opposition of Rajya Sabha from 16 February 2021. He is the former Minister of Railways and Minister of Labour and Employment in the Government of India. Kharge is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party and was a Member of Parliament for GulbargaKarnataka during 2009–2019.

He is a senior Karnataka politician and was the Leader of opposition in the Karnataka Legislative Assembly. He was the President of Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee during the 2008 Karnataka State Assembly Elections.

He has won elections for a record 10 consecutive times having won the Assembly elections for an unprecedented 9 consecutive times (1972, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2009) and lost in the 2019 General Elections against Umesh Jadhav from Gulbarga. Mallikarjun Kharge was the leader of the congress party in Lok Sabha during 2014–2019.

Early life and background

Mallikarjun Kharge was born in the Varawatti, Bhalki Taluk, Bidar districtKarnataka to Mapanna Kharge and Sabavva. He finished his schooling from Nutan Vidyalaya in Gulbarga and went on to obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Government College, Gulbarga and his law degree from the Seth Shankarlal Lahoti Law College in Gulbarga. He started his legal practise as a junior in Justice Shivaraj Patil's office and fought cases for labour unions early in his legal career.

Political career
Early career

Kharge started his political career as a student union leader while in the Government College, Gulbarga when he was elected as the General Secretary of the students' body. In 1969, he became the legal advisor to the MSK Mills Employees' Union. He was also an influential labour union leader of Samyukta Majdoor Sangha and led many agitations fighting for the rights of labourers. In 1969, he joined the Indian National Congress and became President of the Gulbarga City Congress Committee

Rise in Karnataka's political scene

He first contested for the Karnataka State Assembly elections in 1972 and won from Gurmitkal constituency. In 1973, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Octroi Abolition Committee which went into the question of revitalising the economy of the municipal and civic bodies in the state of Karnataka. Based on its report, the then Devaraj Urs government abolished the levy of octroi at multiple points. In 1974, he was appointed as the Chairman of state-owned Leather Development Corporation and worked to improve the living conditions of thousands of cobblers who were indulging in the leather tanning industry. Work sheds cum residences were built across the state for their benefit during this time. In 1976, he was appointed as the Minister of State for Primary Education, during which time, over 16,000 backlog vacancies of SC/STs teachers were filled up by recruiting them directly into the service. Grants under grant-in-aid code were given to schools run by SC/ST managements for the first time.

In 1978, he was elected for the second time as MLA from Gurmitkal constituency and was appointed as Minister of State for Rural Development and Panchayat Raj in the Devaraj Urs ministry. In 1980, he became the Minister for Revenue in the Gundu Rao Cabinet. During this time, the focus was on effective land reforms, resulting in giving occupancy rights to millions of land-less tillers and labourers. More than 400 land tribunals were constituted to expedite the transfer of land rights to the tillers. In 1983, he was elected for the third time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal. In 1985, he was elected for the fourth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal and was appointed as the Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Karnataka Assembly.

In 1989, he was elected for the fifth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal. In 1990, he joined Bangarappa’s Cabinet as the Minister for Revenue, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, portfolios he had held earlier and brought about significant change. Restarting the Land Reforms process that had stopped in the interim, resulted in hundreds of thousands of acres of land being registered in the name of the landless tillers.

Between 1992 and 1994, he was the Minister for Co-operation, Medium and Large Industries in the Veerappa Moily Cabinet. In 1994, he was elected for the sixth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal and became the Leader of the Opposition in the Assembly. In 1999, he was elected for the seventh time to the Karnataka Assembly and was a front-runner to the post of Chief Minister of Karnataka. He became Minister for Home in the S. M. Krishna Cabinet during a particularly trying time for Karnataka especially the Rajkumar kidnap by the notorious poacher Veerappan and the Cauvery Riots. In 2004, he was elected for the eighth consecutive time to the Karnataka Assembly and was once again considered a front-runner to the post of the Chief Minister of Karnataka. He became the Minister for Transport and Water Resources in the Dharam Singh-led coalition government.

In 2005, he was appointed as the President of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee. In the Panchayat elections held soon after, Congress won the largest number of seats compared to BJP and JD(S) indicating a revival of the Congress fortunes in the rural areas of Karnataka. In 2008, he was elected for the record ninth consecutive time to the Assembly from Chitapur. Though the Congress party put up a better show when compared to the 2004 elections, the Congress lost the elections with a majority of the senior leaders losing. He was appointed as the Leader of the Opposition for the second time in 2008. In 2009, Kharge contested the general elections from Gulbarga Parliamentary Constituency and won his tenth consecutive election.

In the 2014 general elections, Kharge contested and won from the Gulbarga parliamentary seat, beating his closest rival from the BJP by over 73,000 votes. In June, he was appointed as the Leader of the Congress party in the Lok Sabha.

Kharge contested the 2019 general elections against Umesh. G. Jadhav, a BJP candidate, in Gulbarga Lok Sabha constituency of Karnataka. Jadhav defeated Mallikarjun Kharge by a margin of 95,452 votes. Jadhav polled 6,20,192 votes while Kharge got only 5,24,740 votes.

On 12 June 2020 Kharge was elected (unopposed) to Rajya Sabha from Karnataka, at the age of 78 years.

Philanthropic and social activities

He is the Founder-Chairman of Siddharth Vihar Trust that has built the Buddha Vihar in Gulbarga, India.

He is the Patron of Chowdiah Memorial Hall which is one of the premier concert and theatre venues in Bangalore and helped the centre get over its debts and aided the centre's plans for renovation.

Personal life

Kharge married Radhabai on 13 May 1968 and has two daughters and three sons. In 2006, Kharge said he follows Buddhism.
Mohan Dharia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mohan Dharia

Born 14 February 1925
Died 14 October 2013 (aged 88)
Alma mater

Occupation Politicianlawyer
Political party Janata Party
Awards

Position held Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission (1990–1991)


Mohan Dharia (14 February 1925 - 14 October 2013) was a Union minister, a lawyer and social worker. During his last days he stayed in Pune. Dharia was an environmentalist and ran a non-government organisation Vanrai. He was elected to the Lok Sabha twice from Pune Lok Sabha constituency, first in 1971 as an Indian National Congress (INC) member and became a Minister of State, and later in 1977 as a Bharatiya Lok Dal member, and joined the Morarji Desai Ministry as Union Minister of Commerce. Prior to it, he remained member of the Rajya Sabha twice from INC, first 1964-1970 and then 1970- 1971

He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honour in 2005, by Government of India for his contribution in social work.

Early life and education

Born in at village Nate, then Kolaba district, present Mahad TalukaRaigad district, to Manikchand Dharia, he did his schooling from Konkan Education Society, Mahad. Later he joined Fergusson College Pune to become a surgeon, but abandoned his studies to join the independence movement in 1942. Thereafter he studied law at ILS Law CollegePune University.

Career

He started his career as an advocate at the Bombay High Court and in time started his political career.

He was previously associated with the Praja Socialist Party and also participated in National Struggle. He was General Secretary of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee 1962—67 and Member of All India Congress Committee 1962—75. A highlight of Dharia's political career was his staunch opposition to the Thirty-eighth Amendment of the Constitution of India, introduced in 1975 by Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. He called it 'a surrender of parliamentary democracy to the coming dictatorship'. His opposition to the imposition of a state of emergency in June 1975 led to his detention by the government with other dissenting leaders such as Morarji DesaiChandra Shekhar and others. He quit Congress after the emergency after 1975.

He held various positions in Public life:

Member, Pune Municipal Corporation, 1957—60,
Chairman of its Transport Undertaking, 1957–58;
Elected to Rajya Sabha in 1964 and 1970;
Member, Fifth Lok Sabha, 1971—77 from Pune
Minister of State for Planning, May 1971 to October, 1974,
Minister of State for Works & Housing, October 1974 to March 1975;
Member, Sixth Lok Sabha, 1977-1980 from Pune.
Minister of Commerce, Civil Supplies and Co-operation since March, 1977;

Awards

Padma Vibhushan : Highest Padma Award,
D.Lit,
Yashwantrao Chavan Award for Excellence,
Rajiv Gandhi Paryavaran Ratna Award,
Pune’s Pride Award,
Jeevan Gaurav Award,
Development Jewel Award,
Meera Velayudhan
Meera Velayudhan is a Policy Analyst. Meera is actively involved in the debates supporting women's entry into Sabarimala, highlighting the constitutional value of the SC verdict. She is also part of 'Samam' Progressive Forum for women.
Meera Velayudhan

"Some of her own awareness was drawn from her household and family which played a role in founding the Pulaya Mahajana Sabha (1913), which was formed to offer resistance to the day to day life of a Dalit, and which later became a platform of bringing Dalit life to the public. My mother wrote: "My two elder brothers and my father Kunjan’s younger brother, Krishnethi (Krishnadiyasan- 1877-1937) , Pt. Karruppan( Prof. Mahrajas College), TK Krishna Menon (from the Thottekal family which produced several Dewans) formed the Pulaya Mahajana Sabha, with Krishnethi as President," Meera adds.

"There were many firsts in Dakshayani's life - the first Dalit girl to attend school wearing an upper cloth, the first Dalit woman graduate in India, a science graduate, member of the Cochin Legislative Council and the Constituent Assembly of India. There were many assertions too - of not walking with shoulders bent or not making way for upper castes while walking on the road," Meera recalls.

In one of her debates, Dakshayani memorably said, “I submit that a Constituent Assembly not only frames a Constitution but also gives the people a new framework for life. To frame such a Constitution is an easy task because there are many models for us to imitate...but to renew a people on a new foundation requires the synthetic vision of a planner...what we want is not all kinds of safeguards. It is the moral safeguards that give us real protection..what we want is the immediate removal of our social disabilities. Our freedom can be obtained only from Indians and not only from the British Government." ( Dakshayani Velayudhan,19 Dec,1946, CA debates)

Born in 1912, the time that she lived in itself is testimony to her struggle as a woman and as a Dalit, since the oppression of both was considered 'natural' at that time. She created history by covering the upper part of her body at a time when women from oppressed castes were not allowed to cover their breasts. Later (from 1813 to 1859) the state witnessed the Maru Marakkal Samaram or Channar revolt for women's right to wear clothes to cover their upper body.

Dakshayani had other unique achievements to her credit, too. She was the first woman to pass ESLC (Education equivalent to that of present time’s tenth standard) and the first Indian Dalit woman to become a graduate.

She was born in Mulavuukad, an isolated Island in Ernakulam. Her school education was at St Mary's school Mulavukad and MLC School, Chathyathu. She graduated from Maharaja's College, Ernakulam. When Dakshayani joined Maharaja's for a Chemistry course, she was the lone woman student to have enrolled. She trained in teaching from Madras to become a teacher. She became member of the Legislative Assembly, Kochi in 1945 and a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1946.

Even the very name Dakshayani challenged the existing caste hegemony as it was a name believed to be reserved for the upper castes (Dakshayani is another name for goddess Parvathy).

Dakshayani's marriage was also nothing short of a revolution. She married Raman Velayudhan in 1940 at Gandhi's Wardha Ashram. Velayudhan was a member of the first Parliament. He was also the uncle of former President KR Narayanan. The wedding was in the presence of Gandhi, his wife Kasturba, and a leprosy patient.
Madhusudan Das
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Madhusudan Das

Utkala Gouraba Madhusudan Das
Born 28 April 1848
Satyabhamapur, Cuttack districtBengal PresidencyCompany rule in India
Died 4 February 1934 (aged 85)
CuttackBihar and Orissa ProvinceBritish India
Occupation Lawyer, social reformer, minister, industrialist
Education M.A, B.L.
Alma mater Calcutta University
Period 1848–1934
Spouse Soudamini Devi
Children Sailabala Das, Sudhanshubala Hazra
Relatives Choudhury Raghunath Das
Parbati Debi (parents)

Madhusudan Das (28 April 1848 – 4 February 1934) was an Indian lawyer and social reformer, who founded Utkal Sammilani in 1903 to campaign for the unification of Orissa along with its social and industrial development. He was one of the main persons, helping in the creation of Orissa Province (present-day OdishaIndia), which was established on 1 April 1936. He was also the first graduate and advocate of Orissa. He is also known as Kulabruddha (Grand Old Man), Madhu Babu, and Utkala Gouraba (Pride of Utkal). In Odisha, his birthday is celebrated as the Lawyers' Day on 28 April.

Family

Madhusudan Das was born to a Zamindari (Karan Kayastha ) family in 28 April 1848 at Satyabhamapur, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Cuttack during the Company rule in India. His father was Choudhury Raghunath Das and his mother, Parbati Debi. They had initially named him Gobindaballabh. He had two elder sisters and a younger brother named Gopalballabh. Gopalballabh was a Magistrate at Bihar Province and the father of Ramadevi Choudhury. He was converted to Christianity that caused him boycotted in the village which he had to quit to erect a small house at the end of the village. The house was known as ‘Madhukothi’ or ‘Balipokharikothi’, later on used as the state office of the Kasturba National Memorial Trust, in a part of which was running the Anganabadi, Balbadi. Madhusudan had adopted two Bengali girls; Sailabala Das and Sudhanshubala Hazra. Sailabala was an educationist who had been trained in England, and in whose name the famous Sailabala Women's College of Cuttack was founded. Sailabala was Bengali, and her parents had left her in the care of Madhusudan Das and his wife Soudamini Devi at Calcutta. In 1864, he passed Matriculation from Cuttack and thereafter he was inclined to become a teacher and began his career as a teacher at Balasore for three years. The year 1866 was the year of a acute famine in Odisha, called the "Naanka Durviksha" When more than one lakh people died of hunger. This year he converted himself to Christian and changed his name as Madhusudan Das from his earlier name of Gobinda Ballav Choudhury. Sudhansubala Hazra was also Bengali and she was the first female lawyer of British India. Madhu babu was the resident tutor of Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, the former Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University in Calcutta and Janakinath Bose, father of Subhash Chandra Bose at Ravenshaw College.

Early life and education

After his early education, he moved to Cuttack High School (later known as Ravenshaw Collegiate School) which offered English education. In 1864, he passed the entrance examination and went to Calcutta University. In spite of extremely challenging conditions he lived in Calcutta for almost fifteen years, from 1866 to 1881. In 1870, he became the first Odia to complete his B.A. He continued his studies at Calcutta and earned his M.A. in 1873, and an LL.B degree in 1878, thus becoming the first scholar from Orissa to be thus educated.
Professional life


Statue of Madhu babu

After returning to Orissa from Calcutta in 1881, he started his legal practice. His insight knowledge on this field helped him to earn sufficiently and spend for the common man. He handled some important cases of his times such as Puri temple administration case, Keonjhar Riots Case etc. He was a source of inspiration for the lawyers in Orissa and in India. His birth anniversary is observed as Lawyers' Day in Odisha.
Political career


Known as 'Madhu Babu' by the common people, he worked for the political, social and economical upliftment of the people of Orissa and worked as a lawyer, journalist, legislator, politician and social reformer. He founded Utkal Sammilani which brought a revolution in the social and industrial development of Orissa. He was elected as a member of the legislative council of Bihar and Orissa Province and under the Diarchy scheme of Government of India Act, 1919, he was appointed as Minister for Local Self-Government, Medical Public Health, Public Works in 1921.

He was the first Odia to become a member of both the legislative council and the Central Legislative Assembly of India. He founded Utkal Sammilani (Utkal Union Conference) which laid the foundation of Odia nationalism. Utkal Sammilani spearheaded the demand for unification of Odia speaking areas under a single administration.This led to the formations of state of Odisha on 1 April 1936. He was also the first Odia to travel to England. He founded the Utkal Tannery in 1905, a factory producing shoes and other leather products. In 1897 he founded the Orissa Art Ware Works. With his support, the Tarakasi(filigree) work of silver ornaments achieved commendable feet.
Contribution to literature


As a writer and poet, patriotism was always at the forefront of his mind, and that was reflected in all of his literary works. He penned a number of articles and poems in both English and Odia. Some of his important poems are "Utkal Santan", "Jati Itihash" and "Jananira Ukti". He was also an influential speaker in Odia, Bengali and English.
Last years


He died on 4 February 1934 at the age of 85.
Mangu Ram Mugowalia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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Mangu Ram Mugowalia

Member of Punjab Legislative Assembly
In office
21 March 1946 – 4 July 1947
Personal details
Born 14 January 1886
MuggowalHoshiarpurPunjab ProvinceBritish India (now India)
Died 22 April 1980 (aged 94)
Political party Unionist Party (Punjab) (1946–1947)
Other political
affiliations Ghadar Party (Before 1946)

Mangu Ram (14 January 1886 – 22 April 1980), known popularly as Babu Mangu Ram Chaudhry, was an Indian freedom fighter, a politician from Punjab and one of the founder members of the Ghadar Party.

In 1909, he immigrated to the United States and there became associated with the Ghadar Party. Upon his return to India in 1925, he became a leader of the low-caste people, organising them in opposition to the system of untouchability that oppressed them. He was instrumental in the foundation of the Ad-Dharmi Movement, an organisation dedicated to attaining equality for Untouchables. He was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1946 and in 1972 received recognition in the form of a pension and an award from Indira Gandhi for his work towards Indian independence.

Personal life

Mugowalia was born to Harman Dass and Atri in a Chamar family of Muggowal village, Hoshiarpur districtPunjab ProvinceBritish India. His father Harman Dass left the traditional Chamar Caste occupation of Leathercraft. His mother Atri died when he was three. Harman Dass faced discrimination at every step of his life thus did not want his son to face the same problems and enrolled him in school for early education.

Education


Initially Mangu Ram was taught by a village saint (Sadhu) till the age of seven. He attended schools in Mugowal area and Dehradun. In most of the schools Mangu ram was the only Dalit Student. He was forced to sit in back of the classroom, or even in separate room, and had to listen through the open door. When he attended high school in Bajwara, he was forced to stay outside the building and had to listen to the classes through the windows. Once when he came inside during a heavy hailstorm, the Brahman teacher beat him and put all the classroom furniture, which he had "polluted" by his presence, outside in the rain to be literally and ritually washed clean. Nonetheless, Mangu Ram was a good student, he came third in his class in primary school. While the other students were encouraged to become patwaris (village record-keeper) or to seek higher education, Mangu Ram was encouraged to leave school and help his father at a more proper "Chamar task".

Ad-Dharmi movement

In 1925, after returning from US, Babu Mangoo Ram started teaching in a primary school in his home village of Mugowal, A school which he named Ad Dharm School. It was the same school where Babu Mangu Ram first convened the meeting that formally launched the Ad Dharam Movement. The establishment of movement was the voice against the brahminical society which put Dalits at bottom of the social structure. It was the glorious step by Dalits to attain the equality in caste laden society. Through the Ad dharm Movement, babu Mangu Ram pioneered Dalit movement in North India.

He succeeded remarkably well in creating awareness and awakening among the people. His path was beset with difficulties, and he had to work against the odds and trying circumstances. The message brought by Babu Mangu Ram was new and inspiring. It was aimed at awakening the untouchables. The message called upon them to know and realize themselves as they had forgotten their true selves due to hostile influences in which they had been living for thousands of years. It caught imagination and hearts of downtrodden people, soon Babu Mangu Ram became household name.

Death

Mangu Ram died on 22 April 1980
Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari

Wikipedia

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari

Postage stamp issued in honor of Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari

President of Indian National Congress

Birth 25 December 1880

Yusufpur, Mohammadabad, Ghazipur British India
The death 1936 ( Age : 56 years) in train between
Mussoorie - Delhi , British India
the nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress and Muslim League
Learning earnings Madras Medical College
London Lock Hospital
The business Doctor, freedom fighter
religion Islam

DR. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari ( Hindi : Mokhtar Ahmad Ansari , Urdu : مختار احمد انصاری )during the Indian Independence movement with an Indian nationalist and political leader of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League of former president. He was one of the founders of Jamia Millia IslamiaUniversity, he was also its Chancellor from 1928 to 1936.

Early life and medical career

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was born on 25 December 1880 in the city of Yusufpur-Mohammadabad in North-Western Provinces (now a part of Uttar Pradesh ).

He attended Victoria High School and later he and his family moved to Hyderabad . Ansari received a medical degree from Madras Medical College and went to England to study on a scholarship . He did M.D. And MS Acquired the titles of He was an upper-class student and worked at the Lock Hospital and Charing Cross Hospital in London . He was India's pioneer in surgery and today an Ansari ward is present in Charing Cross Hospital to honor his work .

Nationalist activities

Dr. Ansari joined the Indian independence movement during his stay in England. He returned to Delhi and joined both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League . He played an important role in negotiating the 1916 Lucknow Treaty and served as the league's president from 1918 to 1920. He was an outspoken supporter of the Khilafat Movement and brought together the government's Khilafat body, the League and the Congress Party at issue against Mustafa Kamal's decision to oust the Khalifa of Islam , the Sultan of Turkey , and the recognition of Turkish independence by the British Empire Worked to protest.

Dr. Ansari served as AICC Secretary General several times, as well as President of the Indian National Congress during the 1927 session. Dr. Ansari became closer to Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Party as a result of internal fighting and political divisions within the League in the 1920s and later the rise of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Muslim separatism.

Dr. Ansari ( Foundation Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia ) was one of the founders and shortly after the death of its primary founder, Dr. Hakim Ajmal Khan in 1927, he also worked as the Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi . Did it

Personal life and perceptions

Dr. Ansari's wife was a very religious woman who worked with him to uplift the Muslim women of Delhi. [ Citation needed ] Ansari family lived in a palatial home that Urdu in the Darus Salaam or Adobe of Peace was called. Whenever Mahatma Gandhi came to Delhi, the Ansari family often welcomed him and this house was a regular basis for the political activities of the Congress. However, he never stopped practicing medicine and often came to the aid of Indian politicians and the Indian royal system.

Dr. Ansari was one of a new generation of Indian Muslim nationalists, including Maulana Azad, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and others. He was very passionate about the issues of common Indian Muslims but, unlike Jinnah, was strongly against separate voters and opposed Jinnah's view that only the Muslim League could be representative of India's Muslim communities.

Dr. Ansari was very close to Mahatma Gandhi and favored Gandhism with his major teachings of non- violence and non-violent civil resistance . He had an intimate friendship with the Mahatma.

Dr. Ansari died of a heart attack in a train en route from Mussoorie to Delhi in 1936 , he is buried in the premises of Jamia Millia Islamia in Delhi.

P. Theagaraya Chetty
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pitti Theagaraya Chetty

Born 27 April 1852
Died 28 April 1925 (aged 73)

MadrasBritish India
Occupation lawyer, businessman, politician

Sir Pitti Theagaraya Chetty KCSI (27 April 1852 – 28 April 1925) was an Indian lawyer, industrialist and a prominent political leader from the erstwhile Madras province. He was one of the founders of the Justice Party in 1916 along with C. Natesa MudaliarDr. T. M. NairT.Nagar is a locality in Chennai which is named after him. On 1919 January 1, the title Dewan Bahadur was awarded to him

Theagaraya Chetty was born in Madras Presidency. After graduating from Presidency College, Madras he served as a corporator and legislator. He had an avid interest in politics and served as a member of the Indian National Congress before founding the South Indian Liberal Federation in 1917. He served as the President of the federation from 1917 till his death in 1925.

Early life

Chetty was born to a Devanga family in EgathurMadras Presidency on 27 April 1852 He did his schooling in Chennai and graduated in law from Presidency College, Madras. On graduation, he entered public life and served as a member of the Corporation of Madras from 1882 to 1922. He also served terms as the President of the Corporation of Madras, and then as a Councillor till 1922. He was the first non-official President of the Madras Corporation.

He was one of the founder-members of the South Indian Chamber of Commerce and served as its President. from 1910 to 1921. When the Industrial Conference came to Madras, Theagaraya Chetty was the Chairman of the Reception Committee. Theagaraya Chetty fought on behalf of the Indian Patriot newspaper and its editor Karunakara Menon against Dr T. M. Nair who later became his close associate.

The Dravidian Movement

The Madras Non-Brahmin Association was formed in 1909 by two lawyers from Madras city, P. Subramanyam and M. Purushotham Naidu. Sir Theagaroya Chetty did not involve himself in the movement until 1912, when the Madras United League (Later renamed as Madras Dravidian Association) was formed.

At a meeting held in Madras in November 1916 by a group of about thirty people, including Theagaraya Chetti and Dr. T. M. Nair, it was resolved to start a company for publishing newspapers advocating the cause of the non-Brahmin community. The newspaper was named Justice and started publishing from 26 February 1917 onwards. Dr. T. M. Nair was its first Editor.

A political party was organised by the South Indian People's Association under the leadership of Sir P.Theagaroya Chetty and Dr. T. M. Nair and was named the South Indian Liberal Federation. It later came to be popularly known as the Justice Party after the English daily Justice which the party published. The Federation was organised in October 1917 and its objectives were defined as :

to create and promote the education, social, economic, political, material and moral progress of all communities in Southern India other than Brahmins, to discuss public questions and make a true and timely representation to Government of the views and interests of the people of Southern India with the object of safeguarding and promoting the interests of all communities including Dalits and to disseminate by public lectures, by distribution of literature and by other means sound and liberal views in regard to public opinion "

Early Years of the Justice Party

Theagaraya Chetty was elected the first President of the Justice Party and served as President until his death in 1925. A constitution was drawn on 17 October 1917. District and city boards were established all over the Presidency.

In the initial stages, the Justice Party concentrated its energies on work of a social character than political. During this period, the Justice Party held all-India conferences to unite SCs and Its all over the country. The Justice Party argued for separate electorates and reservations in government jobs and civil service for Dalits, at the British Parliament in London. In 1919, Dr. T. M. Nair, the President of the Justice Party and leader of the delegation died in London at the age of fifty-one and was succeeded as President by Theagaraya Chetty.

1920 elections

When elections were held in December 1920 in the Madras Presidency as per the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, the Justice Party obtained a comfortable majority by winning 63 seats out of 98. The Governor of Madras invited Theagaraya Chetty to form the Government. However, Theagaraya Chetty refused on account of the ethical rule that head of a political party can't hold a post in the cabinet too. As a result, A. Subbarayalu Reddiar was appointed Chief Minister. He served for a few months before being succeeded by the Raja of Panagal.

Attitude towards Brahmins

In his speech as the President of the Reception Committee of the First Non-Brahmin Confederation, Theagaraya Chetty spoke:

Towards the Brahmins, we cherish no feelings of bitterness. If we have to fight them we do so in the interests of truth and justice, and we shall be prepared to extend to them too the right hand of fellowship, when they shall see the wrongs inflicted upon us and repent. Ours is essentially a movement of love and not of hate, or love based upon a sense of what is due to the various classes which constitute the population of this vast and ancient land

Death and legacy

History holds the fact that the credit of demolishing the influence of brahminism against the other communities belongs to the Justice Party and its successor party Dravidar Kazhagam. Theagaraya Chetty died on 28 April 1925 and was succeeded by the Raja of Panagal as the President of the Justice Party. He is usually credited for the victories of the Justice Party in the 1920 and 1923 elections and for turning the Justice Party into a formidable force in the Presidency that continued to be so for a couple of decades.

The locality T Nagar in Chennai is named after him. It is an important commercial centre today.

P. Thanulinga Nadar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paramarthalinga Thanulinga Nadar

Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Nagercoil
In office
1957–1962
Personal details
Born 17 February 1915
Died 2 November 1988 (aged 73)
Nationality Indian
Profession Politician

Paramarthalinga Thanulinga Nadar (17 February 1915 – 2 November 1988), also known simply as Thanulingam, was an Indian politician, Tamil Nadu Ellai Poratta Thyagi, and a staunch member of the now defunct Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress and would later emerge as a right-wing activist in the State. He served as a Member of Parliament with the Indian National Congress. In his later life, he served as the State President of the Hindu Munnani and played an active role in furthering Hindutva in the Indian State of Tamil Nadu in the 1980s.

Early life

Thanulinga Nadar was born on 17 February 1915 to M. Paramarthalinga Nadar in Thiruvananthapuram District (in the area comprised in present-day Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu State) of the Travancore kingdom. His parents belonged to the Nadar community of southern Travancore. His father fought against British rule. Thanulingam graduated in arts and law he was one of the active member of Marshall A.Nesamony's Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Movement. This led him in active politics.

Political career

Thanulinga Nadar joined the Indian Independence movement at the young stage. Later, he joined the Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Movement founded by Marshal A. Nesamony. After the merger in 1956, he was a close associate of K. Kamaraj.

He participated in the 1948 Travancore Representative Body elections of the Travancore State and was elected to the assembly. He secured third place in the 1951 elections, the first held as a part of the Republic of India. However, he contested the 1954 elections from Agastisvaram and was elected by a margin of 6,721 votes. He served as a member of M.L.A. till 1956 when southern Travancore became a part of Madras state.

In 1957, Thanulingam was elected to the Lok Sabha from Nagercoil from INC ticket. He served as a Member of Parliament till 1962.

Thanulingam was elected to the Rajya Sabha in 1964 and served as a member of the Rajya Sabha from 9 July 1964 to 2 April 1968.

Movement for the merger of Tamil regions of Travancore State with adjacent Madras State

Thiru.P.Thanulingam Nadar is the descendant of Thanumalaya Perumal Marachan family. This Marachan family provided asylum for the Travancore Prince Marthanda Varma during his tumultuous kingship struggle erupted in 1729 AD from the powerful Nair feudal lords called Ettuveetu Pillaimar.

When the Kumari Thanthai Marshal A.Nesamony founded Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Party on 8 September 1947 for the cause of merger of Tamil regions of erstwhile Travancore State to the adjacent Madras State on the basis of shared Tamil identity, the young Thiru.P.Thanulingam Nadar joined the movement and worked hard for the welfare of the same. When Travancore Representative Body elections conducted in 1948 for drafting the constitution for Travancore State, he was elected in Agasteeswaram Constituency from Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Party and defeated TTNC's arch rival political party of Pattom Thanu pillai's Travancore State Congress. In that Travancore Representative Body election-1948, Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Party stood as principal opposition party and its leader Marshal A.Nesamony served as leader of opposition.

Later in 1950, he started a new political party called the Tamil Nad Congress Party, T.P. for the cause of merger of Tamil Speaking regions of the then The United State of Travancore and Cochin with adjacent Madras State on the basis of shared Tamil identity as like his parental party, T.T.N.C. His Tamil Nad Congress Party had the joint general secretaries of T. T. Daniel (his relative) and P. S. Mony. He contested in Nagercoil parliamentary constituency as candidate of Tamil Nad Congress Party in first lok sabha election 1951 against T.T.N.C., and Socialist Party, S.P. and failed to get through. Later, he annexed his party with parental Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Party for preserving the unity of Tamil cause in Travancore Princely State. During the 1954 Travancore-Cochin State election, he fought in Agasteeswaram constituency as candidate of Travancore Tamil Nad Congress Party against Praja Socialist Part and INC and won the election. He, Ponnappan Nadar and Chithambara Nathan Nadar collectively joined hands with Marshal Nesamony as fellow TTNCians for the merger of Tamil areas with Madras State. His speech in Travancore Assembly is very famous and showed his love with Tamil. He usually had the habit of telling small stories during the Travancore assembly speech. One time he told in the Thiru-Kochi assembly that Mother Tongue is living soul of the human body.

He loved his senior and mentor Kumari Thanthi Marshal A. Nesamony very much since Nesamony was 20 years elder than him. During 1982, when there was a debate for naming Kanyakumari Transport Corporation by the name of Nesamony or Jeeva, he stick with Nesamony's name. His love towards his senior Marshal. A. Nesamony was evident from the fact that he was the Patron for the statue erection committee of Marshal A. Nesamony in front of Meenatchipuram Anna Bus Stand.

INC Movement

After accomplishing the merger task, TTNC Party merged with INC party in the presence of Thiru. K. Kamaraj Nadar on 26 January 1957. He was elected as M.P. from Kanniyakumari constituency from INC Party. After that, he served as Rajya Sabha M.P. from 1964 to 1968 from INC Party.

Movement against religious exploitation

Thanulinga Nadar was a devout Hindu. Many Hindus embraced Christianity in Kanyakumari district due to caste oppression by Hindu uppercastes; Thanulingam, who identified with the Hindu cause, strongly opposed the conversions. In the early 1980s, he joined the Hindu right wing organisation Hindu Munnani and soon became its State President. The caste conflict between the Nadars and fishermen in Mandaikadu Coast were later changed into religious conflict between Hindus and Christians due to organizations like Hindu Munnani. The Hindu Munnani played a destructive role during the Mandaikkadu riots. During the visit of M.G.R. to Mandikadu, Thanulingam Nadar met him and apprised the situation to him to defuse the crisis. He advised Shiv Sena founder and supremo Bal Thackeray to shelve the hatred policy towards Tamilians staying in Maharashtra State. Thanulingam was arrested along with other top Hindu Munnani leaders on 12 February 1983, as a preemptive measure to prevent Hindu-Christian clashes.

Death

Thanulingam Nadar died on 2 November 1988 at the age of 73.while he was addressing a public rally in Eral, Thirunelveli district.

Family

Thanulingam married Nakshetram Ammal at an early age. She died due to diseases and he married a second time, this time to Ramanayagam Ammal. Thanulingam has two sons and three daughters.

Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar
From Wikipedia
Prakash Ambedkar

Member of the Indian parliamentLok Sabha
In office
10 October 1999 – 6 February 2004
Succeeded by Sanjay Shamrao Dhotre
Constituency Akola
In office
10 March 1998 – 26 April 1999
Preceded by Pandurang Pundalik Fundkar
Constituency Akola
Member of the Indian parliament of Rajya Sabha
In office
18 September 1990 – 17 September 1996
Constituency Maharashtra
Personal details
Born 10 May 1954 (age 66)
BombayBombay State (now MumbaiMaharashtra), India
Nationality Indian
Political party

Republican Party of India
(before 1994, 1998 – 1999)
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh
(1994 – 2019)
Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi
(since 2019)
Spouse(s)

Anjali Ambedkar
​(m. 1993)​
Relations

B. R. Ambedkar
(grandfather)
Anandraj Ambedkar
(brother)
Anand Teltumbde
(brother-in-law)
See also Ambedkar family
Children Sujat Ambedkar (son)
Parents

Yashwant Ambedkar
Meera Ambedkar
Residence • 129, RajgruhaHindu colonyDadarMumbaiMaharashtra
• B-17, Patil Heritage Bhosale Nagar, PuneMaharashtra
• AkolaMaharashtra
Education Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Laws
Alma mater St. Stanislaus High School
Siddharth College of Law, Mumbai
Profession AdvocatePolitician, Social worker
Website PrakashAmbedkar on Facebook
Nickname(s) Balasaheb Ambedkar

Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar (IAST: Prakāśa Yaśavanta Āmbēḍakar) (born 10 May 1954), popularly known as Balasaheb Ambedkar, is an Indian politician, social activist, writer and lawyer. He is the president of political party called the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi. He is a three-time Member of Parliament (MP). He is the grandson of B. R. Ambedkar. He was a member of the 12th and 13th Lok Sabha Akola constituency of India. He has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.

Personal life


Prakash Ambedkar is the eldest grandson of B. R. Ambedkar and Ramabai Ambedkar. His father's name is Yashwant Ambedkar (Bhaiyasaheb) and mother's name is Meera. The Ambedkar family are followers of Navayana Buddhism. He has two younger brothers Bhimrao and Anandraj, and a sister Ramabai who is married to Anand Teltumbde. Prakash Ambedkar is married to Anjali Maydeo, with whom he has a son.

Early life and education

Prakash Ambedkar was born on 10 May 1954 in Bombay (now Mumbai). In 1972 he completed his higher secondary education from St. Stanislaus High School, Mumbai. In 1978, he received Bachelor of Arts (BA) from Siddhartha College of Arts, and in 1981 he got Bachelor of Laws (LLB) in Siddharth College of Law, Mumbai.

Political career

On 4 July 1994, Prakash Ambedkar established the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh. This party was a splintered group amongst other factions of the Republican Party of India which was constituted on directions of his grandfather after his death. The Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha contested established political parties like Indian National CongressShiv Sena and Bharatiya Janata Party in the Akola municipal elections, emerging victorious. The success was gained through the new social engineering brought by Prakash Ambedkar which later known as "Akola Pattern". The expansion of the party continued after 1995, that some of the non-Dalit parties and organisations have joined the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh.

Ambedkar was a member of the Rajya Sabha during 1990 - 1996. He was elected in the 12th Lok Sabha elections from Akola Lok Sabha constituency in 1998 as a candidate of the Republican Party of India. Second time from the same constituency in 1999, he was elected as the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh's candidate for the 13th Lok Sabha elections and he was a member of the Lok Sabha till 2004.

Ambedkar followed a policy, on the one hand, of regrouping the Dalits, and on the other of following a moderate line seeking alliance with those opposition parties which sympathised with the Dalit cause. It was with their support that he twice contested elections to the parliament from non-reserved constituencies. Though not successful in getting elected, he polled a sizeable number of votes on both the occasions.

The RPI organised a march from Nashik to Mumbai to press its demands, prominent among which was the transfer of vatan lands to their Dalit cultivators. (Both before and after the British Raj, certain lands were given to people for services rendered by them to the government or to the community or to both. These lands are also called "watan lands" in local legislation and in Maharashtra many of the watans were abolished between 1950 and 1960.)[citation needed] In response, the government appointed a committee with Prakash Ambedkar as a member.

The RPI's greatest success was in 1988 when Ambedkar, in alliance with other Dalit organisations, took out a massive demonstration in Mumbai. The occasion was the controversy regarding a move to delete from the official publication of B. R. Ambedkar's writings a portion called Riddles of Hinduism. The deletion move was supported by Shiv Sena which by this time was emerging as a Hindu political organisation. To bring all Dalit organisations together for this purpose, Prakash Ambedkar formed Ambedkar Vichar Samvardhak Samiti (AVSS). Under the leadership of Prakash Ambedkar, R. S. Gavai and others on 5 February 1988, Dalits put on a massive show of strength which brought more than four to five lakh followers of B. R. Ambedkar into the heart of Mumbai city from different parts of Maharashtra and also from Gujarat and other states. Within days of the Dalit demonstration in Mumbai, the 'Riddles' issue was resolved at a meeting on February 10 of representatives of the Shiv Sena, the Maratha Mahasangh and the various groups of the Republican Party of India and the Dalit Panthers called by the state chief minister. It was agreed at the meeting that the relevant appendix would be retained intact in the fourth volume of Ambedkar's works; only a line would be added to clarify that the Maharashtra government did not agree or disagree with B. R. Ambedkar's comments on the Hindu gods.

Bahujan Mahasangh, a political formation working in close association with the Bharatiya Republican Party led by Prakash Ambedkar, was formed in February 1993. In the summer of that year, its candidate won Kinwat legislative assembly seat in Nanded district, defeating Congress and BJP contestants. The alliance between Bharatiya Republican Party and Bahujan Mahasangh visualised a joint front of Dalits and OBCs whose cultural identity was essentially non-Brahmin. Bahujan Mahasangh argued that in the Brahminical social order, both Dalits and OBCs find themselves equally oppressed culturally. Bahujan Mahasangh had defined the Bahujan category to include Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and Muslims, as well as caste groups such as Shudra (OBCs) and ati-Shudra (Dalits), tribes, women, poor Marathas, and poor Brahmins, thus including all those who are subjugated through caste, class and gender exploitation

In memory of Mahar soldiers who fought in the Battle of Koregaon, their descendants (Buddhists) visit Koregaon Bhima on 1 January every year to honor them. On 1 January 2018, Buddhists, as well as some Hindu dalit, OBC and Sikh people visited the 'Jay sthambh' (victory pillar) at Koregaon Bhima in Pune districtMaharashtra.Prakash Ambedkar accused Sambhaji Bhide and Milind Ekbote of seducing the invading Hindutva people and demanded the police investigation and strict action against the two. But the Maharashtra government and the state police did not take any action against the culprits. So on 3 January 2018, he called on the people of Maharashtra to call "Maharashtra Bandh". This call to shut down Maharashtra received a huge response from the people and the bandh was a success. The bandh was seen across Maharashtra including Mumbai. According to Ambedkar, more than 50% Maharashtrian people participated in the bandh. Earlier only Bal Thackeray of Shiv Sena had the power to shut down Mumbai. Subsequently, Prakash Ambedkar's political power increased. He came to the center of Ambedkarite and Bahujan community. The youth group in particular became his supporters.

Prakash Ambedkar founded new political party the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi on 20 March 2018 with its ideology primarily emphasizing ConstitutionalismAmbedkarismSecularismSocialism and Progressivism. The Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi registered as a political party a year later on 15 March 2019, prior to the 2019 elections for Lok Sabha. It is supported by nearly 100 small political parties and social organizations. Prakash Ambedkar is the supremo of the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi.

On 14 March 2019, Ambedkar has announced the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh will merge with the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi. He said that, despite the 'Akola pattern' of social engineering through the success of the Bharipa-Bahujan Mahasangh, the word 'Bharipa' (RPI) had limited the expansion of the party. He said that after the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the Bharip-Bahujan Mahasangh will merge with the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi, because the Vanchit Bahujan Aghadi is acceptable in a broad sense.

Ambedkar contested and lost from both Akola and Solapur in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections.
Controversy

Prakash Ambedkar courted controversy by asking his supporters to resort to violence against trolls and those who criticised his statement asking for proof on surgical strikes conducted by Indian Air Force. Many critics called it militant Dalit politics.

Writings

Ambedkari Chalval Sampli Ahe (The Ambedkarite Movement Has Ended)
Andheri Nagari Chaupat Raja
Maharashtracha Uddyacha Mukhyamantri Varkari ani Varkarich
Can It Be Stopped!
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Cha Vaicharik Bhrashtachar (Ideological Corruption of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh)
Aetehasik Ambedkar Bhawanacha Varasa Aapan Japanar Ki Nahi ? (The Historic Heritage Of Ambedkar Bhavan Will We Preserve It?)

Positions held

Ambedkar has held following positions,
1990-96: Nominated Member, Rajya Sabha from 18 September 1990 to 17 September 1996.
1992-96: Member, Committee on Rules
1993-96: Member, Committee on Communications
1998-99: Elected to 12th Lok Sabha, (1st term) Leader, Republican Party of India Parliamentary Party
1998-99: Member, Committee on Food, Civil Supplies and Public Distribution; Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Human Resource Development
1999–2004: Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (2nd term); Leader, Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Parliamentary Party, Lok Sabha
1999-2000: Member, Committee on Energy
2000–2004: Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Railways
पी॰ ए॰ संगमा

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
Purno Agitok Sangma
पी॰ ए॰ संगमा
पद बहाल
25 मई 1996 – 23 मार्च 1998
पूर्वा धिकारी शिवराज पाटिल
उत्तरा धिकारी जी.एम.सी. बालयोगी

पद बहाल
6 फरवरी 1988 – 25 मार्च 1990
पूर्वा धिकारी विलियमसन ए संगमा
उत्तरा धिकारी बी.बी. लिंगदोह

जन्म 1 सितंबर 1947
चपाहठी, गारो हिल्स डिस्ट्रिक्ट, असमपश्चिम गारो हिल्स जिलामेघालय)
मृत्यु 4 मार्च 2016 (उम्र 68)
नई दिल्ली
जन्म का नाम पूर्ण ऐजिटक संगमा
राजनीतिक दल नेशनल पीपल्स पार्टी (2012—2016)
अन्य राजनीतिक
संबद्धताऐं निर्दलीय (2012—2013)

(1999—2004; 2005—2012)
शैक्षिक सम्बद्धता राष्ट्रीय प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान पटना
धर्म ईसाई धर्म

पूर्ण ऐजिटक संगमा (जन्म : 1 सितम्बर 1947, मेघालय, मृत्यु: 04.03.2016) भारत के एक राजनेता थे। वे मेघालय के मुख्यमंत्रीराष्ट्रवादी कांग्रेस पार्टी के सह-संस्थापक और लोकसभा अध्यक्ष रह चुके हैं। वे आठ बार लोकसभा-सदस्य रह चुके हैं। मृत्यु के समय वे तुरा (अनुसूचित जनजाति) लोकसभा सीट से सांसद थे।
उन्हें मरणोपरांत वर्ष 2017 में भारत सरकार द्वारा पद्म विभूषण प्रदान किया गया। वे मेघालय से पद्म विभूषण के पहले प्राप्तकर्ता है।
परिचय

पी ए संगमा का जन्म 1 सितंबर 1947 को पश्चिम गारो हिल्स, मेघालय के चपाथी ग्राम में हुआ था। शिलांग से स्नातक की डिग्री प्राप्त करने के बाद पी.ए. संगमा ने असम के डिब्रूगढ़ विश्वविद्यालय से अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंध में स्नातकोत्तर की उपाधि प्राप्त की। इसके बाद उन्होंने एल.एल.बी. की परीक्षा भी उत्तीर्ण की।

वर्ष 1973 में पी.ए. संगमा प्रदेश युवा कांग्रेस समिति के अध्यक्ष निर्वाचित हुए। कुछ ही समय बाद वह इस समिति के महासचिव नियुक्त हुए। वर्ष 1975 से 1980 तक पी.ए. संगमा प्रदेश कांग्रेस समिति के महासचिव रहे। वर्ष 1977 के लोकसभा चुनावों में पी.ए. संगमा तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र से जीत दर्ज करने के बाद पहली बार सांसद बने। चौदहवीं लोकसभा चुनावों तक वह इस पद पर लगातार जीतते रहे। हालांकि नौवीं लोकसभा में वह जीत दर्ज करने में असफल रहे थे।

वर्ष 1980-1988 तक पी.ए. संगमा केन्द्रीय सरकार के अंतर्गत विभिन्न पदों पर कार्यरत रहे। वर्ष 1988-1991 तक वे मेघालय के मुख्यमंत्री भी रहे। वर्ष 1999 में कांग्रेस से निष्कासित होने के बाद शरद पवार और तारिक अनवर के साथ मिलकर पी.ए. संगमा ने नेशनल कांग्रेस पार्टी की स्थापना की। शरद पवार के भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की अध्यक्षा सोनिया गांधी से नजदीकी बढ़ जाने के कारण पी.ए. संगमा ने अपनी पार्टी का ममता बनर्जी की तृणमूल कांग्रेस पार्टी में विलय कर नेशनलिस्ट तृणमूल कांग्रेस की स्थापना की। 10 अक्टूबर 2005 को अखिल भारतीय तृणमूल कांग्रेस के सदस्य के तौर पर लोकसभा पद से इस्तीफा देने के बाद पी.ए. संगमा फरवरी 2006 में नेशनल कांग्रेस पार्टी के प्रतिनिधि के तौर पर संसद पहुंचे। 2008 के मेघालय विधानसभा चुनावों में भाग लेने के लिए उन्होंने चौदहवीं लोकसभा से इस्तीफा दे दिया। पी.ए संगमा एन.सी.पी. के महासचिव पद पर भी रहे।
पदासीन
1974 - मेघालय प्रदेश यूथ कांग्रेस के उपाध्यक्ष
1975 - मेघालय प्रदेश कांग्रेस कमेटी के महासचिव
1977 - सांसद, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
1980 - अखिल भारतीय कांग्रेस कमेटी के संयुक्त सचिव
1980 - उद्योग के प्रभारी उप मंत्री
1982 - वाणिज्य मंत्री, उप मंत्री
1984 - फिर से निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा विधानसभा क्षेत्र
1984 - वाणिज्य और आपूर्ति के राज्य प्रभारी मंत्री
1984- गृह राज्य राज्य मंत्री
1986 - स्वतंत्र प्रभार के साथ श्रम राज्य मंत्री
1988 - सदस्य, मेघालय विधान सभा
1988 - मेघालय के मुख्यमंत्री
1990 - विपक्ष का नेता, मेघालय विधान सभा
1991 - फिर से निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
1991-93 - केंद्रीय कोयला मंत्रालय राज्य मंत्री(स्वतंत्र प्रभार)
1993-95 - केंद्रीय श्रम और रोजगार मंत्रालय (स्वतंत्र प्रभार)
फरवरी-सितंबर 1995 - केंद्रीय श्रम और रोजगार राज्य मंत्री
1995-96 - केंद्रीय सूचना और प्रसारण मंत्री
1996 - पुनः निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
1998- पुनः निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
1998 - सदस्य, विदेश मामलों की समिति और इसकी उप-समिति
1998 - उपाध्यक्ष, भारतीय लोक प्रशासन संस्थान
1998 - सदस्य, परामर्शदात्री समिति, विदेश मंत्रालय
1999 - पुनः निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
1999 - सदस्य, श्रम और कल्याण संबंधी समिति
2000 - सदस्य, संविधान के कार्य की समीक्षा करने के लिए राष्ट्रीय आयोग
2002 - सदस्य, विदेश मामलों की समिति
2003 - सदस्य, गृह मामलों संबंधी समिति
2004 - फिर से निर्वाचित, संसद सदस्य, तुरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र
2004 - सदस्य, विदेश मामलों की समिति, सदस्य, निजी सदस्य विधेयक और संकल्प समिति, सदस्य, परामर्शदात्री समिति, गृह मंत्रालय
2008 - सदस्य, मेघालय विधान सभा
Ram Kinkar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ram Kinkar
In office
1977-1984
Preceded by Rudra Pratap Singh
Succeeded by Kamla Prasad
Constituency Barabanki
Minister of State in the Ministry of Works and Housing and Supply and Rehabilitation
In office
August 1977 to June 1978
Constituency Barabanki
Minister for Works and Housing and Supply and Rehabilitation

Assumed office
July 28, 1979, to January 13, 1980
Constituency Barabanki
Personal details
Born 2 February 1922
Sarai Rajai Village, Atarsan, P. O., Pratapgarh District
Died 12 September 2003 (aged 81)
New DelhiDelhi, India
Political party Janata Party (Secular)
Other political
affiliations Bharatiya Lok Dal
Spouse(s) Vimla Devi
Children 2 sons and 1 daughter
Residence(s) Sarai Rajai Village, Atarsan, P. O., Pratapgarh District, Uttar Pradesh
Education B.A., LL.B.
Lucknow University

Ram Kinkar (1922-2003) was an Indian politician. He was elected to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India from the BarabankiUttar Pradesh constituency of Uttar Pradesh as a member of the Janata Party. He was Deputy Minister for Education, Social Welfare, Food & Civil Supplies, Revenue etc. from February 17, to July 15, 1970 and the Cabinet Minister for Sales Tax in Uttar Pradesh Government from July to October, 1970 and for Forest, November, 1970 to March 1971.

He was Minister of State in the Ministry of Works and Housing and Supply and Rehabilitation in Morarji Desai Cabinet from August 1977 to June 1978. He resigned from the Government on June 30, 1978, and rejoined the Ministry on January 26, 1979, with the same portfolio but as Cabinet Minister for Works and Housing and Supply and Rehabilitation in Charan Singh Cabinet from July 28, 1979, to January 13, 1980.

Kinkar died on September 12, 2003, in New Delhi at the age of 82.
Ramdas Athawale
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ramdas Athawale
Athawale addressing a press conference, in New Delhi on 24 November 2017.


Assumed office
5 July 2016
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Minister Thawar Chand Gehlot (26 May 2014 – 7 July 2021)

Assumed office
3 April 2014
Preceded by Prakash Javadekar
Constituency Maharashtra
In office
10 October 1999 – 16 May 2009
Preceded by Sandipan Thorat
Succeeded by Constituency Abolished
Constituency Pandharpur
In office
1998–1999
Preceded by Narayan Athawale
Succeeded by Manohar Joshi
Constituency Mumbai North Central
Cabinet Minister for Social Welfare,Transport,Sports and Youth Welfare,Employment Guarantee Government of Maharashtra
In office
1990–1995
In office
1990–1996
Personal details
Born
Ramdas Bandu Athawale
25 December 1959 
Political party Republican Party of India (A) (1990 - present)
Other political
affiliations Republican Party of India (before 1990)
Occupation Trade unionist, social worker
Ramdas Bandu Athawale (Marathi pronunciation: [äʈʰʋəle]) (born 25 December 1959) is an Indian politician and social activist from Maharashtra. He is the president of the Republican Party of India (A), a splinter group of the Republican Party of India and has its roots in the Scheduled Castes Federation led by B. R. Ambedkar. Currently, he is the Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in Second Modi ministry and represents Maharashtra in Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India's Parliament. Previously he was Lok Sabha MP from Pandharpur.
Early life
Athawale was born on 25 December 1959 in Agalgaon, Sangli districtBombay State, which is now Maharashtra. His parents were Bandu Bapu and Honsabai Bandu Athawale. He attended Siddharth College of Law, Mumbai and married to Seema Athawale, on 16 May 1992. He has a son. Ramdas Athawale is a practitioner of Buddhism.
Athawale has been editor of a weekly magazine called Bhumika and is a founder member of Parivartan Sahitya Mahamandal. He has served as president of Parivartan Kala Mahasangha, the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Foundation and the Bauddha Kalawant Academy (Buddhist Artists Academy) and was founder president of Bauddha Dhamma Parishad (Buddhism conference). He played the title role in a Marathi film, Anyayacha Pratikar, and also had a small role in another Marathi film, Joshi ki Kamble, as well as roles in Marathi dramas such as Ekach Pyala.
Political career
Athwale was inspired by B. R. Ambedkar, the Indian polymath. Following a split in the Dalit Panther movement in 1974, Athawale joined Arun Kamble and Gangadhar Gade in leading a rump in Maharashtra. His involvement with a faction of the Republican Party of India, despite the Panther's general disdain for its leadership, eventually led to an association with the Indian National Congress (INC).
Athawale was member of Maharashtra Legislative Council from 1990 to 1996 and was Cabinet Minister for Social Welfare and Transport, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Prohibition Propaganda in the Government of Maharashtra between 1990–95.
He represented the Pandharpur constituency of Maharashtra and is the president of the Republican Party of India (Athawale) (RPIA).
Athawale represented Mumbai North Central in the 12th Lok Sabha during 1998-99 and was elected to serve a second term in the 13th Lok Sabha of 1999–2004. A third term, in the 14th Lok Sabha, followed from 2004–2009. Considered something of a lightweight in state politics, he has been courted at various times by various parties because of a perception that he might assist in mobilising the scattered Maharashtrian Dalit vote in their favour. He left the Nationalist Congress Party-INC alliance in 2011[citation needed] after having lost in the 2009 Lok Sabha election, when he contested the reserved Shirdi constituency. This defeat was despite a subsequent report by Social Watch which ranked him as the second-best performing member of the 14th Lok Sabha, based on an analysis of various data points. Athawale led the RPI party, joined the alliance of Shivsena and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 2011 and contested Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation elections together.

In 2014, Athawale was elected to the Rajya Sabha, which is the upper house of parliament. He became Minister of State in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment on 6 July 2016, working under Thawar Chand Gehlot.

His RPI(A) organisation is a part of the National Democratic Alliance led by the BJP.

Devyani Khobragade was proposed for the role of Personal Secretary to Athawale in July 2016 but the appointment was refused by Gehlot, who saw a conflict of interest because her father, Uttam Khobragade, was the national executive president of the RPI(A).[

When Athawale established a children's wing of the RPI(A) in September 2017, he appointed his son, then aged 12, to be its leader.

In May 2019, Athawale continued his position as Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment.

In March 2020, a video of Athawale chanting ‘Go Corona!’ at a rally went viral and became a popular meme.

Social activism
Ramdas Athawale with Narendra ModiNitin Gadkari and Devendra Fadnavis paying tribute to B. R. Ambedkar.

In 2015, following attacks on Dalits in the state of Haryana, Athawale said that if the police were to continue turning a blind eye to their plight then special protection squads led by senior police officers should be formed from among members of the community and they should be granted firearms licenses so that they could protect themselves. In December 2017, he suggested that Dalits should renounce Hinduism in favour of Buddhism in order to stop being subject to "atrocities". He also criticised the record of the Hindu-centric BJP and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in dealing with issues relating to discrimination of not only Dalits but also other disadvantaged communities in India. In March 2018, echoing remarks he had made soon after becoming Minister of State in 2016 and reacting in particular to recent atrocities against Dalits in SaharanpurUnnao and Allahabad, Athawale advocated inter-caste marriage as the best way to minimise such events and noted that he had married a Brahmin "to set an example". As he had done in December 2017, he attacked Mayawati, a Dalit former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, on this occasion for what he perceived as a lack of action to help Dalits during her four terms in office. He said that this had caused the community to shift their support to the BJP and RPI, while refuting charges that he was a puppet under BJP control.

Although described as a Dalit leader, Athawale has caused controversy among Dalits. In January 2018, around 130 people were arrested when some Dalit activists protested against him during a speech.

Aside from his involvement in Dalit affairs, Athawale has also advocated reservation for economically disadvantaged upper caste communities. He has said that the government of India should release the caste-based information collected during the 2011 Census of India, which is considered to be a politically sensitive dataset, in order to address inequities in the reservation system across the board. He rejects claims that doing so would lead to an increase in casteism.

Athawale has said that reservation quota of 25 percent for Dalits should be introduced to sports, including cricket, following India's defeat in the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy Final against Pakistan, and that the armed forces should also be subject to a quota regime. He has also said that, just as the Lok Sabha has constituencies reserved for members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, so too should the Rajya Sabha and the Union cabinet. In addition, he favours increasing the prevailing 50 per cent quota that exists for government jobs and places at educational institutions to 75 per cent, stressing that this would apply to all castes that are recognised as economically disadvantaged, which includes those categorised at Other Backwards Classes.

Positions held
1990–95: Cabinet Minister, Social Welfare and Transport, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Prohibition Propaganda, Government of Maharashtra
1998–99: Member, Twelfth Lok Sabha
1998–99: Member, Committee on Transport and Tourism Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Industry
1999–2000: Member, Committee on Industry
1999–2004: Member, Thirteenth Lok Sabha (second term)
2002–2004: Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
2004–2009: Member, Fourteenth Lok Sabha (third term)
2004: Member, Committee on Transport, Tourism and Culture April
2014: Elected to Rajya Sabha
Aug. 2014-past: Member, Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Sept.
2014-past: Member, Committee on Industry Nov.
2014-past: Member, Library Committee Freedom Fighter
2016–past: Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India
2020: Reelected to Rajya Sabha unopposed.
R. B. More

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ramchandra Babaji More

Ramchandra Babaji More (1 March 1903 – 11 May 1972) was a political leader and campaigner with a particular focus around the struggle against the Caste system in India and Class exploitation in the Indian subcontinent.

Early life

He was born on 1 March 1903, in a Dalit/Scheduled Caste family of agricultural workers at the Ladavli village in Mahad Tehsil in the state of Maharashtra. At the age of 11, he began his struggle against untouchability. With the aid of some social reformers, he began sending letters to the British government for being denied admission to Mahad High School despite being awarded a scholarship on completing his primary education.
Political career

Civil rights campaign

He was the main organizer of Mahad Satyagraha of 19–20 March 1927, which was led by Dr B. R. Ambedkar.[2] More originally wrote a detailed account of Mahad Satyagraha in Marathi. The struggle of Dalits at Mahad for asserting their rights to access the public tank, the Chavadar tank, was arguably the first civil rights struggles in history. R.B. More was also the organizer of another convention at Mahad, Manusmriti Dahan Din (Manusmriti Burning Day), which was also led by Babasaheb Ambedkar. This convention took place on 25–26 December 1927, in which thousands of Dalits gathered together to publicly burn a copy of the Manusmriti. Ambedkar also addressed a separate meeting of Dalit women, as part of the convention at Mahad, asking them to shun social practices that perpetuate inequality.
Reception Committee for Mahad Satyagraha
Communist party

In spite of the fact that More joined the then undivided Communist Party of India in 1930, under the influence of Marxism-Leninism, he and Dr. Ambedkar continued to maintain mutual admiration for each other's work. More consistently raised the issue of caste discrimination prevalent in Indian society at different forums of the Communist Party. He had sent a specific note on the "Problem of Untouchability and the Caste System" to the leadership of the party before third party congress in 1953. More submitted the note to the Politburo on 23 December 1953 with a request to place it before the forthcoming Party Congress. This note was later revised and sent again in 1957 and 1964. Along with appraising the contribution of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in the struggle for social justice, it emphasized the necessity of taking up issues of caste and social discrimination as an essential ingredient of class struggle. He also participated in the freedom struggle against British and working class movement with great vigor and remained "one of the most respected leaders of the CPI(M) till his death on 11 May 1972". He was elected to State Committee of CPI(M) in 1964. He started the weekly meeting, Jeevanmarg, of the CPI(M) Maharashtra state committee on 14 April 1965, the anniversary of Ambedkar's birth.
Ramchandra Veerappa


He is no star and has no royal lineage, but his supporters look on him with veneration.

Meet Ramachandra Veerappa, believed by many here to be the oldest candidate in India's general elections, which are due to begin next week.

Mr Veerappa is 94, according to the available documentation, and is now standing for parliament for a seventh time.

He hails from the low-caste Dalit community.

Mr Veerappa's constituency, Bidar, is 700km (435 miles) from Bangalore, the capital of the southern state of Karnataka.

Only Dalits can stand as candidates in Bidar.

"It is because of people's goodwill that I will be elected again," says a confident Mr Veerappa, who prefers door-to-door campaigning on foot.

On an average day he is on the campaign trail for nearly 10 hours - not an easy task when summer temperatures hit 40C.

Age is no deterrent and retirement only a distant thought for this grand old man, renowned for his red turban. "I am fit," he asserts.

Frugal lifestyle

So what keeps him going?
 [Other MPs] come back only during elections. Not Mr Veerappa. He even came to the annual day of our village school

Mallikarjun, milkman


"You must ask God that," he says, although he is also quick to attribute his longevity to his spartan lifestyle.

Mr Veerappa was born in his old home in the muddy by-lanes of the sleepy town of Humnabad.

He is teetotal. "Neither do I chew betel, drink, smoke or indulge in bribery," he says.

"I eat home-made vegetarian food. Even during a campaign, I get back for home cooking."
Veerappa (R) on the podium with Nehru (L), India's first PM


His regular fare is maize rotis, vegetables and red chilli paste, a staple diet in this region.

"I was born here, I will die here. As long as I have the people's support, I will continue to be in politics," he says.

Does that mean another election? "Let us see. Let this election be over," he says coolly.

Mr Veerappa himself is not wholly sure of his year of birth, although Bidar deputy commissioner Anil Kumar says the nomination papers puts his age at 94.

"He could be the oldest candidate in this election, but I am not sure," says Mr Kumar.

Mr Veerappa's early days were tough.

He had no schooling, having helped his parents make a living on a farm.

Accessible

His political journey began during the Raj.

Joining the Congress Party-led freedom struggle against the British, Mr Veerappa found himself deported to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, far from the Indian mainland.
Veerappa files nomination papers again and has no plan to retire

After independence, he made his electoral debut in 1952, winning a Legislative Council seat.

Since then he has never looked back, although he has switched parties.

He joined the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1991 but says it was not ideology that drove him into the organisation.

"I was not given a ticket by the Congress. So I moved to the BJP," says Mr Veerappa.

Unlike many politicians, Mr Veerappa spends most of his time in his constituency and is readily accessible.

Though a Dalit, he has the support of all sects, including Brahmins and Lingayats, both powerful communities.

"People like him because of his simplicity," says Rishikesh Bahadur Desai, a Bidar-based journalist on The Hindu newspaper.

Mallikarjun, a milkman, says Mr Veerappa avoids controversy and is popular because he is a different type of politician.

"It is difficult to find MPs living in small towns like Humnabad. They all go to Bangalore and Delhi and come back only during elections. Not Mr Veerappa. He even came to the annual day of our village school."

His critics, however, say he has done little for the constituency's development and is impaired by his age.

Brushing aside the criticism, Basavaraj Ramachandra, one of Mr Veerappa's five sons, says: "He is doing good work despite his age. I heard my father is the oldest parliamentarian not only in India but in Asia."
Rani Chitralekha Bhonsle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rani Chitralekha Bhonsle

Constituency Ramtek
Personal details
Born
Chitralekha Kadam
26 February 1941
Died 16 August 2015
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Raja Tejsingrao Bhonsle of Nagpur
Father Sharas Chandra Kadam


Rani Chitralekha Bhonsle (26 February 1941 – 16 August 2015) was a political and social worker and a Member of Parliament elected from the Ramtek constituency in the Indian state of Maharashtra being an Indian National Congress candidate.

Early life

Bhonsle was born on 26 February 1941 in Baroda in the Indian state of Gujarat. She married Tejsingrao Bhonsle on 25 December 1959 and has two sons and three daughters.

Education & interests

Rani completed her Bachelor of Arts from Sahajirao Gaikwad College, M.S. University, Baroda (Gujarat). Her interests include painting and reading. She is also a Chairperson of the District Volleyball Association, Nagpur.

Career

Rani was elected to the 12th Lok Sabha in 1998. During 1998–99, she was a Member on the Consultative Committee, Ministry of Coal.
Radhika Ranjan Pramanik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Radhika Ranjan Pramanik

In office
1989–2004
Preceded by Manoranjan Halder
Succeeded by Basudeb Barman
Constituency MathurapurWest Bengal
Personal details
Born 18 December 1932
Died 13 December 2020 (aged 87)
AA-90, 1st Floor, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata-700 064 (North 24 Parganas)
Political party CPI(M) (till 2003)
Spouse(s) Mrs. Monjulika Pramanik (Married in 1958)
Children 4 sons and 2 daughters

Radhika Ranjan Pramanik (18 December 1932 – 13 December 2020) was an Indian politician belonging to the All India Trinamool Congress and was elected for five terms from MathurapurWest Bengal to the Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India. He was earlier a member of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly from Magrahat Purba. He was expelled from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) after he accused the party of encouraging corruption. Later, he joined Trinamool Congress.
Ramchandra Dhondiba Bhandare
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dr. R. D. Bhandare
B. R. Ambedkar (right) was presented a purse of Rs. 1,18,000 by R. D. Bhandare (left) on behalf of Scheduled Caste Federation, Bombay city in the public meeting held at Purandare Park, Dadar, Mumbai on 29 December 1954

In office
1976–1977
In office
1973–1976
M P from Mumbai Central
In office
1967–1973
In office
1960–1962
Preceded by Position Established
Succeeded by Krishnarao Dhulap
Personal details
Born 11 April 1916
Vita, Sangli, Maharashtra.
Died 5 September 1988 (aged 72)
Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Political party INC
Other political
Spouse(s) Late Smt. Shakuntala Ramchandra Bhandare
Children 3 sons and a daughter.
As of 24 February, 2012

Ramchandra Dhondiba Bhandare (1916-1988) was an Indian politician, jurist and Ambedkarite activist. He was a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party, who was twice elected to Lok Sabha. He was elected to the fourth Lok Sabha from the Mumbai Central constituency of Maharashtra in 1967. He was re-elected in 1971 but resigned in 1973 when he was appointed Governor of Bihar. He was a colleague and follower of human rights leader B. R. Ambedkar.

Early life

Ramachandra Bhandare was born into Mahar community at Vita, Sangli District, Maharashtra (earlier, Satara District, Bombay Presidency) to Dhondiba Hariba Bhandare, on 11 April 1916.[1] When he was a child, the family moved to Bombay and settled there. After completing his primary education at Bhandare Uttara Worli Primary School and secondary education at Colabawadi, he attended the Maharashtra High School in Bombay. He holds a BA from Elphinstone College, Mumbai, LLB and MA from Government Law College and Khalsa College, Bombay. After completing his studies, he started his career as advocate in Bombay. He also worked as a law professor at the same time. He was an Advocate and Professor of Law.

He was an Ambedkarite and Buddhist.

Education

He completed his education from Elphiston College, Government Law College and the Khalsa College, Bombay. He was married to Shakuntalabai and had 3 sons and 1 daughter and resided at Wadala Mumbai. He was earlier a Member of Bombay Municipal Corporation during 1948-57. He was a Member of Bombay Legislative Assembly during 1960-1962 and also acted as the Leader of the Opposition in Maharashtra Legislative Assembly during 1960-62. He was a Founder Member of Republican Party of India and remained its President from 1964 to 1966.

As a labor and Dalit leader

Ramchandra Bhandare was active in the trade unions and was secretary to the Kamgar Sangam of the Bombay Municipal Council from 1942 to 1945. From 1949 to 1952, Babasaheb chaired a low-level Rural Servants Association, headed by Ambedkar. From 1952-54 he was Vice-President of the Bombay Textile Workers Union. From 1963 to 1966, Nawabharat was president of the Majdur Mahasabha. Bhandare has been a member of the Scheduled Castes Federation since its inception. He became president of the Bombay Pradesh Scheduled Castes Federation, a faction of the party. When Mahatma Gandhi came to visit Bombay, he left a mehtar's house in Worli to express his friendliness to the Dalits. In protest of this "demonstration" of Mahatma Gandhi, Bhandare and his followers protested by flying black flags. Consequently, a big feud between the Hindus and the dalits began. In this confrontation, Bhandare stood firm and rose to prominence as a leading leader of the Bombay Scheduled Castes. In 1946 he established a library at Worli. He set up a Tamil community in every area of Bombay. With the Bhandare initiative, Ambedkar's birthday began to be celebrated on a large scale. April 14, 1950 Nirdhar started a weekly newspaper. That lasted for two years.

Politics

Bhandare served as a member of the Bombay Municipality from 1948 to 1957. From 1960 to 1962, he was a member of the Bombay Legislative Assembly and was the Leader of the Opposition in that House. Bhandare was a founding member of the Republican Party of India. He also served as the President of the party from 1964 to 1966. Later he contested elections as a member of Congress Party in 1967 and 1971, and was elected to Lok Sabha from Bombay Central seat. He was also Governor of Bihar during 1973-1976 and Governor of Andhra Pradesh during 1976-77.

Death

Bhandare died at his home in Bombay on September 5, 1988.

Selected works

'Problems of Buddhists in India" and Pamphlets-

(i) Watendar Gaon-Kamgar, (ii) A Case For the Morning Colleges—an argument against the decision of the Bombay University in 1962, (iii) The Problems of the Indian Buddhists. 
Ram Dhan
From Wikipedia
Ram Dhan
In office
1984–1991
Preceded by Chhangur Ram
Succeeded by Ram Badan
Constituency Lalganj
In office
1967–1979
Preceded by Vishram Prasad
Succeeded by Chhangur Ram
Constituency Lalganj
Personal details
Born 1 July 1921
(now in Uttar Pradesh, India)
Died 23 May 2001 (aged 79)
New Delhi, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Janata Dal
Other political
affiliations Janata Party
Spouse(s) Chandrawati Devi

Ram Dhan (1 July 1921 – 23 May 2001) was an Indian politician and freedom fighter. He represented Lalganj in Lok Sabha a number of times. Ram Dhan was arrested on the night when Emergency was declared by Indira Gandhi.

Early Life

Ram Dhan was born on 1 July 1921 in a Dalit family at Azampur in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. He attended Central Hindu College (now Banaras Hindu University) and was awarded Bachelor of Law degree at Law College, BHU.[2] He joined the Socialist movement and grew close to leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan and Acharya Narendra Dev. But later he joined Congress.

In 1963, he married Chandrawati Devi. The couple had two son and two daughters. He also served as a correspondent of Aaj and Sansar of Varanasi, Swatantra Bharat of Lucknow and Amrit Bazar Patrika of Allahabad.

Political career

Before 1947, he took part in many freedom struggles. He was detained under Defence of India Rules for 2 years for taking part in the Quit India Movement in 1942. He joined the Socialist movement but in 1960 he joined Congress party. He was member of 4th, 5th Lok Sabha, representing Lalganj on Congress ticket. He was arrested under Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) during Emergency. He was among the few in Congress who were arrested along with Chandra ShekharMohan Dharia and Krishan Kant.

In 1977, he was elected as Lok Sabha MP on Janata Party ticket from Lalganj Lok Sabha constituency. He was also made General Secretary of Janata Party, but when Morarji Desai was declared as Prime Minister instead of Jagjivan Ram, he resigned in protest. Later he joined Congress but along with VP Singh he resigned from Congress and formed Janata Dal.

Positions held

1945–1948 President of District Depressed Class League, Azamgarh.
1967–1970 Member, 4th Lok Sabha.
1967–1970 Member of Informal Consultative Committee of Shipping and Transport of Parliament.
1971–1977 Member, 5th Lok Sabha (2nd term).
1977–1979 Member, 6th Lok Sabha (3rd term).
1977–1978 President of Bharatiya Depressed Classes League.
1977 Selected as General Secretary of Janata Party.
1977–1979 Chairman of Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of Parliament.
1984–1989 Member, 8th Lok Sabha (4th term).
1984–1989 Member of Railway Convention Committee of Parliament.
1989–1991 Member, 9th Lok Sabha (5th term).
1990 Member of Consultative Committee, Ministry of Home Affairs.
1990–1995 Chairman of the National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Rajen Gohain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rajen Gohain speaking at the launch of two initiatives

Rajen Gohain (born 26 November 1950) in NagaonAssam is an Indian politician who served Member of parliament, Lok Sabha. He has represented the Nowgong constituency in Assam since 1999 to 2019 and is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.

Background

Gohain was educated at the University of Guwahati and graduated with BA and LLB degrees. He married Rita Gohain in 1981 and is father to five children.[ is a tea-estate owner by profession.

Political career

Gohain has served four terms as a Member of parliament, Lok Sabha. He has represented the Nowgong constituency since 1999 – having been re-elected in 2004, 2009 and 2014. Gohain has been a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party since 1991.

On 5 July 2016; Gohain was inducted to the Union Cabinet as a Minister of State in the Railway Ministry.
Ramchandra Martand Hajarnavis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ramchandra Martand Hajarnavis

रामचंद्र मार्तंड हजरनवीस
Ramchandra Martand Hajarnavis

In office
5 January 1958 – 3 May 1962
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
In office
4 May 1962 – 22 February 1963
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
In office
23 February 1963 – 9 March 1964
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
In office
10 March 1964 – 27 May 1964
Prime Minister Gulzarilal Nanda
In office
June 1964 – 29 October 1965
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
In office
30 October 1965 – 24 January 1966
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri
Member of the Indian Parliament
In office
5 April 1957 – 3 March 1967
Preceded by Ansuyabai Borkar
Succeeded by A R Mehata
Member of the Indian Parliament
for Chimur
In office
4 March 1967 – 27 December 1970
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Krishnarao Dagoji Thakur
Personal details
Born 24 February 1908
Died 27 December 1976 (aged 68)
Nationality Indian
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Usha Hajarnavis (m. 22 March 1941)
Prakash Ramchandra Hajarnavis (Son)
Parents Martand Sakharam Hajarnavis
Kamal Hajarnavis (Karkhanis)
Alma mater Nagpur Law College

Ramchandra Martand Hajarnavis (24 February 1908 - 27 December 1976) was an Indian lawyer and politician.

Early life

He studied at Morris College and Law College Nagpur and practiced at Bar. He was President of Bidi Kamgar Sangh during 1941–44.

Political career

Hajarnavis started his political career as a councillor in the Corporation of the City of Nagpur in 1955. In 1957 he turned his attention to the national stage and was elected to the Second Lok Sabha as the member for Bhandara (Lok Sabha constituency). He was re-elected to the 3rd Lok Sabha from Bhandara in 1962. With the split of the Bhandara constituency prior to the 1962 election, he stood for election from Chimur (Lok Sabha constituency) and continued as a member of the 4th Lok Sabha.

He served in various roles in the 4th Nehru Ministry, the Shastri Ministry and in both Nanda Ministries.

He retired from politics prior to the 1971 Lok Sabha election and returned to working as an advocate.

Personal life

He married Usha (Kamal Gupte) in 1941 and had 2 sons.[1] He is the father of mathematician Professor Charudatta Ramchandra Hajarnavis and a cousin of astrophysicist Professor Shashikumar Chitre

Publication

The law of agricultural tenancy and village service lands in the Central provinces (a commentary on the C.P. Tenancy act, Act 1 of 1920), Nagpur, B.G. Gargay [1948]
Ram Chandra Dome
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ram Chandra Dome

In office
2009-2014
Preceded by Somnath Chatterjee
Constituency Bolpur
In office
1989-2009
Preceded by Gadadhar Saha
Succeeded by Satabdi Roy
Constituency Birbhum
Personal details
Born 8 February 1959
Chilla village, Birbhum districtWest Bengal
Political party CPI(M)
Spouse(s) Bandana Dome nee Das
Children 1 daughter
Residence Birbhum
As of 17 September, 2006
Source:

Ram Chandra Dome (Bengali: রাম চন্দ্র ডোম) (born 8 February 1959, Chilla village) is an Indian politician and a leader of the Communist Party of India. A doctor by profession, he was elected to the Lok Sabha from Birbhum constituency in West Bengal state in 1989, 1991, 1996, 1998, 1999 and 2004. In 2009, he was elected to the Lok Sabha from Bolpur constituency.

He was a member of Lok Sabha from 1989 to 2009 and was associated with the ministry of Health and Family Welfare. He was the Chief Whip of Communist Party of India (Marxist) in the Lok Sabha.
Syed Hasan Imam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Syed Hasan Imam
Born 31 August 1871

Neora, Patna
Died 19 April 1933 (aged 61)

Patna
Nationality Indian
Occupation Barrister, freedom fighter

Syed Hasan Imam (31 August 1871 – 19 April 1933) was an Indian politician who served as the President of the Indian National Congress and was elected in September 1918.

Biography

He was the fourth Muslim (After Badruddin Tyabji, Rahimtulla M. Sayani and Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur) to become the President of Indian National Congress.

One of his ancestors was the private tutor to Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Hasan Imam's father was a professor of history at Patna College. By his first wife, Syed Hasan Imam had a son Syed Medhi Imam, educated at Harrow and Oxford University, a barrister of the Supreme Court of India and scholar of Latin and Greek. Hasan Imam also married an Indo-French lady, and Bulu Imam the human rights campaigner, and wildlife expert is their grandson.

Regarded as one of India's finest barristers, some barristers such as Chittaranjan Das (C.R. Das) and H.D. Bose considered Hasan as the best barrister in British India. He is related to many other barristers besides those within his own immediate family including Sir Sultan Ahmed and Syed Abdal Aziz. Hasan Imam's Cambridge University educated nephew Syed Jafar Imam was also his son-in-law and later became a Supreme Court judge.

Law and political career

Hasan Imam, son of lmdad Imam, and younger brother of freedom fighter Sir Ali Imam, was born at Neora village, Patna district, Bihar on 31 August 1871. A Shia Muslim by faith, he belonged to a distinguished, educated landed family. After a course of schooling, interrupted frequently by ill-health, he left for England in July 1889 and joined the Middle Temple. While there, he campaigned actively for Dadabhai Naoroji during the General Election of England in 1891. He was called to the Bar in 1892; he returned home the same year and started law practice in the Calcutta High Court. Hasan Imam became a Judge of the Calcutta High Court in 1912.

On the establishment of the Patna High Court in March 1916, Imam resigned the Judgeship of the Calcutta High Court and started practice at Patna. In 1921, he was nominated a Member of the Bihar and Orissa Legislative Council. From 1908 onwards he took part in political affairs. In October 1909, he was elected President of the Bihar Congress Committee and in the next month he presided over the fourth session of the Bihar Students' Conference. He resumed political activity on a larger scale after resigning the Judgeship in 1916. Hasan Imam was one of the prominent Indian leaders who called upon Montagu, the Secretary of State for India, in November 1917 and was listed by him among "the real giants of the Indian Political World". He presided over the special session of the Indian National Congress held at Bombay, 1918, to consider the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms Scheme. It was an important, but difficult, session to handle because opinion was sharply divided on the merits of the scheme. Hasan Imam played a moderating role. It was his opinion, where he thought a hostile environment between Hindus and Muslims would make it impossible to achieve freedom from the British rule.

A staunch constitutionalist, he was opposed to the ideology of the Non-cooperation movement. Hasan Imam took a leading part in the Khilafat Movement. He joined the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 and was elected Secretary of the Swadeshi League formed in Patna. He actively campaigned for the boycott of foreign goods and use of Khaddar. Earlier in 1927, he "materially conduced to the success" of the boycott of the Simon Commission in Bihar. Hasan Imam was a strong advocate of social reforms, particularly the amelioration of the position of women and the depressed classes. As a member of the Tikari Board of Trustees, he promoted schemes for girls' education. He exposed the economic exploitation of the country, both under the Company and the Imperial rule. He was President of the Board of Trustees of the Biharee, the leading English daily of Bihar; he was also one of the founders of the succeeding Searchlight.

Death

He died on 19 April 1933 and lies buried on the banks of river Sone in Japla, a town in Palamu district near the border of Bihar and Jharkhand.
Shakuntala Khatik
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shakuntala Khatik

Assumed office
Preceded by Ramesh Prasad Khatik
Constituency Karera
Personal details
Born 15 November 1965 
Nationality Indian
Political party BJP
Spouse(s) Lakhanlal Khatik
Children 5
Education HSC
Profession Politician
As of 27 July, 2018
Source: ["Biography" (PDF). Vidhan Sabha, Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly.]

Shakuntala Khatik is an Indian politician and a member of the Indian National Congress party. She has been Member of Legislative Assembly from Karera constituency.

Personal life

She is married to Lakhanlal Khatik and has three sons and one daughter.

Political career

She contested the 2008 assembly elections unsuccessfully but she became an MLA for the first time in 2013.

Legal affairs

There was an FIR against Shakuntala for inciting a mob to burn down a police station during the protests against Mandsaur Firing in June 2017 in Karera.
Sanjay Raut
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sanjay Rajaram Raut


Assumed office
2005

Assumed office
5 July 2004
Constituency Maharashtra
In office
28 November 2019 – 1 March 2020
Preceded by Uddhav Thackeray
Succeeded by Rashmi Thackeray

Assumed office
2005
Personal details
Born 15 November 1961 
Nationality Indian
Political party Shiv Sena
Spouse(s)
Varsha Raut
​(m. 1993)​
Relations Sunil Raut (brother)
Children 2
Occupation
Politician
journalist
film producer

Sanjay Rajaram Raut (Marathi pronunciation: [sənd͡ʒəj ɾaːut̪]; born 15 November 1961) is an Indian politician from Shiv Sena party. He is a member of the Parliament of India representing Maharashtra in the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament. He is also the Executive Editor of Marathi newspaper Saamana, published by Uddhav Thackeray, the Shiv Sena party leader.

Sanjay Raut is also the writer of Thackeray, a biopic about Bal Thackeray, the founder of Shiv Sena, released in 2019.

Controversies

After the arrest of the two girls who posted and liked a comment on Facebook about their view of Mumbai shutting down after the death of Bala Saheb Thackeray, he justified saying "We support the police's action, the Facebook comments could have led to a law and order situation."

In April 2015, he made controversy by saying the voting rights of Muslims should be revoked for some years to ensure the community is not used for vote bank politics. In the newspaper Saamna, he wrote in a column, "Till Muslims are used as vote-banks, they have no future. This is why Bal Thackeray had demanded that Muslims' voting rights be taken away."
Silvio Berlusconi

Italy's once-untouchable prime minister

Berlusconi dominated Italian politics from the 1990s until 2013
Berlusconi's era

Few Italians have wielded more influence and attracted more notoriety than Silvio Berlusconi, four-time prime minister and billionaire businessman.

For years he successfully brushed off sex scandals and allegations of corruption but it was the effects of Italy's burgeoning eurozone debt crisis in 2011 that finally spelt an end to his time at the top table of politics.

The charismatic showman was replaced by a technocrat and his centre-right party split.

Worse was to come for a man whom many Italians had come to see as untouchable.

He was convicted of tax fraud in 2013 and ejected from the Italian Senate. Because of his age, a four-year jail term became a year of community service at a care home near Milan. Another conviction in 2015 and his political career was finally over.

For years his looks belied his age, with a little help from hair transplants and plastic surgery. However, after a heart attack that his doctor said could have killed him, he has had heart surgery to replace a defective valve.

From crooner to business mogulBerlusconi, remains one of Italy's richest men. He and his family have built a fortune estimated at $6.6bn (£4.6bn; €6.6bn)

by US business magazine Forbes.


Born on 29 September 1936, Berlusconi lived through the war as a child. Like many Milan children, he was evacuated and lived with his mother in a village some distance from the city.


He began his career selling vacuum cleaners and built a reputation as a crooner, first in nightclubs and then on cruise ships.


"I had a repertoire of 150 different songs and I took requests from the audience," he told biographer Alan Friedman.

He graduated in law in 1961 and then set up Edilnord, a construction company, establishing himself as a residential housing developer around his native Milan.

Ten years later he launched a local cable-television outfit - Telemilano - which would grow into Italy's biggest media empire, Mediaset, controlling the country's three largest private TV stations.

His huge Fininvest holding company now has Mediaset, Italy's largest publishing house Mondadori, daily newspaper Il Giornale, AC Milan football club and dozens of other companies under its umbrella.

His children, Marina, Barbara, Pier Silvio, Eleonora and Luigi all take part in the running of his business empire.

Rise and fall of Forza Italia

In 1993, Berlusconi founded his own political party, Forza Italia (Go Italy), named after an Italian football chant.

The following year he became prime minister, heading a coalition with the right-wing National Alliance and Northern League.

Many hoped his business acumen could help revitalise Italy's economy. They longed for a break with the corruption and instability which had marred Italian politics for a decade.

But rivalries between the three coalition leaders, coupled with Berlusconi's indictment for alleged tax fraud by a Milan court, confounded those hopes and led to the collapse of the government seven months later.

He lost the 1996 election to the left-wing Romano Prodi but by 2001 he was back in power, in coalition once more with his former partners.

Having headed the longest-serving Italian government since World War Two, he was again defeated by Mr Prodi in 2006.

He returned to office in 2008 at the helm of a revamped party, renamed the People of Freedom (PDL).

His support drained away in 2011, as the country's borrowing costs rocketed at the height of the eurozone debt crisis, and he resigned after losing his parliamentary majority.

But in December 2012, his PDL withdrew its backing, forcing an early election.

In February 2013, he showed he had not lost his touch when he closed a huge gap to come within 1% of winning a general election - close enough to play a part in the governing coalition.

But after an uncomfortable period when the PDL backed Enrico Letta's government, the party split and Berlusconi relaunched it under the old name, Forza Italia. Opinion polls now place Forza Italia well behind the other big parties.

Milanese courtroom dramas

Much of Berlusconi's political career ran in tandem with a litany of legal battles. A native of Milan, he frequently complained of being victimised by its legal authorities.

In 2009, he estimated that over 20 years he had made 2,500 court appearances in 106 trials, at a legal cost of €200m.

He denied embezzlement, tax fraud and false accounting, and attempting to bribe a judge. And on numerous occasions he was acquitted, had convictions overturned or watched them expire under a statute of limitations.

But he received a setback when in 2011 the Constitutional Court struck down part of a law granting him and other senior ministers temporary immunity.

From now on it was up to individual trial judges to decide.

By the end of the year he was out of power and in October 2012 he was given four years for tax fraud and barred from public office.

But it was not until 1 August 2013 that Italy's supreme court upheld the verdict. Berlusconi declared his innocence and spoke of a "judicial coup".

Because he was over 75, he did not go to jail but did community service, working four hours a week with elderly dementia patients at a Catholic care home near Milan.

The many trials of Berlusconi

Berlusconi's women and bunga-bunga parties

Berlusconi's struggles in the political arena and the courtroom have been accompanied by a string of lascivious reports about his private life.

He met second wife Veronica Lario after she performed topless in a play.

When he was photographed at the 18th birthday party of aspiring model Noemi Letizia, she decided to divorce him and also accused him of selecting a "shamelessly trashy" list of candidates for the European parliament.

But his reputation was tarnished most by allegations of raunchy "bunga-bunga" parties at his private villa attended by showgirls. The reports culminated in a conviction of paying for sex with an underage prostitute.

An explanation of bunga bunga

In October 2010, it emerged that Silvio Berlusconi had called a police station asking for the release of a 17-year-old girl, Karima "Ruby" El Mahroug.

She was being held for theft and was also said to have attended his "bunga-bunga" parties.

In June 2013 he was found guilty of paying her for sex, and of abuse of power. The case was eventually overturned in 2014.

Berlusconi has always maintained he is "no saint" but firmly denies having ever paid for sex with a woman, saying: "I never understood where the satisfaction is when you're missing the pleasure of conquest."

His turn of phrase has always delighted like-thinkers and horrified critics. In one of his most recent examples, he said his family was so persecuted they felt "like the families of Jews... under Hitler's regime". The remark drew condemnation from Italian Jews.

In December 2009, he was assaulted in a street in Milan - hit in the face with a souvenir of Milan cathedral, by a mentally disturbed man. With a bloodied face and broken teeth, he got out of the car into which he had been bundled by security guards to show his defiance.
Sathyavani Muthu
06 Singh sent a fax to Abdul Kalam offering to resign his post. The next day he left office and was replaced temporarily by West Bengal governor Gopalkrishna Gandhi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sathyavani Muthu

sathiyavani muthu portrait
Born February 15, 1923
Died November 11, 1999 (aged 76)
Occupation politician


Sathyavani Muthu (15 February 1923 – 11 November 1999) was an Indian politician and an influential leader from Chennai, Tamil Nadu. She was a Member of the Legislative Assemblyof Tamil Nadu, Rajya Sabha member and Union Minister. She began her political career as a member of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, began her own party, Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam and later joined the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
Member of Legislative assembly

She was a member of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) since its beginning in 1949. In 1953, she was arrested for leading the DMK's protests against the Kula Kalvi Thittam. During 1959-58, she was the propaganda secretary of the party. She also served as the editor of the magazine Annai (lit. mother) She contested assembly elections from Perambur and Ulundurpet constituencies in all assembly elections between 1957 and 1977 and 1984. She won three times from Perambur constituency as an Independent candidate in 1957 election, as a Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam candidate in 1967, and 1971 elections. She lost the1962 election from Perambur and 1977 election from Ulundurpet constituency.

Electoral history

ElectionConstituencyWinnerVotesPartyRunner-upVotesPartyStatus
3) Sathyavani Muthu 34,579
27,638 IND
IND 2) T. S. Govindaswamy
4) T. Rajagopal (SC) 31,806
23,682 INC
INC Won
1962 Perambur D. Sulochana 40,451 INC Sathyavani Muthu 32,309 DMK Lost
1967 Perambur Sathyavani Muthu 40,364 DMK D. Sulochana 33,677 INC Won
1971 Perambur Sathyavani Muthu 49,070 DMK D. Sulochana 37,047 NCO Won
1977 Ulundurpet V. Thulakkanam 26,788 DMK Sathyavani Muthu 19,211 ADMK Lost
1984 Perambur Parithi Ilamvazhuthi 53,325 DMK Sathyavani Muthu 46,121 ADMK Lost

Tamil Nadu minister

She served as a minister for Harijan welfare and Information during C. N. Annaduraiadministration in Tamil Nadu from 1967 to 1969. She again served as a Harijan welfare minister in M. Karunanidhi administration till 1974.

Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam

She resigned her ministerial position in 1974 and left Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. She claimed that Harijans are not treated well by DMK since the death of C. N. Annadurai and the new leader M. Karunanidhi was prejudiced against harijans. She said

The time has come to form a new party to fight for the rights of the Harijans. After Dr. Ambedkar, nobody has taken the cudgels in real earnest......We will form a new party, sit on the opposition benches, and fight for the rights of Schedules Castes. We will not let them be exploited and humiliated endlessly.

She formed Thazhthapattor Munnetra Kazhagam. The party was merged with Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam after it came to power winning the 1977 election.

Union minister

She served as a Rajya Sabha member as an Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagamrepresentative between 3 April 1978 till 2 April 1984. She served as a Central Minister in Charan Singh administration in 1979 and she along with Bala Pazhanoor were the first two non-Congress Dravidian parties Tamil Nadu politicians to serve in Union ministry.
Books


Cover page of the book My Agitations by Sathyavani Muthu
Sathyavani Muthu penned her struggles in the book titled "My Agitation" which was first released in 1982 by The Justice Press in Madras. A book was written by Ms. Bhavani Ilavenil on the struggles of Sathyavani Muthu and released in the year 2018. The book titled "Thaltapatta Makkaluku Kalingnar M. Karunanidhi Seydha Dhroham - Sathyavani Muthu Varalar" (How Karunanidhi betrayed Dalits - Dr.Sathyavani Muthu's Struggles).
T. N. Sadalakshmi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia [wikipedia page]
CONTEXT INFO

Personal details
Born 25 December 1928
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
Died 24 July 2004 (aged 75)
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
Political party Indian National Congress, Telangana Congress
Spouse(s) T. Venkata Narayana
Residence Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Takella. N. Sadalakshmi (1928–2004) was the first Dalit woman legislator of Telangana

Early life

Sadalakshmi was born at Pensionpura in Hyderabad. She studied at Keyes High School and had begun a course in medicine in Madras when she heard B. R. Ambedkar deliver a speech at Jeera Compound. She decided then to abandon medicine in favour of politics.

Political career

Sadalakshmi was first elected from the Peddapalli constituency and subsequently from that of Kamareddy. She rose to become deputy speaker of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
In 1962, Sadalakshmi was elected to the state assembly from Yellareddy assembly constituency. She became the first and only woman minister in the cabinet of Neelam Sanjiva Reddy. As a Minister of Religious and Charitable Endowments - a position she held for a year - she took the decision to train Dalits as Hindu priests. She set up an Archaka School at Yadagirigutta and allowed women into Devasthanam trusts. LAter, as Social Welfare Minister, she set up SC Corporation.

Sadalakshmi was a member of Vidhan Parishad between 1974 and 1980. She also served as honorary chairman of LIDCAP in the 1980s.

Sadalakshmi supported Ambedkarism and the movement for a separate Telangana state. She joined the Telugu Desam Party in 1982 at N. T. Rama Rao's insistence and was appointed to be the party's vice-president. She later left Telugu Desam Party to work for the Telangana Congress Party.

Personal life

Sadalakshmi was married to T. Venkata Narayana, a prominent Scheduled Caste leader. They had a son and two daughters. She died on 24 July 2004 at CARE Hospital due to a cardiac problem. She was cremated at Bansilalpet.

Sadalakshmi passes away

By Our Special Correspondent

HYDERABAD, JULY 24. T. N. Sadalakshmi, a former Minister and a staunch Ambedkarite, passed away this evening at CARE Hospital due to a cardiac problem. She was 76.

According to her family, the cremation will take place at Bansilalpet tomorrow followed by a procession from her residence at Baghlingampalli. Born at Pensionpura here, Sadalakshmi had fought for Dalits' cause for half a century. As a student of Keys High School, she listened to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar's speech at Jeera Compound, which altered her life. She discontinued medical studies at Madras and entered politics, getting elected first to Lok Sabha from Peddapalli. Later, she was elected to Assembly from Kamaredy and went on to become deputy Speaker of the Assembly.

For a year, she was the Endowments Minister, during which period she took the decision to make dalits archakas. She set up an archaka school at Yadagirigutta and allowed women in devasthanam trusts. As Social Welfare Minister, she later set up SC Corporation.

She joined the Telugu Desam Party at the instance of N. T. Rama Rao, who made her the party's vice-president. Under her leadership, Madiga Reservation Porata Samthi was formed which secured SC categorisation. Sadalakshmi was all for a separate Telangana and she worked for the cause from within the Congress.

She is survived by husband, T. V. Narayana -- a prominent SC leader -- two daughters and a son.
Sarve Satyanarayana

Sarve Satyanarayana (born 4 April 1954) is an Indian politician and member of the Parliament of India, representing Malkajgiri constituency. He was inducted into Manmohan Singh's cabinet as Union minister of state for Transport in October 2012.

Early life

Sarve Satyanarayana was born in Hyderabad, in a dalit family, Madiga, to Laxmaiah and Mallamma. He did his B.A, LL.B. from Osmania University, Hyderabad at Evening College of Law, Abids, Hyderabad. He was a Student union leader at Law college.
Career

He rendered about 13 years of Govt. service in SBH Compilation from 1972–77; HMT, Hyderabad, from 1972–78; and SAIL, Hyderabad, 1978-1985. He was a trade union leader for about 10,000 employees in SAIL, spread over 42 branches all over the country.

Political career

Sarve Satyanarayana was elected to Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 1985 to 1989, elected to the Lok Sabha from Siddipet constituency in 2004 and from Malkajgiri constituency in 2009. He is known for his down to earth behaviour and free accessibility.

Political career

He is the national spokesman of the Congress party. He is an Ex-Member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha. He was appointed as MoS, Road Transport & Highways on 28 October 2012

Personal life

Sarve Satyanarayana is married to Sunita on 22 June 1981. She works in SAIL. They have a son and two daughters. One of the daughter Sangeetha is a state civil servant.
Upendranath Barman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Upendranath Barman

1952-1962
Succeeded by Debendra Nath Karjee
Constituency Cooch BeharWest Bengal
Personal details
Born 1 December 1899
Died 7 February 1988 (aged 88)
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s)
Kshirodebala Debi
​(m. 1926)​
Children 6
Source: 

Upendranath Barman (1 December 1899 – 7 February 1988) was an Indian politician. He was elected from Cooch BeharWest Bengal to the Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India as a member of the Indian National Congress.

Personal life

Barman belonged to a Rajbanshi family. He was born in Cooch Behar to father Biranarayan Barman. He graduated from Victoria College in Cooch Behar and earned his LLB degree from University Law College, Calcutta. He practiced law for a few years in Jalpaiguri. He married Kshirodebala Debi in 1926 and had two sons and four daughters. He died in 1988.

Political career

Barman was a part of the Indian National Congress and was elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly from 1937 to 1945. He also served as a minister in the state between 1941 and 1943. In the first general elections in 1952, he contested from the North Bengal Lok Sabha seat and won. He again fought the Lok Sabha polls from Cooch Behar constituency in 1957 and won.

Ideology

Barman was extremely vocal about the rights of the backward castes. Reservation for the Scheduled Castes, then known as ‘Depressed Class’, was incorporated in the Government of India Act, 1935 which was passed by the British Parliament but Barman believed the condition of the backward castes had not improved. According to him, only a privileged few, who got the opportunity to get education, were in better condition.

Literary career

Barman was interested in research and writing. He authored two books namely History of Rajbanshi Community and History of Rajbanshi Literature.
Vasant Sathe
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vasant Sathe

Union Minister of Information and Broadcasting
In office
1980–1982
In office
1972–1977
In office
1980–1991
Personal details
Born 5 March 1925
Died 23 September 2011 (aged 86)
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Jayashree expired
Children Two daughters one son
Residence(s) Originally: NagpurMaharashtra At the time of death: Gurgaon near Delhi

Vasant Purushottam Sathe (born 5 March 1925 – 23 September 2011) was an Indian politician of the Indian National Congress party. He was a lawyer by training and became a parliamentarian in 1972 and a cabinet minister during the 1980s. He was a socialist and came to prominence in the congress after Indira Gandhi split the party for a second time in 1978. He was also known for his tenure as Union Minister of Information and Broadcasting when he initiated the process which led to Indian television moving into colour broadcasting for the Asian Games 1982 and Hum Log the first colour Indian soap-opera.

Early life

Vasant Purushottam Sathe was born on 5 March 1925 at Nashik, Maharashtra, to Purushottam Sathe.

He received his early education at Bhonsla Military School, Nashik, and did his masters in Economics and Political Science at Nagpur Mahavidyalaya, followed by a degree in Law at Morris College, Nagpur University.

Political career

Sathe joined the Socialist Party upon at its inception in 1948 after which he joined the Congress. He made his debut as a Member of Parliament in 1972 for the Akola constituency in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In the 1980s he moved to the Wardha constituency. He won from Wardha in 1980, 1984 and 1989, but lost in 1991 and 1996. Sathe worked as a Union Cabinet minister for the Government of India. He is known for his candidness on issues of critical concern to the country and his unconventional lifestyle. He propagated the Presidential form of government for India.

He was a member of the Consultative Committee of the Planning commission in 1972 before holding key portfolios as the Union Minister of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in 1980, Chemicals and Fertilizers in 1982, Steel, Mines & Coal in 1985, Energy in 1986, and Communications from 1988–1989.

He was also the Chairman of Indo-Japan Study Committee from 1992–95 and became President of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations in 1993. He has represented India at UNESCO, the World Peace Congress and the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

In 2005 he released his auto-biography Memoirs of a Rationalist on his 81st birthday.

Personal life

Sathe married the late Jayshree Sathe on 7 February 1949. He has 3 children: Two daughters Suhas and Suniti and a son, Subhash who is an industrialist at Gurgaon near Delhi.

He died following a heart attack on 23 September 2011 in Gurugram, India. He complained of chest pain late in the evening and was rushed to a private hospital, where doctors declared him dead.
Vayalar Ravi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vayalar Ravi
Vayalar Ravi


Assumed office
22 April 2003
Constituency Kerala
In office
2 July 1994 – 1 July 2000
In office
29 January 2006 – 26 May 2014
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Oscar Fernandes
Succeeded by Sushma Swaraj
In office
14 August 2012 – 28 October 2012
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Vilasrao Deshmukh
Succeeded by Jaipal Reddy
In office
14 August 2012 – 28 October 2012
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Vilasrao Deshmukh
Succeeded by Jaipal Reddy
In office
14 August 2012 – 28 October 2012
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Vilasrao Deshmukh
Succeeded by K. H. Muniyappa
In office
19 January 2011 – 18 December 2011
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Preceded by Praful Patel
Personal details
Born 4 June 1937
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Mercy Ravi
Children Ravi Krishna
Liza Rohan
Lakshmi Ravi
Residence Kerala

Vayalar Ravi (born 4 June 1937) is an Indian politician, who served as the Union Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs from 2006 to 2014. He is a member of the Rajya Sabha.

Political Life

Ravi was born in Vayalar, Cherthala, Alappuzha District, Kerala. He was the first General Secretary of the Kerala Students Union (KSU), the students' wing of Indian National Congress in Kerala. Ravi was elected to the 5th Lok Sabha in 1971 from Chirayinkil in Thiruvananthapuram district; he was re-elected to the 6th Lok Sabha in 1977, serving until 1979. He was elected to the Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1982, and he served as Home Minister of Kerala from 1982 to 1986 before resigning from that position due to a disagreement with Chief Minister K. Karunakaran. He was re-elected to the Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1987, serving until 1991. He was elected to the Rajya Sabha in July 1994 and again in April 2003. He became Union Cabinet Minister for Overseas Affairs on 30 January 2006.

After the Congress reelection in 2009, Ravi was re-inducted to the Cabinet for the second UPA government and retained the portfolio of Overseas Indian Affairs. He was given the additional responsibility of Ministry of Civil Aviation on 19 January 2011. He resigned from the office after Rashtriya Lok Dal leader Ajit Singh succeeded him.

Ravi was successful in getting to key official posts in Kerala and in center. He is a Rajya Sabha member from kerala for long time.

Personal life

Ravi met his wife Mercy, while they were both active in the Kerala Students Union and he married her after a brief courtship. Mercy Ravi died on 5 September 2009 following a kidney failure, aged 64.

In February 2010, Vayalar Ravi along with Indian Ambassador Shamma Jain were injured in a car accident in Monrovia, Liberia, while on an official visit to African countries.


---------------------------
Lok Sabha Members

Andhra Pradesh
Aruku (ST) GODDETI MADHAVI                         YSRC
Amalapuram(SC) CHINTA ANURADHA             YSRC
Bapatla (SC) Nandigam Suresh                           YSRC
Chittoor (SC) N.Reddeppa                                    YSRC
Tirupati (SC) BALLI DURGA PRASAD RAO      YSRC

Assam
Autonomous District (ST) BIREN SINGH ENGTI INC
Kokrajhar (ST) Naba Kumar Sarania IND
Karimganj (SC) Kripanath Mallah BJP


Bihar
Gopalganj - Dr. Alok Kumar Suman JDU
Hajipur Pashu Pati Kumar Paras LJP
Samastipur R C PASWAN LJP
Sasaram - CHEDI PASWAN BJP
Gaya - Vijay Kumar JDU
Jamui - CHIRAG KUMAR PASWAN LJP


Chattisgarh
BASTAR - Deepak Baij ST INC
JANJGIR-CHAMPA Guharam Ajgalley SC BJP
KANKER - Mohan Mandavi ST BJP
RAIGARH - Gomati Sai ST BJP
SARGUJA - Renuka Singh Saruta ST BJP

Dadra & Nagar HaveliDadra & Nagar Haveli
 - Patel Natubhai Gomanbhai ST BJP

Delhi
North West Delhi –Hans Raj Hans SC BJP

Gujrat
Ahmedabad West-DR. SOLANKI KIRITBHAI SC BJP
Bardoli - Parbhubhai Nagarbhai Vasava ST BJP
Chhota Udaipur -Rathva Gitaben Vajesingbhai ST BJP
Dahod - Jashvantsinh Sumanbhai Bhabhor ST BJP
Kachchh - Chavada Vinod Lakhamashi SC BJP
Valsad   Dr K C Patel ST BJP

Haryana
Ambala - Rattan Lal Kataria – SC BJP
Sirsa - Sunita Duggal SC BJP

Himachal Pradesh
Shimla - Shri Suresh Kashyap SC BJP

Jammu & Kashmir
Ladakh - Shri Jamyang Tsering Namgyal ST BJP

Jharkhand
Dumka - Shri Sunil Soren ST BJP
Khunti - Shri Arjun Munda ST BJP
Lohardaga- SUDARSHAN BHAGAT ST BJP
Palamau - Vishnu Dayal Ram SC BJP
Rajmahal - Vijay Hansda (JMM) ST JMMSinghbhum Smt Geeta Kora (INC) ST INC

Karnataka

Bellary- Y Devendrappa ST BJP
Bijapur - Jigajinagi Ramesh Chandappa SC BJP
Chitradurga- A Narayanaswamy SC BJP
Chamarajanagar V Srinivas Prasad SC BJP
Gulbarga Dr Umesh G Jadhav SC BJP
Raichur Raja Amareshwara Naik SC BJP
Kolar - S Muniswamy SC BJP

Kerala
Alathur - Ramya Haridas SC INC
Mavelikkara - Kodikunnil Suresh SC INC

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep-MOHAMMED FAIZAL P P ST NCP

Madhya Pradesh
BETUL - Durga Das (D.D.) Uikey ST BJP
BHIND - Sandhya Ray SC BJP
DHAR - Chattarsingh Darbar ST BJP
DEWAS - Mahendra Singh Solanky SC BJP
KHARGONE - Gajendra Umrao Singh Patel ST BJP
MANDALA Faggan Singh Kulaste ST BJP
RATLAM - Guman Singh Damor ST BJP
SHAHDOL - Himadri Singh ST BJP
TIKAMGARH- Dr Virendra Kumar SC BJP
UJJAIN - Anil Firojiya SC BJP

Maharastra
Amravati - Navnit Ravi Rana SC IND
Dindori - Dr. Bharati Pravin Pawar ST BJP
Gadchiroli-Chimur shok Mahadeorao Nete SC-BJP
Latur - Sudhakar Tukaram Shrangare SC BJP
Nandurbar - Dr. Heena Vijaykumar Gavit ST BJP
Palghar - Rajendra Dhedya Gavit ST SS
Ramtek - Krupal Balaji Tumane SC SS
Sirdi Sadashiv Kisan Lokhande SC S S
Solapur - Shri. Sha. Bra. Dr. Jai Sidheshwar Shivachary Mahaswamiji SC BJP

Manipur
Outer manipur - Lorho S. Pfoze ST NPF

Meghalaya
Shillong - Vincent H. Pala ST INC
Tura - Agatha K. Sangma ST NPP

Mizoram
MIZORAM - Nirupam Chakma ST BJP

Orissa
Bhadrak - Manjulata Mandal SC BJD
Jajpur - Sarmistha Sethi SC BJD
Jagatsinghpur Rajashree Mallick SC BJD
Koraput - JSaptagiri Sankar Ulaka ST INC
Keonjhar - Chandrani Murmu ST BJD
Mayurbhanj - Bishweswar Tudu ST BJP
Nabarangpur - Ramesh Chandra Majhi SC BJD
Sundargarh- Jual Oram ST BJP

Punjab
Faridkot - Mohammad Sadique SC INC
Fatehgarh Sahib Amar Singh SC INC
Hoshiarpur - Som Parkash SC BJP
Jalandhar - S S CHAUDHARY SC INC

Rajasthan
Banswara - Kanakmal Katara ST BJP
Bikaner - ARJUN RAM MEGHWAL SC BJP
BHARATPUR- Ranjeeta Koli SC BJP
Dausa - Jaskaur Meen ST BJP
Ganganagar - Nihal Chand SC BJP
KARAULI-DHOLPUR Manoj Rajoria SC BJP
Udaipur - Arjun Lal Meena ST BJP

Tamil Nadu
Chidambaram- Thirumaavalavan Thol SC VCK
Kancheepuram Selvam.G SC DMK
Nilgiris - Raja, A. SC DMK
Nagapattinam- Selvaraj M SC CPI
Tenkasi- Dhanush.M.Kumar SC DMK
Thiruvallur - Dr. K.Jayakumar SC INC
Viluppuram - Ravikumar D SC DMK

Tripura
Tripura East - Jitendra Chaudhary ST CPM

Uttar Pradesh
Nagina - Girish Chandra SC BSP
Bulandshahr - Bhola Singh SC BJP
Hathras - Rajbir Diler SC BJP
Agra - SP Baghel SC BJP
Shahjahanpur-Arun Sagar SC BJP
Hardoi - Jay Prakash SC BJP
Misrikh - Ashok Rawat SC BJP
Mohanlalganj-KAUSHAL KISHORE SC BJP
Etawah - Rama Shankar Katheria SC BJP
Jalaun - BHANU PRATAP SINGH VERMA SC BJP
Kaushambi - VINOD KUMAR SONKAR SC BJP
Barabanki - Upendra Singh Rawat SC BJP
Bahraich - Akshayvar Lal SC BJP
Bansgaon - KAMLESH PASWAN SC BJP
Lalganj - Sangeeta Azaad SC BSP
Machhlishahr-Bhola Nath SC BJP
Robertsganj- Pakauri Lal SC AD

Uttarakhand
Almora - AJAY TAMTA SC BJP

West Bengal
Alipurduars - John barla ST BJP
Arambagh - Aparupa Poddar SC TMC
Bangaon - Shantanu Thakur SC BJP
Bishnupur - SUSMITA Khan SC BJP
Bardhaman Durgapur SS Ahluwalia SC BJP
Bolpur - Asith Kumar Mal SC TMC
Cooch behar -Nisith Pramanik SC BJP
Jalpaiguri - Dr Jayanta Kumar Ray SC BJP
Jhargram - Dr Kumar Hembram ST BJP
Joynagar - Pratima MONDAL SC TMC
Mathurapur - Ch MOHAN JATUA SC TMC
Ranaghat - Jaganath Sarkar SC BJP

RAJYASABHA MP
Aasok Sidharth BSP
Address: C-404, Swarna Jayanti Sadan, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23724667, 21430085, Mob: 9013181517

Shri Ramdas Athawale RPI A
Delhi Address: 11, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi
Telephone No 23018975, 23018978
Mobile: 09004809627

Jharna Das Baidya CPI M
Delhi Address: Suite No.14 & 207, V.P. House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:23353199, 23708280, 21430045, Mobile : 9013181333, 9013181151

RS Bharthi DMK
Delhi Address: 171, North Avenue, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23093983, Mob: 9013181480

Abir Ranjan Boswas TMC
Permanent Address: Vill. & P.O. - Chapri, P.S. - Hanskhali, Dist. - Nadia, 741151

Ripun Bora INC
Delhi Address: Flat No. 804, Brahmaputra Apartments, Dr. B. D. Marg, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:23725654, 23725455, 21430007, Mob: 9013181489

Vandana Chavan NCP
Delhi Address: 602, Swarna Jayanti Sadan Deluxe, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23315410, Mobile: 9013181961,

Thaawarchand Gahlot BJP
Delhi Address: 4, Janpath, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23012175,23012195, Fax: 23782711, Mobile: 9013181955

Gohel, Shri Chunibhai Kanjibhai BJP
Delhi Address: 83, South Avenue, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23794568, 21430697, Mobile: 9013181301, 9013181302

Dr Narendra Jadhav Nominated
Delhi Address: 32, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:21430304, 23782916,23782917 Mob:9013181314

Satyanarain Jatia BJP
Delhi Address: Bungalow No.28, Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Road, New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.:23313161, 23313162, Mobile: 9013189186, 9013181186

Kanta Kardam BJP
Permanent Address: 50, Tejghadi, Meerut 250004

Kirodi Lal Meena BJP
Permanent Address: Village - Khohara Mulla, Post - Badabujurg,
Tehsil - Mahwa, District Dausa. 322240

Singh, Shri Veer BSP
Delhi Address: C-I/12, Humayun Road New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.: 23093394, 23093395, Mobile: 9868181048, 9013181138

Selvaraj, Shri A. K. AIADMK
Delhi Address: 302, Swarna Jayanti Sadan Deluxe, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110021
Telephone No.:23721195, 21430556, Mob:9013181018

Swain, Shri Narendra Kumar BJD
Delhi Address: 176, South Avenue, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23019325, 214306303, Mob.: 9013181272

Selja, Kumari INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No. 12, Safdarjung Lane, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23018269, 23018074, Mobile: 9013181062

Seetharama Lakshmi, Smt. Thota TDP
Delhi Address: C-102, Swarna Jayanti Sadan, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23322729,21430276, Mobile: 9013181005, 9013181159

Vayalar Ravi INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No. 60, Lodhi Estate, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:24652148,21430509, Tele-fax: 24652149 Mobile: 9868181711

Sanjay Raut Shivsena
Delhi Address: 11, Ferozeshah Road, New Delhi
Permanent Address: 'Maitri', Friends Colony, Bhandup (E), Mumbai 400042

Rangarajan, Shri T.K. CPI M
Delhi Address: Suite No.518, V.P.House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23352091, 21430690, Mobile : 9868181767, 9013181047

Rajaram BSP
Delhi Address: 103-105, North Avenue, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 21430958, 23793800, Mobile: 9868181577, 9013181131

Punia, Shri P.L. INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No.34, Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Road, New Delhi. 110001
My Telephone No.: 24104132,23354132, 21430058, Mobile: 9013180051, 9013181268

Pradhan, Shri Dharmendra BJP
Delhi Address: 19, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi.
My Telephone No.: 23014511, 23018696, Mobile: 9868180290, 9013181290, 9013181397

Oraon, Shri Samir BJP
Permanent Address: At & P.O. - Bishunpur, Karamtoli, Distt.-Gumla, Jharkhand.

Surendra Singh Nagar SP
Delhi Address: 12, Talkatora Road, New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.: 26923783, 26322061, Mob: 9013181303

S Muthukuruppan AIADMK
Delhi Address: 186, North Avenue, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 23094183, 21430691, Mobile: 9013181017

D Raja CPI
Delhi Address: 303, 308 and 309, V.P. House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 23317230, 23752350 Mobile: 9868181991, 9868181992


Lok Sabha Members

Andhra Pradesh
Aruku (ST) GODDETI MADHAVI                         YSRC
Amalapuram(SC) CHINTA ANURADHA             YSRC
Bapatla (SC) Nandigam Suresh                           YSRC
Chittoor (SC) N.Reddeppa                                    YSRC
Tirupati (SC) BALLI DURGA PRASAD RAO      YSRC

Assam
Autonomous District (ST) BIREN SINGH ENGTI INC
Kokrajhar (ST) Naba Kumar Sarania IND
Karimganj (SC) Kripanath Mallah BJP


Bihar
Gopalganj - Dr. Alok Kumar Suman JDU
Hajipur Pashu Pati Kumar Paras LJP
Samastipur R C PASWAN LJP
Sasaram - CHEDI PASWAN BJP
Gaya - Vijay Kumar JDU
Jamui - CHIRAG KUMAR PASWAN LJP


Chattisgarh
BASTAR - Deepak Baij ST INC
JANJGIR-CHAMPA Guharam Ajgalley SC BJP
KANKER - Mohan Mandavi ST BJP
RAIGARH - Gomati Sai ST BJP
SARGUJA - Renuka Singh Saruta ST BJP

Dadra & Nagar HaveliDadra & Nagar Haveli
 - Patel Natubhai Gomanbhai ST BJP

Delhi
North West Delhi –Hans Raj Hans SC BJP

Gujrat
Ahmedabad West-DR. SOLANKI KIRITBHAI SC BJP
Bardoli - Parbhubhai Nagarbhai Vasava ST BJP
Chhota Udaipur -Rathva Gitaben Vajesingbhai ST BJP
Dahod - Jashvantsinh Sumanbhai Bhabhor ST BJP
Kachchh - Chavada Vinod Lakhamashi SC BJP
Valsad   Dr K C Patel ST BJP

Haryana
Ambala - Rattan Lal Kataria – SC BJP
Sirsa - Sunita Duggal SC BJP

Himachal Pradesh
Shimla - Shri Suresh Kashyap SC BJP

Jammu & Kashmir
Ladakh - Shri Jamyang Tsering Namgyal ST BJP

Jharkhand
Dumka - Shri Sunil Soren ST BJP
Khunti - Shri Arjun Munda ST BJP
Lohardaga- SUDARSHAN BHAGAT ST BJP
Palamau - Vishnu Dayal Ram SC BJP
Rajmahal - Vijay Hansda (JMM) ST JMMSinghbhum Smt Geeta Kora (INC) ST INC

Karnataka

Bellary- Y Devendrappa ST BJP
Bijapur - Jigajinagi Ramesh Chandappa SC BJP
Chitradurga- A Narayanaswamy SC BJP
Chamarajanagar V Srinivas Prasad SC BJP
Gulbarga Dr Umesh G Jadhav SC BJP
Raichur Raja Amareshwara Naik SC BJP
Kolar - S Muniswamy SC BJP

Kerala
Alathur - Ramya Haridas SC INC
Mavelikkara - Kodikunnil Suresh SC INC

Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep-MOHAMMED FAIZAL P P ST NCP

Madhya Pradesh
BETUL - Durga Das (D.D.) Uikey ST BJP
BHIND - Sandhya Ray SC BJP
DHAR - Chattarsingh Darbar ST BJP
DEWAS - Mahendra Singh Solanky SC BJP
KHARGONE - Gajendra Umrao Singh Patel ST BJP
MANDALA Faggan Singh Kulaste ST BJP
RATLAM - Guman Singh Damor ST BJP
SHAHDOL - Himadri Singh ST BJP
TIKAMGARH- Dr Virendra Kumar SC BJP
UJJAIN - Anil Firojiya SC BJP

Maharastra
Amravati - Navnit Ravi Rana SC IND
Dindori - Dr. Bharati Pravin Pawar ST BJP
Gadchiroli-Chimur shok Mahadeorao Nete SC-BJP
Latur - Sudhakar Tukaram Shrangare SC BJP
Nandurbar - Dr. Heena Vijaykumar Gavit ST BJP
Palghar - Rajendra Dhedya Gavit ST SS
Ramtek - Krupal Balaji Tumane SC SS
Sirdi Sadashiv Kisan Lokhande SC S S
Solapur - Shri. Sha. Bra. Dr. Jai Sidheshwar Shivachary Mahaswamiji SC BJP

Manipur
Outer manipur - Lorho S. Pfoze ST NPF

Meghalaya
Shillong - Vincent H. Pala ST INC
Tura - Agatha K. Sangma ST NPP

Mizoram
MIZORAM - Nirupam Chakma ST BJP

Orissa
Bhadrak - Manjulata Mandal SC BJD
Jajpur - Sarmistha Sethi SC BJD
Jagatsinghpur Rajashree Mallick SC BJD
Koraput - JSaptagiri Sankar Ulaka ST INC
Keonjhar - Chandrani Murmu ST BJD
Mayurbhanj - Bishweswar Tudu ST BJP
Nabarangpur - Ramesh Chandra Majhi SC BJD
Sundargarh- Jual Oram ST BJP

Punjab
Faridkot - Mohammad Sadique SC INC
Fatehgarh Sahib Amar Singh SC INC
Hoshiarpur - Som Parkash SC BJP
Jalandhar - S S CHAUDHARY SC INC

Rajasthan
Banswara - Kanakmal Katara ST BJP
Bikaner - ARJUN RAM MEGHWAL SC BJP
BHARATPUR- Ranjeeta Koli SC BJP
Dausa - Jaskaur Meen ST BJP
Ganganagar - Nihal Chand SC BJP
KARAULI-DHOLPUR Manoj Rajoria SC BJP
Udaipur - Arjun Lal Meena ST BJP

Tamil Nadu
Chidambaram- Thirumaavalavan Thol SC VCK
Kancheepuram Selvam.G SC DMK
Nilgiris - Raja, A. SC DMK
Nagapattinam- Selvaraj M SC CPI
Tenkasi- Dhanush.M.Kumar SC DMK
Thiruvallur - Dr. K.Jayakumar SC INC
Viluppuram - Ravikumar D SC DMK

Tripura
Tripura East - Jitendra Chaudhary ST CPM

Uttar Pradesh
Nagina - Girish Chandra SC BSP
Bulandshahr - Bhola Singh SC BJP
Hathras - Rajbir Diler SC BJP
Agra - SP Baghel SC BJP
Shahjahanpur-Arun Sagar SC BJP
Hardoi - Jay Prakash SC BJP
Misrikh - Ashok Rawat SC BJP
Mohanlalganj-KAUSHAL KISHORE SC BJP
Etawah - Rama Shankar Katheria SC BJP
Jalaun - BHANU PRATAP SINGH VERMA SC BJP
Kaushambi - VINOD KUMAR SONKAR SC BJP
Barabanki - Upendra Singh Rawat SC BJP
Bahraich - Akshayvar Lal SC BJP
Bansgaon - KAMLESH PASWAN SC BJP
Lalganj - Sangeeta Azaad SC BSP
Machhlishahr-Bhola Nath SC BJP
Robertsganj- Pakauri Lal SC AD

Uttarakhand
Almora - AJAY TAMTA SC BJP

West Bengal
Alipurduars - John barla ST BJP
Arambagh - Aparupa Poddar SC TMC
Bangaon - Shantanu Thakur SC BJP
Bishnupur - SUSMITA Khan SC BJP
Bardhaman Durgapur SS Ahluwalia SC BJP
Bolpur - Asith Kumar Mal SC TMC
Cooch behar -Nisith Pramanik SC BJP
Jalpaiguri - Dr Jayanta Kumar Ray SC BJP
Jhargram - Dr Kumar Hembram ST BJP
Joynagar - Pratima MONDAL SC TMC
Mathurapur - Ch MOHAN JATUA SC TMC
Ranaghat - Jaganath Sarkar SC BJP

RAJYASABHA MP
Aasok Sidharth BSP
Address: C-404, Swarna Jayanti Sadan, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23724667, 21430085, Mob: 9013181517

Shri Ramdas Athawale RPI A
Delhi Address: 11, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi
Telephone No 23018975, 23018978
Mobile: 09004809627

Jharna Das Baidya CPI M
Delhi Address: Suite No.14 & 207, V.P. House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:23353199, 23708280, 21430045, Mobile : 9013181333, 9013181151

RS Bharthi DMK
Delhi Address: 171, North Avenue, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23093983, Mob: 9013181480

Abir Ranjan Boswas TMC
Permanent Address: Vill. & P.O. - Chapri, P.S. - Hanskhali, Dist. - Nadia, 741151

Ripun Bora INC
Delhi Address: Flat No. 804, Brahmaputra Apartments, Dr. B. D. Marg, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:23725654, 23725455, 21430007, Mob: 9013181489

Vandana Chavan NCP
Delhi Address: 602, Swarna Jayanti Sadan Deluxe, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23315410, Mobile: 9013181961,

Thaawarchand Gahlot BJP
Delhi Address: 4, Janpath, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23012175,23012195, Fax: 23782711, Mobile: 9013181955

Gohel, Shri Chunibhai Kanjibhai BJP
Delhi Address: 83, South Avenue, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23794568, 21430697, Mobile: 9013181301, 9013181302

Dr Narendra Jadhav Nominated
Delhi Address: 32, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:21430304, 23782916,23782917 Mob:9013181314

Satyanarain Jatia BJP
Delhi Address: Bungalow No.28, Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Road, New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.:23313161, 23313162, Mobile: 9013189186, 9013181186

Kanta Kardam BJP
Permanent Address: 50, Tejghadi, Meerut 250004

Kirodi Lal Meena BJP
Permanent Address: Village - Khohara Mulla, Post - Badabujurg,
Tehsil - Mahwa, District Dausa. 322240

Singh, Shri Veer BSP
Delhi Address: C-I/12, Humayun Road New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.: 23093394, 23093395, Mobile: 9868181048, 9013181138

Selvaraj, Shri A. K. AIADMK
Delhi Address: 302, Swarna Jayanti Sadan Deluxe, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110021
Telephone No.:23721195, 21430556, Mob:9013181018

Swain, Shri Narendra Kumar BJD
Delhi Address: 176, South Avenue, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23019325, 214306303, Mob.: 9013181272

Selja, Kumari INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No. 12, Safdarjung Lane, New Delhi 110011
Telephone No.:23018269, 23018074, Mobile: 9013181062

Seetharama Lakshmi, Smt. Thota TDP
Delhi Address: C-102, Swarna Jayanti Sadan, Dr. B.D. Marg, New Delhi 110001
Telephone No.:23322729,21430276, Mobile: 9013181005, 9013181159

Vayalar Ravi INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No. 60, Lodhi Estate, New Delhi.
Telephone No.:24652148,21430509, Tele-fax: 24652149 Mobile: 9868181711

Sanjay Raut Shivsena
Delhi Address: 11, Ferozeshah Road, New Delhi
Permanent Address: 'Maitri', Friends Colony, Bhandup (E), Mumbai 400042

Rangarajan, Shri T.K. CPI M
Delhi Address: Suite No.518, V.P.House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi
Telephone No.:23352091, 21430690, Mobile : 9868181767, 9013181047

Rajaram BSP
Delhi Address: 103-105, North Avenue, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 21430958, 23793800, Mobile: 9868181577, 9013181131

Punia, Shri P.L. INC
Delhi Address: Bungalow No.34, Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Road, New Delhi. 110001
My Telephone No.: 24104132,23354132, 21430058, Mobile: 9013180051, 9013181268

Pradhan, Shri Dharmendra BJP
Delhi Address: 19, Teen Murti Marg, New Delhi.
My Telephone No.: 23014511, 23018696, Mobile: 9868180290, 9013181290, 9013181397

Oraon, Shri Samir BJP
Permanent Address: At & P.O. - Bishunpur, Karamtoli, Distt.-Gumla, Jharkhand.

Surendra Singh Nagar SP
Delhi Address: 12, Talkatora Road, New Delhi 110001
My Telephone No.: 26923783, 26322061, Mob: 9013181303

S Muthukuruppan AIADMK
Delhi Address: 186, North Avenue, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 23094183, 21430691, Mobile: 9013181017

D Raja CPI
Delhi Address: 303, 308 and 309, V.P. House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi
My Telephone No.: 23317230, 23752350 Mobile: 9868181991, 9868181992
West Bengal
1 Gosaba (SC) Jayanta Naskar                      AITC
2 Raghunathpur (SC) Vivekananda Bauri      BJP
3 Sainthia (SC) Nilabati Saha                         AITC
4 Bangaon Dakshin(SC) S Mazmder             BJP
5 Maldaha (SC) Bhupendra Nath Halder        INC
6 Canning Paschim(SC PR Das                     AITC
7 Bangaon Uttar (SC) Ashok Kirtania              BJP
8 Basanti (SC) Shyamal Mondal                     AITC
9 Minakhan (SC) Usha Rani Mondal               AITC
10 Magrahat Purba(SC)Namita Saha            AITC
11 Jalpaiguri (SC) P K Barma                         AITC
12 Gaighata (SC) Biswanath Karak M BJP
13 Nayagram (ST) Dulal Murmu M AITC
14 Binpur (ST) Debnath Hansda M AITC
15 Ranibandh (ST) Jytsna Mandi F AITC
16 Mandirbazar (SC) Joydeb Halder M AITC
17 Sital kuchi (SC) Hiten Barman M BJP
18 Mekliganj (SC) Adhikary Paresh Chandra M BJP
19 Jaynagar (SC) Biswanath Das M AITC
20 Kalchini (ST) Bishal Lama M BJP
21 Ranaghat Dakshin (SC) MN Adikari MBJP
22 Sandeshkhali (ST) Sukumar Mahata M AITC
23 Hingalganj (SC) Debes Mandal M AITC
24 Khargram (SC) Ashis Marjit M AITC
25 Arambagh (SC) Madhusudan Bag M BJP
26 Ranaghat Uttar Purba (SC) Ashim Biswas MBJP
27 Galsi (SC) Nepal Ghorui M AITC
28 Mal (ST) Bulu Chik Baraik M AITC
29 Maynaguri (SC) Kaushik Roy M BJP
30 Kumargram (ST) MK Oraon M BJP
31 Raina (SC) Sampa Dhara M AITC
32 Burdwan Uttar (SC) NK Malik M AITC
33 Sitai (SC) JCB Basunia M AITC
34 Bishnupur (SC) Dilip Mondal M AITC
35 Khejuri (SC) S Pramanik M BJP
36 Uluberia Uttar (SC) Dr. Nirmal Maji M AITC
37 Cooch Behar Uttar(SC) Sukumar Roy Roy M AITC
38 Mathabhanga(SC) Sushil Barman M AITC
39 Gazole (SC) CB Barman M BJP
40 Kaliaganj (SC) Soumen Roy M BJP
41 Habibpur (ST) Joyel Murmu M BJP
42 Kalyani (SC) AMBIKA Roy M BJP
43 Hemtabad (SC) Satyajit Burman M AITC
44 Sankrail (SC) Priya PAUL F AITC
45 Tapan (ST) Budhrai Tudu M BJP
46 Kushmandi (SC) Rekha Roy F AITC
47 Gangarampur(SC)Satyendra Nath Ray M BJP
48 Burwan (SC) JK Saha M AITC
49 Ausgram (SC) Abhedanand Thander M AITC
50 Dhupguri (SC) BP Ray M BJP
51 Kalna (SC) Deboprasad Bag M AITC
52 Rajganj (SC) Khageswar Roy M AITC
53 Khandaghosh(SC)Nabin Chandra Bag M AITC
54 Haringhata (SC) AK Sarkar M BJP
55 Nanoor (SC) BC Manjhi M AITC
56 Matigara-Naxalbari (SC)A Barman M BJP
57 Keshiary (ST) Paresh Murmu M AITC
58 Falakata (SC) Anil Adhikari M AITC
59 Kultali (SC) GC Mondal M AITC
60 Goghat (SC) Subrata Thakur M BJP
61 Baruipur Purba(SC)Bivas Sardar M AITC
62 Bagda (SC) Biswajit Das M BJP
63 Swarupnagar(SC)Bina Mondal F AITC
64 Phansidewa (ST) Durga Murmu M BJP
65 Raipur (ST) M Murmu M AITC
66 Nabagram (SC) Kanai Chandra Mondal M AITC
67 Indus (SC) NK Dhara M BJP
68 Para (SC) NC Bauri M BJP
69 Sonamukhi (SC)Dibakar Gharmi M BJP
70 Jamalpur (SC) AK Manjhi M AITC
71 Dhanekhali (SC) Asima Patra F AITC
72 Haldia (SC) Tapasi Mondal F BJP
73 Balagarh (SC) Manoranjan Byapari M AITC
74 Katulpur (SC) Harkali Pratiher M BJP
75 Ghatal (SC) Shankar Dolai M AITC
76 Bandwan (ST) RL Saren M AITC
77 Saltora (SC) Chandana Bouri F BJP
78 Chandrakona(SC)Arup Dhara M AITC
79 Manbazar (SC) Sandhyarani TUDU F AITC
80 Krishnaganj (SC) AK Biswas M BJP
81 Dubrajpur (SC) AK Saha M BJP

Uttar Predesh
1 Agra Cantt.(R) Dr Giriraj Singh Dharmesh BJP
2 Agra Rural (R) Hemlata Diwakar BJP
3 Ajagara (R) Kailash Nath Sonkar BJP
4 Aurai (R) Dina Nath Bhasker BJP
5 Auraiya (R) Ramesh Chandra BJP
6 Alapur (R) Anita BJP
7 Balamau (R) Rampal Verma BJP
8 Babaganj (R) Vinod Kumar IND
9 Baldev (R) Pooran Prakash BJP
10 Bachhrawan(R) Ram Naresh Rawat BJP
11 Balha (R) Akshaybar Das BJP
12 Balrampur(R) Paltu Ram BJP
13 Bansgaon(R) Vimlesh Paswan BJP
14 Bara (R) Dr Ajay Kumar BJP
15 Bharthana(R) Savitri Katheria BJP
16 Belathra Road (R) Dhananjay Kanaujia BJP
17 Bisauli (R) Kushgra Sagar BJP
18 Bilhaur (R) Bhagwati Prasad BJP
19 Chakia (R) Sarda Prasad BJP
20 Chandausi(R) Gulab Devi BJP
21 Chhanbey (R) Rahul Prakash AD
22 Dudhi (ST) Hari Ram BJP
23 Dhanaura (R) Rajeev Kumar BJP
24 Dhanghata(R) Shri Ram Chauhan BJP
25 Faridpur (R) Dr Shyam Bihari Lal BJP
26 Ghatampur(R) Kamal Rani BJP
27Gopamau (R) SHYAM PRAKASH BJP
28 Hastinapur(R) Dinesh Khatik BJP
29 Haidergarh(R) Baijnath Rawat BJP
30 Hapur (R) Vijay Pal BJP
31 Hargaon(R) Suresh Rahi BJP
32 Hathras (R) Hari Shanker BJP
33 Iglas (R) Rajveer Diler BJP
34 Jagdishpur(R) Suresh Kumar BJP
35 Jakhanian (R) Triveni Ram SSP
36 Jalesar (R) Sanjeev BJP
37 Jewar (R) Sanjeev Kumar Diwakar BJP
38 Kadipur (R) Rajesh Gautam BJP
39 Kaimganj (R) Amar Singh BJP
40 Kapilvastu(R) Shyam Ghani Rahi BJP
41 Kasta (R) Saurabh Singh BJP
42 Kerakat(R) Dinesh Chaudhari BJP
43 Khaga (R) Krishna Paswan BJP
44 Khair (R) Anoop BJP
45 Khajani(R) Sant Prasad BJP
46 Khurja (R) Vijendra Singh BJP
47 Kishani(R) Brajesh Kumar SP
48 Koraon (R) Rajmani BJP
49 Kanauj (R) Anil Dohre SP
50 Lalganj (R) Azaad Mardan BSP
51 Machhlishahr(R) Jagdish Sonkar SP
52 Mahadewa (R) Ravi Sonakar BJP
53 Maharajganj(R) Jai Mangal BJP
54 Malihabad (R) Jai Devi BJP
55 Manjhanpur(R) Lal Bahadur BJP
56 Mauranipur(R) Bihari Lal BJP
57 Mehnagar(R) Kalp Nath SP
58 Mehroni(R) Manohar Lal BJP
59 Milak (R) Rajbala BJP
60 Milkipur(R) Gorakh Nath BJP
61 Misrikh (R) Ram Kishan Bhargava BJP
62 Mohan (R) Brijesh Kumar Rawat BJP
63 Mohanlalganj (R) Ambrish Singh SP
64 Nagina(R) MANOJ KUMAR PARAS SP
65 Naraini (R) Raj Karan BJP
66 Nehtaur(R) OM KUMAR BJP
67 Orai (R) Gauri Shankar Verma BJP
68 Obra (ST) Sanjeev Kumar BJP
69 Powayan (R) Chet Ram BJP
70 Puranpur (R) Babu Ram Paswan BJP
71 Purqazi (R) Pramod Utwal BJP
72 Rampur Maniharan (R) Devendra Kumar BJP
73 Rasulabad(R) Nirmala Sankhawar BJP
74 Ramkola (R) Ram Nand Bhaspa
75 Rath (R) Manisha Anuragi BJP
76 Safipur (R) Bamba La BJP
77 Saidpur (R) Subhash Pasi SP
78 Salempur (R) Kalicharan BJP
79 Salon (R) Dal Bahadur BJP
80 Sandi (R) Prabhash Kumar BJP
81 Sidhauli(R) Hargovind Bhargava BSP
82 Soraon (R) Jamuna Prasad AD
83 Sri Nagar(R) Manju Tyagi BJP
84 Tundla(R) Satyapal Singh Baghel BJP
85 Zaidpur(R) Upendra Singh BJP

Uttarakhand
1 Purola (SC) Raj Kumar INC
2 Tharali (SC) ML Shah BJP
3 Ghanshali (SC) HL Shah BJP
4 Chakrata (ST) Pritam Singh INC
5 Rajpur Road(SC) Khazan Dass BJP
6 Jwalapur (SC) Suresh Rathore BJP
7 Bhagwanpur(SC) Mamta Rakesh INC
8 Jhabrera (SC) Deshraj Karnwal BJP
9 Pauri (SC) MS Koli BJP
10 Gangolihat (SC Meena Gangola BJP
11 Bageshwar(SC) Chandan Ram Dass BJP
12 Someshwar(SC)Rekha Arya BJP
13 Nainital (SC) Sanjeev Arya BJP
14 Bajpur (SC) Yashpal Arya BJP
15 Nanak Matta(ST)Dr Prem Singh BJP

Tripura
1 Simna (ST) Pranab Debbarma M CPM
2 Bamutia (SC) Haricharan Sarkar M CPM
3 Barjala (SC) Jitendra Sarkar M INC
4 Mandaibazar (ST) Monoranjan Debbarma M CPM
5 Takarjala (ST) Niranjan Debbarma M CPM
6 Pratapgarh (SC) Anil Sarkar M CPM
7 Badharghat (SC) Dilip Sarkar M INC
8 Golaghati (ST) Keshab Debbarma M CPM
9 Charilam (ST) Ramendra Narayan Debbarma M CPM
10 Nalchar (SC) Tapan Chandra Das M CPM
11 Ramchandraghat (ST) Padma Kumar Debbarma M CPM
12 Asharambari (ST) Aghore Debbarma M CPM
13 Krishnapur (ST) Khagendra Jamatia M CPM
14 Bagma (ST) Naresh Chandra Jamatia M CPM
15 Kakraban-Salgarh (SC) Ratan Bhowmik M CPM
16 Rajnagar (SC) Sudhan Das M CPM
17 Santirbazar (ST) Manindra Reang M CPI
18 Jolaibari (ST) Jashabir Tripura M CPM
19 Manu (ST) Jitendra Chaudhury M CPM
20 Ampinagar (ST) Daniel Jamatia M CPM
21 Karbook (ST) Priyamani Debbarma M CPM
22 Raima Valley (ST) Lalit Mohan Tripura M CPM
23 Surma (SC) Sudhir Das M CPM
24 Ambassa (ST) Lalit Kumar Debbarma M CPM
25 Karmachhara (ST) Diba Chandra Hrangkhawl M INC
26 Chawamanu (ST) Nirajoy Tripura M CPM
27 Pabiachhara (SC) Samiran Malakar M CPM
28 Fatikroy (SC) Tunubala Malakar F CPM
29 Pencharthal (ST) Arun Kumar Chakma M CPM
30 Kanchanpur (ST) Rajendra Reang M CPM

Tamil Nadu
1 Tittakudi (SC) CV Ganesan DMK
2 Thiru-Vi-Ka-Nagar(SC) P. Sivakumar (A) Thayagam Kavi DMK
3 Ottapidaram(SC) C Shunmugaiah DMK
4 Kilvaithinankuppam(SC) M. Jaganmoorthy AIADMK
5 Gudiyattam (SC) V. Amalu DMK
6 Thuraiyur (SC) S Stalinkumar DMK
8 Vandavasi (SC) S. Ambeth Kumar DMK
9 Valparai (SC) KT Amulkandasami AIADMK
10 Periyakulam(SC) KS Saravanakumaar DMK
11 Cheyyur (SC) Panaiyur M. Babu DMK
12 Madurantakam (SC) Maragatham Kumaravel AIADMK
13 Manamadurai (SC) A Tamilarasi DMK
14 Sholavandan (SC) A Venkatesan DMK
15 Bhavanisagar (SC) A. Bannari AIADMK
16 Dharapuram (SC) N. Kayalvizhi DMK
17 Nilakkottai (SC) S Thenmozhi AIADMK
18 Ponneri (SC) Durai. Chandrasekar INC
19 Avanashi (SC) P. Dhanapal AIADMK
20 Poonmallae (SC) A. Krishnaswamy DMK
21 Thiruthuraipoondi (SC) Marimuthu K CPI
22 Sriperumbudur (SC) S. Aravind Ramesh DMK
23 Kilvelur (SC) Nagai Maali (A) P. Mahalingam CPI M
24 Uthangarai (SC) T. M. Tamilselvam AIADMK
25 Perambalur (SC) M Prabhaharan DMK
26 Krishnarayapuram (SC) Sivagama Sundari K DMK
27 Paramakudi (SC) S Murugesan DMK
28 Arakkonam (SC) S.Ravi AIADMK
29 Gandharvakottai (SC) M. Chinnadurai CPI M
30 Vasudevanallur (SC) Dr. T SadhanThirumalaikumar DMK
31 Kattumannarkoil (SC) M. Sinthanai Selvan VCK
32 Thiruvidaimarudur (SC) Govi. Chezhiyan DMK
33 Chengam (SC) M. P. Giri DMK
34 Attur (SC) A. P. Jayasankaran AIADMK
35 Egmore (SC) I. Paranthamen DMK
36 Harur (SC) V. Sampathkumar AIADMK
37 Sankarankovil (SC) E Raja DMK
38 Rasipuram (SC) M. Mathiventhan DMK
39 Yercaud (ST) G. Chitra AIADMK
40 Kallakurichi (SC) M. Senthilkumar AIADMK
41 Gangavalli (SC) A. Nallathambi AIADMK
42 Gudalur (SC) Pon. Jayaseelan AIADMK
43 Vanur (SC) M. Chakrapani AIADMK
44 Senthamangalam (ST) K. Ponnusamy DMK


Telangana
1 Achampet (SC) GUVVALA BALARAJU M TRS
2 AlamPur (SC) ABRAHAM V.M. M TRS
3 Andole (SC) KRANTHI KIRAN CHANTI F TRS
4 Aswaraopeta (ST) MECHA NAGESWARA RAO M TDP
5 Bhadrachalam (ST) PODEM VEERAIAH M INC
6 Chevella (SC) KALE YADAIAH M TRS
7 Choppadandi (SC) RAVI SHANKAR SUNKE M TRS
8 Devarakonda (ST) RAMAVATH RAVINDRA KUMAR M TRS
9 Dharmapuri (SC) ESHWAR KOPPULA M TRS
10 Dornakal (ST) DHARAM SOTH REDYA NAIK M TRS
11 Ghanpur (station) (SC)DR. THATIKONDA RAJAIAH M TRS
12 Jukkal (SC)HANMANTH SHINDE M TRS
13 Madhira (SC)BHATTI VIKRAMARKA MALLU M INC
14 Mahabubabad (ST)BANOTH SHANKAR NAIK M TRS
15 Manakondur (SC)BALAKISHAN RASAMAYI M TRS
16 Mulug (ST)ANASUYA DANSARI M INC
17 Nakarekal (SC)CHIRUMARTHI LINGAIAH M TRS
18 Pinapaka (ST)KANTHA RAO REGA F INC
19 Sathupalli (SC)SANDRA VENKATA VEERAIAH M TDP
20 Secubderabad Cant (SC) G. SAYANNA M TRS
21 Thungathurthy (SC)GADARI KISHORE KUMAR M TRS
22 Vikarabad (SC)DR. ANAND METHUKU M TRS
23 Wardhanapet (SC)AROORI RAMESH M TRS
24 Wyara (ST)LAVUDYA RAMULU M IND
25 Yellandu (ST)HARIPRIYA BANOTH M INC
26 Zahirabad (SC)KONINTY MANIK RAO M TRS

Sikkim
1 Bartung (BL) Tashi Thendup Bhutia SDF
2 Djongu (BL) Pintso Namgyal Lepcha SDF
3 Gangtok (BL) Kunga Nima Lepcha SKM
4 Gnahang Machong (BL) Dorjee Tshering Lepcha SDF
5 Kabi Lungchuk (BL) Karma Loday Bhutia SKM
6 Lachen Mangan (BL) Samdup Lepcha SKM
7 Martam Rumtek (BL) Dorjee Tshering Lepcha SDF
8 Salghari-Zoom (SC) Sunita Gajmer SKM
9 Shyari (BL) Kunga Nima Lepcha SKM
10 Tumin Lingee (BL) Ugyen Tshering Gyatso Bhutia SDF
11 West Pendam (SC) L.B Das SKM

Rajsthan
1 Raisinghnagar (SC) BALVEER SINGH LUTHRA M BJP
2 Anupgarh (SC )SANTOSH M BJP
3 Pilibanga (SC)DHARMENDRA KUMAR M BJP
4 Khajuwala (SC) GOVIND RAM M INC
5 Sujangarh (SC) BHANWARLAL MEGHWAL M INC
6 Pilani (SC) J.P. CHANDELIA M INC
7 Dhod (SC) PARASRAM MORDIA M INC
8 Dudu (SC)BABULAL NAGAR M IND
9 Jamwa Ramgarh (ST) GOPAL LAL MEENA M INC
10 Bagru (SC) GANGA DEVI F INC
11 Bassi (ST) LAXMAN MEENA M IND
12 Chaksu (SC) VED PRAKASH SOLANKI M INC
13 Alwar Rural (SC)TIKA RAM JULLY M INC
14 Rajgarh-Laxmangarh (ST)JOHARI LAL MEENA M INC
15 Kathumar (SC) BABULAL M INC
16 Weir (SC) BHAJAN LAL JATAV M INC
17 Bayana (SC) AMAR SINGH M INC
18 Baseri (SC) KHILADI LAL BAIRWA M INC
19 Todabhim (ST)PRITHVIRAJ M INC
20 Hindaun (SC) BHAROSI LAL M INC
23 Sapotra (ST) RAMESH CHAND MEENA M INC
24 Sikrai (SC) MAMTA BHUPESH F INC
25 Lalsot (ST) PARSADI LAL M IND
26 Bamanwas (ST) INDRA F INC
27 Khandar (SC)ASHOK M INC
28 Niwai (SC) PRASHANT BAIRWA M INC
29 Ajmer South (SC) ANITA BHADEL F BJP
30 Jayal (SC) Manju Devi F INC
31 Merta (SC) INDIRA DEVI F RLP
32 Sojat (SC) SHOBHA CHAUHAN F BJP
33 Bhopalgarh (SC) PUKHRAJ M RLP
34 Bilara (SC) HEERARAM M INC
35 Chohtan (SC)PADMARAM M INC
36 Jalore (SC)JOGESHWAR GARG M BJP
37 Pindwara Abu (ST)SAMA RAM GRASIYA M BJP
38 Reodar (SC) JAGASI RAM M BJP
39 Gogunda (ST) Pratap Lal Bheel M BJP
40 Jhadol (ST) BABU LAL M BJP
41 Kherwara (ST) DAYARAM PARMAR M INC
42 Udaipur Rural (ST) Phool Singh Meena M BJP
43 Salumber (ST) Amrit Lal Meena M BJP
44 Dhariawad (ST) Gotam Lal M BJP
45 Dungarpur (ST) GANESH GHOGRA M INC
46 Aspur (ST) Gopi Chand Meena M BJP
47 Sagwara (ST)RAMPRASAD M BTP
48 Chorasi (ST) RAJKUMAR ROAT M BTP
49 GHATOL (ST)HARENDRA NINAMA M BJP
50 Garhi (ST) KAILASH CHANDRA MEENA M BJP
51 Banswara (ST)ARJUN SINGH BAMNIYA M INC
52 Bagidora (ST) MAHENDRAJEET SINGH MALVIYA M INC
53 Kushalgarh (ST)RAMILA KHADIYA M IND
54 Kapasan (SC) ARJUN LAL JINGAR M BJP
55 Pratapgarh (ST) RAMLAL M INC
56 Shahpura(SC)KAILASH CHANDRA MEGHWAL M BJP
57 Keshoraipatan (SC)CHANDRAKANTA MEGHWAL M BJP
58 Ramganj Mandi(SC) MADAN DILAWAR M BJP
59 Kishanganj (ST)NIRMALA SAHARIYA F INC
60 Baran-Atru (SC)PANA CHAND MEGHWAL M INC
61 Dag (SC) KALURAM M BJP
62 Dholpur (Gen)SHOBHARANI KUSHWAH M BJP
63 Sadulpur (Gen) KRISHNA POONIA F INC

Punjab
1 Bhoa (SC) Joginderpal INC
2 Dina Nagar (SC) Aruna Chaudhary INC
3 Sri Hargobindpur (SC) Balwinder Singh INC
4 Jandiala (SC) SSD Bandala INC
5 Amritsar West (SC) Raj Kumar Verka INC
6 Attari (