Dalit Writers/Journalists

Anvita Abbi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anvita Abbi

Abbi at Indian Institute of Technology Madras.
Born 9 January 1949
Agra, United Provinces, Dominion of India
Occupation Scholar and linguist
Awards Padma Shri
Rashtriya Lok Bhasha Sammaan
All India Institute of Advanced Study Fellowship
Gold Medal - Delhi University
SOAS Leverhume Professor
Max Planck Institute Visiting Scientist/> Kenneth Hale Award - Linguistic Society of America (2015)
Website www.andamanese.net

Professor Anvita Abbi (born 9 January 1949) is an Indian linguist and scholar of minority languages, known for her studies on tribal languages and other minority languages of South Asia. The Government of India honoured her, in 2013, by awarding her the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award, for her contributions to the field of linguistics.


Anvita Abbi was born on 9 January 1949, in Agra, the land of Taj Mahal, in family that had produced a number of Hindi writers. After schooling at local institutions, Anvita graduated in economics (BA Hons) from the University of Delhi in 1968. Subsequently, she secured a master's degree (MA) in linguistics from the same university with first division and first rank in 1970 and continued her studies to obtain a PhD from the Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, in 1975, her major for the doctoral studies being General Linguistics and the minor in South Asian Linguistics. she worked as professor of linguistics at Centre for Linguistics, School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies. Abbi lives in New Delhi, at the Dakshinapuram campus of JNU.


Great Andamanese couple - an 1876 photograph

Anvita Abbi is credited with extensive research on the six language families in Indi and the languages and culture of the Great Andamanese which she did as a part of the Endangered Languages Documentation Project (ELDP) project on Vanishing Voices of the Great Andamanese (VOGA), SOAS, University of London. Her studies of 2003-2004 have helped in identifying the distinct characteristics of two Great Andamanese languages, Jarawa and Onge which promoted the concept of a sixth language family of India.Later researches on Andamanese people by other scholars have reported to have confirmed Abbi's findings by discovering two distinct haplogroups of the region, viz. M31 and M32.

She resumed her research on the topic in 2006, concentrating on the morpho-syntax and lexicon of three dying languages of Andaman Islands and is reported to have unearthed the evidences proving that Great Andamenese belongs to a linguistically different language family. She has brought also out an English-Great Andamanese-Hindi Dictionary. Her current project covers the grammar and the evolution of Great Andamanese languages and its people.

A teacher at the JNU, Abbi has assisted 20 PhD and 29 MPhil students in their researches.


Abbi has held many positions of importance, both at administrative and academic levels. Current position: Director, Center of Oral and Tribal Literature Sahtiya Akademi, New Delhi India. Adjunct Professor, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada and the President of the Linguistic society of India. She has served as an advisor to institutions such as UNESCO (since 2002) and Sahitya Akademi. She is also a life member of the Linguistic Society of India at their Dravidian Linguistics Association wing and has also sat on the editorial board of two journals, Indian Linguistics (1991–95) and the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics (1992–96).

The list of academic and organizational responsibilities Professor Anvita Abbi has carried out may be listed as:

Chairperson, Centre of Linguistics and English, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi - 1995-97 and since 2007
Proctor - Jawaharlal Nehru University
Member of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Review Committee- 1996
Member - Advisory Committee - Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore - Ministry of Human Resource Development, India - 1996 & 1999
Member - Advisory Board - Sahitya Akademi for Bhasha Samman awards in Tribal and Lesser known languages - since 2002
Advisor - Linguapax Institute, UNESCO, since 2000
Member - Board of Directors - Terralingua, Washington DC, USA - 1998, 2001-2004 and 2004-2006.
Member - Review Committee - Dravidian University, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh - 2006
External member - Centre of German Studies - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1990-2002
External member - Centre of East Asian Studies - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1990-2002
External member - Centre of French studies - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1990-2002
Member - Governing body - Daulat Ram College - 1995-2001
Member - Advisory Board - International University of Hindi, Wardha - 1998-2000
External Member - Faculty of Arts, University of Delhi, Delhi - 1995-2000
Member - Bifurcation Committee - Centre of Afro-Asian Studies
Member - Academic Council - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1995-1997
Member - Telecommunication Committee - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1995-1996
Member - Equivalence Committee - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1986-1988
President - Music Society - Jawaharlal Nehru University - 1982-1986
Advisor - Konkani Survey - Konkani Academy, Goa - 1991-1992
Advisor - Post Graduate Hindi Linguistics Courses - University of Delhi - 1991-1992
Director - South Asia Media Centre - Kansas State University, Kansas - 1975-76
Member - Advisory Board - Sahitya Akademi for (Classical Language selection)

Awards and recognitions

Anvita Abbi has been honoured by several institutions and establishments. She has held the position of the Visiting Scientist at the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany for three years, 200, 2003 and 2010. She was a Leverhume Professor at the SOAS, University of London in 201 and a fellow of Humanities and Social Sciences at the Cornell University, New York, USA in 1990 and a visiting fellow of the La Trobe University, Melbourne in 2003. Abbi was a visiting professor at the Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Australia during 2010-2011. Some of the other honours she has received are:
Kenneth Hale Award by the Linguistic Society of America. ‘For outstanding lifetime contributions to the documentation and description of languages of India, with particular note of her extraordinary contributions to the documentation of the Great Andamanese language, a moribund language that is a key isolate in understanding the peopling of Asia and Oceania.’ 2015.

Rashtriya Lok Bhasha Sammaan - Gandhi Hindustani Sahitya Sabha - 2003
Fellowship - All India Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla - 2001
Gold Medal - Delhi University - 1970

In 2013, the Government of India honoured Anvita Abbi by awarding her the civilian award of Padma Shri.
Amiya Bhushan Majumdar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amita Bhusan Majumdar
Majumdar at his home
Born 22 March 1918
Died 8 July 2001 (aged 83)
Occupation Writer, novelist, essayist, playwright
Awards Sahitya Academy Award (1986)

Amiya Bhushan Majumdar (Bengali: অমিয় ভূষণ মজুমদার) (22 March 1918 – 8 July 2001) was an Indian novelist, short-story writer, essayist and playwright. In a writing career spanning over four decades, Majumdar wrote numerous novels, short stories, plays and essays in Bengali. Known as the ‘Writer’s Writer’, Majumdar is considered one of the most noteworthy authors of modern Bengali prose. His works received significant critical acclaim and recognition – including the Sahitya Academi Award for his novel Rajnagar in 1986 

Early life

He was born to Babu Ananta Bhushan Majumdar (actual surname Bagchi) a Bengali Brahmin zamindar in Pakshi, Pabna, (now in Bangladesh) and Jyotirindu Devi. Though Jyotirindu Devi was also from a Barendra Brahmin family, she was highly influenced by the Brahmo Samaj and had close friends in the Coochbehar royal family. Amiya Bhushan was the eldest among the five sons of Ananta Bhushan and Jyotirindu Devi and had two elder sisters. He spent most of his life in the North Bengal district of Coochbehar.


Though he was an honours graduate in English, his command over Mathematics, History, Geography, Philosophy, Sanskrit and Law was enviable. This erudition has always reflected in the narratives he created. In 1937 he was enrolled in B. A. English honours class at the Scottish Church College, under the University of Calcutta. Owing to serious illness, he went back to Cooch Behar after a few months and got admitted to Victoria College (now Acharya Brojendra Nath Seal College). After earning his degree in 1939, he was compelled by circumstances to take up a job as a Graduate Clerk in the Coochbehar Head Post Office to support his family, drawing a full stop to what could have become a brilliant academic career.

Literary career

Majumdar was an outstanding fiction writer in Bengali literature and a role model for many writers and creative artists, who avoided patronizing any quarter of the society. Although he lived in a district town at the northernmost part of the state, he produced literary masterpieces like, ‘Garh Shrikhanda’, ‘Mahishkurar Upakatha’, ‘Rajnagar’, ‘Madhu Sadhukhan’ ‘Friday Island’ and many more which were first published in little magazines with very limited circulation.

A website on his life and works has been launched on his 100th birthday : http://amiyabhushan.com/

Awards and recognition

In 1972, he was awarded the Tribritta Puraskar.
In 1984, he received the Uttarbanga Sambad Sahitya Purashkar
In 1986, the Government of West Bengal awarded him the Bankim Puraskar 1986 for fiction writing for his novel Rajnagar.
In 1986, the Sahitya Akademi, India's national academy of letters awarded him the Sahitya Akademi Award for his novel Rajnagar.
In 1997, he was awarded the Sarat Memorial Medal by the University of Calcutta.
In 2000, he was awarded the Kanchenjunga Puraskar by Siliguri Press Club.
In 2001, he was awarded an honorary D.Litt. by the University of Kalyani.
In 2001, he was posthumously awarded an honorary D.Litt. by the University of North Bengal for his literary contributions.

Poet Jay Goswami wrote: "As a (classical) singer moves from note to note, Amiya Bhushan moved from sentence to sentence. It takes time for the reader to overcome the spell it creates and to adjust himself with the movement. It becomes a lesson to new writers" and "Amiya Bhushan was an inventor of new lands and has taught how to appreciate achievements with a highly sophisticated self restrain."

In 2006-2007 Central Institute of Indian Languages produced a 30 mins documentary film on him under the project named Bhasha Mandakini. The name of the film is: Makers of Bangla Literature:Amiya Bhusan Majumdar, Directed by Indranil Sen.


Amiyabhushan Rachana Samagra, Volumes 1 to 11 (Collected Works of Amiya Bhushan Majumdar, Volumes 1 to 11)

Major novels

Garh Shrikhanda (গড় শ্রীখন্ড)
Mahishkurar Upakatha (মহিষকুড়ার উপকথা)
Rajnagar (রাজনগর)
Madhu Sadhukhan (মধু সাধুখাঁ)
Friday Island Othoba Noromangsho Bhokkhon Ebong Tahar Por
Tashilar Mayor
Bishwa Mittirer Prithhibi
Bilash Binoy Bandana
New Calcutta

Other interests

Majumdar loved what he called "playing with colours and brush" and this 'play' has given birth to many a thought provoking oil painting. He deeply loved Indian Classical Music and was a great fan of Pundit Omkarnath Thakur and Ustad Vinayakrao Patavardhan.
Amiri Baraka
American writer
BY The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Last Updated: Oct 3, 2021

Amiri Baraka

Born: October 7, 1934 Newark New Jersey (Birthday tomorrow)Died: January 9, 2014 (aged 79) Newark New JerseyFounder: Black Arts Repertory TheatreNotable Works: “Dutchman” “Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note” “The Slave”Movement / Style: Black Arts movement
See all facts and data →

Amiri Baraka, also called Imamu Amiri Baraka, original name Everett Leroy Jones, called Leroy Jones, Leroy later changed to LeRoi, (born October 7, 1934, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.—died January 9, 2014, Newark), American poet and playwright who published provocative works that assiduously presented the experiences and suppressed anger of Black Americans in a white-dominated society.

After graduating from Howard University (B.A., 1953), Jones served in the U.S. Air Force but was dishonourably discharged after three years because he was suspected (wrongly at that time) of having communist affiliations. He attended graduate school at Columbia University, New York City, and founded (1958) the poetry magazine Yugen, which published the work of Beat writers such as Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac; he edited the publication with his wife, Hettie Cohen. He began writing under the name LeRoi Jones in the late 1950s and produced his first major collection of poetry, Preface to a Twenty Volume Suicide Note, in 1961. His first significant play, Dutchman (1964; film 1967), which recounted an explosive confrontation on a train between a Black intellectual and a white woman who murders him, won the 1964 Obie Award for best Off-Broadway American play.

Following the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, Jones became increasingly focused on Black nationalism, That year he left his white Jewish wife and moved to Harlem. There he founded the Black Arts Repertory Theatre, which staged many of his works prior to its closure in the late 1960s. In 1968 he adopted the name Amiri Baraka, and his writings became more divisive, prompting some to applaud his courage and others to deplore sentiments that could foster hate. In the mid-1970s he became a Marxist, though his goals remained similar. “I [still] see art as a weapon and a weapon of revolution,” he said. “It’s just now that I define revolution in Marxist terms.” His work from this period was seen by some as becoming increasingly homophobic and anti-Semitic. His position as poet laureate of New Jersey was abolished after he published the searing 2001 poem “Somebody Blew Up America,” which suggested that Israel had prior knowledge of the September 11 attacks in the United States.

Among Baraka’s other works are Blues People: Negro Music in White America (1963), Black Magic: Collected Poetry 1961–1967 (1969), The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka (1984), and the piercing Tales of the Out & Gone (2006), a fictional social commentary. Baraka taught at Columbia, Yale University, and, from 1979, at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, where at the time of his death he was emeritus professor of Africana studies. S O S: Poems 1961–2013 (2015) was a posthumous collection containing a wide selection from his oeuvre, including some previously unpublished verse.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.Subscribe NowThe Editors of Encyclopaedia BritannicaThis article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

Andre Beteille
From Wikipedia
Padma Bhushan

Andre Beteille

Beteille (left) receives the Padma Bhushan from the President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, c. 2005.
Born 30 September 1934
Nationality Indian

Padma Bhushan
Fellow of the British Academy

Academic background
Alma mater University of Calcutta
Influences G. S. Ghurye
Academic work
Discipline Sociology

University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
University of Chicago
London School of Economics
Delhi School of Economics
Ashoka University

Andre Beteille,(born 30 September 1934) is a noted Indian sociologist, writer and academician. He is best known for his studies of the caste system in South India.[1] He has served with many reputed institutions in India such as Delhi School of Economics, North Eastern Hill University (in Shillong), and Ashoka University.

Early life

He was born on 30 September 1934.

He received his undergraduate and graduate degrees in anthropology from the University of Calcutta. Thereafter he received his doctorate from the University of Delhi. After a brief stint at the Indian Statistical Institute as a research fellow, he joined the faculty of sociology at the DSE.


He has past taught at distinguished universities throughout the world like Oxford University, Cambridge University, the University of Chicago, and the London School of Economics. In addition to this, He has also served as the Chairman of the Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta and of the Indian Council of Social Science Research.

He was a Professor of Sociology at the Delhi School of Economics at the University of Delhi where, since 2003, he remains Professor Emeritus of Sociology. He was appointed National Research Professor by the Government of India in 2007.

Awards and recognition

He is a recipient of the third highest civilian honour of India, the Padma Bhushan, and was also made a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA). He also served on the Social Sciences jury for the Infosys Prize in 2010.

Presently, he is the Chancellor of North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya and prior to that he served as the Chancellor of Ashoka University.


Sociology: Essays on Approach and Method, Oxford University Press, 2002.
Antinomies of Society: Essays on Ideologies and Institutions, Oxford University Press, 2000.
Chronicles of Our Time, Penguin Books, 2000.
The Backward Classes in Contemporary India, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Social and Cultural Reproduction of Caste, Kinship and Occupation in India, 1991.
Society and Politics in India: Essays in a Comparative Perspective, Athlone Press, 1991 (L.S.E. Monographs in Social Anthropology, no. 63).
The Idea of Natural Inequality and Other Essays, Oxford University Press, 1983 (new, enlarged edition, Oxford University Press, 1987).
Inequality Among Men, Basil Blackwell, 1977 (Italian edition published as La diseguaglianza fra gli uomini, Il Mulino, 1981).
Studies in Agrarian Social Structure, Oxford University Press, 1974.
Six Essays in Comparative Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1974 (enlarged edition published as Essays in Comparative Sociology, Oxford University Press, 1987).
Inequality and Social Change, Oxford University Press, 1972.
Castes: Old and New, Essays in Social Structure and Social Stratification, Asia Publishing House, 1969.
Caste, Class and Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village, University of California Press, 1965.


Secularism Re-examined
Race & Caste
Teaching & Research
Teaching and Research, Andre Beteille
Government & NGOs
Ayyappa Paniker
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
K. Ayyappa Paniker

Born 12 September 1930

Kavalam, Kerala, India
Died 23 August 2006 (aged 75)

Other names Ayyappa Panicker
Alma mater University of Kerala, Indiana University
Occupation poet, literary critic, academic, scholar, reader
Known for Malayalam poetry

Notable work Kurukshethram,
Ayyappapanikkarude Krithikal,

Dr. K. Ayyappa Paniker, sometimes spelt "Ayyappa Panicker" (12 September 1930 – 23 August 2006), was an influential Malayalam poet, literary critic, and an academic and a scholar in modern and post-modern literary theories as well as ancient Indian aesthetics and literary traditions. He was one of the pioneers of modernism in Malayalam poetry, where his seminal works like Kurukshethram (1960), considered a turning point in Malayalam poetry, Ayyappapanikkarude Krithikal and Chintha and several essays were an important influence on the playwrights of his generation.

In an academic career which ran in consonance with his literary one, and spanned four decades, he taught in various colleges and universities before retiring as the Director, Institute of English, University of Kerala. He published over 25 works, translated several important work to Malayalam, including Guru Granth Sahib and a book in French; as a scholarly editor he produced numerous anthologies on Indian literature, he was the chief editor of the Sahitya Akademi's Indian Literary Encyclopaedia. Another important work by him Indian Narratology, published by IGNCA, was the first of its kind to study various forms of the art of narration, in Indian literature, starting with Vedic and oral literature to Buddhist and contemporary literature.

Early life and education

Paniker (his preferred spelling) was born in Kavalam near Alappuzha to E. Naryanan of Periyamana Illam, and M. Meenakshiamma. Fourth of the eight children, six of them girls, he grew up without any paternal affection, while his mother died when he was 12 years old, this early anguish and solitude deeply reflected in his poetry, which he started writing when he was in high school.

The Kavalam village, was also home to people like, K. M. Panikkar, historian and administrator, and playwright and poet, Kavalam Narayana Panicker, his cousin. He published his first poem at the age of 16, published in the Mathrubhoomi Weekly. He did his Intermediate at Malabar Christian College, Kozhikode, and BA Honours in English Literature at the University College, Thiruvananthapuram in 1951, thereafter he received his master's degree from the University of Kerala.

Paniker took his doctorate from Indiana University with a doctoral dissertation on the poetry of Robert Lowell, supervised by Prof. Robert E. Gross, subsequently he did post-doctoral research in Yale and Harvard University (1981–82).


Leaders, selfish and opportunistic,
tell us that life is for doing good,
that good is nothing but social good.
If we are clever in spreading the net,
we can have a good haul.

-Ayyappa Paniker

Paniker joined CMS College, Kottayam as a lecturer of English in 1951, after working there for a year, he joined the Mahatma Gandhi College, Thiruvananthapuram. He started teaching at the University College, in Thiruvananthapuram in 1952, and did so till 1965. At this point, he became a Professor at the Institute of English and Head of the department in University of Kerala (1965–74). In 1974, he became Reader in English, at the Institute of English under University of Kerala, a post he held till 1980, when he became Dean of Faculty of Arts in the University of Kerala, he retired in 1990.

Through his long career he lectured in many national and international universities, including around 25 universities in US, where came across poets James Dickey, John Hollander, Czeslaw Milosz and Allen Ginsberg.

Awards and recognition

Paniker was a recipient of a number of honours including the Padma Shri, Kerala Sahitya Akademi award for poetry and criticism, Kendriya Sahitya Akademi Award for poetry, 2005 Saraswati Samman for his collection of writings Ayyappa Panikerude Krithikal, Distinguished Teacher award, Mahakavi Ulloor award for poetry, Kabir Samman, International Man of the Year (IBC, Cambridge, UK), Indira Gandhi Memorial Fellowship with lead to the book, Indian Narratology published by IGNCA, Gangadhar Meher National Award for poetry, Asan Prize and Jana Sanskriti Award (Abu Dhabi), Vayalar Award, Pandalam Keralavarma award and Vallathol Award.2015 was conducted in memory of him.

Personal life

He died in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) on 23 August 2006 at the age of 76 and was survived by his wife and two children. He was cremated the following day in his native village, Kavalam, in a plot he had set apart twelve years ago for the purpose, on the western side of his traditional family house, Olickal tharavad. The house finds reference in several of his works, especially in his poem 'Kavalam' in the anthology Pathumanippookkal.


Ayyapa Foundation was formed in 2006 in Thiruvananthapuram, to promote his work and Malayalam poetry. The January 2007 issue of journal Samyukta, was dedicated entirely to him, it contained 10 critical essays on him and his work, besides three collections of his verse in English translation, one of which, Poetry at Midnight published for the first time. It also contained a 36-page bibliography of his oeuvre. In September 2009, Dr Sitakant Mahapatra delivered the "Ayyappa Paniker commemorative speech 2009" at Thiruvananthapuram. The popular poetry journal Poetry Chain was established by Gopi Kottoor in memory of Ayyappa Paniker.
Meaning of being a Dalit in media
Being a Dalit in the media should mean never losing sight of the social, economic and political concerns of the community. What is generally seen is that the establishment uses the Dalit representatives only to expand and strengthen its base
BY ANIL CHAMADIA अनिल चमड़िया

Whenever the issue of Dalits in the media crops up, it is always said that the representation of Dalits in the media is next to nothing. The question that arises here is, will things change if, for argument’s sake, like in Parliamentary institutions, representation of Dalits is ensured in the media, too? Another vital question is whether the Dalits who have secured a place in other institutions, including Parliament, really care about security and other concerns of the common Dalits? There is no doubt about the need for the presence of Dalits in media organisations to break the stranglehold of the caste system – a great challenge for Indian society – but it should be remembered that a mere increase in representation will not solve the problem. We need to look beyond.
Being a Dalit in the media should mean never losing sight of the social, economic and political concerns of the community. What is generally seen is that the establishment uses the Dalit representatives only to expand and strengthen its base. In many major newspapers and big media organisations, women often talk the language of male chauvinism. Ditto with Dalits.

Dalits have not only been victims of casteist discrimination but have also suffered economic and political exploitation. The reasons behind their political and economic subjugation are obvious, all around us. Dalits form a majority of the labour force in agriculture – the biggest source of livelihood and employment in our country. But if the depiction of the condition of the Dalits is analyzed, it would seem that the media is stuck with the mindset of 1947.

Merely reporting incidents of atrocities against Dalits is not enough. It is clear that the media is not ready to aid the struggle against exploitation of and atrocities against Dalits. Every year, data on crimes against Dalits under IPC and other statutes is tabled in Parliament. If the figures are obtained for the last 50 years, it would be clear that murders and rapes of Dalits far outnumber similar crimes even during the deadliest of wars. But things are never presented this way. There is never the talk of an ideological struggle against the repression of Dalits. No attempt is made to bring Dalits on one platform – to unite them – for this purpose.

Here, I would like to present two examples, which would show how concerned the media really is about the situation of the Dalits. A particular journalist in the English media has come to be recognized as the most ardent advocate of the interests of the depressed classes, especially Dalits. He gave great importance to the news of sanitary employees of a municipal administration in Haryana thrashing their superiors. The fact is that there is nothing new about such incidents. Such incidents keep on happening in small towns and municipalities and they cannot and should not be linked to the rise in Dalit awareness. In fact, they have been reported from the time municipal bodies came into existence. If the employees are not paid their salaries on time or when they need it, they use their brooms against their supervising officials. But this journalist seems to have been so insulated from the goings-on that he saw the incident as the first of its kind in the last 50 years!
The second example is from my own experience. I wrote an article arguing that Dalits should be given firearms for self-defence. I referred to the frequent massacres of Dalits and recalled the decision of the Karpoori Thakur government in Bihar to give guns to Dalits and also to train them in their use. I also cited the fact that during the regimes of Jagannath Mishra and Bindeshwari Dubey in Bihar, government officials went door to door giving gun licences to landlords and organised camps to teach them how to use the guns. But no English daily published my article. In another of my articles, I said that firing by police does not have any place in a democratic society. This article was also turned down by English newspapers: why anyone in their right mind would deprive policemen of their right to open fire, they asked. The counterargument in the case of the article pleading for guns for Dalits was that it would encourage violence. This is an instance of how arguments are crafted to defend the state’s right to commit violence and to question the right of the oppressed communities to self-defence.

Then, I sent the article about arming Dalits to some periodicals that are known to be ‘progressive’ and ‘revolutionary’ and have a niche readership. One of them was the Economic and Political Weekly. I talked to its then editor in Mumbai, who asked me to resend it and I duly obliged. But the article was never published. Then, I sent it for publication in the ‘Dalit special number’ of Seminar. A week later, I was told that it was too long and needed to be shortened. I shortened it, and soon the issue was in the stands but the article was not in it. I asked the editor about my piece and I was told that it was not used as ‘it talked of guns’.

Thus, it is presumed that giving guns to Dalits would exacerbate violence. But when the same guns are slung across the shoulders of landlords and upper castes or are hanging on the walls of their homes, they become instruments of self-defence! The reality, though, is that these weapons are mainly used against Dalits. The Dalits who are killed by the police and landlords are described by the media and the government as naxalites and their killing justified. At the same time, the feudal landlords are referred to as farmers and the need for protecting and patronizing them is repeated ad nauseam. Dalits remain dalits only when atrocities are committed against them. When they fight against their repression, they become criminals, naxalites and Maoists.

The fact of the matter is that the media does not want the Dalits to take any independent initiative. It wants Dalits to continue to be objects of sympathy as it plays the role of their saviour. This is the key to understanding the media’s reporting on Dalit issues. The media wants to project only those Dalits who do not strike hard at atrocities against their brethren.
An English newspaper recently carried a report on how Girija Devi, a representative of the Musahar caste, which eats rats, was going to speak in the US. Musahars are a community imbued with revolutionary consciousness. But it was only referred to as a rat-eating community. Why? Because that not only brings some novelty and attraction to the story but also it can be used to prove how globalisation had given a representative of an utterly impoverished community an opportunity of travelling to the US. It is in this perspective that the issues of Dalits in media, Dalit representation and Dalit concerns should be seen.
Published in the January 2014 issue of the Forward Press magazine
Ashok Das
From Wikipedia

Ashok Das
Born March 23, 1953

Nationality U.S. 
Non linear Integrable systems
Awards William H. Riker University Award for Excellence in Graduate Teaching (2006)
Fulbright Fellowship (1997, 2006)
Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator (1983-1989)
Edward Peck Curtis Award (1991)
Scientific career

Ashok Das (born March 23, 1953) is an Indian American theoretical physicist, an author and award-winning teacher of Physics. He is professor of physics at University of Rochester and Adjunct professor of Physics at Saha Institute of Nuclear PhysicsKolkataIndia and Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, India.

Das was born in PuriOdisha. He received his BS (honours) in 1972 and MS in 1974 in physics from University of Delhi. He did his graduate studies in supersymmetry and supergravity at State University of New York at Stony Brook. He received his PhD (Spin 3/2 Fields and Supergravity Theories) in 1977.

He was a research associate at the City College of New York, the University of Maryland and at Rutgers University before joining the University of Rochester in 1982. He was promoted to professor in 1993 and is still there. He is also the adjunct professor of physics at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in India.

Das' research is in the area of theoretical high energy physics. He works on supersymmetry and supergravity. In recent years, he has worked extensively on non-linear integrable systems, which are systems which in spite of their complicated appearance can be exactly solved. He has also been working on finite temperature field theories, generalization of the Standard Model to incorporate CP violation, and problems in quantum field theory and string theory.

Although he has published widely with physicists around the world, his particularly strong collaboration with Latin American physicists is well known. In fact, he has coauthored over 100 published research papers with Brazilian physicists alone. In 2006 he was awarded a Fulbright scholarship to teach physics in Brazil. He is known for his teaching and has received university and department awards for his teaching including the Department Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester four times (1987, 1990, 1997 and 2006), the Edward Peck Curtis Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching (1991), and the 2006 William H. Riker University Award for Excellence in Graduate teaching.

He has written numerous books and monographs on various disciplines of theoretical physics in advanced and undergraduate and graduate level, like A Path Integral Approach (World Scientific publishers), Finite Temperature Field Theory (World Scientific publishers), Integrable Models (World Scientific Lecture Notes in Physics), Lectures on Gravitation (World Scientific publishers), and Lectures on Electromagnetism: second edition (World Scientific publishers) etc.

In 2002 Das was made a fellow of the American Physical Society "For contributions in the areas of supergravity, integrable models and finite temperature field theory".
Aravind Malagatti
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aravinda Malagatti
Born 1 May 1956
Bijapur District,
Mysore State,
(now in Karnataka,
Occupation Professor,
Genre Dalit writer, thinker

Aravind Malagatti (1 May 1956) is a prominent Indian Dalit poet and writer writing in Kannada. He is the author of more than forty books which include poetry collections, short fiction collections, a novel, essay-collections, critical works and folklore studies. He is the recipient of the prestigious Ambedkar Fellowship Award from the Government of Karnataka. His Government Brahamana, the first Dalit autobiography in Kannada, has won the Karnataka Sahitya Academy Award. Apart from these, the Honorary Award of Karnataka Sahitya Academy was conferred on him for his total contribution to Kannada literature. He is appointed as Chairman for Kannada Sahitya Academy.
Malagatti is known for being a provocative and thoughtful orator. He has founded a number of Dalit organizations and has played an active role in the Dalit movement. As of 2015 Malagatti is serving as professor of Kannada in the Kuvempu Institute of Kannada Studies, Mysore University. He has also served as the Director of the Institute and as the Director of Prasaranga, the publication wing of Mysore University, prior to this. He is also served as the Hon. Director of Jayalakshmi Vilas Palace Museum, Mysore University.
Don't portray Dalits as group of castes, says Aravind Malagatti Mangaluru, August 29, 2016, DHNS:, AUG 28 2016, 23:19PM IST UPDATED: AUG 28 2016, 23:19PM IST The works of certain group of writers should not be branded as Dalit literature, writer ...

Anupama Rao
From bombay to Baltimore And Back Again: Spatial Inequality and Urban Revolutions

Professor Rao will discuss the unexpected connections between the urban histories of America and India. She'll focus on the factors that shaped urban space in both countries—spatial segregation, social housing, gender politics, and even influences from blues and jazz culture—and how these forces helped structure possibilities for resistance.

Anupama Rao

Associate Professor of History, Barnard College

Anupama Rao, Professor of History at Barnard College, specializes in the history of anti-colonialism, caste and race, and non-Western histories of gender and sexuality. She is the author of The Caste Question: Dalits and the Politics of Modern India, and is currently working on a book on caste and equality that focuses on B. R. Ambedkar (who studied at Columbia University 1913-1916); as well as a project on colonial and postcolonial Bombay. She received her BA from the University of Chicago, and her Ph.D. from the interdepartmental program in anthropology and history at the University of Michigan. Rao has served as president of the Society for the Advancement of the History of South Asia. Her work has been supported by grants from the ACLS; the American Institute for Indian Studies; the Mellon Foundation; the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the SSRC. She has held residential fellowships at the National Humanities Center, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford), and REWOK (Humboldt University, Berlin). (https://www.rtbevent.com/anupama-rao)
Anupama Rao
TOW Associate Professor of History, Barnard and MESAAS (Columbia)

History, Human Rights, Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies

815 Milstein Center / Office Hours: Wednesdays 3:00-5:00 PM



Anupama Rao has research and teaching interests in gender and sexuality studies; caste and race; historical anthropology; social theory; comparative urbanism; and colonial genealogies of human rights and humanitarianism.

She is Senior Editor, Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; Associate Director, Institute for Comparative Literature and Society; and organizer of the Ambedkar Initiative, which is supported by the Provost’s Office (Barnard), the Deans of Humanities and Social Sciences (Columbia), the Office of the EVP (Columbia), Columbia University Press, and the Columbia Libraries.

Rao received her BA, with honors, from the University of Chicago, and her Ph.D. from the Interdepartmental Program in Anthropology and History at the University of Michigan. Her work has been supported by grants from the ACLS; the American Institute for Indian Studies; the Mellon Foundation; the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the SSRC. She was a Fellow-in-Residence at the National Humanities Center from 2008-09, and a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford during 2010-11. She was a Fellow at REWORK (Humboldt University, Berlin) in 2014-2015.

Rao co-directs the project, “Geographies of Injustice,” hosted by Columbia’s Center for the Study of Social Difference. (An earlier iteration of this project, “Subaltern Urbanism,” ran with the support of the Heyman Center for the Humanities, and the Center for the Study of Social Difference.) She was co-convenor of the project on Asian Spatialities supported by the Mellon Foundation and the International Institute of Asian Studies (Leiden) from 2014-2015.

Rao has served as president of the Society for the Advancement of the History of South Asia (SAHSA) of the American Historical Association (2010), and as a member of the South Asia Council of the Association for Asian Studies, 2010-12.

Rao has written widely on the themes of colonialism and humanitarianism, and on non-Western histories of gender and sexuality. Her book, The Caste Question (University of California Press, 2009) theorized caste subalternity, with specific focus on the role of anti-caste thought (and its thinkers) in producing alternative genealogies of political subject-formation.

She is currently working on a book on the political thought of B. R. Ambedkar; and a project titled Dalit Bombay, which explores the relationship between caste, political culture, and everyday life in colonial and postcolonial Bombay. Recent publications include the edited volume Gender, Caste, and the Imagination of Equality (Women Unlimited, 2017) and The Many Worlds of R. B. More: Memoir of Dalit Communist (Leftword, 2019).
Adam Gondvi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adam Gondvi (born Ram Nath Singh ( 22 October 1947 – 18 December 2011) was an Indian poet from Aata Paraspur, GondaUttar Pradesh. He wrote poetry in Hindi, highlighting the plight of marginalized castes, Dalits, impoverished people. Born in a poor farmer family, Gondvi's poetry was known for social commentary, scathing view of corrupt politicians and revolutionary in nature.

In 1998, Madhya Pradesh government awarded him with Dushyant Kumar Prize.
Gondvi died on 18 December 2011 in SGPGILucknow due to stomach ailments.
His poetry collections Dharti Ki Satah Par (Surface of the earth) and Samay Se Muthbhed (Encounter with time) are quite popular.

Some of his well-known poems are -

Tumhari filon mein gaaon ka mausam gulaabi hai
Main chamaaro ki gali tak le chaloonga aapko, aaiye mehsoos kijiye
Kaju bhuni plate mein, whiskey bhari gilaas mein

अदम गोंडवी ( Hindi)

वंचितों की आवाज
वास्तविक नाम : रामनाथ सिंह
जन्मस्थान : आटा ग्राम, परसपुर, गोंडा, उत्तर प्रदेश

कुछ प्रमुख कृतियाँ : धरती की सतह पर, समय से मुठभेड़ (कविता संग्रह)
प्रस्तुत है आदम गोंडवी जी की दो कविताएं

1.वेद में जिनका हवाला हाशिए पर भी नहीं
वेद में जिनका हवाला हाशिए पर भी नहीं
वे अभागे आस्‍था विश्‍वास ले कर क्‍या करें।
लोकरंजन हो जहाँ शंबूक-वध की आड़ में
उस व्‍यवस्‍था का घृणित इतिहास लेकर क्‍या करें।
कितना प्रगतिमान रहा भोगे हुए क्षण का इतिहास
त्रासदी, कुंठा, घुटन, संत्रास ले कर क्‍या करें।
गर्म रोटी की महक पागल बना देती मुझे
पारलौकिक प्‍यार का मधुमास ले कर क्‍या करें।

2.मैं चमारों की गली में ले चलूँगा आपको
आइए महसूस करिए जिंदगी के ताप को
मैं चमारों की गली तक ले चलूँगा आपको
जिस गली में भुखमरी की यातना से ऊब कर
मर गई फुलिया बिचारी इक कुएँ में डूब कर
है सधी सिर पर बिनौली कंडियों की टोकरी
आ रही है सामने से हरखुआ की छोकरी
चल रही है छंद के आयाम को देती दिशा
मैं इसे कहता हूँ सरजू पार की मोनालिसा
कैसी यह भयभीत है हिरनी-सी घबराई हुई
लग रही जैसे कली बेला की कुम्हलाई हुई
कल को यह वाचाल थी पर आज कैसी मौन है
जानते हो इसकी ख़ामोशी का कारण कौन है
थे यही सावन के दिन हरखू गया था हाट को
सो रही बूढ़ी ओसारे में बिछाए खाट को
डूबती सूरज की किरनें खेलती थीं रेत से
घास का गट्ठर लिए वह आ रही थी खेत से
आ रही थी वह चली खोई हुई जज्बात में
क्या पता उसको कि कोई भेड़िया है घात में
होनी से बेख़बर कृष्ना बेख़बर राहों में थी
मोड़ पर घूमी तो देखा अजनबी बाँहों में थी
चीख़ निकली भी तो होठों में ही घुट कर रह गई
छटपटाई पहले, फिर ढीली पड़ी, फिर ढह गई
दिन तो सरजू के कछारों में था कब का ढल गया
वासना की आग में कौमार्य उसका जल गया
और उस दिन ये हवेली हँस रही थी मौज में
होश में आई तो कृष्ना थी पिता की गोद में
जुड़ गई थी भीड़ जिसमें ज़ोर था सैलाब था
जो भी था अपनी सुनाने के लिए बेताब था
बढ़ के मंगल ने कहा, 'काका, तू कैसे मौन है
पूछ तो बेटी से आख़िर वो दरिंदा कौन है
कोई हो संघर्ष से हम पाँव मोड़ेंगे नहीं
कच्चा खा जाएँगे ज़िंदा उनको छोडेंगे नहीं
कैसे हो सकता है होनी कह के हम टाला करें
और ये दुश्मन बहू-बेटी से मुँह काला करें'
बोला कृष्ना से - 'बहन, सो जा मेरे अनुरोध से
बच नहीं सकता है वो पापी मेरे प्रतिशोध से'
पड़ गई इसकी भनक थी ठाकुरों के कान में
वे इकट्ठे हो गए सरपंच के दालान में
दृष्टि जिसकी है जमी भाले की लंबी नोक पर
देखिए सुखराज सिंह बोले हैं खैनी ठोंक कर
'क्या कहें सरपंच भाई! क्या ज़माना आ गया
कल तलक जो पाँव के नीचे था रुतबा पा गया
कहती है सरकार कि आपस में मिलजुल कर रहो
सुअर के बच्चों को अब कोरी नहीं हरिजन कहो
देखिए ना यह जो कृष्ना है चमारों के यहाँ
पड़ गया है सीप का मोती गँवारों के यहाँ
जैसे बरसाती नदी अल्हड़ नशे में चूर है
न पुट्ठे पे हाथ रखने देती है, मगरूर है
भेजता भी है नहीं ससुराल इसको हरखुआ
फिर कोई बाँहों में इसको भींच ले तो क्या हुआ
आज सरजू पार अपने श्याम से टकरा गई
जाने-अनजाने वो लज्जत ज़िंदगी की पा गई
वो तो मंगल देखता था बात आगे बढ़ गई
वरना वह मरदूद इन बातों को कहने से रही
जानते हैं आप मंगल एक ही मक्कार है
हरखू उसकी शह पे थाने जाने को तैयार है
कल सुबह गरदन अगर नपती है बेटे-बाप की
गाँव की गलियों में क्या इज्जत रहेगी आपकी'
बात का लहजा था ऐसा ताव सबको आ गया
हाथ मूँछों पर गए माहौल भी सन्ना गया

क्षणिक आवेश जिसमें हर युवा तैमूर था
हाँ, मगर होनी को तो कुछ और ही मंज़ूर था
रात जो आया न अब तूफ़ान वह पुरज़ोर था
भोर होते ही वहाँ का दृश्य बिलकुल और था
सिर पे टोपी बेंत की लाठी सँभाले हाथ में
एक दर्जन थे सिपाही ठाकुरों के साथ में
घेर कर बस्ती कहा हलके के थानेदार ने -
'जिसका मंगल नाम हो वह व्यक्ति आए सामने'
निकला मंगल झोपड़ी का पल्ला थोड़ा खोल कर
इक सिपाही ने तभी लाठी चलाई दौड़ कर
गिर पड़ा मंगल तो माथा बूट से टकरा गया
सुन पड़ा फिर, 'माल वो चोरी का तूने क्या किया?'
'कैसी चोरी माल कैसा?' उसने जैसे ही कहा
एक लाठी फिर पड़ी बस, होश फिर जाता रहा
होश खो कर वह पड़ा था झोपड़ी के द्वार पर
ठाकुरों से फिर दरोगा ने कहा ललकार कर -
"मेरा मुँह क्या देखते हो! इसके मुँह में थूक दो
आग लाओ और इसकी झोपड़ी भी फूँक दो"
और फिर प्रतिशोध की आँधी वहाँ चलने लगी
बेसहारा निर्बलों की झोपड़ी जलने लगी
दुधमुँहा बच्चा व बुड्ढा जो वहाँ खेड़े में था
वह अभागा दीन हिंसक भीड़ के घेरे में था
घर को जलते देख कर वे होश को खोने लगे
कुछ तो मन ही मन मगर कुछ ज़ोर से रोने लगे
'कह दो इन कुत्तों के पिल्लों से कि इतराएँ नहीं
हुक्म जब तक मैं न दूँ कोई कहीं जाए नहीं'
यह दरोगा जी थे मुँह से शब्द झरते फूल-से
आ रहे थे ठेलते लोगों को अपने रूल से
फिर दहाड़े, 'इनको डंडों से सुधारा जाएगा
ठाकुरों से जो भी टकराया वो मारा जाएगा'
इक सिपाही ने कहा, 'साइकिल किधर को मोड़ दें
होश में आया नहीं मंगल कहो तो छोड़ दें'
बोला थानेदार, 'मुर्गे की तरह मत बाँग दो
होश में आया नहीं तो लाठियों पर टाँग लो
ये समझते हैं कि ठाकुर से उलझना खेल है
ऐसे पाजी का ठिकाना घर नहीं है जेल है'
पूछते रहते हैं मुझसे लोग अकसर यह सवाल
'कैसा है कहिए न सरजू पार की कृष्ना का हाल'
उनकी उत्सुकता को शहरी नग्नता के ज्वार को
सड़ रहे जनतंत्र के मक्कार पैरोकार को
धर्म, संस्कृति और नैतिकता के ठेकेदार को
प्रांत के मंत्रीगणों को केंद्र की सरकार को
मैं निमंत्रण दे रहा हूँ आएँ मेरे गाँव में
तट पे नदियों के घनी अमराइयों की छाँव में
गाँव जिसमें आज पांचाली उघाड़ी जा रही
या अहिंसा की जहाँ पर नथ उतारी जा रही
हैं तरसते कितने ही मंगल लँगोटी के लिए
बेचती हैं जिस्म कितनी कृष्ना रोटी के लिए।

साभार : बिगुल
Abha Dawesar
An Indian writer based out of New York city, Dawesar is author of books like “Miniplanner”, “Family Values”, and “Madison Square Park”. She also won the Lambda Literary Award for Lesbian fiction and the Stonewall Book Award for fiction for “Babyji”, a novel that recounted the coming of age stories as well as sexual adventures and fantasies of a 16-year-old school girl.

Aaidan (The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman s Memoirs)

Aaidan her autobiography written in Marathi has been translated into English and titled as The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman s Memoirs. In her foreword to the English translation, Wandana Sonalkar writes that the title of the book The Weave is a metaphor of the writing technique employed by Pawar, "the lives of different members of her family, her husband's family, her neighbours and classmates, are woven together in a narrative that gradually reveals different aspects of the everyday life of Dalits, the manifold ways in which caste asserts itself and grinds them down"
Adwaita Mallabarman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adwaita Mallabarman

Native name
অদ্বৈত মল্লবর্মণ
Born January 1, 1914

Brahmanbaria DistrictBengal PresidencyBritish India
Died April 16, 1951 (aged 37)
Alma mater Comilla Victoria College
Occupation Literary editor, writer

Works Titash Ekti Nadir Naam (1956)

Adwaita Mallabarman (alternative spelling Advaita Mallabarmana; 1 January 1914 – 16 April 1951) was a Bengali Indian writer. He is mostly known for his novel Titash Ekti Nadir Naam (A River Called Titash) published in the monthly Mohammadi five years after his death.

Early life and education

Book cover of the English version of Titash Ekti Nadir NaamMallabarman was born in a Malo family in Gokarnoghat village beside the Titash River, near Brahmanbaria town in, Comilla District of undivided Bengal. He was the second of four children and lost his parents when he was a child. His two brothers died shortly after, and his sister (widowed soon after marriage) died before he went to Calcutta at the age of 20. As a boy and a teenager, until he left for college, he lived in the village with his uncle. He was the first child from the Mallo community of the village and nearby area to finish school. Members of the Malo community collected subscriptions to support his school expenses (mainly books, since his school fees were either waived or covered by scholarships he received). He attended the town's elementary school and Annada High School. He matriculated from the school in 1933 and went on to Comilla Victoria College. In part because of financial difficulty, he left college in 1934 and went to Calcutta to work as a literary editor.


Throughout his teen years he wrote prodigiously, mostly poetry, and published in student magazines. Those early writings were highly acclaimed, so much so that peers who aspired to be writers sought his opinion on their work before sending it to a publisher.

Mallabarman's first job in Calcutta was as assistant editor of a literary and news magazine, Navashakti. After three years with the magazine, he worked as an editorial assistant for a literary monthly, Mohammadi, in which he also published a number of his poems and parts of what was evidently the first draft of Titash Ekti Nadir Naam ( It is also filmed by Ritwik Ghatak); he continued to work for Mohammadi until its Muslim publisher closed the monthly and migrated. During this period he also worked for the newspaper Azad. In 1945, he joined the literary weekly Desh and the daily Ananda Bazar Patrika. From 1945 through 1950 a number of his poems, stories, essays, and translations were published in Desh and other magazines.


In 1950, Mallabarman was diagnosed with tuberculosis. he had felt increasingly unwell for two years. Entrusting the just-finalized manuscript of Titash Ekti Nadir Naam to friends, he went for hospital treatment. Soon after his release he suffered a relapse and was readmitted. Before the second phase of his treatment was over, however, he walked out of the hospital. Two months later, on 16 April 1951, he died
Arundhati Roy
Arundhati Roy speaking at Harvard University in April 2010.
Born 24 November 1961
Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Occupation Novelist, essayist, activist
Nationality Indian
Period 1997 – present
Notable work(s) The God of Small Things
Notable award(s) Man Booker Prize (1997)
Sydney Peace Prize (2004)


Arundhati Roy (born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author and political activist who was best known for the 1998 Man Booker Prize for Fiction winning novel The God of Small Things (1997) and for her involvement in environmental and human rights causes. Roy’s novel became the biggest-selling book by a nonexpatriate Indian author.

Early life and background

Arundhati Roy was born in Shillong, Meghalaya, India to Ranjit Roy, a Bengali Hindu tea planter and Mary Roy, a Malayali Syrian Christian women's rights activist.

She spent her childhood in Aymanam in Kerala, and went to school at Corpus Christi, Kottayam, followed by the Lawrence School, Lovedale, in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. She then studied architecture at the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi, where she met her first husband, architect Gerard da Cunha.

Roy met her second husband, filmmaker Pradip Krishen, in 1984, and played a village girl in his award-winning movie Massey Sahib. Until made financially secure by the success of her novel The God of Small Things, she worked various jobs, including running aerobics classes at five-star hotels in New Delhi. Roy is a cousin of prominent media personality Prannoy Roy, the head of the leading Indian TV media group NDTV. She lives in New Delhi.

Early career: screenplays

Early in her career, Roy worked for television and movies. She wrote the screenplays for In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones (1989), a movie based on her experiences as a student of architecture, which she also appeared as a performer, and Electric Moon (1992), both directed by her current husband Pradip Krishen. Roy attracted attention in 1994, when she criticised Shekhar Kapur's film Bandit Queen, based on the life of Phoolan Devi. In her film review entitled, "The Great Indian Rape Trick", she questioned the right to "restage the rape of a living woman without her permission," and charged Kapur with exploiting Devi and misrepresenting both her life and its meaning.

The God of Small Things

Roy began writing her first novel, The God of Small Things, in 1992, completing it in 1996. The book is semi-autobiographical and a major part captures her childhood experiences in Aymanam.

The publication of The God of Small Things catapulted Roy to instant international fame. It received the 1997 Booker Prize for Fiction and was listed as one of the New York Times Notable Books of the Year for 1997. It reached fourth position on the New York Times Bestsellers list for Independent Fiction. From the beginning, the book was also a commercial success: Roy received half a million pounds as an advance; It was published in May, and the book had been sold to eighteen countries by the end of June.

The God of Small Things received stellar reviews in major American newspapers such as The New York Times (a "dazzling first novel," "extraordinary," "at once so morally strenuous and so imaginatively supple". and the Los Angeles Times ("a novel of poignancy and considerable sweep".), and in Canadian publications such as the Toronto Star ("a lush, magical novel"). By the end of the year, it had become one of the five best books of 1997 by TIME. Critical response in the United Kingdom was less positive, and that the novel was awarded the Booker Prize caused controversy; Carmen Callil, a 1996 Booker Prize judge, called the novel "execrable," and The Guardian called the contest "profoundly depressing." In India, the book was criticised especially for its unrestrained description of sexuality by E. K. Nayanar, then Chief Minister of Roy's homestate Kerala, where she had to answer charges of obscenity.

Later career

Since the success of her novel, Roy has been working as a screenplay writer again, writing a television serial, The Banyan Tree, and the documentary DAM/AGE: A Film with Arundhati Roy(2002).

In early 2007, Roy announced that she would begin work on a second novel.

Arundhati Roy was one of the contributors on the book We Are One: A Celebration of Tribal Peoples, released in October 2009.The book explores the culture of peoples around the world, portraying their diversity and the threats to their existence. The royalties from the sale of this book go to the indigenous rights organisation Survival International

.Advocacy and controversy

Since The God of Small Things Roy has devoted herself mainly to nonfiction and politics, publishing two more collections of essays, as well as working for social causes. She is a spokesperson of the anti-globalization/alter-globalization movement and a vehement critic of neo-imperialism and of the global policies of the United States. She also criticises India's nuclear weapons policies and the approach to industrialisation and rapid development as currently being practised in India, including the Narmada Dam project and the power company Enron's activities in India.

Support for Kashmiri separatism

In an interview with the Times of India published in August 2008, Arundhati Roy expressed her support for the independence of Kashmir from India after massive demonstrations in favour of independence took place—some 500,000 separatists rallied in Srinagar in the Kashmir part of Jammu and Kashmirstate of India for independence on 18 August 2008, following the Amarnath land transfer controversy. According to her, the rallies were a sign that Kashmiris desire secession from India, and not union with India She was criticised by Indian National Congress (INC) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for her remarks.

AICC member and senior Congress party leader Satya Prakash Malaviya asked Roy to withdraw her irresponsible statement saying it was 'contrary to historical facts'.

"She must withdraw her statement which is contrary to historical facts and could mislead the nation as well as the international community,"

"It would do better to brush up her knowledge of history and know that the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir had acceded to the Union of India after its erstwhile rulerMaharaja Hari Singh duly signed the Instrument of Accession on October 26, 1947. And the state, consequently has become as much an integral part of India as all the other erstwhile princely states have."

Sardar Sarovar Project

Roy has campaigned along with activist Medha Patkar against the Narmada dam project, saying that the dam will displace half a million people, with little or no compensation, and will not provide the projected irrigation, drinking water and other benefits. Roy donated her Booker prize money as well as royalties from her books on the project to the Narmada Bachao Andolan. Roy also appears in Franny Armstrong's Drowned Out, a 2002 documentary about the project. Roy's opposition to the Narmada Dam project was criticised as "maligning Gujarat" by Congress and BJP leaders in Gujarat.

In 2002, Roy responded to a contempt notice issued against her by the Indian Supreme Court with an affidavit saying the court's decision to initiate the contempt proceedings based on an unsubstantiated and flawed petition, while refusing to inquire into allegations of corruption in military contracting dealspleading an overload of cases, indicated a "disquieting inclination" by the court to silence criticism and dissent using the power of contempt. The court found Roy's statement, which she refused to disavow or apologise for, constituted criminal contempt and sentenced her to a "symbolic" one day's imprisonment and fined Roy Rs. 2500. Roy served the jail sentence for a single day and opted to pay the fine rather than serve an additional three months' imprisonment for default.

Environmental historian Ramachandra Guha has been critical of Roy's Narmada dam activism. While acknowledging her "courage and commitment" to the cause, Guha writes that her advocacy is hyperbolic and self-indulgent, "Ms. Roy's tendency to exaggerate and simplify, her Manichean view of the world, and her shrill hectoring tone, have given a bad name to environmental analysis". He faults Roy's criticism of Supreme Court judges who were hearing a petition brought by the Narmada Bachao Andolan as careless and irresponsible.

Roy counters that her writing is intentional in its passionate, hysterical tone: "I am hysterical. I'm screaming from the bloody rooftops. And he and his smug little club are going 'Shhhh... you'll wake the neighbours!' I want to wake the neighbours, that's my whole point. I want everybody to open their eyes".

Gail Omvedt and Roy have had fierce discussions, in open letters, on Roy's strategy for the Narmada Dam movement. Though the activists disagree on whether to demand stopping the dam building altogether (Roy) or searching for intermediate alternatives (Omvedt), the exchange has mostly been, though critical, constructive.

Roy sees American-style capitalism as the culprit: "In America, the arms industry, the oil industry, the major media networks, and, indeed, US foreign policy, are all controlled by the same business combines." She puts the attacks on the World Trade Center and on

Afghanistan on the same moral level, that of terrorism, and mourns the impossibility of imagining beauty after 2001: "Will it be possible ever again to watch the slow, amazed blink of a newborn gecko in the sun, or whisper back to the marmot who has just whispered in your ear – without thinking of the World Trade Centre and Afghanistan?"

In May 2003 she delivered a speech entitled "Instant-Mix Imperial Democracy (Buy One, Get One Free)" at the Riverside Church in New York City. In it she described the United States as a global empire that reserves the right to bomb any of its subjects at any time, deriving its legitimacy directly from God. The speech was an indictment of the U.S. actions relating to the Iraq War. In June 2005 she took part in the World Tribunal on Iraq. In March 2006, Roy criticised US President George W. Bush's visit to India, calling him a "war criminal"

India's nuclear weaponisation

In response to India's testing of nuclear weapons in Pokhran, Rajasthan, Roy wrote The End of Imagination (1998), a critique of the Indian government's nuclear policies. It was published in her collection The Cost of Living (1999), in which she also crusaded against India's massive hydroelectric dam projects in the central and western states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

Criticism of Israel

In August 2006, Roy, along with Noam Chomsky, Howard Zinn, and others, signed a letter in The Guardian called the 2006 Lebanon War a "war crime" and accused Israel of "state terror." In 2007, Roy was one of more than 100 artists and writers who signed an open letter initiated by Queers Undermining Israeli Terrorism and the South West Asian, North African Bay Area Queers and calling on the San Francisco International LGBT Film Festival "to honor calls for an international boycott of Israeli political and cultural institutions, by discontinuing Israeli consulate sponsorship of the LGBT film festival and not cosponsoring events with the Israeli consulate."

2001 Indian Parliament attack

Roy has raised questions about the investigation into the 2001 Indian Parliament attack and the trial of the accused. She has called for the death sentence of Mohammad Afzal to be stayed while a parliamentary enquiry into these questions are conducted and denounced press coverage of the trial. The Bharatiya Janata Party spokesperson Prakash Javadekar criticised Roy for calling convicted terrorist Mohammad Afzal a 'prisoner-of-war' and called Arundhati a 'prisoner of her own dogma'.

He further said,

"No country has ever witnessed such kind of defense of a terrorist. They have gone beyond an academic discussion on capital punishment"

The Muthanga incident

In 2003, the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha, a social movement for adivasi land rights in Kerala, organised a major land occupation of a piece of land of a former Eucalyptus plantation in theMuthanga Wildlife Reserve, on the border of Kerala and Karnataka. After 48 days, a police force was sent into the area to evict the occupants—one participant of the movement and a policeman were killed, and the leaders of the movement were arrested. Arundhati Roy travelled to the area, visited the movement's leaders in jail, and wrote an open letter to the then Chief Minister of Kerala, A.K. Antonynow India's Defence Minister, saying "You have blood on your hands."

Comments on 2008 Mumbai attacks

In an opinion piece for The Guardian (13 December 2008), Roy argued that the November 2008 Mumbai attacks cannot be seen in isolation, but must be understood in the context of wider issues in the region's history and society such as widespread poverty, the Partition of India (which Roy calls "Britain's final, parting kick to us"), the atrocities committed during the 2002 Gujarat violence, and the ongoing conflict in Kashmir. Despite this call for context, Roy states clearly in the article that she believes "nothing can justify terrorism" and calls terrorism "a heartless ideology." Roy warns against war with Pakistan, arguing that it is hard to "pin down the provenance of a terrorist strike and isolate it within the borders of a single nation state", and that war could lead to the "descent of the whole region into chaos" Her remarks were strongly criticised by Salman Rushdie and others, who condemned her for linking the Mumbai attacks with Kashmir and economic injustice against Muslims in India;Rushdie specifically criticised Roy for attacking the iconic status of the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower Indian writer Tavleen Singh called Roy's comments "the latest of her series of hysterical diatribes against India and all things Indian."

Criticism of Sri Lanka

In an opinion piece, once again in The Guardian (1 April 2009), Roy made a plea for international attention to what she called a possible government-sponsored genocide of Tamils in Sri Lanka. She cited reports of camps into which Tamils were being herded as part of what she described as "a brazen, openly racist war." She also mentioned that the "Government of Sri Lanka is on the verge of committing what could end up being genocide" and described the Sri Lankan IDP camps where Tamil civilians are being held as concentration camps. Ruvani Freeman, a Sri Lankan writer called Roy's remarks "ill-informed and hypocritical" and criticised her for "whitewashing the atrocities of theLTTE." Roy has said of such accusations: "I cannot admire those whose vision can only accommodate justice for their own and not for everybody. However I do believe that the LTTE and its fetish for violence was cultured in the crucible of monstrous, racist, injustice that the Sri Lankan government and to a great extent Sinhala society visited on the Tamil people for decades."

Views on the Naxalites

Roy has criticised Government's armed actions against the Naxalite-Maoist insurgents in India, calling it "war on the poorest people in the country". According to her, the Government has "abdicated its responsibility to the people"] and launched the offensive against Naxals to aid the corporations with whom it has signed Memorandums of Understanding. While she has received support from various quarters for her views Roy's description of the Maoists as "Gandhians" raised a controversy In other statements, she has described Naxalites as "patriot of a kind" who are "fighting to implement the Constitution, (while) the government is vandalising it". Many commentators have hypothesized that Roy does not hold sympathy for the victims of Maoist terrorism and have called her a "Maoist sympathiser."

You cannot equate violence of the resistance with the structural violence of the Indian state which is resulting in 250,000 farmers killing themselves, 80% of the population living in poverty. You really can’t equate the two. And that’s what many people do.

— Arundhati Roy

Criticism of Anna Hazare

On 21 August 2011, at the height of Anna Hazare's anti-corruption campaign, Arundhati Roy severely criticised Hazare and his movement in an opinion-piece published in The Hindu. In the course of the article, she questions Hazare's secular credentials, points out the campaign's corporate backing, its suspicious timing, Hazare's silence on private-sector corruption and on other critical issues of the day, expressing her fear that the Lokpal will only end up creating "two oligarchies, instead of just one." She states that while "his means maybe Gandhian, his demands are certainly not", and alleges that by "demonising only the Government they" are preparing to call for "more privatisation, more access topublic infrastructure and India's natural resources", satirically adding that it "may not be long before Corporate Corruption is made legal and renamed a Lobbying Fee." Roy also accuses the electronic media of blowing the campaign out of proportion. Roy's comparison of the Jan Lokpal Bill with the Maoists: claiming both sought "the overthrow of the Indian State" met with resentment from members of Team Anna; Medha Patkar reacted sharply calling Roy's comments "highly misplaced" and chose to emphasise the "peaceful, non-violent" nature of the movement.

Sedition charges

In November 2010, Roy (along with Syed Ali Shah Geelani and five others) was brought up on charges of sedition by the Delhi Police. The filing of the FIR came following a directive from a local court on a petition filed by Sushil Pandit who alleged that Geelani and Roy made anti-India speeches at a conference on "Azadi-the Only Way" on 21 October 2010. In the words of Arundhati Roy "Kashmir has never been an integral part of India. It is an a historical fact. Even the Indian government has accepted this". A Delhi city court directed the police to respond to the demand for a criminal case after the central government declined to charge Roy, saying that the charges were inappropriate.


Arundhati Roy was awarded the 1997 Booker Prize for her novel The God of Small Things. The award carried a prize of about US $30,000 and a citation that noted, "The book keeps all the promises that it makes." Prior to this, she won the National Film Award for Best Screenplay in 1989, for the screenplay of In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones, in which she captured the anguish among the students prevailing in professional institutions.

In 2002, she won the Lannan Foundation's Cultural Freedom Award for her work "about civil societies that are adversely affected by the world’s most powerful governments and corporations," in order "to celebrate her life and her ongoing work in the struggle for freedom, justice and cultural diversity."

In 2003, she was awarded 'special recognition' as a Woman of Peace at the Global Exchange Human Rights Awards in San Francisco with Bianca Jagger, Barbara Lee and Kathy Kelly.

Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence.

In January 2006, she was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award, a national award from India's Academy of Letters, for her collection of essays on contemporary issues, The Algebra of Infinite Justice, but she declined to accept it "in protest against the Indian Government toeing the US line by 'violently and ruthlessly pursuing policies of brutalisation of industrial workers, increasing militarisation and economic neo-liberalisation.'"

In November 2011, she was awarded the Norman Mailer Prize for Distinguished Writing.


The God of Small Things. Flamingo, 1997.
The End of Imagination. Kottayam: D.C. Books, 1998.
The Cost of Living. Flamingo, 1999.. Contains the essays "The Greater Common Good" and "The End of Imagination."
The Greater Common Good. Bombay: India Book Distributor, 1999.
The Algebra of Infinite Justice. Flamingo, 2002. Collection of essays: "The End of Imagination," "The Greater Common Good," "Power Politics", "The Ladies Have Feelings, So...," "The Algebra of Infinite Justice," "War is Peace," "Democracy," "War Talk", and "Come September."
Power Politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2002.
War Talk. Cambridge: South End Press, 2003.
Foreword to Noam Chomsky, For Reasons of State. 2003.
An Ordinary Person's Guide To Empire. Consortium, 2004.
Public Power in the Age of Empire Seven Stories Press, 2004.
The Checkbook and the Cruise Missile: Conversations with Arundhati Roy. Interviews by David Barsamian. Cambridge: South End Press, 2004.
Introduction to 13 December, a Reader: The Strange Case of the Attack on the Indian Parliament. New Delhi, New York: Penguin, 2006.
The Shape of the Beast: Conversations with Arundhati Roy. New Delhi: Penguin, Viking, 2008
Listening to Grasshoppers: Field Notes on Democracy. New Delhi: Penguin, Hamish Hamilton, 2009
Anuj Lugun
From Wikipedia
Anuj Lugun
Native name
अनुज लुगुन
Born 10 January 1986
Occupation Poet, short-story writer, song composer, novelist, playwright and essayist, National poet of Bangladesh
Language Hindi
Nationality Indian
Alma mater St. Xaviers College
Period 21st century
Genre Poetrymusic, politics, society
Notable awards Bharat Bhushan Agarwal (2011)
Rashtriya Muktibodh Puraskara(2009)

Anuj Lugun (Hindi: अनुज लुगुन ) (born 10 January 1986) is a Jharkhandi Indian poet and writer. Popularly known as Anuj, his poetry espoused indigenous renaissance and intense rebellion against fascism and oppression. Lugun's activism for political and social justice earned him the title of Tribal Poet.

Early life and career

Born into a Jharkhandi Mundari family to Arinus Lugun & Jaymmila Lugun in Jaldega Pahantoli, district SimdegaJharkhand, Anuj is the nephew of William Lugun, a prominent leader of the Jharkhand movement.

Work and service

Lugun is working as Assistant Professor in School of Indian Language at Central University of Bihar (CUB). Currently pursuing research in Mundari songs at Banaras Hindu University. After serving in the Ministry of Human Resource Development (India), Lugun established himself as a Poet in Jharkhand. Lugun's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. Throughout his career, Lugun wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best known for his poems.

Awards and recognition

Anuj Lugun- won the prestigious Bharat Bhushan Agarwal Award in 2011 for the best poem in Hindi

Rashtriya Muktibodh Puraskara (Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Akademi) 2009

Anuj Lugun

Main works

Poems published prominently in almost all important literary journals


Bharat Bhushan Agrawal Poetry Award


Assistant Professor, Hindi Department, Bihar Central University, Gaya, Bihar
phone 08765407843
Anuja Chauhan
Writer Anuja Chauhan on learning to laugh at the many absurdities of urban India and why her leading ladies can’t help being feisty.
by Amrita Dutta | New Delhi |

 Writer Anuja Chauhan

On summer afternoons in a boarding school in Meerut, left to no devices, not even a television, young Anuja Chauhan sat her friends down and came up with love stories. Each story tailor-made for a friend. The sporty girl got to travel to Dehra Dun for a basketball tournament, meet a bus full of jocks and fall in love. The arty one took it slow, but still found the one. There was no way that a girl who could hold a gang of skittish teens in rapt attention wasn’t going to grow up to be a writer. “I have always been a storyteller. The joke in the family was that: Ye Chauhan maar maar ke kahaani sunaati hain,” says the 45-year-old author over the phone from Bangalore.

But it took Chauhan nearly two decades in advertising and several award-winning campaigns before she started on her first novel. “Advertising is like writing in a very tight box. I had begun to tire of it. The day we bought a Mac Pro, I began writing The Zoya Factor (2008),” she says. That novel was about the “Karol-Bagh-type” Zoya Singh Solanki fighting to fit into the “unabashedly shallow” world of advertising, and the sparks that fly between her and cricketer Nikhil Lodha. It ended up too baggy for her liking, but also a word-of-mouth bestseller. In the seven years since, Chauhan has written two novels (Battle for Bittora and Those Pricey Thakur Girls), and her fifth, The House That BJ Built, is out soon.

In popular Indian English publishing, when the bestseller tag often leads you to earnest mediocre prose (unless you pick up a Chetan Bhagat, where you also find solutions to Great Indian Problems for free), Chauhan occupies an unusual space. Her sentences shine with elegance and wit, and her stories carry a wicked sense of the absurdities of Indian life. The many Englishes of urban India come alive in her language, a skill that comes from being a “compulsive eavesdropper”. And, despite the fact that the critics love her, she sells. Those Pricey Thakur Girls, set in Hailey Road of the 1980s, is that rare thing — a fine Delhi novel. Indeed, a joyous one, where the city’s rough edges are blurred by flaming trees of amaltas and harshingar, and the cackle of laughter from a house full of lively characters. Early on, she bristled at the tag of a chick-lit writer and it is easy to see why. She is a writer of comedy, in an expansive, life-affirming sense of the word, her influences being as much Vikram Seth as Joseph Heller.

But Chauhan is not content to be a bestseller writer for the literary-minded. “I know for a fact that there are many more Amish Tripathi readers than people who read me,” she says, before going on to narrate an anecdote about appearing on a lit-fest panel with Ravinder Singh, the immensely popular writer of lachrymose romances. “All the while on the stage, I thought I was very smart. But the moment it was over, the girls just ran me over to reach him.” That’s one of the reasons she has moved out of HarperCollins after eight long years. Westland had far more ambitious plans for The House That BJ Built. “While her earlier books have sold between 35,000 and 50,000 copies, Westland is looking at a minimum of one lakh copies a year. That they have also offered her an advance, a six-figure amount in US dollars, shows they are betting big on her,” says Anuj Bahri, Chauhan’s literary agent.

With The House That BJ Built, we are back to the sprawling house on Hailey Road, which was home to Justice Laxmi Narayan Thakur and his alphabetically-named daughters in Those Pricey Thakur Girls. But this is an emptier, sadder house, with the judge’s wife dead, the sisters scattered across the world, and Laxmi Narayan Thakur being looked after in his dotage by Bonu Singh, the daughter of B for Binni. Bonu Singh, whose first spoken words as a toddler were “balls”, is a modern desi girl, with a chip on her shoulder and a great ambition to suceed where her parents hadn’t. That she does by running a garment business that specialises in ripping off the latest designs at cut-price so that Hailey Road aunties can wear the “Cavilli Aishwarya wore in Cannes before she became fat”. “I didn’t want this book to be about Dabbu’s daughter. If Binni has raised her daughter to have grudges against her aunt, then it was interesting for me to look at the family through that lens. I like girls like that, I have a thing for the underdog,” says Chauhan.

The Anuja Chauhan leading lady, unlike many others, is not really single in the city. She is embedded in family, in the whole jingbang of aunts and sisters and female friendships. The youngest of four sisters, Chauhan was also a part of a rambunctious household. “My father was in the army and he had people come up to him and say, ‘If only you had a son, he would be in the army.’ But my parents were very unapologetic about their four daughters and they brought us up that way. The need to be independent was always drilled into us,” she says. The women in her novels are also full of spunk. “I like girls to have strength of character, some sort of larger life plan than just finding a man or cooking for their children. I like them to be well grounded, so that even when they’re swooningly in love or maddened with lust or swamped with public adulation, their brains don’t stop working,” she says.

And the city, even the secluded quarter of the Thakur house — in some ways, Chauhan’s two inches of ivory — has moved on from the genteel 1980s. The house is up for sale, according to the judge’s wishes. So, old family grudges, property sharks, forged wills and musclemen come in the way. But this is not a book stewing in in nostalgia. “BJ, the grandfather, being a very wise man, says it’s better to break up the house and keep the family together. That’s what we are seeing in Delhi with so many lovely houses being sold. But that is not such a terrible thing. I do think we need to embrace the change,” she says.

Anita Anand
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Anita Anand
Anita Anand during an outside broadcast in 2011
Born 1972
London, England
Occupation Radio and television presenter, journalist, and author

​(m. 2007)​
Children 2

Anita Anand (/ˈɑːnənd/ AH-nand; born 1972) is a British radio and television presenter, journalist, and author.

Early life and education

Anand was born in London, England, to Punjabi Sikh parents who migrated to India shortly after the partition of India and then, later, to the UK. Her family, prior to the partition, originated from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in present-day Pakistan.

Anand was privately educated at Bancroft's School in Woodford Green in Redbridge, east London. Anand then entered King's College, London, in 1990, graduating with a BA in English in 1993.

Broadcasting career

After training as a journalist, Anand became European Head of News and Current Affairs for Zee TV, and one of the youngest TV news editors in Britain at the age of 25. She presented the talk show The Big Debate and was political correspondent for Zee TV presenting the Raj Britannia series – 31 documentaries chronicling the political aspirations of the Asian community in the most marginal constituencies in 1997.

Until October 2007, Anand presented in the 10:00 pm till 1:00 am slot on Monday to Thursdays on BBC Radio 5 Live. She went on to co-present the station's weekday Drive (4:00–7:00 pm) slot with Peter Allen, having replaced Jane Garvey in 2007. Aasmah Mir replaced her when she left for maternity leave.

Anand has presented the BBC Radio 4 show Midweek, and on television she has been a presenter on the Heaven and Earth Show. She has co-presented the Daily Politics on BBC Two with Andrew Neil from September 2008, with a break for maternity leave from January to September 2010.

Anand has also written articles for India Today and The Asian Age newspaper, and used to write a regular column in The Guardian ("Anita Anand's Diary", 2004–2005).

In July 2011 Anand left the Daily Politics to present a new show called Double Take on Radio 5 Live on Sunday mornings. In June 2012, Anand took over from Jonathan Dimbleby as the presenter of Radio 4's Any Answers? Saturday current affairs phone-in programme between 2:00 and 2:30 pm.


Anand's book Sophia: Princess, Suffragette, Revolutionary (about the Indian princess Sophia Duleep Singh, granddaughter of the last Sikh Maharani and Maharaja of Lahore, born in exile in England, who went on to struggle for causes including Indian independence, the welfare of Indian soldiers in the First World War and women's suffrage) was published in 2015. She also presented Sophia, Suffragette Princess, a 30-minute television documentary programme based on the book, which aired first on BBC One in late November 2015.

She is co-author with William Dalrymple of Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World's Most Infamous Diamond. The Patient Assassin: A True Tale of Massacre, Revenge and the Raj appeared in April 2019 and relates to the Amritsar massacre of 1919.


On 18 November 2005, Anand won the Nazia Hassan Award for 2005 in the category of Upcoming Television Broadcasters. Her book The Patient Assassin won the 2020 Hessell-Tiltman Prize.

Personal life

Anand married science writer Simon Singh in 2007. The couple have two sons and live in south-west London.
Anant Rao Akela
The 56-year-old native of Pahadipur village in Aligarh district studied only until class eight, but has written a dozen books. He sold his first work, an eight-page pamphlet titled “Ram Rajya Ki Nangi Tasveer”, at village fairs and in markets in 1980 on his own.

After he got inspired by Kanshi Ram to join the Bahajun Samaj Party in 1985, he also wrote poems that were recited at public meetings held by BSP leaders. Disillusioned with the party though, he joined the Bahujan Mukti Party in 2016.

A. R. Akela

A.R. Akela
Born 30 September 1960

Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
Occupation Writer
Years active 1980-Current
Anant Rao "A. R." Akela (born 30 September 1960) is an author, poet, folk singer and publisher.

Literary works

Akela's works include Shambook Rishi (Baahmasi), Bheem Gyan-Gitanali, Buddha Gyan-Gitanali, Baspa Ke Bol, Mere Mishanary Geet, Angulimaal Katil Kyo Bana (All song collections) Yug Pravartak Ambedkar (Play) and Baba Saheb Ne Kaha Tha. He edited Kanshiram Press Ke Aaine Mein, Mayawati and Media and Kanshiram Ke Sakshhatkar. Publication

He owns the publishing business Anand Sahitya Sadan.
Anita Bharti
Seelampur, Delh
Education MA.BEd
Occupation Dalit writer,activist & lecturer
Spouse(s) Rajeev.R.Singh

A writer and an activist, Bharti is known for her poems and stories. Most recently she contributed to and edited an anthology featuring 65 poets titled “Yathastithi se Takraate Hue Dalit Stree Jeewan se Judi Kavitaayein”. She has also written the biography of the social revolutionary Gabdu Ram Valmiki.

Literacy work
Samajik Krantikari:Gabdu Ram Balmiki(Biography)

Radhakrishan Shikshak Puraskar
Indira Gandhi Shikshak Samman
Delhi Rajya Shikshak Samman
Birsa Munda Samman
Jhalkari Bai Rashtriya Sewa Samman

Post Held
She is secratary of Dalit Lekhak Sangh (Dalit Writers Association)

Personal life
She had an intercaste marriage with a Rajput person Rajeev.R.Singh.
Ajay Navaria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ajay Navaria (born 1972, Delhi) is the author of two collections of short stories, Patkatha aur Anya Kahaniyan (2006) and Yes Sir (2012), and a novel, Udhar ke Log (2009). He has been associated with the premier Hindi literary journal, Hans. Navaria teaches in the Hindi department at Jamia Milia Islamia University, Delhi. Unclaimed Terrain (2013), an anthology of his short stories translated into English, has been critically acclaimed.
Dr. Bharatkumar Raut

Introduction :

Dr. Bharatkumar Raut is 69 years old elected from Maharashtra as Rajyasabha member. He is a member of .

Born: 6 April 1953 , Mumbai

Practising journalist for over three decades
worked in English and Marathi newspapers, Government and private television channels in India and abroad
was Editor, Maharashtra Times
launched ZEE News, India?s first news channel
at present, Editorial Director 'Lokmat Media Group'
President, Mumbai Marathi Patrakar Sangh, 1987-88
was Trustee, Shree Siddhivinayak Temple Trust, 2005 - 2007
Member, (i) Executive Committee, Bombay Union of Journalists and (ii) Telephone Advisory Committee, MTNL, since 2008

Basic Details
Father's Name Shri Bhavanishankar Raut
Mother's Name Shrimati Sheela Raut
Assets More than 3 Crore(s)
Education M.A. (Politics), Ph.D. Educated at University of Bombay, Mumbai and Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune

Contact Details
Permanent Address 2101, Matoshree Pearl, S. Keer Marg, Mahim, Mumbai - 400016
Telephone : {022} 24372244, Fax: 22731175(O), 24384466(R), Mobile: 09820042332
Communication Address 7, Meena Bagh, Maulana Azad Road, New Delhi - 110011
Telephone : 23062494,Fax: 23062492 Mobile: 9868181332

Books Published
In Marathi, (i) Andharatil Ek Prakash, 1977, (ii) Drishtikon, 2004, (iii) Nayak, 2004, (iv) Shiv Sena: Haar Aani Prahaar, 2005, (v) Asa Drishtikon, 2006, (vi) Ashi Hee Mumbai, 2008, (vii) Manovedh, 2010 and (viii) Geeta: Anand Yatra (2011)

In English: Past Forward, (Internet edition) 2011

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bhagu was a Bhakti movement poet. She belonged to the Mahar caste. Little is known about her. In the Shrisakalsantgatha she is called "Bhagu Maharin

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later acted as the de facto catalyst to the formation of Sikhism. It originated in eighth-century south India (now Tamil Nadu and Kerala), and spread northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE.

The Bhakti movement regionally developed around different gods and goddesses, and some sub-sects were Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaivism (Shiva), Shaktism (Shakti goddesses), and Smartism. Bhakti movement preached using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. The movement was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta.

The movement has traditionally been considered as an influential social reformation in Hinduism, and provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one's birth or gender. The Bhakti movement began with the aim of reforming Hinduism. Contemporary scholars question this traditional view and whether the Bhakti movement ever was a reform or rebellion of any kind. They suggest Bhakti movement was a revival, reworking and recontextualisation of ancient Vedic traditions. Bhakti refers to passionate devotion (to a deity).
Hindu saint, social reformer and famous poet from gujarat, india
Bhojal, Bhojalram
Was : Writer
From : India
Type : Literature
Gender : Male

Birth : 1 January 1785, Gujarat, India

Death : 1 January 1850, Virpur (Rajkot), Rajkot district, Gujarat, India (aged 65 years)

Bhoja Bhagat (1785–1850), also known as Bhojal or Bhojalram was a Hindu saint poet from Gujarat, India.


Bhoja or Bhojo was born in 1785 in Leva Kanbi caste at village named Fattehpur or Devkigalol near Jetpur in Saurashtra. His father's name was Karshandas and mother was Gangabai and family surname was Savalia. He met his guru, a sanyasin from Girnar at age of 12. Later, when he was 24, the family shifted to Fatehpur near Amreli, Gujarat. He came to be known as Bhoja Bhagat (Bhagat derived from Bhakt, devotee) and Bhojalram in his later life.

By occupation he was a farmer. Although, he was an illiterate, but with blessings of his Guru in Girnar, he wrote poems and songs condemning social inequities, which became well known as "Bhoja Bhagat Na Chabkha".

Bhoja Bhagat died in 1850 at age of 65 at Virpur, where he had gone to visit his disciple Jalaram. His memorial temple (called Ota locally) is located at Virpur.


He liked to call himself as Bhojal in his verses. As a poet and philosopher also wrote Aartis, Bhajans, Dholas, Kafis, Kirtans, Mahinas and Prabhatias but is most famous for his Chabkhas. These satirical pieces are known as Bhoja Bhagat na Chabkha ( literally Lashes of Bhoja Bhagat ) in Gujarati. His rough language is seen in these Chabkha which tells about social equanimity. His tender and compassionate language his visible in his verses, pada describing separation of Gopis from Krishna in Bhaktamala, Chalaiyakhyan and his bhajan of Kachabo ane Kachabi (couple of turtles). His Saravadan is about union with cosmic consciousness.


His followers visit Fatehpur today to pay their respects, where he spent major part of his life. The ashram of Bhoja Bhagat houses his paghdi, rosary beads and padukas The original brick-house of Bhoja Bhagat stands as it is and his personal belonging are kept here and there is an ashram headed by mahant, called gadi-pati (head of gadi)

He had many disciples of whom the two most illustrious and known are saints Jalaram of Virpur and Valamram of Gariadhar.
Balakrishna Bhagwant Borkar

Balakrishna Bhagawant Borkar

Born Borim
30 November 1910
Died 8 July 1984 (aged 73)

Occupation Freedom fighter, poet, author, linguistic activist
Language MarathiKonkani
Nationality Indian
Citizenship Indian
Notable awards Padma Shri

Balakrishna Bhagwant Borkar (30 November 1910 – 8 July 1984) was a poet from Goa, India.

Bā Bha Borkar, also known as Ba-ki-baab, started writing poems at an early age. The author Vi SA Khandekar was an early champion of Borkar's poetry. Borkar joined Goa's fight for freedom in the 1950s and moved to Pune, where he worked for the radio. Most of his literature is written in Marathi, though his Konkani output is also considerable. He excelled as a prose writer as well. His long poems Mahatmayan, an unfinished poem dedicated to Gandhi), and TamaHstotra (upon the possibility of blindness due to diabetes and old age) are famous. One of his famous poems is "Mazha Gaav", meaning "My village".

After Borkar's death, Pu La Deshpande and his wife Sunitabai performed public readings of Borkar's poetry.

Life and career
Bakibaab's statue in Goa

Balkrishna Bhagwant Borkar was born on 30 November 1910 in the village of Borim, Goa situated on the banks of the Zuari river. The atmosphere in his house was very pious and there used to be recitals of bhajans, kirtans, holy scripts and songs of saints of Maharashtra. As a household rule every child was supposed to learn new Abhangs by heart.

It is said that Borkar once forgot to learn a new Abhang and when it was his turn to recite, he composed an Abhnag on the fly. People who were listening were astonished and could not believe that young Borkar could have done this and he was asked to compose one more Abhang. He surprised them again by composing one more Abhang and ended it with the verse "Baki Mhane" (so says Baki).

Borkar's mother tongue was Konkani and he did his schooling till the second grade in Marathi medium. Goa at that time was under the colonial rule of the Portuguese and Baki had to complete his further education in Portuguese language. He acquired a Portuguese Teachers Diploma. He could not continue his formal education beyond that point because of lack of funds and had to find himself a job. He worked as teacher in various schools in Goa from 1930 to 1945. Later he left for Bombay (Mumbai) where he edited Konkani periodicals Amacha Gomatak and Porjecho Awaj. In November 1955 he joined Aakashwani (All India Radio) and worked there until his retirement in 1970.

Bakibaab's first collection of poems "Pratibha" was published in 1930. He was just 20 years of age at that time. He was enthralled by nature, especially Goa's natural beauty and it is aptly depicted in his poems and work. When Dr. Rammanohar Lohia went to Goa in 1946 to announce the liberation movement, Bakibaab jumped into the freedom struggle without a moment's notice. His composition Goyan Lohia Aaylore (Lohia has come to Goa) became quite famous. Leaving behind a household of ten supported by him and sacrificing a secure government job, he jumped in wholeheartedly into the movement and took up the mission to spread patriotism through his poems.

Bakibaab forte was his diverse sensibility, his multi-coloured imagery and easy with which he could showcase the joys and sorrows of life. His works were about nature, patriotism, about body and soul, sensuous and meditative, about individual and society. He was poet of Goa, poet of Maharashtra. He was poet of India. He was awarded Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian award, by the then President S. Radhakrishnan inrecognition of his distinguished service in the field of Literature & Education. He was also awarded the Tamrapatra (Copper Plaque) in 1974 by the Government of India for his meritorious services to the cause of India's freedom. Bakibaab died on 8 July 1984.

Published works – Marathi

Poetic work
"Pratibha" (1930): Publisher: Kashinath Shridhar Nayak (Mumbai)
"Jeevansangeet" (1937) Bharat Gaurav Granthmala (Mumbai)
"Dudhsagar" (1947)
"Anand Bhairavi" (1950) Continental Prakashan (Pune)
"Chitraveena" (1960), 4th edition 1985, Mauj Prakashan (Mumbai)
"Borkaranchi Kavita" (1960), Mauj Prakashan (Mumbai)
"Guitar" (1965), 2nd edition 1984, Mauj Prakashan (Mumbai)
"Chaitrapunav" (1970), Mauj Prakashan (Mumbai)
"Chandanvel" (1972), 2nd edition 1984, Editors: Kusumagraj and G.M. Kulkarni, Continental Prakashan (Pune)
"Meghdoot" (1980) – Translation of Kalidas's work, Shrividya Prakashan (Pune)
"Kanchan Sandhya" (1981), Mauj Prakashan (Mumbai)
"Anuragini" (1982), Suresh Agency (Pune)
"Chinmayee" (1984), Suresh Agency (Pune)
"Borkaranchi Prem Kavita" (1984), Editor: R.C. Dhere, Suresh Agency (Pune)
"Kaivalya Che Zaad" (1987), Suresh Agency (Pune)

Short stories
"Kagadi Hodya" (1938), Shri Shivaji Mudranalay, Nave Goy
"Chandnyache Kavadse" (1982), Majestic Book Stall, Mumbai
"Pavala Purta Prakash" (1982), Alok Prakashan, Kolhapur
"Ghumtavarle Parve" (1986), Bandodkar Publication House, Goa

"Mavalta Chandra" (1938) Maharashtra Granth Bhandar, Kolhapur. 3rd edition 1986 Bandokar Publishing House, Goa
"Andharantil Laataa" (1943) Damodar Moghe, Kolhapur. 2nd edition 1986 Bandodkar Publishing House, Goa
"Bhavin" (1950) Continental Prakashan, Pune
"Priycama" (1983) Suresh Agency, Pune

"Anandyatri Ravindranath: Sanskar Ani Sadhana" (1964), 2nd edition Suresh Agency (Pune)
"Mahamanav Ravindranath" (1974), Pune University

"Jalte Rahasya" (Stephen Ewing) 1945, V.N. Moghe, Kolhapur
"Kachechi Kimaya" (Stephen Ewing) 1945, P.R.Dhamdhere, Pune
"Bapuji Chi Ozarti Darshane" (Kakasaheb Kalelkar) 1950
"Amhi Pahilele Gandhiji" (Chandrashekhar Shukla) 1950
"Majhi Jeevan Yatra" (Autobiography-Janki Devi Bajaj) 1960, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai

Edited work
"Rasyatra" – Kusumagraj's poems (1969) Continental, Pune

Published works – Konkani

Poetic work"Painjana", 1960, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.
"Sasaay", 1980, Kulagar Prakashan, Madgaon.
"Kanthamani", Jaag Prakashan, India

Translations"Geeta Pravachan" (Vinoba), Pardham, Pavnar, 1956
"Geetay", 1960, Popular, Mumbai
"Vasavdutt-Ek Pranay natya" (Arvind Ghosh), 1973, Jaag Prakashan, Priol (Goa)
"Paigambar" (Khalil Jibran), 1973, Jaag Prakashan, Priol (Goa)
"Sanshay Kallol" (G.B. Deval), 1975, Jaag Prakashan, Priol (Goa)
"Bhagwan Buddh" (Dharmanand Kossambi), Sahitya Academy
"Konkani Kavya Sangraha", 1981, Sahitya Academy

"Ba. Bha. Borkar: Vyakti and Vangmay" – Manohar Hirba Sardessai 1992, Gomantak Marathi Academy, Panaji
"Mandovi"- Kavivarya Ba.Bha. Borkar 60th birthday special issue, 1970, Editor: Shriram Pandurang Kamat, Goa.

1934 – Gold Medal Marathi Sahitya Samellan for Poetry
1950 – Gold Medal Gomantak Marathi Sahitya Samellan for Novel "Bhavin"
1950 – President – Kokani Sahitya Samellan
1957– President – MarathiKavi Samellan, Solapur
1961-President – Tagore Centinary Sahitya Shakha
1956 -President – Gomantak Marathi Sahitya Samellan
1963-President Sahityakar Sansad, Allahabad
1964–1970 – President- Institute Menezes Braganza, Panaji, Goa
1963 – Member of the Sahitik Shistamandal to Sri Lanka
1967 – Padmashri – Government of India
1968 – President – Akhil Bharatiya Kokani Parishad
1970– President-Second Marathi Sahitya Parishad's Sahitya Samellan, Mahabaleshwar
1970-President- 20th Mumbai Subarban Sahitya Samellan
1970 – President- 72 nd Annual Function of Mumbai Marathi Granthasangralaya
Boa Sr
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born c. 1925
Died 26 January 2010

Boa Sr (circa 1925 – 26 January 2010) was an Indian Great Andamanese elder. She was the last person fluent in the Aka-Bo language.

Boa Sr is not to be confused with another Great Andamanese tribal member, Boa Jr; the two women were not directly related. Boa Jr's late mother, Boro (who was also the last speaker of her language, Aka-Kora) was Boa Sr's best friend and named her daughter in her honor.


Boa was born around 1925. Her mother, To, belonged to the Bo people and her father, Renge, belonged to the Jeru people. Boa's early life was spent in Mayabunder, a town on Middle Andaman Island. She was married at a young age to Nao, another member of her father's people, although both he and their children predeceased her. She regarded the Jeru language as her mother tongue.

Boa Sr. lived through the epidemic brought by the British to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which devastated the Great Andamanese population, and also through the Japanese occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II. In the 1970s, she and other Great Andamanese was forcibly relocated by the government of India to Strait Island, a small tribal reserve east of Baratang Island.

Boa Sr. worked with Anvita Abbi, a professor of linguistics at Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi, since 2005. Abbi studied and recorded Boa's language and songs. Other members of the Great Andamanese speech community had difficulty understanding the songs and narratives which she knew in Bo. She also spoke the Andamanese dialect of Hindi, as well as Great Andamanese creole, a mix of the ten indigenous languages of Andamans.

Boa Sr. survived the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake by climbing a tree. She later explained her escape from the tsunami saying, "We were all there when the earthquake came. The eldest told us the Earth would part, don't run away or move."

Her husband, Nao Jer, died several years before she did and the couple had no children. She suffered from some vision loss during her later life, but was considered to be in good health until shortly before her death in 2010.

Boa Sr. died at a hospital in Port Blair on 26 January 2010. Boa Sr., who was approximately 85 years old, was the oldest living member of the Great Andamanese tribes at the time. Boa Sr.'s death left just 52 surviving Great Andamanese people in the world, none of whom remember any Bo. Their population is greatly reduced from the estimated 5,000 Great Andamanese living in the Andaman Islands at the time of the arrival of the British in 1858


Stephen Corry, director of the British-based NGO Survival International, issued a statement saying, "With the death of Boa Sr. and the extinction of the Bo language, a unique part of human society is now just a memory. Boa's loss is a bleak reminder that we must not allow this to happen to the other tribes of the Andaman Islands." Linguist Narayan Choudhary also explained what the loss of Boa Sr. meant in both academic and personal terms, "Her loss is not just the loss of the Great Andamanese community, it is a loss of several disciplines of studies put together, including anthropologylinguisticshistorypsychology, and biology. To me, Boa Sr. epitomised a totality of humanity in all its hues and with a richness that is not to be found anywhere else."
Balkavi Bairagi
Birth 10 February 1931, Village Rampur, Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh , India
Death 13 May 2018
Some major works
Songs, Dard Deewani, do bluntly, future protectors of the country, come children sing sing children etc.

Poetry Collection

Compositions of Balkavi Bairagi

Balkavi Bairagi (moolam Nandaram) was born in Rampur village of Manasa tehsil of Mandsaur district. His name was Nandaram. How did Bachvi Bairagi happen? It was found out that Bairagiji must have been barely eight-nine years old. Kailashnath Katjuji of Javra, who was later the Home Minister, said to the child, recite a poem! Child Nandaram recited such a tremendous poem of the nation's love that not only he, but all the people around him were stunned! Katju said, henceforth this boy's name will be - Balkavi Bairagi. Poverty echoes in Bairagiji's childhood. He used to pull his Divyang father on a rope of four small wheels with a rope, And used to sing patriotic songs in a vivid tone. People used to put coins in the bowl. He used to get home education and self-respect. He did not hesitate to end his poverty. He proudly narrated his saga of being a minister to Mangta. He did his MA in Hindi from Vikram University. He was associated with both politics and literature. A minister of Madhya Pradesh government and a member of Lok Sabha and Hindi poetry was also popular on forums. His poetry is rich in ozguna. The main poetry collections are: 'Gaurav-Geet', 'Darad Deewani', 'Do Took', 'Future Guardian etc.'

One of the country's popular litterateurs, poet Balkavi Bairagi, died at the age of 87. Along with literature, he was also very active in the political world and was an MP.
Balkavi Bairagi

Mohit Pareek

One of the country's popular litterateurs, poet Balkavi Bairagi, died at the age of 87. Along with literature, he was also very active in the political world and was an MP. He was very popular on Hindi poetry forums. According to reports, he breathed his last at his residence in Madhya Pradesh.

He was born on 10 February 1931 in Rampur village and was also honored with several awards. His major compositions included 'Gaurav-Geet', 'Dard Deewani', 'Do Took', 'Future Guardian Country' etc. He was one of the senior leaders of Madhya Pradesh Congress and was also a minister in the state government. He was also awarded the poet Pradeep Samman by the Government of Madhya Pradesh.

Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chauhan and Congress leaders Jyotiraditya Scindia and Kamal Nath have mourned his death. He has paid tribute by tweeting. Bairagi was soft-spoken and rich in personality and gained international recognition. According to Kavita Kosh his major works include…

The death of the famous poet, public servant revered Balkavi Bairagi ji, who has composed many poems like Surya Uvach, crores of Suns and wake up Dipamanthi, is an irreparable loss to the state. I pray to God for peace of departed soul and support for family. - ShivrajSingh Chouhan (@ChouhanShivraj) May 13, 2018

I am shocked at the news of the demise of Yashwashvi poet Shri Balkavi Bairagi ji, senior Congress leader. With his departure, the Congress family has suffered a great loss along with Malvi and Hindi literature. My humble tribute!
- Dalit Novelist and Teacher
Our village is very beautiful." This was the opening line of 'Kurukku', the childhood memoirs written in Tamil by Dalit writer Bama. 'Kurukku', (which in Tamil means the sharp-edged stem of the palmera tree) voiced the joys and sorrows of her people, oppressed by higher castes in India.

"We were very poor. I was witness to many instances of violence against Dalits. I also saw the humiliation my grandmother and mother faced in the fields and homes of the landlords. Despite the misery, we had a carefree childhood."In 2001, Lakshmi Holmstorm's English translation of 'Kurukku' won the Crossword Award in India and established Bama as a distinct voice in Indian literature. (Dalits are members of India's most marginalized and oppressed castes.)Bama didn't really plan to be a writer.

Born in 1958 as Faustina Mary Fatima Rani (her grandfather had converted to Christianity) in a village called Puthupatti in Tamil Nadu (southern India), her landless ancestors and parents worked as laborers for the landlords.

She and her four siblings spent a lot of time playing in the fields. "Sometimes we were cops and robbers, sometimes husband and wife. But my favorite game was kabaddi (a team wrestling game played in many Indian villages). I liked the whole business of challenging, crossing over and vanquishing the opponent," says Bama, recently in New Delhi to attend a writer's meet.Perhaps it was this game which trained Bama to face many challenges in life and come out victorious. Bama's father, who was in the Indian army, was very particular about the children's education. "If he had not joined the army, we would never have had the regular income for education. Education also gave us freedom to get away from the clutches of the landlords and lead our own lives," says Bama.Her brother Raj Gautaman, also a writer, introduced her to the world of books. "I read Tamil writers like Jayakantan, Akhilan, Mani and Parthasarthy. In college I read my favorites - Kahlil Gibran and Rabindranath Tagore. I didn't have many books to read so I read the same ones again and again," she recalls. In college she also wrote poetry. But after college Bama became a schoolteacher and chose to educate very poor girls.Her life took a big turn when at the age of 26 she took the vows to become a nun. This was an attempt to break away from caste bonds and further pursue her goals to help poor Dalit girls. "I felt that at the seminary I would be able to carry forward my work with the poor," she says.

But seven years later, in 1992, Bama walked out of the seminary. Her family insisted she get married and settle down. "I had lost everything. I was a stranger to society. I kept lamenting about life and harked back to my happy childhood days in the village," narrates Bama.Struggling to find herself again, Bama followed a friend's advice and started to write her childhood memoirs. She also created her pen name - Bama - a blend of different sounds from her Christian name. She completed the book in six months. This slim volume, a semi-fictional account of the growing awareness of a Dalit, created a stir in literary circles for its uninhibited language and bold vocabulary. "Some critics cried out that a woman should not have used such coarse words. But I wrote the way people speak. I didn't force a literary language on myself," says Bama. Today, at 45, Bama teaches in a primary school in Uthiramerur, near Chennai, capital of Tamil Nadu. Her works, which include two collections of short stories, 'Kissubukkaran' and 'Sangathi', have also been translated into French. Though Bama began by writing about the condition of Dalits in rural India, she now plans to focus on communal clashes.After school, Bama spends most of her time talking to young Dalit women about religion, oppression and social change. She shares her experiences as a student, nun and a writer to encourage them to build something anew.Why did she choose to remain single? "The existing family system would not give me the space I needed to do my kind of work. So I chose to stay single," she explains. "My ambition is to communicate the dreams and aspirations of my people, who have remained on the fringes for centuries in Indian history."
Boyi Bhimanna
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born : 19 September 1911
Mamidikuduru, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh

Died : 16 December 2005 (aged 94)

Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Awards : Padma Bhushan (2001)

Dr. Boyi Bhimanna (19 September 1911 – 16 December 2005), transliterated alternatively as Bheemanna or Bheemana, was a Telugu poet.

Early life

Bhimanna was born in a poor Dalit family in Mamidikuduru village, East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. He participated in the Quit India Movement


He was influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. His writings reflected the angst of the down-trodden. He wore several hats such as that of a writer, poet, journalist and academician. He was a member of the senate of Andhra University. He was the director of the Andhra Pradesh state translation division for some time.

He wrote in English, as well, and the work entitled Seventh Season, a collection of his English poetry, was well-received. He wrote over seventy books in his career, with the work Gudiselu Kaalipothunnaayi (English:The Huts are Burning) being the most popular.

Selected list of works
Gudiselu Kaalipotthunnaayi
Naku Telicina Jasuva
Rajakiya Veerrudu Dr. Khan
Paleru (play)
Pilli Satakam
Paleru to Padmasree (auto-biography)
janabhaduni jabu


He won several awards, including the Sahitya Akademi Puraskar for Gudiselu Kaalipothunnaayi in 1975. He was honoured by the Government of India with the fourth and third highest civilian awards in the country, namely the Padma Shri and the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and 2001, respectively.

Bhimanna was also awarded the title Kala Prapoorna (honorary doctorate) by Andhra University. From 1978 to 1984, he was a member of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council.

He was awarded Kala Ratna Award from Andhra Pradesh Government in 2003. In 1992, Telugu University conferred a special award on him and in 1996, the state government awarded him the Atma Gauravam Puraskaram (English: Self-Respect Award).

Bhimanna also received the prestigious Raja-Lakshmi Literary Award from the Sri Raja-Lakshmi Foundation in Chennai for the year 1991, as well as the Loknayak Award.


He suffered from Parkinson's disease and, after a period of ailment, died at the Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad.
Bojja Tharakam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bojja Tharakam
Born 27 June 1939

Kandikuppa village of East Godavari district, India
Died 16 September 2016 (aged 77)

Hydrabad, India
Nationality Indian
Political party Schedule caste student federation, President Republican Party of India
Spouse(s) Vijaya Bharati
Children Dr. Mahita, Rahul Bojja (IAS)

Bojja Tharakam (27 June 1939 – 16 September 2016) was a well-known poet, writer, social and political activist and a senior human rights advocate in India. Tharakam was a committed lawyer in the Andhra Pradesh State High Court, fighting against the problems that Dalits have had to confront.

Early age

Bojja Tarakam was born in Kandikuppa village of East Godavari district to his parents Appalaswami and Mavullamma. His father, Bojja Appalaswamy, was one of the SCF leaders in coastal Andhra and was elected twice to the legislative Assembly from Amalapuram constituency in East Godavari district, in 1951 and 1955.


Chundur Massacre/Tsunduru massacre (1991)

He was senior public prosecutor Tsunduru massacre case in the Andhra Pradesh High Court. During an interview with Dalit Camera he said that the judgment in the Tsundur case was biased, illogical and casteist. The reasoning given by the high court is contrary to all principles of criminal jurisprudence and appreciation of evidence. The trial court which gave the first judgment had elaborately discussed the evidence, the entire evidence, and come to a conclusion which is unassailable. But unfortunately the high court, throwing all the norms and canons of justice to the winds, gave a very unscientific reasoning, which is unknown to criminal jurisprudence, and acquitted all the accused. [This is opinion, not fact.]

He was a human rights activist and stood specially for the rights of Dalits. He also filed case against the encounters by police in Supreme court and demanded that these officers should be booked and the probe should be set up for them. He won the case in Supreme Court of India.

Karamchedu (17 July 1985)

He resigned from the High Court as a sign of protest in 1984 against the attacks on Dalits in Karamchedu in Prakasam district of AP.

He founded AP Dalita Maha Sabha. He worked all his life to spread the ideas of Dr B R Ambedkar in the society especially among the youths.


He died of a brain tumor on 2016 16 September in a private hospital at Hyderabad.


Mahad:The March That's Launch Everyday in 2018 published by The Shared Mirror Publishing House, Hyderabad.
(Poem)Naalage Godavari (Godavari is Like Me) in 2000.
Brezil Prajala Bhuporatam (The Brazilian's fight for the Land) in 2003(published by Janapada Vignana Kendram, Hyderabad).
News paper run by him is Neela Zenda from Andra Pradesh.
Major Works "Police arestuceseta 'caste-category', 'ground-plow-mudeddulu' 'Panchatantra' (novel)," the born-throat '
बाबूराम पंवार

लोकतंत्र की निगरानी और नियंत्रण का तंत्र है "आरक्षण"

लोकतंत्र का मतलब है लोगों का तंत्र अर्थात लोगों की भागीदारी। जीवन के सभी क्षेत्रों में समुचित भागीदारी। जिस प्रकार माता-पिता की संपत्ति में उसकी हर संतान को बराबर का अधिकार होता है, उसी प्रकार राष्ट्र की संपत्ति में देश के हर नागरिक को बराबर का अधिकार होना चाहिए। यही है सही और सच्चा लोकतंत्र। सही और सच्चे लोकतंत्र की निगरानी और नियंत्रण का दायित्व न्यायपालिका का होता है किंतु यदि न्यायपालिका में ही लोकतंत्र ना हो तो फिर वह लोकतंत्र की रक्षा नहीं कर सकती।

भारतीय समाज में सामाजिक लोकतंत्र ना होने के कारण, सामाजिक लोकतंत्र स्थापित करने के लिए ही भारतीय संविधान में आरक्षण की व्यवस्था की गई है। जातीय भेदभाव सामाजिक व्यवस्था की देन है जो सामाजिक लोकतंत्र की प्रस्थापना में बहुत बड़ी बाधक है। वर्ण/जाति व्यवस्था में ब्राह्मण सर्वोच्च है और शूद्र निम्न।

सामाजिक व्यवस्था में ब्राह्मण क्षत्रिय वैश्य (द्विज जाति) का यज्ञोपवीत संस्कार हो सकता है किंतु शूद्रों का नहीं क्योंकि शूद्र की नस्ल अलग है। यज्ञोपवित ब्राह्मण क्षत्रिय वैश्य को एकता में बांधकर रखता है। जातियों में बंटे हुए शूद्रों में एकता नहीं, यहां तक की खान-पान, उठन-बैठन, बोलचाल में भिन्नता। एक जाति, दूसरी जाति के खिलाफ जैसे अघोषित युद्ध में हथियार लिये खड़ी हो। ऐसे सामाजिक वातावरण में भारतीय समाज में सामाजिक लोकतंत्र स्थापित करना बहुत बड़ी चुनौती है। जातियों में बांट गए लोगों का सामाजिक ध्रुवीकरण कैसे हो? भाईचारा कैसे बने? इसके लिए सामाजिक और शैक्षणिक रूप से पिछड़े लोगों की जनगणना होनी चाहिए। अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग की जाति आधारित जनगणना ब्रिटिश हुकूमत ने 1931 में कराई लेकिन आजादी के बाद अब तक नहीं हो पाई। गांधी नेहरू और तिलक के स्वराज में उच्चवर्णों की सुनी जाती है पिछड़ों की नहीं। डॉ आंबेडकर के प्रयासों से बहुजन समाज के सभी वर्गों अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति, अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के लिए शासन-प्रशासन में प्रतिनिधित्व की व्यवस्था की गई। किंतु शासक जातियां समय-समय पर इस प्रतिनिधित्व पर हमला करती रहती है। जब मंडल कमीशन की घोषणा हुई तो शासक जातियों ने डॉ अंबेडकर के लिए अपशब्दों का प्रयोग किया।

26 अगस्त 1992 के "नाँद गाँव टाइम्स" ने अपने संपादकीय से लिखा "आरक्षण के कारण देश में जो आज विस्फोटक स्थिति पैदा हुई है, उसका सारा श्रेय डॉ अंबेडकर जैसे तुच्छ जयचंदों को जाता है जिन्होंने ऐसी जलील हरकत की है जिसे देश के गरीब कभी माफ नहीं करेंगे। दलितों के इस दलाल के लिए नाथूराम गोडसे क्यों नहीं पैदा हुआ जो उनकी इस करतूत पर सजा-ए-मौत देता।" नाँद गाँव टाइम्स का यह स्टेटमेंट लोगों को ऐसा संदेश देता है कि जैसे डॉ आंबेडकर संविधान सभा के सदस्यों के समक्ष हंटर लेकर खड़े हो और आरक्षण की व्यवस्था को जबरदस्ती संविधान में डालने के लिए बाध्य किया हो। इस बात में तो सच्चाई है कि डॉ आंबेडकर के साथ हंटर था किंतु वह हंटर बौद्धिक नैतिकता का हंटर था जोर जबरदस्ती का नहीं, जिसे संविधान सभा के सदस्य मानने के लिए बाध्य हो जाते थे। बौद्धिक नैतिकता से तात्पर्य है ऐसी नैतिकता जो विवेक बुद्धि से तराशी गई हो।

भारत बार-बार गुलाम क्यों हुआ? देश की एकता और अखंडता आज भी खतरे में क्यों है? क्योंकि भारत में सामाजिक लोकतंत्र नहीं है। भारतीय संविधान गैरबराबरी पर आधारित समाज व्यवस्था को नकारता है। संविधान की धारा 38(1) राज्य को इस बारे में निर्देशित करती है। लेकिन शासक जातियों ने ऐसी व्यवस्था की स्थापना करना तो बहुत दूर, उन्होंने आज तक धारा 38(1) का कभी जिक्र तक नहीं किया। तात्पर्य है कि जो लोग गैरबराबरी की व्यवस्था को अभी भी अंगीकृत किये हुए हैं। भला वे बराबरी की सामाजिक व्यवस्था की पहल क्यों करेंगे? ऐसे ही लोगों का न्यायपालिका पर कब्जा है। फिर जाति भेदभाव का तांडव न्यायपालिका में दिखना स्वाभाविक है।

उच्चतम न्यायालय के एक मा. न्यायाधीश ने एम. नागराज केस निर्णय में कहा कि भारतीय संविधान की धारा 16(4)"क" फंडामेंटल राइट नहीं बल्कि इनेवलिंग प्रोविजन है। इसका मतलब अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति को पदोन्नति में प्रतिनिधित्व मौलिक अधिकार नहीं है, उसे हटाया जा सकता है। हैरत तो इस बात की है कि यदि कोई यह कहे कि बायाँ हाथ तो शरीर का अंग है किंतु दाहिना नहीं। यह कितनी हास्यास्पद बात है कि भारतीय संविधान का पार्ट थर्ड फंडामेंटल राइट है। संविधान की धारा 16(4)"क" संविधान के पार्ट थर्ड फंडामेंटल राइट का हिस्सा है। फिर कैसे कहा जा सकता है कि धारा 16(4)"क" फंडामेंटल राइट नहीं। शासक जातियों का यह निर्णय मात्र अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति ही नहीं बल्कि अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के भविष्य पर भी घातक हमला है।

शासक जातियों को इस बात का पता है कि सामाजिक और शैक्षणिक पिछड़ेपन के आधार पर अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति को उनकी जनसंख्या के अनुपात में प्रतिनिधित्व मात्र लोक सेवाओं में ही नहीं बल्कि पदोन्नति में भी प्रदान किया गया है। यदि यह प्रावधान जारी रहा तो आने वाले समय में उसी आधार पर अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के लोग अपनी जनसंख्या के अनुपात में लोक सेवा में ही नहीं, पदोन्नति में भी प्रतिनिधित्व की मांग करेंगे, ऐसी दशा में स्थिति विस्फोटक होगी। इन्हीं धारणाओं के साथ शासक जातियां अछूतों के प्रतिनिधित्व पर हमलाकर टेलर प्रस्तुत कर रही है। आरक्षण इमदाद नहीं, अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग का संवैधानिक अधिकार ही नहीं बल्कि लोकतंत्र की निगरानी और नियंत्रण का खोजी यंत्र है।

कौन कंगाल है? और कौन मालोमाल है? उनकी सामाजिक पहचान क्या है? वे कौन लोग हैं जो खैरात लेने वालों की लाइन में लगे हैं और वे कौन लोग हैं जो खैरात देने वालों की लाइन में है? खैरात लेने वाले लोगों को, खैरात लेने वालों की लाइन में खड़ा होने के लिए किसने मजबूर किया? क्या वे देश के नागरिक नहीं? यदि इस देश के नागरिक हैं तो उनकी सामाजिक पहचान भी होगी। यदि उनकी सामाजिक पहचान सुनिश्चित है तो फिर उनका संवैधानिक अधिकार भी सुनिश्चित होना चाहिए। अनुसूचित जाति एवं जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के सामाजिक पहचान जाति है। जिनका धर्म शास्त्रों ने शिक्षा का दरवाजा बंद किया, जिसके कारण वे सामाजिक और शैक्षणिक रूप से पिछड़े। आज शासक जातियों के शिक्षा के बाजारीकरण की व्यवस्था में अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग का शिक्षा क्षेत्र में कितनी है आरक्षण की व्यवस्था से ही पोल खुलती है।

सूचना का अधिकार अधिनियम 2005 के तहत मांगी गई सूचना के अनुसार राजस्थान विश्वविद्यालय में कुल 900 पद जिसमें 4 पद अनुसूचित जाति, जनजाति तथा 20 पद अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के हैं। कमोबेश देश के सभी शिक्षण संस्थानों में लगभग यही स्थिति है। अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के छात्र-छात्राएं उच्च शिक्षण संस्थानों में कितना प्रताड़ित किए जाते हैं इस पर से यदि पर्दा उठ गया तो शासक जातियों के षड्यंत्र का पता लग सकता है। आईआईटी रुड़की के एक वरिष्ठ प्रोफ़ेसर ने बताया कि अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग के बच्चे बच्चों की तुलना में उनसे कम मेधावी नहीं किंतु पहले साल से ही उनका भविष्य चौपट करने का सिलसिला प्रारंभ हो जाता है। सेशनल में उन्हें इतना पीछे धकेल दिया जाता है कि वे या तो बीच में ही संस्थान छोड़कर चले जाते हैं या आत्महत्या कर लेते हैं। 26 जनवरी 1950 से अब तक लोकसभा में अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग को जिन्हें 50% प्रतिनिधित्व संविधान देता है। अभी तक लगभग 20% ही प्राप्त हो सका है। जिसमें अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग की स्थिति सबसे दयनीय है। आरक्षण व्यवस्था जहाँ एक तरफ लोगों के प्रतिनिधित्व की निगरानी करती है वही नियंत्रण भी। सरकार का नैतिक दायित्व है कि वह आरक्षण नीति के तहत इस बात की जांच पड़ताल करें कि किसको उसका हिस्सा नहीं मिला है। किसका हिस्सा कौन खा रहा है?

देश के सभी नागरिकों को उनकी जनसंख्या के अनुपात में समाज जीवन के सभी क्षेत्रों में भागीदारी सुनिश्चित करने का मात्र एक ही उपाय है जन आंदोलन। जन आंदोलन से ही मूलनिवासी बहुजन समाज ( अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति तथा अन्य पिछड़ा वर्ग ) अपने अधिकार को हासिल कर सकता है अन्यथा संभव नहीं।

मूलनिवासी टाइम्स हिंदी पाक्षिक
दिनांक 1 से 15 दिसंबर, 2012
मूलनिवासी टाइम्स हिंदी पाक्षिक विचार-पत्र फुले-अंबेडकरी विचारधारा के प्रचार-प्रसार के लिए प्रयासरत है।
मूलनिवासी टाइम्स की वार्षिक सदस्यता ₹150 में उपलब्ध है।

संपर्क करें

केंद्रीय कार्यालय 527-A, कबीर बस्ती, अंबेडकर पार्क, मलका गंज, नई दिल्ली 110007 फोन 01123854369

नोट- प्रस्तुत लेख में दलित/आरक्षण शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है। साभार सामग्री में संशोधन की ज्यादा गुंजाइश नहीं रहती। इसलिए मुझे/हमें दलित/आरक्षण शब्द का समर्थक न समझा जाए बल्कि मैं/हम इसके स्थान पर उपयुक्त संवैधानिक शब्द अनुसूचित जाति जनजाति SC ST/प्रतिनिधित्व का प्रयोग करने के समर्थक हैं।

जातिवादी व्यवस्था के अनुसार शूद्र जाती गुर्जर में जन्मे मान्यवर बाबूराम पंवार जी जिला हरिद्वार के बामसेफ के पूर्व जिलाध्यक्ष रहे हैं एक मिशनरी कार्यकर्ता के रूप में। संप्रति उनका परिवार रुड़की में रह रहा है।

इस स्मृति दिवस पर बाबूराम पंवार जी को शत-शत नमन, इस अपील के साथ कि आओ उनके द्वारा जलाए गए समाज जागृति के चिराग को हम बुझने न दें।

मान्यवर बाबूराम पंवार जी ने समाज जागृति और लेखन कार्य के साथ साथ लगभग दो दर्जन पुस्तकों को टाइप भी किया है जो इस प्रकार है-

1.स्वतंत्रता संग्राम की प्रथम चिंगारी क्रांति नायक कुंजा नरेश राजा विजय सिंह
2.शोषित क्रांति नायक बहुजन लेनिन बाबू जगदेव प्रसाद जीवन और मिशन
4.समाज परिवर्तन अथवा फिर वही ढाक के तीन पात
5.क्रांति युगपुरुष रविदास जीवन और मिशन
6.क्रांती मिसाइल महाराज सिंह भारती जीवन और मिशन
8.राष्ट्रपिता ज्योतिराव फुले बनाम महर्षि दयानंद सरस्वती
10.शहीदे आजम भगत सिंह की शहादत की हिफाजत क्यों और कैसे?
11.मूलनिवासी बहुजन क्रांति के महान योद्धा दीना भाना
12.पिछड़ा वर्ग क्यों और कैसे गर्व से कहो हम हिंदू हैं?
13.राम रामायण का सच
14.मूलनिवासी बहुजन क्रांति के महानायक रामस्वरूप वर्मा
15.क्रांतिकारी कबीर
16.मूलनिवासी बहुजनों के हृदय सम्राट दीनबंधु चौधरी सर छोटूराम
17.सामाजिक समरसता आर्य ब्राह्मणों के प्राचीन गौरव का आगाज
18.डॉ आंबेडकर जीवन और मिशन
19.गीता राष्ट्रवाद का संकट
20.रामचरितमानस में नारी अपमान नस्लभेद का परिणाम

उपरोक्त समस्त साहित्य लागत मात्र मूल्य पर उपलब्ध है संपर्क करें

प्रकाशक-डी के खापर्डे मेमोरियल ट्रस्ट
15-डी/203, कल्पक स्टेट,
अंटॉप हिल, मुंबई-37
वितरक-बामसेफ भवन, म.नं. 527 (ए), नेहरु कुटिया, अम्बेडकर पार्क के नजदीक, कबीर बस्ती, मलकागंज, दिल्लीं – 7
दूरभाष 011-23854369
Bhau Panchbhai
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhau Panchabhai (1 March 1944 - 21Jan 2016) was a Marathi poet, writer, and Dalit activist. Panchbhai is best known for his first poetry collection Hunkaar Vadaalnche (हुंकार वादळांचे) for which he was awarded by the Government of Maharashtra for the best poetry collection of 1989. His poetry is considered as a prototype of Ambedkarite poetry and is translated in various languages including English. He lived in Nagpur and worked as a lawyer. He was awarded Laxmibai Ingole Kavya Puruskar by the Laxmibai Ingole Foundation Amravati in 2015 for his contribution to Ambedkarite literature.

Ambedkarite Activist

He was active in the Ambedkarite movement and Panthers of India.

(1) Hunkaar vaadalaanche ( हुंकार वादळांचे )1989.
(2) NikhaRyaa.nchyaa RaangoLyaa ( निखाऱ्यांच्या रांगोळ्या )2004.
(3) Abhanganchya Thingya ( अभंगांच्या ठिणग्या )2014.
(4) Spandanpisara ( स्पंदनपिसारा )2014.
(5) Aakantgandha ( आकांतगंधा ) 
Being Released Shortly...(B) LALIT LEKH
(1) Jakhamancha Ajintha ( जखमांचा अजिंठा )1992.(C) VAICHARIK LEKH(1) Samajkranti ( समाजक्रांती )1992.
Bandhu Madhav
माधव मोडकIn Marathi

माधव मोडक

माधव दादाजी मोडक
धर्म बौद्ध
पुरस्कार दलित मित्र पुरस्कार

माधव दादाजी मोडक ऊर्फ बंधु माधव (जन्म : नोव्हेंबर ३इ.स. १९२७; मृत्यू : ऑक्टोबर ७इ.स. १९९७) हे मराठी लेखक होते. दलितांवरील साहित्यरचनेसाठी ते परिचित आहेत.

बंधु माधव यांनी अनुसूचित समाजामध्ये जागृती निर्माण करण्यासाठी डॉ. बाबासाहेब आंबेडकरांनी काढलेल्या "जनता' व "प्रबुद्ध भारत' या साप्ताहिकांतून प्रबोधनपर लिखाण केले. कलापथकाच्या माध्यमातून आणि कथासंग्रह, कादंबऱ्या या माध्यमांतून त्यांनी प्रबोधनाचे प्रभावी कार्य केले.

जीवन व कार्य

शाळेत असतानाच बंधु माधव हस्तलिखितांतून कथालेखन करीत होते. तसे त्यांचे नियमित कथालेखन इ.स. १९४२ पासून सुरू झाले. त्यांनी म्हटले आहे, की "कथा वाचन ऐकत शिकलो. वयाने वाढत गेलो. वयात आलो. तारुण्याची गुलाबी स्वप्‍ने मला पडू लागली. त्या गुलाबी स्वप्नातील कथाच प्रथम प्रेमकथा म्हणून लिहू लागलो.'

बंधु माधव यांनी नोकरी सोडून पददलित समाजात जागृती घडवून आणण्यासाठी "कलापथक' स्थापन केले. सांगली, कोल्हापूर व सातारा या जिल्ह्यात ते "कलापथकाद्वारे' समाज जागृतीचे काम करत. प्रखर, अविरत आणि समाजहितोपयोगी लेखनासाठी मुंबईच्या महाराष्ट्र दलित साहित्य संघातर्फे त्यांचा इ.स. १९५६ मध्ये सत्कार करण्यात आला.

प्रकाशित साहित्य
आम्हीही माणसं आहोत
पेटलेले आकाश
शाहीर भाऊ फक्कड
अधिक वाचन
संजय पासवान. एन्सायक्लोपीडिया ऑफ दलित्स इन इंडिया (भारतातील दलितांविषयीचा ज्ञानकोश) (इंग्लिश मजकूर).
Bizay Sonkar Shastri
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri

National Spokesperson, BJP
In office
Former Chairman of the National Commission for SC/ST Tribes (Govt. Of India)
In office
Member of Parliament
In office
Constituency Saidpur (SC)
Personal details
Born 24th September 1959
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Nationality Indian
Political party BJP
Spouse(s) Dr. Suman Sonkar Shastri
Children Vishesh Sonkar Shastri (Son) Vikalp Sonkar Shastri (Son)
Parents Shri Shivlal Sonkar "Neta Ji" (Father) Smt. Munni Devi (Mother)
Profession Politician, Writer

Dr Bizay Sonkar Shastri (born 24 September 1959) is a Indian politicianjournalist, a film director, and a social worker from Varanasi. He began his political career on 19 January 1998 after his visit to Germany. For his determination and hard work, he became a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. His first political campaign took place on 22 January 1998. He delivered his first ever election speech in the presence of Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

Political career

Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri started his political career on 19 January 1998 after coming back from Germany. Seeing his hard work and determination towards Indian Politics, he got a place in Bharatiya Janata Party as a working member. It was possibly the result of his determination and hard work that the party gave him an opportunity to fight an election. He started his political campaign on 22 January 1998. He gave his first election speech in the presence of Shri Atal Bihari VajpayeeJi.

He filed a nomination on 24 January 1998 from Saidpur (Lok Sabha constituency) seat to fight his first ever election. The voting was held on 16 February 1998, and the results came on 2 March 1998. He won his first ever election and got elected as a member of Legislative Assembly.

After this, on 22 March, he was chosen as the Chairman of ST/SC Commission (Government of India). In 2004, he was appointed as the Vice-chairman of National SC/ST front(BJP). He was elected as the National Executive Member of Bharatiya Janata Party in 2008 for his work strategy and diligence.

He has devoted his entire life to serve the nation and the public. He has always thought about the interest of the nation and public welfare. This is why he has always been a part of the works related to public welfare and social upliftment.

Social work

Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri has been contributing towards the upliftment of Indian culture from a very young age. He founded an organization named Mahavidya Yogpeeth where Veda and Purana, the important parts of Indian culture were taught. Apart from this, he contributed remarkably towards the upliftment of yoga, agam-nigam, Ayurveda, and Indian classical music.

From time to time, he has contributed tremendously in Indian cultural organizations like Sanskar BhartiVishwa Hindu ParishadAkhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi ParishadSwadeshi Jagaran Manch and Pradesh Gau Raksha Samvardhan Samiti. He made an important contribution towards encouraging the Indian games under which he kept the foundation of Indian Traditional Games Organization - Akhil Bhartiya Niyuddh Sports Association.

Before his political career, he had been struggling for the oppressed and the underprivileged. In 1980, apart from teaching in Banaras Hindu University, he had helped the underprivileged students by providing them financial aid by making arrangements such as clothes, books, and bicycle for them. Moreover, he worked to resolve issues of students of the oppressed class related to their education and hostel. Also, he worked on raising awareness regarding the student rights.

Since 1990, as a part of Vishwa Hindu Parishad, he took significant steps towards raising awareness about cleanliness and popularizing the importance of education amongst the masses. Apart from this, cow protection, their importance, and kind behavior towards them have been an integral part of his ideology that he had popularized among the masses.

Looking at the way he has executed his roles and responsibilities as a member of Legislative Assembly, the then Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee praised him in the preamble of a book. He raised many questions in the Parliament. 'Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri' has worked as the last chairman of National SC/ST (Government Of India). The commission was separated, and a new tribal ministry was formed on his recommendations.

In 2002, a proposal prepared by Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri was given written approval by the Ministry of Information Technology, Reserve Bank of India and Life Insurance Corporation. The proposal included a Multi-Functional Entitlement Card which forms the basis for today's “Aadhaar Card” and various other insurance schemes running on minimum premiums.

Literary Works

Apart from his strong inclination towards social work and politics, he has written a lot many books on social issues as a way to carry forward his interest in literary works.

His significant literary works include 'Dalit Hindu Ki Agni Pareeksha', 'Manavadhikar- Ek Bhartiya Drishti', 'Samajik Samrasta Darshan', 'Hindu Vaichariki Ek Anumodan', 'Hindu Khatik Jaati', 'Hindu Baalmiki Jaati', 'Hindu Charmakaar Jaati Tatha Kanoon Ka Adhikar', and 'Sant Shiromani Guru Raidas' among others. Moreover, he operates a magazine named “'Dalit Andolan'”. He takes it as an opportunity to raise issues of the oppressed sect of the society from time to time.

Early life

Shastri ji spent his early years of life in VaranasiUttar Pradesh, where he completed his primary education from Central Hindu Boys School and intermediate education from National Inter College. After this, he completed his Masters from the famous Banaras Hindu University and then completed his degrees in MBA, Ph.D., and scriptures. Being a prudent student, his interest grew in writing. He also wrote many books.

He also contributed as the Secretary of the Department of Literature in Sanskar Bharti Organization in his initial days. After this, he efficiently headed various responsibilities which were assigned to him in Vishwa Hindu Parishad.

He had written on the topic of social harmony after extensive research which was promoted by 'VHP' and 'Sangh'. He also served as the Chairman at a national level in Social Cohesion Dimension for many years later on.

Apart from this, he served as a representative of the university, a journalist and a sub-editor in Vande Mataram Magazine.

Personal life

Born to a freedom fighter 'Shri Shivlal Sonkar' (Netaji) and 'Smt. Munni Devi' on 24 September 1959 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 'Dr. Bizay Sonkar' has four brothers and four sisters. His wife Dr. Suman Sonkar Shastri is a social worker and serves as the main trustee of “Grihalaxmi” trust. He has two sons. His elder brother 'Shri Rajnath Sonkar' is a Member of Parliament.
Balswaroop Raahi
From Wikipedia

Balswaroop Raahi
Born 16 May 1936

Timarpur New Delhi
Occupation Poetlyricist

Balswaroop Raahi is a Hindi poet and lyricist of India. He was born in Village Timarpur New Delhi on 4 May 1936. He is best known for his Geet and Ghazal. He has written many songs for Bollywood. He is a resident of Model TownNew Delhi. He worked as Head of the Hindi department at Delhi University.


Mera roop tumhara darpan
Jo nitant meri hai
Raag viraag (Hindi opera based on Chitralekha)
Suraj ka rath
Raahi ko samjhaye kaun
Dadi amma mujhe batao
Hum sab aage niklenge
Gaal bane gubbare
Anand Balwant Patil

Anand Balwant Patil (born 1945) is a Marathi and English creative writer, postcolonial, comparatist, culturalist translator –scholar from Maharashtra –Goa, India. Starting with his debut rural novellas and research on the ‘Western Influences on Marathi Drama 1818-1947’ Patil set new trends in rural fiction. His Icchamarn is the compendious epic novel on a village. It is regarded as a masterpiece of gramin (rural) fiction. He is the recipient of four Government of Maharashtra Awards for extraordinary literary works and also other thirteen literary awards. He is the founder of Aranyanand Shikshan, Sahitya va Sanskriti Pratisthan and Anand Granthsagar Prkashan.


Patil was born on 3 July 1945 in a remote village in the range of Sahyadri Mountain in Maharashtra. He joined the ‘Earn and Learn’ scheme of Karmveer Bhaurao Patil and received Merit scholarship for M.A. in Entire English from shivaji university Kolhapur, Maharashtra. The UGC Teachership and British council visitorship enabled him to submit the meritorious Ph.D. dissertation which was published both in English and Marathi.


Dr. Patil has contributed immensely in field of education and literature. His contributions are shortly elaborated here.


Patil taught English language and Literature in various colleges of Rayat Shikshan Sansthafor 24 years and later comparative Literature and creative writing in Department of English, Goa University and school of Languages and Literature in Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded. After retirement he was the visiting Professor of Delhi University, Patan and Nagpur University.

Literary career

Patil’s first short story ‘Khep' published in the most prestigious periodical ‘Satyakatha’(1971) and novella Kagud in 'Mouji' (1984) earned him the nickname ‘Kagudwala’ Patil given by stalwart fivtionist Shankar Patil. Anand Patil become a name to be conjured with in rural fiction. His autobiographical element and mastery of rural language was so powerful that he was described as a rising sun of Marathi rural writing.

Once after he joined the Goa University as a Reader in English he has reached to the new heights. He reached where Maharashtrian writers have reached seldom including publishing articles in Ariel, comparative and culture studies, Oxford and Cambridge Companions in the Western countries. Patil ventured where no Marathi Marathi writer had ever treaded . He was turned down by those so called scholars who had never published a single book in Maharashtra.This cultural tuen made him the leading comparatist and culturalist in India who went abroad for seven times on the academic tours. His book on 'Comparative Literature :Theory and practice' translated in to Hindi is a text book all over India. Whatever genre he tried he made his work. For example, his ‘Patalachi Londanvari’ translated in to Kannada and Hindi is considered the first true travel writing of the marginal Indian, and ‘In search of my Kolhapur’ the first travel of a District, ‘Granthani Rachlela Mahapurush’ a first literary biography and so on. As a creative writer he is Ngugi wa Thiong'o of Marathi and as a culturalist –comparatist he is Raymond Williams of India.



Kagud ani Shavali. Murusai :Mouji,1986
Icchamaran. Aurangabad:Saket, 2008
Short story collection
Phugaaya. Aurangabad:Sket 1994
Dawan. Aurangabad: Sahityaseva. 1998
Suparna vrakshyakhali Bhav dupari. Aurangabad: Rajat 2006
Phera. Pune: Pshpa 2006
KhandaniPune: Snehwardhan 2011
Shodh Eka chalwalya Mitracha. Kolhapur. Ajab210
Travel Writing
Patalachi Londonwari, Mumbai: Lok wangmay (1993) trams in knnada by Sathkad and Hindi by Shailesh Pandey
Paradeshi Saha Parikrama. Pune: Suvidhya 2003.
In search of my Kolhapur through Travellers eyes: Amsela Associated Publishers
Literary Biography
Granthani Rachalels Mahapurush: Yashvantrao Chavan. Kolhapur: Anand Granthsagar, 2018.
Maharashtrala Mahit Naslele Samrat Shivaji. Kolhapur: Anand Granthsagar,2018
Sangeet Automatic Asud. Kolhapur : Anand Granthsager
P.S. Deshmukh. The Origin and Devleopment of Religion in vedic literature. London Oxford Univ-Press 1933, train in to Marathi Dhrmacha Vaidek Wangmayatil udhay ani vikas: Kolhapur Anand Granthsagar 2005
Basavraj Naikar, Light in the House. Trans in to Marathi Urus, Pune: Datta Prakashan 2005
Marathi Comparative and Cultural Studies
Marathi Natakawaril Ingraji Prabhav. Mumbai : Lokwangmay 1993
Taulanik Sahitya : Nave Siddhhant ani upyojan. Aurangabad :Saket 1998. Translated in to Hindi by Chandrlekha
British Bombay ani Portuguese Govyateel Wangmay. Mumbai: Granthali1999
Tulav: Tanlanik Nibandh. Mumbai:ranthali,2002
Sahitya Kahi Deshi Kahi Videsh. Pune: Patmaandha 2004
Tharava. Nagpur Akanksha 2005
Teekavamarsh. Aurngabad : Rajat 2010
Samiksha Up Haran. Aurangabad Rajat 2010
Sahitya vimarsh Maranam . Pune Diamond 2011
Samagra Shakespeare: Taulanik Sanskrti Samiksha. Kolhapur : Anand Granthsager 2017
Samagra S. S. Mardhekar: Taulanik Sanskrati Mimam -nsa,Pune: Padmagandha, 2018
Local and Global, Kolhapur Anand Granthsager 2019
Kahi Lobel kahi Globel Anand Granthsagar 2019
English Comparative Literature and Cultural Studies
Western Influence on Marathi Drama. Panaji Rajhanus. 1993
Whirligig of Taste: Essays in Comparative Literature Delhi: Creative Books 1999
Perspectives and Progression. Delhi Creative Books 2005
ddhas Shelke: Makers of Indian Literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Academy 2002
Revisioning Comparative Literature and Culture Delhi: Authors Press 2011
Literary Comparative Literative and Cultural Criticism. Foreworeded by Steehen Tostory de Zeptne. Ambala : Associated Press 2011
Interdisciplinary : Literary and Cultural. Kolhapur: Anand Granthsagar 2019
Literary Awards and Appreciation Received by Patil
H.N. Apte Award for Kagud ani Savali: Government of Maharashtra H.N. Apte Award ,M.S. Parishad, Pune H.N .Apte Award. Best novel of the Decade Selection by Maharashtra Times (1986)
Pune Nagar Wachanalay S.J. Joshi Awards, for Icchamaran. Balapur Library Kondaji Patil Purskar (2008)
SKK Purskar. Taulanik Sahitya: Nave Siddhant ani Uptojan. Government of Maharashtra SKK Purskar.
M.V. Gokhale Award. Marathi Natkawaril Ingraji prbhav, Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad Pune M.V. Gokhale Award (1998)
S.M. Paranjpe Award. British Bombay ani Portuguese Govyatil Wangmay .Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad Pune S.M. Paranjpe Award
Tulav: Tulanik Nibandh, Jansahitya parishad Amravati Award and Vidharbh Sahitya Sangh ugawani awards (1999)
Srajanatamak Lekhan, Government of Maharashtra Kusumavati Deshpande Award 2005
Teekvastraharan . Govt of Maharashtra SKK Awards and Dakshin Maharashtra Sahitya sabha R. Shahu Award 2008
Sahitya Vimarsh Maranam. Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad, H. S. Shenolikar Award 2011
Granthani Rachlela Mahapurush: Yashwantrao Chavan, Vidhrbh Itihas Sanshodhak Mandal, Nagpur, Freedom fighter Balaji Huddar Award. South Maharashtra Sahitya Sabha Kolhapur Annabhau Sathe Award, Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad Pune Phaltan branch Yashvantrao Chavan Sahitya Gaurav Purskar. Jaysingpur ,Kavita Sagar Prkashan Rashitriya Award (2017)
Critical Books Published on Patil’s Writings
Patlachi Londonwari: Kahi Drashtikshep ed: Shailesh Tribhuvan (2003)
Patlachia Phad: Samagra Samikshed . ed. Shrikrishna Asud (2011)

Anand Parva: Tulanik Sahityaani ani Sanskriti Samiksha, Ed Srikrishan Adsul (2014)
Baburao Bagul
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Baburao Bagul

Born Baburao Ramaji Bagul
17 July 1930
Vihitgaon, Nashik district, Maharashtra
Died 26 March 2008 (aged 77)
Nashik, Maharashtra
Occupation Writer and poet
Notable works Jevha Mi Jat Chorali Hoti! (When I had Concealed My Caste) (1963)
Maran Swasta Hot Ahe (Death is Getting Cheaper) (1969)
Ambedkar Bharat (Ambedkar India) (1981)

Baburao Ramji Bagul (1930–2008) was a Marathi writer from Maharashtra, India; a pioneer of modern literature in Marathi and an important figure in the Indian short story during the late 20th century, when it experienced a radical departure from the past, with the advent of Dalit writers such as him.

He is most known for his works such as, Jevha Mi Jaat Chorli Hoti! (1963), Maran Swasta Hot Ahe (1969), Sahitya Ajache Kranti Vigyan, Sud (1970), and Ambedkar Bharat (1981).


Baburao Ramaji Bagul was born in Nashik on 17 July 1930. After high school education, he did various manual jobs until 1968. While doing so, he published several stories in magazines, which started getting attention from Marathi readers. Eventually in 1963, came his first collection of stories, Jevha Mi Jat Chorali (When I had Concealed My Caste), it created a stir in Marathi literature with its passionate depiction of a crude society and thus brought in new momentum to Modern Marathi literature in Marathi; today it is seen by many critics as the epic of the downtrodden, and was later made into a film by actor-director Vinay Apte.

He followed it up with a collection of poems, Akar (Shape) (1967), which gave immediate visibility, but it was his second collection of short stories Maran Swasta Hot Ahe (Death is Getting Cheaper) (1969), which cemented his position as an important enlightened voice of his generation. The collection is now considered an important landmark in Dalit writing in India and in 1970 he was awarded the 'Harinarayan Apte Award' by the Government of Maharashtra.

Bagul was an Ambedkarite Buddhist. After 1968, he became a full-time writer of literature which continued to deal with the lives of marginalized downtrodden people in Maharashtra. His fictional writing gave graphic accounts of the lives of that class of people. The thoughts of B. R. AmbedkarJyotiba Phule, and Karl Marx had an influence on Bagul's mind. He soon became an important radical thinker of the Dalit movement, and published a major ideologue of the Panther, Manifesto of Panther, in 1972. In the same year he presided over the 'Modern Literary Conference' held at Mahad. Over the years his stories taught future Dalit writers to give creative rendition to their autobiographical narratives.

He died on 26 March 2008 at Nashik, and was survived by his wife, two sons, two daughters.

Subsequently, the Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University instituted the Baburao Bagul Gaurav Puraskar Award in recognition of his contributions to Marathi literature, to be given annually to the debut work of a budding short-story writer.


"Jevha Mi Jaat Chorali Hoti!" (जेव्हा मी जात चोरली होती!) (1963)
"Maran Swasta Hot Ahe" (मरण स्वस्त होत आहे) (1969)
"Sud" (सूड) (1970)
"Dalit Sahitya Ajache Kranti Vignyan (दलित साहित्य आजचे क्रांतिविज्ञान)
"Ambedkar Bharat" (आंबेडकर भारत) (1981)
Aghori (अघोरी) (1983)
Pashan (पाषाण) (1972)
Apurva (अपूर्वा)
Kondi (कोंडी) (2002)
Pawsha (पावशा) (1971)
Bhumihin (भूमिहीन)
Mooknayak (मूकनायक)
Sardar (सरदार)
Vedaadhi Tu Hotas (वेदाआधी तू होता) [poetry collection]
Dalit Dahitya : Aajche Krantividyan (दलित साहित्य: आजचे क्रांतिविज्ञान)


Death is Getting Cheaper – Another India: an anthology of contemporary Indian fiction and poetry, editors, Nissim Ezekiel, Meenakshi Mukherjee. Penguin Books, 1990. Page 103.
Mother – Indian short stories, 1900–2000, by E.V. Ramakrishnan, I. V Ramakrishnan. Sahitya Akademi, 2005. Page 217.
When I Hid My Caste - Stories, translated by Jerry Pinto, Speaking Tiger, 2018

Further reading

Homeless in my land: translations from modern Marathi Dalit short stories, Editor Arjuna Dangale. Disha Books, 1992. ISBN 0-86311-286-2. pp 217.
You who have Made the Mistake Poisoned bread: translations from modern Marathi Dalit literature, Editor Arjuna Dangale, Orient Blackswan, 1992. ISBN 0863112544. Page 70.
Bansilal Verma
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bansilal Verma
Born 23 November 1917

Chotiya, MehasanaGujarat
Died 8 August 2003 (aged 85)
Occupation cartoonist, illustrator
Years active 1935–2003
Awards Ravishankar Raval Award

Bansilal Verma, better known by his pen name Chakor, was a cartoonist and illustrator from Gujarat, India.


Bansilal Verma was born on 23 November 1917 at Chotiya village near Taranga (now in Mehsana district, Gujarat) to Jamnagauri & Gulabrai. His family belonged to Vadnagar from where he matriculated. He was inspired by Raja Ravi Verma and used to draw paintings of gods & goddesses. During his teen years, he moved to Ahmedabad from Vadnagar and joined artist Ravishankar Raval to learn the art in 1935. In 1936, he served as an artist for three months in Lucknow session of Indian National Congress. He also met Nandalal Bose. In 1937, he joined Navsaurashtra, edited by Kakalbhai Kothari, as a cartoonist. He also contributed in Indian Independence Movement by drawing posters, banners and cartoons. He also drew cartoons for Prajabandhu weekly; Gati and Rekha magazines edited by Jayanti Dalal.

In 1948, he went to Bombay and joined Hindustan daily. After death of Sardar Patel, Hindustan stopped. He worked with Janmabhoomi from 1955 to 1959. In 1959, he joined English daily The Free Press Journal and his cartoon as also published in their Gujarati daily Janshakti. His cartoons on politics and politician were influential. Due to political pressure, he left job in 1972. In 1978, he came to Ahmedabad and joined Sandesh where he worked for years. He had illustrated several books and magazines.

He died on 8 August 2003.


He drew under pen names Chakor, Bansi and Kishor Vakil.His illustration of Indian lady welcoming with folded hand is very popular.

His books of cartoons and caricatures are also published. His large number of cartoons are published in newspapers and magazines. He had also painted domes of some Jain temples, 25 paintings, large number of illustrations and covers for books. Vamanmathi Virat is his notable collection of cartoons on Lal Bahadur Shastri. He also illustrated two colouring books published by Khadi and Gramodyog. He has published children's comic books; Hanuman, Shiv-Parvati, Karna, Vikram Ane Vetal and Veer Balko. Some of his paintings are stored in Mysore Art Gallery. His humour articles are collected in Vinod Vatika. He has written essays such as Bharatma Angreji Amal and Shantimay Kranti.


He won a prize at Third International Salon of Cartoons in Montreal, Canada for a cartoon titled If Dragon Comes To UN, published in The Free Press Journal. He had also received Sanskar Award, Surat Lions Shield, Kamalashankar Pandya Award and Vadnagar Nagrik Sanman. He received Ravishankar Raval Award instituted by Government of Gujarat.

 A square near Vasna-Pirana bridge in Ahmedabad is named after him.

भीमकवी वामनदादा कर्डक
By दलित दस्तक न्यूज़

भारत में शुरुआत से ही सिंधु संस्कृती समतावादी, मानवतादी रही है. बाद में चार हजार साल पूर्व में आर्यों ने भारत पर आक्रमण कर के वर्णभेद, जातीभेद निर्माण किया. उसके खिलाफ में तथागत बुध्द, गुरू कबीर, गुरू नानक, गुरू नामदेव, गुरू तुकाराम, गुरू गाडगेबाबा इन्होने आंदोलन किया. बाद में महात्मा फुले, छ.शाहू महाराज, डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकर इन्होने जन-आंदोलन किया. डॉ.बाबासाहब के आंदोलन में अनेक कवी तथा गायकों ने योगदान दिया है. इनमें से वामनदादा कर्डक जी ने बाबासाहब के आंदोलन को गीत-गायन द्वारा पूरे भारत भर फैलाया.

जनम:- वामनदादा कर्डक का जनम 15 अगस्त 1922 मे नासिक जिले के सिन्नर तहसील में देषवंडी गांव में हुआ. उनके पिताजी का नाम तबाजी, माता का नाम सईबाई, बडे भाई का नाम सदाषिव तथा बहन का नाम सावित्री था. उनके घर खेती थी. खेतीबाडी लायक पालतु जानवर थे. लेकिन कभी कभी उनकी मॉं लकडीयों के बंडल बेचती थी. उनके पिताजी बैलों का व्यापार करते थे. वामनदादा की शादी अनुसया से हुयी. उनको मीरा नाम की लडकी भी हुई. लेकीन माँ और बेटी जल्दी ही गुजर गयी. बाद मे वामनदादा ने शांताबाई से दुसरी शादी की. बाद में वामनदादा उनकी माताजी के साथ मुंबई में मजदुरी करने के लिए आये. उन्होने मील श्रमिक का काम किया. बाद में कोयले की भंडारण में काम किया. बाद में उन्हे टाटा कंपनी में नोकरी मिल गयी. शिवडी के बीडीडी के किराया घर में रहते थे. उस समय समता सैनिक दल मजबुत था. वे उसमें शामिल हो गये. एक बार उन्हे एक आदमी ने खत पढने को कहा, लेकीन उन्हे पढना-लिखना नही आता था इसका उन्हे बहुत दुःख हुआ. उन्होने देहलवी नाम के अध्यापक से पढना-लिखना शुरू कर दिया. बाद में उनका पढना लिखना बढ गया.

शुरूआत में दादा सिनेमा में जाकर कलाकार बनना चाहते थे. उन्हे मिनर्व्हा फिल्म कंपनी में एक्स्ट्रा कलाकार का काम मिल गया. वे उस समय कारदार तथा रणजित स्टुडियों मे जाते थे. 1943 में उन्होने सर्वप्रथम डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकर जी को देखा. उनके भाषण का दादा पर बहुत असर हुआ. दादा ने हिंदी-मराठी साहित्य पढा था. उस समय महाराष्ट्र में 1927 मे डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकरजी ने महाड़ के चवदार तालाब के पानी के लिए सत्याग्रह शुरू कर दिया तथा 1930 में नासिक के कालाराम मंदिर प्रवेष का सत्याग्रह किया. इससे जनता में जोशो-उल्लास का निर्माण हुआ. हजारो लोग बाबा साहब जी के आंदोलन में शामिल हुए.

गायन पार्टी की स्थापना:- शुरूआती दौर में महाराष्ट्र मे पेषवाओं के जमाने में जलसे चलते थे. लेकीन बाद में महात्मा ज्योतिबा फुले के सत्यशोधक आंदोलन के लोगों ने सामाजिक परिवर्तन के जलसे चलाए. बाद में सभी गायक और कलाकार बाबासाहब के आंदोलन मे सामाजिक परिवर्तन के जंग मे शामिल हो गये. शुरूआती दौर में मुंबई में शाहीर घेंगडे बाबासाहब पर शाहीरी गीत गाते थे. उनका एक गीत मराठी में था. उसका मतलब था के, ‘‘महार का एक बच्चा बहोत होशियार, लंडन से आया बॅरिस्टर बनकर’’ यह गीत बाबासाहब को बहुत पसंद था. उस समय भीमराव कर्डक तथा केरूबा गायकवाड (अकोला) जैसे शाहीर थे. वामनदादा ने गायन पार्टी की स्थापना की थी.

उस समय डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकरजी ने 1927 मे समता सैनिक दल स्थापन किया था तथा 1936 में स्वतंत्र मजदूर पार्टी की स्थापना की. बाद में 1942 मे नागपूर में शेड्यूल कास्ट फेडरेशन की स्थापना की. उस समय 1933-35 में नागपूर कामठी के विधायक बाबू हरदास इन्होने सर्वप्रथम जयभिम का नारा दिया. 1943 मे बहुचर्चित फिल्म किस्मत में गाना था ‘‘दुर हटो ए दुनिया वालों हिंदुस्तान हमारा है.’’ दादाने उस समय गीत लिखा था, ‘‘दुर हटो ये कॉंग्रेस वालो फेडरेशन हमारा है’’ यह गीत उन दिनो बाबासाहब के आंदोलन में बहोत प्रसिध्द हुआ. दादा की कोई संतान नही थी. दादा कहते थे मुझे बाबासाहब से प्रेरणा मिली. ओर वह कहते थे मुझ जैसे गुंगे को जुबान मिली. बाद में दादा पुरे भारत में बाबासाहब के आंदोलन में गित लिखते रहे और गाते रहे. उन्होने कहा था भीम तेरे जन्म से हमारे करोड़ो परिवारों का उध्दार हुआ.

1952 के लोकसभा के चुनाव में डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकरजी मुंबई से चुनाव में उम्मीद्वार थे. उस समय हजारों कवी गायक तथा कार्यकर्ताओं ने बाबासाहब का आंदोलन उत्साह के साथ चलाया. उस समय गायक कृष्ण शिंदे ये मराठा समाज से थे. वे प्रजा समाजवादी पार्टी के कार्यकर्ता थे. वे बाबासाहब के चुनाव में बाबासाहब के साथ थे. उन पर बाबासाहब का गहरा असर पडा. उन्होने बहोत सारे गीत गाये थे. 1956 में उन्होंने नागपूर में धम्म दिक्षा ली थी. बाद में प्रल्हादजी शिंदे, नागोराव पाटणकर, लक्ष्मण केदार, मिलिंद शिंदे, सरतापे, प्रतापसिंग बोदडे, हरेंद्र जाधव, लक्ष्मण राजगुरू, सुधिर फडके, श्रावण यषवंते, गोविंद मशालकर, नामदेव ढसाल, विठ्ठल उमप, जयवंत कुळकर्णी, पुश्पा वाघधरे, सुरेष वाडकर, अनिरूध्द वनकर, राहुल आन्वीकर, उत्तरा केळकर, अनिल खोब्रागडे, प्रकाश पाटणकर, आनंद शिंदे, मिलिंद शिंदे, सागर समदुर, गवई-मिसाळ, प्रभाकर धाकडे, आनंद षिंदे, डि.आर.इंगळे, इन जैसे कवी-गायक-संगितकारोंने बाबासाहब के आंदोलन पर बहोत गीत तयार किये ओर गाये इनसे लोगोंमे बहोत जागृती हुयी.

उस समय डॉ.बाबासाहब आंबेडकरजी नें अंग्रेज सरकार को बताकर बहोत सारे युवकों को पढाने के लिए इंग्लंड-अमेरिका भेज दिया. लेकिन उनमे से कोई भी सामाजिक आंदोलन के लिए काम में नही आया. इसलिए 1956 की आगरा की सभा में कहा था की, ‘मुझे पढे-लिखे लोगों ने धोका दिया है.’ लेकिन उस समय दादासाहब गायकवाड तथा वामनदादा कर्डक जैसे कम पढे लिखे नेताओं ने आंदोलन को आगे बढाया. उस समय बॅ.खोब्रागडेजी को बाबासाहब ने उनके पिताजी को कहकर उनके खुद के खर्चे से लंडन भेजने को कहा. बाद में बॅ.खोब्रागडेजी ने आंदोलन आगे चलाया. उस समय बाबासाहब का आंदोलन पूरे भारत में ताकत से चल रहा था. पार्टी बहोत मजबुत थी. प्रा.एन शिवराज, प्रा.बी.पी.मौर्य, जोगेन्द्रनाथ मंडल, एल.आर.बाली, अॅड.बी.सी.कांबळे, अॅड.आवळे बाबू, भैय्यासाहेब आंबेडकर, प्रा.आर.डी.भंडारे, शांताबाई दाणी, रा.सु.गवई, दादासाहब रूपवते और ना.ह.कुंभारे ये आंदोलन में शामिल थे. बाद में आंदोलन मे गुटबाजी हुयी.

बाद में भैय्यासाहब आंबेडकर तथा कांशिराम साहब ने एकता के लिए बहोत प्रयास किये. बाद में 1972 में दलित पैंथर की स्थापना हुयी.वामनदादा एक गीत में कहते है की, हम तुफानों मे के दिए है. वामन दादाजी ने निस्वार्थ सामाजिक आंदोलन चलाया. दादा एक गीत मे कहते है, ‘बताउ कितना में दादा, तुम सब यहाँ पर एकता से रहो. उन्होने सामाजिक विषमता के खिलाफ बहोत सारे गीत लिखे ओर गाये. 1956 में जब बाबासाहब आंबेडकरजी ने नागपूर में लाखो लोगों के साथ बौध्द धम्म अपनाया.

उस समय वामनदादाने गीत लिखा था, ‘वामन इस धरतीपर ऐसा हुआ ही नही, ओर पाँच लाख लोग बुध्द को शरण गये नही’. वामनदादा कहते है आजादी का मतलब हमे समझने दो, ओर दो वक्त का खाना हमे मिलने दो. दादा आगे गीत मे कहते है, मैदान मे आकर बेभान होकर दंगा मत करो, और इंसान के बेटे होकर इंसान के दुश्मन मत बनो. आगे वह गीत में कहते है महिलाओं के मुक्ती के लिए आये महात्मा फुले ओर लडकियों की पढाई हो गयी खुली. आगे पढाई के बारे मे दादा एक गीत में कहते है, तुम्हे पढाई की इच्छा हो, ओर तुम इधर-मत भटको ऐसा बच्चों को कहते हे. दादा दुसरे गीत में कहते है ‘मुझे गुस्सा नही आता यही मेरा गुनाह है’. दादा एक गीत मे ऐसा कहते है की, ‘भीम अगर तूम्हारे विचारों के पाँच लोग रहते तो उनके तलवार की धार अलग ही रहती’. वामनदादा छ.शिवाजी महाराज के बारे मे कहते है की, ‘शिवजी के राज में नही थी कुछ कमी, ओर खुशी से रहते थे हिन्दु और मुसलमान’ ऐसे महान भीमकवी का 15 मई 2004 को निधन हुआ. वामनदादा ने कोई भी संपत्ती जमा नही की. ऐसा उनका त्याग था. उनके त्याग और कार्य को अभिवादन.

सुरेश घोरपडे

पूर्व न्यायाधीश 

C. S. Chellappa

An Entity of Type: species, from Named Graph: http://dbpedia.org, within Data Space: dbpedia.org

Cinnamanur Subramaniam Chellappa (Tamil: சி. சு. செல்லப்பா) (29 September 1912 – 18 December 1998) was a Tamil writer, journalist and Indian independence movement activist. He belonged to the "Manikodi" literary movement along with Pudhumaipithan, Ku Pa Ra, Va. Ramasamy, N. Pichamoorthi and A. N. Sivaraman. He also founded Ezhuthu, a literary magazine His novel Suthanthira Thagam won the Sahitya Akademi Award for 2001.

PropertyValuedbo:abstract Cinnamanur Subramaniam Chellappa (Tamil: சி. சு. செல்லப்பா) (29 September 1912 – 18 December 1998) was a Tamil writer, journalist and Indian independence movement activist. He belonged to the "Manikodi" literary movement along with Pudhumaipithan, Ku Pa Ra, Va. Ramasamy, N. Pichamoorthi and A. N. Sivaraman. He also founded Ezhuthu, a literary magazine His novel Suthanthira Thagam won the Sahitya Akademi Award for 2001. (en)

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dbo:birthName Chinnamanur Subramaniam Chellappa (en)
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dbo:deathDate 1998-12-18 (xsd:date)
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dbp:birthName Chinnamanur Subramaniam Chellappa (en)
dbp:deathDate 1998-12-18 (xsd:date)
dbp:name C. S. Chellappa (en)
dbp:nationality Indian (en)
dbp:occupation Writer, journalist (en)
rdfs:comment Cinnamanur Subramaniam Chellappa (Tamil: சி. சு. செல்லப்பா) (29 September 1912 – 18 December 1998) was a Tamil writer, journalist and Indian independence movement activist. He belonged to the "Manikodi" literary movement along with Pudhumaipithan, Ku Pa Ra, Va. Ramasamy, N. Pichamoorthi and A. N. Sivaraman. He also founded Ezhuthu, a literary magazine His novel Suthanthira Thagam won the Sahitya Akademi Award for 2001. (en)
rdfs:label C. S. Chellappa (en)

Cynthia Stephen

Dalit Activist And Writer

Cynthia Stephen is a Dalit activist, writer, social policy researcher, and an independent journalist. She works in the areas of Dalit studies, affirmative action and educational policy. She has written many articles and contributed chapters for books on issues of Dalit women, Brahmanical patriarchy, caste discrimination, and many more. She is the president of the Training, Editorial and Development Services Trust (TEDS) and lives in Bangalore, India.

Alice Abraham: Can you tell us about your experience growing up as a Dalit Christian?

Cynthia Stephen: That’s an interesting question. The thing is I didn’t grow up as a Dalit. It is an interesting trajectory. My Dalit consciousness was lacking or absent because we were brought up in a family that never told us about our Dalit ancestry. My parents were well placed. My mother was a teacher at one of the best schools and my father, though he died at a young age, was an engineer. So, we grew up privileged. It was in my forties I understood it myself.

Earlier I used to think of Dalit as something outside of me, which has nothing to do with me. However, since I grew up in a rural area among the poor, and also because my mother was a well-grounded person who grew up in poverty, she brought us up very strictly with hardworking and ethical values. Though we had privilege, we were taught to be independent.


Then in my forties, a series of events happened which made me reflect. Once, I was an ideal candidate for a job and was very confident about getting that job, a young Brahmin woman with no experience was hired. Then I started exploring the question.

When I had submitted my biodata one woman in the office had told me, “We don’t talk about Dalits in our organisation”. I didn’t realise why she mentioned that at that point. It took me years to unravel my Dalit identity. Even though not all my grandparents were Dalits, we were treated as one by the establishment. At that point I didn’t realise why this was happening. After I learned about it, my life took a turn. Then I began to interact on Dalit Christian issues. After I moved to Bangalore, I began working with the CSI church and different Christian organisations of liberal thought.

AA: What were the major influences in your life? Any people or books that influenced you to work for your community?

CS: Of course, the greatest influence is Babasaheb Ambedkar. Also, Jyotirao Phule and Savitribai Phule. When I was studying in sixth standard, my mother had bought me a book which was the biography of Pandita Ramabai and she has always been an inspiration for me for working towards women’s empowerment.

AA: What do you think are the problems of mainstream feminism in India right now? Do you think #Metoo movement was inclusive of everyone?

CS: The thing is, those who already had a voice come forward prominently and is listened to by everyone. #MeToo was a powerful movement in my opinion. But like every other issue, voices being heard were only of the dominant caste and class. At the bottom of it were women from marginalised sections, whether it is Tarana Burke in the United States or Raya Sarkar (who is from a Dalit background) in the Indian context. And those women who triggered important developments in the movement were Dalits.

Even in a larger context in India, the law reforms related to women were framed because of the fight by women from marginalised communities. The Adivasi girl Mathura who fought for justice against her custodial rape and the furore caused to rewrite rape laws to be more women friendly. This was an important paradigmatic shift.

Another important person is, Bhanwari Devi, a Dalit woman activist who worked with state government service. She had complained about a child marriage but was gang raped for doing her job. Even an adverse judgement came saying she wasn’t raped because she was an untouchable. Her fight for justice resulted in the framing of Visakha guidelines and the Prevention of Sexual Harrassment of Women at Workplace Act. Dalit women’s lives and experiences have thus been crucial in the struggle for gender justice but that is not acknowledged and is ignored. In the #MeToo movement, this has happened again.

AA: So do you think a separate Dalit feminist movement is required? And what you think of the term ‘Dalit feminism’?

CS: The answer is obvious. Are Dalit feminists in the mainstream feminist movement? Have they been accepted and given space? I don’t think so. This is seen from the beginning. Women from marginalised sections who have been in various movements have always been pushed to the rank and file. The leadership and agenda setting are done by the dominant group. People like myself, Ruth Manorama, Fatima Bernard and others got in and started questioning and raised issues related to Dalit women which were not discussed by the dominant caste women led feminist groups. Then a consciousness about our problems being different from mainstream movement began to grow.


In the mainstream feminism the beginning and end of discussions were patriarchy and violence. But our analysis was much more nuanced and vibrant. Our solution seeking is also much more grounded. That doesn’t mean that I am critical of the mainstream feminist movement for whatever they have already done and achieved in areas of employment, property rights, and many more. But what about women who don’t own property? Thus, Dalit women need a different language.

Black women who have faced racism in the White feminist movement proposed the term ‘womanism’. Latina women also have a term ‘Mujerism’, where ‘mujer’ means woman. Earlier I proposed a term, ‘Dalit womanism’ then I realised it was not inclusive enough. So, I am proposing something called the ‘marginalised Indian womanism’. This tries to encapsulate the experiences and perception of women from different marginalised sections in India.

AA: So my next question is about the recent Twitter row over the use of the term ‘Brahminical patriarchy’? Most of the outrage came from the well-educated section. Why do you think people are still unaccepting of the relationship between caste and patriarchy? What’s your take on that?

CS: I am very thrilled that this issue happened. Because after the initial outrage, everyone started explaining and exploring this. Works of Ambedkar, Phule, Savitribai Phule, Sharmila Rege and others began to be widely discussed. Even one of my old articles from ten years back on the matter is being discussed in a news channel. The point is Brahminical patriarchy have been discussed for many years. Uma Chakravarty had pioneered the discussion on the term, but it was mostly in the academic groups.

I think the Twitter issue was an excellent development as it began conversations in the public domain and a debate was started. Many students, activists and the general public have begun to understand that Brahminical patriarchy is not just about caste but is an ideology. There was a cultivated silence around it and finally the silence has been broken.

AA: What is your opinion on reservation for Dalit Christians?

CS: That is a right has been denied to us by a wrongly passed ordinance which was one of the first things that Brahminical establishment did to the Constitution just eight months after the Constitution was formulated. Even though it should have been redressed, the legal challenge is still pending. During the UPA term, there was a lot of push for it from the Christian community. In spite of all that, the government kept delaying a positive response and a huge opportunity to correct a historical wrong against Dalit Christians was lost. The government can’t punish people for exercising their freedom of religion particularly the marginalised section and those converting to minority religions. But our fight will continue.

AA: What are your future goals for your community?

CS: My life goal has always been the empowerment of women especially from the marginalised communities. Economic as well as political empowerment is what I am aiming for these women. I am trying to build institutions which will empower women economically by promoting entrepreneurship and also to build them at a personal level. Though my projects are mostly in and around Karnataka I have always worked all over the country because of my language skills. I can speak five languages. I also plan to do more writing in the professional field as well as creative field. I have written several poems and I hope to write more poems as well as fiction.

I am also doing translation from regional languages to English. I am taking works from English into bhasha languages. Currently I am doing three projects in Kannada and one in Telugu, one in Hindi and one in Tamil and one in Marathi. My aim is to translate the works of the anti-caste movement, so I hope more people can read them.

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Chamarasa (c. 1425) was an eminent 15th century Virashaiva poet in the Kannada language, during the reign of Vijayanagar Empire, a powerful empire in Southern India during 14th - 16th centuries. A contemporary and competitor to a noted Brahmin Kannada poet Kumara Vyasa, Chamarasa was patronised by King Deva Raya II. The work is in 25 chapters (gatis) comprising 1111 six-line verses (shatpadi).

Magnum Opus

His magnum opus, "Prabhulinga Leele", written in 1430 AD, described Allama Prabhu as an early apostle of Veerashaivism and an incarnation of the god Shiva. Chamarasa and other noted Kannada writers such as Lakkanna Dandesa and Jakkanarya flourished under the patronage of King Deva Raya II. Chamarasa was a champion of the Veerashaiva faith and was a rival of Kumara Vyasa in the king's court. His Prabhulinga Lile, written in the native Bhamini Shatpadi metrical composition form (six line verse or hexa-metre) was a eulogy of 12th-century saint Allama Prabhu. So popular was the writing with the King that he had it translated into Telugu and Tamil languages, and later into the Sanskrit and Marathi languages as well. In the story, the saint is considered an incarnation of the Hindu god Ganapathi while Parvati took the form of a princess of Banavasi. While Kumara Vyasa's epic is war-torn (Kumara Vyasa Bharata, his version of the Hindu epic Mahabharata), Chamarasa writing was full of Yoga and vairagya (renunciation). The book includes details of the journey undertaken by Allama Prabhu en route to Basavakalyana, his interaction with notable Veerashaiva mystics including Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Gorakhnatha, Muktayakka and Siddharama. Interesting details include how Allama avoided the temptation of Mayadevi who tried to seduce him, and how Animisha became his guru. While these personalities are all real, it is possible they also represent human qualities narrated in a "parallel allegorical story". Competition between the two powerful faiths, Veerashaivism and Vaishnavism was intense during this period. This is evident by a remark made by the poet in the writing. Chamarasa claims that his story is "not about ordinary dead mortals", implying that the Vaishnava epics (the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) were about mere mortals.
C. V. Raman Pillai
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
aman Pillai

Born Channankara Velayudhan Raman Pillai
19 May 1858
Arayoor, Travancore
Died 21 March 1922 (aged 63)
Trivandrum, Travancore
Occupation Novelist, playwright, journalist, social activist
Nationality Indian
Period 1880s −1920s
Genre Fiction, theatre
Subject Literary, socio-cultural
Notable works


Channankara Velayudhan Pillai Raman Pillai (19 May 1858 – 21 March 1922), also known as C. V., was one of the major Indian novelists and playwrights and a pioneering playwright and novelist of Malayalam literature. He was known for his historical novels such as Marthandavarma, Dharmaraja and Ramaraja Bahadur; the last mentioned considered by many as one of the greatest novels written in Malayalam.


CV as a young man

Born in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum), capital city of the erstwhile native State of Travancore, on 19 May 1858 to Neelakanta Pillai, a Sanskrit scholar and Parvathy Pillai, a scion of an ancient matriarchal family; both his parents were from middle-class families and employees at the Palace of the Maharaja of Travancore. Pillai got his family name, Channankara, through matrilineal succession. Fondly called Ramu, he had a traditional Sanskritized education, early in life, under his father's tutelage which included lessons in Ayurveda and even magic and Tantra. He continued education at the first English school in Thiruvananthapuram. Subsequently, he graduated from His Highness Maharaja's College (the present-day University College Thiruvananthapuram), the first-ever College in Travancore, where he reportedly had a brilliant academic career under John Ross, the principal of the institution and Robert Harvey. and obtained his BA degree from the Madras University in 1881, securing the 7th rank in the Madras Presidency. t was during this period, he started his first periodical named The Kerala Patriot.

After graduation, Pillai studied law but dropped out and went to Madras to study for the government pleader examination which was also abandoned in due course. Later, he joined the High Court as a clerk and where he rose to the position of a shirasthadar. Later, joined the Government Press and held the position of a superintendent when he retired from service. In between, he founded three publications, Malayali in 1886, Vanchiraj in 1901 and Mitabhashi in 1920.

Pillai's first marriage did not last long. He married again in 1887 at the age of 30, and his wife, Bhageerathi Amma, was only 16 at the time of the wedding. The marriage lasted till his wife's untimely death in 1904 and his third marriage was to Janaki Amma, the elder sister of Bhageerathi Amma and the widow of C. Raja Raja Varma, the younger brother of Raja Ravi Varma. He died on 21 March 1922, at the age of 63, survived by Janaki Amma.

Writing career

CV as Edgar in King Lear

Raman Pillai is compared by many with Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in Bengali and Hari Narayan Apte in Marathi, two other greats of India literature. His first published book was Chandramukhivilasam, a satire. He wrote his first novel, Marthandavarma, in 1885 but it was published in 1891. This followed sch historical novels as Dharmaraja and Ramarajabahadur, the social novel, Premamritam as well as several farces. Modern Malayalam drama traces its origins to his works. He is credited with the first original play in Malayalam, Chandramukheevilasam, written in 1884 and was staged for four days successively in 1887 at His Highness Maharaja's College, Trivandrum.

Exegetic dictionary

C. V. Vyaakhyaana Kosham is a 400-plus page lexicographic work in four volumes, based on Pillai's books. The work includes the explanations, elucidations and interpretations of over 700,000 Malayalam, Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindustani and English words used by him in his writings.

Social Novels

Marthandavarma (1891)
Dharmaraja (1913)
Premamritam (1915)
Ramaraja Bahadur (1918)
Dishtadamshtram (1922) (unfinished)
Premarishtam (1922) (unfinished)


Chandramukheevilāsam (1884) (not published)
Mattavilāsam (1885) (not published)
Kurupillakalari (1909)
Tentanāmkōţţu Harischandran (1914)
Kaimalassanţe Kadassikkai (1915)
Docţarku Kiţţiya Micham (1916)
Cherutēn Columbus (1917)
Pandathē Pāchan (1918)
Pãpi Chelluņadam Pāthālam (1919)
Kuruppinţe Thirippu (1920)
Butler Pappan (1922)

Other works

Videsiyamedhavitvam (1922) (a collection of editorials)
As editor in newspapers

The Kerala Patriot (1882)
Malayali (1886)
Vanchiraj (1901)
Mitabhashi (1920)


Marthandavarma (1936, 1979)
Dharmaraja (2009)
Ramaraja Bahadur (2003)


The India Post issued a commemorative postage stamp on Pillai on 19 May 2010.A road in Vazhuthacaud, Thiruvananthapuram has been neamed after him as C. V. Raman Pillai Road. Chenkal, a panchayat in Thiruvananthapuram which includes his native village of Arayoor, was renamed as C.V.R. Puram in 1970.
Dr C S Chandrika
A principal scientist at M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chandrika is also a leading feminist activist and writer. She was awarded the Fellowship of Kerala Sahitya Academy in 1997, the Muthukulam Parvathy Amma Award in 2010, and the Toppil Ravi Foundation literary award in 2012. Her most notable works are “Pira”, “K. Saraswathiyamma”, “Kleptomania”, “Bhoomiyude Pathaka”, and “Ladies Compartment”.



CS Chandrika has published both academic and fictional works. She was one of the editors of The Oxford India Anthology of Malayalam Dalit Writing, which was collection of Malayalam Dalit writing of 20th century. She won the Thoppil Ravi Award for her story collection Kleptomania in 2012. Her interview along with her story was published in Malayalathinte Kathakarikal, which listed her among ten prominent Malayali women writers. Her other Malayalam books include


Bhoomiyude Pathaka
Ladies Compartment

She had published a monograph on K Saraswathi Amma, who was an early 20th century Malayalam feminist writer.
Dharamvir Bharati
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born 25 December 1926
Died 4 September 1997 (aged 70)
Occupation Writer (essayist, novelist, poet)
Nationality Indian
Education M.A. Hindi, PhD
Notable works Gunahon Ka Devta (1949, novel)
Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda (1952, novel)
Andha Yug (1953, play)
Notable awards 1972: Padmashree
1984: Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Award
1988: Best Playwright Maharana Mewar Foundation Award
Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman
Bharat Bharati Samman
1994: Maharashtra Gaurav
Kaudiya Nyas
Vyasa Samman
Spouse Kanta Bharti (married 1954) (first wife), Pushpa Bharti (second. wife)
Children daughter Parmita (first wife); son Kinshuk Bharati and a daughter Pragya Bharati (second wife)

Dharamvir Bharati (25 December 1926 – 4 September 1997) was a renowned Hindi poet, author, playwright and a social thinker of India. He was the chief editor of the popular Hindi weekly magazine Dharmayug, from 1960 till 1987.

Bharati was awarded the Padma Shree for literature in 1972 by the Government of India. His novel Gunaho Ka Devta became a classic. Bharati's Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda is considered a unique experiment in story-telling and was made into a National Film Award-winning movie by the same name in 1992 by Shyam BenegalAndha Yug, a play set immediately after the Mahabharata war, is a classic that is frequently performed in public by drama groups

He was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Playwriting (Hindi) in 1988, given by Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama.

Early life

Dharamvir Bharati was born on 25 December 1926 in a Kayastha Family of Allahabad to Chiranji Lal and Chanda devi. The family underwent considerable financial hardships after his father died early. He had a sister, Dr. Veerbala.

He did his MA in Hindi from Allahabad University in 1946 and won the "Chintamani Ghosh Award" for securing highest marks in Hindi.

Dharamvir Bharati was the sub-editor for magazines Abhyudaya and Sangam during this period. He completed his PhD in 1954 under Dr. Dhirendra Verma on the topic of "Siddha Sahitya" and was appointed lecturer in Hindi at Allahabad University. The 1950s were the most creative period in Bharati's life: He wrote many novels, dramas, poems, essays, and critical works during this phase.

Journalism (Mumbai)

In 1960 he was appointed as chief-editor of the popular Hindi weekly magazine Dharmayug by the Times Group and moved to Bombay. He remained the editor of Dharmayug till 1987. During this long phase the magazine became the most popular Hindi weekly of the country and reached new heights in Hindi journalism. As a field reporter, Bharati personally covered the Indo-Pak war that resulted in the liberation of Bangladesh.

Personal life

Dr Bharati married in 1954 and later divorced Kanta Bharati with whom he had a daughter: Parmita. A few years later he remarried and had a son Kinshuk Bharati and a daughter Pragya Bharati with Pushpa Bharati.

Bharati developed heart ailments and died after a brief illness in 1997.
Prominent works

Gunaho Ka Devta (गुनाहों का देवता) (1949)
Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda (सूरज का सातवां घोड़ा, 1952) (The Seventh Steed of the Sun) — A short novel published in 1952 that may be viewed as a set of connected mini-narratives can be called one of the foremost instances of metafiction in 20th century Hindi literature. The protagonist is a young man named Manik Mulla who recounts these tales to his friends. The name of the work is an allusion to Hindu mythology according to which the chariot of the Sun-God Surya is said to be drawn by seven horses. (viz. seven days in a week). This novella has been translated into Bengali by poet Malay Roy Choudhury of Hungry generation fame, for which he was bestowed with the Sahitya Academy Award. Shyam Benegal's film by the same name (1992), based on the novel, won the National Film Award for Best Actor.
Giyara sapno ka desh (ग्यारह सपनों का देश)
Prarambh va Samapan (प्रारंभ व समापन)


Kanupriya, Thanda Loha, Saat Geet Varsh, Sapana Abhi Bhi and Toota Pahiya are amongst his most popular works of poetry. Toota Pahiya tells a story of how a broken wheel helped Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war.

Play in poetry

Andha Yug (The Age of Blindness) is a poetic play. Structured on events in the MahabharataAndha Yug focuses on the last day of the Mahabharata war. It is a powerful metaphorical work. It has been directed by Ebrahim AlkaziRaj Bisaria, M.K. Raina, Ratan ThiyamArvind GaurRam Gopal BajajMohan MaharishiBhanu Bharti [Pravin kumar gunjan ]and many other Indian theatre directors.
Story collections

Drow Ka gaon (र्दों का गाव), Swarg aur Prathvhi (स्वर्ग और पृथ्वी), Chand aur Tute hue Log (चाँद और टूटे हुए लोग), Band gali Ka Aakhkri Makaan (बंद गली का आखिरी मकान), Saas ki Kalam se (सास की कलम से), Samasta Kahaniya ek Saath (समस्त कहानियाँ एक साथ)


Thele par Himalayas (ठेले पर हिमालय), Pashyanti stories: Ankahi (पश्यंती कहानियाँ :अनकही), The river was thirsty (नदी प्यासी थी), Neel Lake (नील झील), Human values and literature (मानव मूल्य और साहित्य), Cold iron (ठंडा लोहा)
Film about Bharati

Dr. Bharati: documentary directed by young story writer Uday Prakash for Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1999

Padma Shri by the Government of India, 1972
Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman
Bharat Bharati Samman
Maharashtra Gaurav, 1994
Kaudiya Nyas
Vyasa Samman
1984, Valley turmeric best journalism awards
1988, best playwright Maharana Mewar Foundation Award
1989, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, Delhi
Andha Yug: Dharamvir Bharati, translated in English by Alok Bhalla, published by Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567213-8ISBN 0-19-567213-5
Dinesh Kumar
This journalist from Muzaffarnagar is on a mission to educate and spread awareness on 'real issues' via his handwritten newspaper

That's the kind of reporting we all need in our country.
Nisha SinghIndia Today Web DeskNew DelhiApril 10, 2018UPDATED: May 18, 2018
UP journalist who pens down real life issues in his handwritten newspaper

With all the technological advances happening around us, there is no doubt that mankind has reached the digital age. Technology in the form of smartphones, iPads, laptops and numerous other things have taken over the traditional way of gaining an information.

These days we have almost forgotten what use to be one of the main sources of our daily information - Newspapers. But there are still a few out there who are continuing the traditional form of news dissemination and they are doing a good job.

A journalist from UP is writing newspaper with his own hands

But at this time, what if you got to know that a man uses his sketch pen to actually write stories with his own hands?
Dinesh Kumar, a journalist from UP who writes handwritten newspaper

Yes! A 51-year-old journalist, Dinesh Kumar, who hails from Gandhi Colony, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, spends more than three hours daily handwriting a newspaper called Vidya Darshan and then distributes it in the villages on a bicycle.
Here's the newspaper, written by Dinesh Kumar in his own handwriting
Reports crimes issues in his newspaper

Dinesh only focuses on the critical affairs and shares his detailed opinion on them in his newspaper

The journalist believes in reporting crime issues to ministers so that they are taken care of, by the government
Handwritten newspaper pasted on a water tank in Uttar Pradesh
In our conversation with Dinesh Kumar, he gave the following inputs about his newspaper.

Here's what he shared:

How do you spend your entire day, apart from writing this newspaper?

Apart from writing, I sell toffees, chocolates or ice-cream, etc. around the city. Whatever money I get from selling these, I use it for buying papers and pen to write this newspaper.

How do you think the kind of reporting you do, differs from what we see on TV or in the mainstream media?

I want to focus on such issues that are not catered by others. Today, in the news, we see horrific crimes taking place and the way they are reported makes near to no impact. What I do is voice out my opinion on the subject and advise measures that can be taken to tackle such issues.

Dinesh also sends copies of his newspaper to ministers.
One of the incidents I recall is when I advised the minister to install CCTV cameras in schools and public transports in Uttar Pradesh so that we can decline the crime rate of the state.

I feel that the power of the pen is such that it can change the system and improve the condition of the country.

When did you realize the power of a handwritten newspaper?
In 2008, an incident of a Blade Man, a mysterious man who used to roam around, attacking children in the town with blades, created a sense of fear amongst the natives of Shamli of Muzaffarnagar district. At that time, I alerted the public about it by writing on a sheet of paper and then pasting it around the city. It did actually alert the public and as a result of which, local authorities took steps to deal with this serious problem. That was the time I realized what power my pen has.

We also spoke to Master Vijay Singh, an anti-corruption activist fighting against the land mafias in Muzzafarnagar, Uttar Pradesh.

He is well connected to the 51-year-old journalist as he sits and writes outside the DM's office with the activist. Here's what he said:

"Dinesh is a passionate man. He always keeps a sketch pen with him to write the stories in the newspaper. He focuses on the real-life issues that are not attended by others."

"He roams in the city to distribute toffees, ice-creams, and chocolates to the children in the afternoon and comes back after that to write stories for the newspaper."

Both are working together for the betterment of the country. We need more of such human beings who can take out the root cause of the issues and deliver the same ground issues to the caretakers of the country.

Without any help or a fixed job, this man is doing good deeds for the society.
The only handwritten newspaper in Urdu

Musalman, the only Urdu handwritten newspaper
Earlier in November 2017, we found that the state of Chennai also has its handwritten newspaper which is largely in black and white and is written in the Urdu language
The Musalman publishes Urdu poetry and messages on devotion to God and communal harmony daily
At this age where the most of the reporting is based on what Taimur has eaten today and what Salman Khan is having for lunch in the jail, Dinesh's story deserves an applaud for talking about the real issues.
 The Man Who Is Selling Handwritten Newspapers Since 17 Years
On Aug 13, 2018
Pic Credit- Daily Hunt

By- Md. Mojahid Raza

Bhubaneswar: Media is the most powerful entity in today’s world. It controls the minds of the masses, acts as a watchdog of the society and plays a vital role in social change.In today’s time where media is all about commercialisation of news and information, there still lives a man for whom journalism is not about TRPs and viewership rather a weapon to bring a change by informing and educating the general public.

The 53-year-old Dinesh hails from Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. His contribution in the realm of media is unique and has set an unprecedented benchmark. Dinesh has been single-handedly running a newspaper called ‘Vijay Darshan’ since the last 17 years, which he painstakingly writes in his own handwriting.After writing a copy, Dinesh makes multiple photocopies of it, which are later supplied to the readers. He uses his bicycle to travel around the city and distribute newspaper to his customers.
Pic Credit- DailyHunt
However, this isn’t Dinesh’s only occupation. The earnings from newspaper are not sufficient to keep his kitchen stove burning. Hence, Dinesh sells ice-creams and chocolates to make ends meet. He had dreamt of pursuing law but had to drop out of school owing to financial constraints. Later, family responsibility and need for money forced him to do odd jobs for survival. At present, Dinesh single-handedly writes and circulates his newspaper. He works all by his own with no financial or material help from outside.
Pic Credit- DailyHunt
Dinesh’s newspaper ‘Vijay Darshan’ contains no advertisement or pictures and has never stopped a single issue in the last 17 years. The newspaper beautifully highlights the various issues faced by people in the society, besides offering suggestions for their solution. Dinesh’s lucid handwriting along with his magical grasp over words makes reading Vijay Darshan a joyful experience.

The story of Dinesh is a perfect example of the fact that good people always bring out the best in the society. They make us realize that those who work not for money but for their passion of spreading positively, truth and happiness all around are always appreciated.

Meet Dinesh, 51 YO Journalist Who Runs His Own Handwritten Newspaper Since 17 Years
An inspiring journalist's story will make your day.

How is a newspaper published?

Well, apparently, it requires a computer to type the texts, staff to interpret it and a machine to print it. Right? But what if I tell you that there's a journalist in Gandhi Colony, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, who 'writes' newspaper every day with just a few blank sheets, handing marker, sketch and a lot of confidence. Yes, a lot of confidence.

Meet Dinesh, a 51-year-old man who spends more than three hours each day writing a newspaper with his handwriting and then distributes it in the villages. He also sends some copies of his paper to PM and CM office.

Now, when I say 'newspaper', it isn't alike to what we read every day. In his journal, Dinesh only focuses on the critical affairs and shares his detailed opinion on them. Imagine a complete newspaper decorated in beautiful handwriting, giving solutions to common but critical social issues of the country.

Impressive, isn't it? So come, let's know the story of this unique journalist who without any support is spreading awareness by his handmade newspaper.

Dinesh also sells ice cream and candies for his living.

News18 reporter Bikram Singh recently shared about Dinesh's story with us. Along with selling ice cream and candies on the streets, he fulfils his fascination for writing a newspaper. And what amazed me the most is, Dinesh never accepted monetary help from people who wanted to uplift his financial status.

Dinesh says, "I want to live on my own, monetary help may make me selfish."

Dinesh's newspaper is called Vidya Darshan.

Once Dinesh's handwritten papers get completed, he prepares few black and white copies of it. Then he delivers all those copies in different villages on his bicycle. Sharing his daily routine, Dinesh added that he is so busy in his schedule and indulged in his work that weeks pass and he doesn't even get time to also wash his clothes.

For the sake of writing, Dinesh never got married.

It was Dinesh's love for his handwritten Vidya Darshan that never let him get married and have kids. His passion for writing newspaper never benefitted him on a monetary basis, but he has no regrets of choosing it over his good future.
He doesn't have a huge audience, but he says, even if one man is satisfied with his newspaper, he feels accomplished.

Like every journalist, Dinesh writes to bring a positive change with his words. Though he doesn't have the modern technology, he believes that his mission of educating and spreading awareness is accomplished if even one of his readers is happy and satisfied with his handwritten media.Selfless Dinesh is working hard every day without any support or fixed employment.

It has been 17 years since Dinesh is writing and selling his newspaper. While talking to Bindass India, Dinesh revealed that he receives many offers, but he rejects them all. He believes that though he doesn't have a thousand copies, he has the faith of spending 3-4 hours and creating the best of what he has. And that is what he has been doing till now.

Here's a video by Bindass India. Watch till the end.

Dinesh's hard work and determination towards his work is commendable. More power to your pen, Dinesh.

When our CEO, Vinay Singhal, met Dinesh...
I hope you liked the story.

If you have any inspiring story like this to share, write to me at guneet@wittyfeed.com.
(Images source )

हाथ से काग़ज़ पर लिखकर 17 साल से अख़बार निकालते हैं दिनेश
April 6, 2018
आस मुहम्मद कैफ़, TwoCircles.net

मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर : जहां एक तरफ़ मीडिया का ‘राजनीतिकरण’ के साथ-साथ ‘बाज़ारीकरण’ हो चुका है, वहीं एक शख़्स ऐसा भी है, जो रोज़ अपने हाथों से लिख कर अख़बार निकालता है. और वो ये काम पिछले 17 साल से लगातार कर रहा है. इस महान शख़्स का नाम है —दिनेश

53 साल के दिनेश कुमार मौजूदा दौर की ज़िन्दगी में एक विचित्र प्राणी हैं. सच्चा, ईमानदार और ग़रीब, मगर उस पर इंसानियत और देश के लिए कुछ करने का बोझ है. और इस बोझ को वो 17 साल से लगातार उतारने की जद्दोजहद में लगे हैं. इसके लिए वो काग़ज़ पर अपने हाथ से लिखकर अख़बार निकालते हैं.

पहले वो एक काग़ज़ की सीट पर ख़बरें और अपने विचार लिखते हैं. फिर उसकी फोटो कॉपी कराकर इसे सार्वजनिक स्थलों पर दीवार पर चिपका देते हैं. दिनेश ऐसा प्रतिदिन करते हैं. इन 17 सालों में शायद ही कोई ऐसा दिन रहा हो, जब दिनेश ने अपना अख़बार न निकाला हो. इस तरह से इतने लंबे समय तक चलने वाला शायद यह भारत का पहला हस्तलिखित अख़बार है.

दिनेश दूसरे अख़बारों से अपनी मतलब की ख़बर तलाशते हैं और उसे स्केच पैन से सफ़ेद काग़ज़ पर लिखते हैं. इन ख़बरों के अलावा वो अपने विचार भी लिखना नहीं भूलते.

दिनेश मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर के सुभाषनगर मोहल्ले में रहते हैं. समाज को अपनी क़लम से सन्देश देने वाले इस दिनेश ने शादी नहीं की है. उनका मानना है कि शायद शादी का बंधन उन्हें यह सब करने से विचलित करता.
TwoCircles.net से बातचीत में वो कहते हैं कि, अपने स्कूल के दिनों से अख़बार निकालने में रुचि थी, मगर बात करने पर सब इसे ‘पैसे वालों’ का काम बताते थे. मुझे लगता था कि मेरे मन में जो विचार पैदा हो रहे हैं वो सबको जानने चाहिए.

वो आगे बताते हैं कि, चूंकि अख़बारों में ज़्यादातर ख़बरें झूठी आती थी, इसलिए सच्ची बात कहने की भी लगन थी. मैं रोज़ अख़बार पढ़ता हूं. उसके बाद उस में से अच्छी ख़बर तलाशकर उसे खुद लिखता हूं. संपादकीय मैं खुद लिखता हूं. जैसे आज मैंने लिखा है —‘लवफोबिया से बचे लड़कियां…’

दिनेश बताते हैं कि, मैंने कई लोगों से बात की कि अख़बार निकालने में मेरी मदद करें, मगर बात नहीं बनी. क्योंकि यह लोग ग़लत धंधे को फलने-फूलने के लिए अख़बार का सपोर्ट चाहते थे और यह मैं नहीं कर सकता था.

वो कहते हैं कि, मैं अपने उसूलों पर चलने वाला आदमी हूं. हां! इससे बहुत कम लोगों तक मेरी आवाज़ पहुंचती है, मगर मेरी क़लम गुलाम नहीं है.

मुज़फ़्फ़रनगर की कचहरी में दिनेश से मुलाक़ात 12 बजे के बाद हो सकती है. यहां हर शख्स उसे पहचानता है. क्योंकि इससे पहले का समय दिनेश स्कूली बच्चों को देते हैं, वहां वो टॉफी बेचते हैं.

बताते हैं, अपने मतलब की ख़बरें छापते अख़बारों में निष्पक्षता नहीं है. अब हर ख़बर किसी न किसी विचारधारा से प्रभावित होती है. मेरे अंदर भी सामाजिक ज़िम्मेदारी की भावना ज़ोर मारती है. इसलिए काग़ज़ में हाथ से लिखकर अपना ‘विद्यादर्शन’ निकालता हूं.

दिनेश के हस्तलिखित अख़बार का नाम विद्यादर्शन है. वो हमें बताते हैं कि, ऐसा वो 17 साल से हर दिन करते हैं. दूसरे अख़बारों की तरह उनकी भी छुट्टी होती है. वो कहते हैं —“खुद लिखता हूं, खुद बांटता हूं.”

कचहरी में पिछले 22 साल से धरने पर बैठे मास्टर विजय सिंह दिनेश के बारे में हमें बताते हैं कि, दिनेश बहुत ही खुद्दार शख़्स हैं. ये बच्चों को टॉफी बेचकर अपना गुज़ारा करता है. पहले स्कूल में टॉफी बेचता है, फिर आकर अपना अख़बार लिखता है. उसकी फ़ोटो कॉपी कराता है. दुर्भाग्यपूर्ण बात है कि समाज या राजनेता ऐसी विचाधाराओं के साथ खड़े नहीं होते.

बता दें कि दिनेश के अख़बार में कोई विज्ञापन नहीं होता है. और न ही इस अख़बार को कोई सरकारी सहायता हासिल है. और न ही 17 साल से निकलने वाले इस हस्तलिखित अख़बार की कोई सूचना स्थानीय सूचना कायार्लय को है. मुज़फ़्फ़नगर के सूचना अधिकारी हमसे बताते हैं कि, विधादर्शन नाम का कोई अख़बार हमारे यहां पंजीकृत नहीं है.

मास्टर विजय सिंह बताते हैं कि, बाक़ी पत्रकारों की तरह दिनेश का किसी नेता और अफ़सरों से कोई परिचय नहीं है. शायद उसे इसकी ज़रूरत ही नहीं है.

वो आगे कहते हैं कि, मैं पिछले 17 साल से उसे देख रहा हूं. उसकी ख़बरें साम्प्रदयिक और एक पक्षीय नहीं होती, बल्कि भाईचारा और समाज को सन्देश देने वाली होती हैं. उसका संपादन अच्छा है. अफ़सोस यह है कि वो एक ग़रीब पत्रकार है और उसके पास किसी तरह का कोई संसाधन नहीं है, मगर उसका हौसला बेमिसाल है.

समाजसेवी आसिफ़ राही का कहना है कि, दिनेश की निष्ठा और मेहनत देखने लायक़ है. उनका दृष्टिकोण राष्ट्र के प्रति सकारात्मक है. अच्छा है. एक पत्रकार को सरकार के प्रति नहीं, बल्कि जनता के प्रति जवाबदेह होना चाहिए. इसमें दिनेश खरे उतरते हैं.

वो आगे बताते हैं कि, ऐसे समय पर जब तमाम मीडिया आलोचनाओं में घिरी हैं, दिनेश ने एक मिसाल कायम की है.
Dushyant Kumar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dushyant Kumar
Kumar on a 2009 stamp of India
Born 1 September 1933
Rajpur Navada, United Provinces, British India
Died 30 December 1975
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Occupation Poet, dramatist, Litterateur, Gazal, translator
Nationality Indian
Alma mater MA (Hindi), Allahabad
Genre Hindi poems
Notable works Saaye mein Dhoop,
Ek Kanth Vishpayi
Mann Ke Kon, published in 1963

Dushyant Kumar (1 September 1933 – 30 December 1975) was a poet of modern Hindi literature. He is famous for writing Hindi Ghazals, and is generally recognised as one of the foremost Hindi poets of the 20th century.

Personal life

Dushyant Kumar was married to Rajeshwari Tyagi.
Death and legacy

Parts of Dushyant Kumar's poem ""Ho Gayi hai Peer Parvat Si"(हो गई है पीर पर्वत-सी)" were used in the popular 2017 India film Irada. The film showcases the sorry state of the people of Bhatinda (Punjab) due to corruption, and cancer caused by pesticides left from the Green revolution and uranium contamination of ground water due to fly ash from thermal power plants.

The poem "Ho Gayi hai Peer Parvat Si"(हो गई है पीर पर्वत-सी) was sung often by Arvind Kejriwal during the Anti Corruption Movement (2011–2012) in India.

Lines Dushyant Kumar from his Ghazal 'Saye Me Dhoop' are often used in many programmes, and the Hindi film "Halla Bol" मेरे सीने में नहीं तो तेरे सीने मे सही, हो कहीं भी आग, लेकिन आग जलनी चाहिए. Star Plus used the lines "Sirf hungaama khada karna mera maqsad nahin, saari koshish hai, ki yeh soorat badalni chahiye" in promos for its show Satyameva Jayate.

The Indian Department of posts issued a commemorative stamp with Dushyant Kumar's image on it, in September 2009.

A museum dedicated to Dushyant Kumar exists in C. T. T. Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
The poem "Tu kisi rail si guzarti hai" line was taken from his poem and used as a song in the movie Masaan.

ABP News and the Hindi poet Kumar Vishwas made an episode on Dushyant Kumar in their program Mahakavi which was aired on 12 and 13 November 2016.

The house of Dushyant Kumar was broken by the administration of Smart City Project. This was criticised by several leading people.

Explaining the inclusion of Kumar's poems in the 2015 Hindi film Masaan, the lyricist Varun Grover explained that he wanted to show Shaalu (played by Shweta Tripathi) as a person whose hobby is to read Hindi poetry and shaayari, as this is a common hobby of millennial and generation x youngsters in Northern India, especially when in love, but this aspect is rarely shown in Hindi films.

Notable works
कहाँ तो तय था एक कण्ठ विषपायी और मसीहा मर गया साये में धूप मन के कोण छोटे-छोटे सवाल
कैसे मंजर आँगन में एक वृक्ष
खंडहर बचे हुए हैं दुहरी जिंदगी
जो शहतीर है
ज़िंदगानी का कोई मकसद
आज सड़कों पर लिखे हैं
मत कहो, आकाश में
धूप के पाँव
गुच्छे भर अमलतास
सूर्य का स्वागत
आवाजों के घेरे
जलते हुए वन का वसन्त
आज सड़कों पर
आग जलती रहे
एक आशीर्वाद
आग जलनी चाहिए
मापदण्ड बदलो
कहीं पे धूप की चादर
बाढ़ की संभावनाएँ
इस नदी की धार में koi awaaz honi chahiye kon kehta hai aasman me
हो गई है पीर पर्वत-सी

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Dilip M. Menon

Dilip M. Menon is Professor of Indian Studies at the University of Witwatersrand. He is the author of The Blindness of Insight and Caste, Nationalism and Communism in South India, Malabar 1900-1948. He has translated Potheri Kunhambu’s novel of 1893, Saraswativijayam, a classic, from the Malayalam into English.

The Blindness of Insight

Essays on Caste in Modern India

Is communalism a deflection of the violence and inegalitarianism within Hindu society? How has the deployment of violence against an internal Other, the dalit, come to be transformed into aggression against an external Other, the Muslim? Does the dalit have the right to life in modern India? Exploring the intimate relation between the discourses of caste, secularism and communalism, Dilip Menon argues that communalism in India may well be the return of the repressed histories of caste. In four essays that position caste as the central faultline of modern India, Menon finds out why the use of marxism and its concepts was idiosyncratic at best and instrumental at worst for a brahmin like E.M.S. Namboodiripad; how the subordinated castes in the late nineteenth century wrote themselves into modernity using the Malayalam novel and Christianity; and why the use of violence in the maintenance of caste hierarchy remains the central occluded fact of Indian society: so present, yet so invisible.
Dilip Menon

Dilip M Menon is the Mellon Chair of Indian Studies and the Director of the Centre for Indian Studies in Africa at the University of Witwatersrand. He was educated at the Universities of Delhi, Oxford and Cambridge and got his PhD degree from Cambridge. He is a translator from the Malayalam and writes on film, theatre and literature.

His research for the past decade has engaged with issues of caste, socialism and equality in modern India. This has resulted in several essays and a monograph on issues of caste in modern India as also a translation of the first novel written in an Indian language by a lower caste individual.

Currently, he is working on issues of cultural and intellectual history and is engaged in a project on the writing of history in India between 1850 and 1960. The work inaugurated at the Centre is interdisciplinary and transnational in approach and looks afresh at issues of colonialism, modernity and migration in the Global South.
Divya Arya
Divya’s Profile

Divya Arya is an award-winning journalist with the BBC reporting for its television, radio and web platforms in English and Hindi. She has focused her journalism on exploring human rights issues with a specific concentration on gender.

Over the past 15 years, she has reported on the Indian elections, education, religion and caste divides and gender discrimination. Now as the BBC’s Women’s Affairs Journalist in India she also writes a weekly blog on gender issues.

Divya has presented the global news programme OS on BBC World Service Radio from London. She has also presented the primetime weekly discussion programme WorklifeIndia on BBC World News TV.

Divya is a Knight Wallace Fellow from the University of Michigan where she completed her research on 'Reporting sexual violence in India', published in Breaching the Citadel, a book of essays, by Zubaan Publications and in the Economic and Political Weekly's Review of Gender Studies.

She has been awarded for best investigative journalism by the international Drum Online Media Awards and won the Laadli Media Awards for Gender Sensitivity in India.

Born and brought up in Delhi, Divya did her Bachelors in commerce in the premier institute for Business Studies – Sri Ram College of Commerce at the University of Delhi. She wrote for a college journal at that time, Campus on Wheels and also did a few radio programmes for the national broadcaster, All India Radio. This was followed by post graduate studies in Broadcast journalism at the Indian Institute of Mass Communication.

Divya is trained in the classical Indian dance, Bharatnatyam and takes refuge in it and music when trying to seek the ever elusive work-life balance.
चांगदेव भवानराव खैरमोड़े जी

डॉ.अम्बेडकर जी की प्रख्यात जीवनी के लेखक

1927 में खैरमोड़े जी ने ही डॉ.अम्बेडकर को "बाबासाहेब" और माता रमाबाई को "आईसाहेब" के नाम से संबोधित किया।

व्यक्तिगत जीवन

सी.बी. (चांगदेव भवानराव) खैरमोड़े जी का जन्म 15 जुलाई, 1904 को ग्राम-पाचवड, तालुका-खटव, जिला-सतारा में हुआ था। उन्होंने अपनी स्कूली शिक्षा मुंबई के न्यू इंग्लिश स्कूल ऑफ सतारा और एलफिस्टन हाई स्कूल से पूरी की। मुंबई में तत्कालीन ब्रिटिश सचिवालय में नौकरी की। द्वारकबाई चंगदेव खैरमोडे (गायकवाड़) उनकी संगिनी व भवानराव खैररामोड जी उनके पिताजी का नाम था। खैरमोड़े जी मराठी लेखक, कवि, अनुवादक थे और चरित्र लेखन, कविता आदि प्रकार के साहित्य का सृजन किया। खैरमोड़े जी ने बौद्ध आंदोलन में भी प्रतिभाग किया।

'डॉ भीमराव रामजी अंबेडकर चरित्र 'लेखन'

डॉ.अम्बेडकर के सानिध्य में रहकर, उनके जीवन और मिशन का अध्ययन किया। जिसका विस्तृत विवरण रखते हुए, 'डॉ. भीमराव रामजी अंबेडकर चरित्र" 15 खंडों में लिखा। जिसका पहला खंड 1952 में बाबासाहेब के समय में जारी किया गया। 1971 में चार खंड प्रकाशित किए गए और शेष दस खंड उनके बाद उनकी संगिनी द्वारकबाई चांगदेव खैरमोड (गायकवाड़) द्वारा प्रकाशित किए गए।

अन्य लेखन

खैरमोड़े जी ने अपने स्कूली दिनों में खादी के महत्व को उजागर करने वाली कविता लिखी।

खैरमोड़े जी ने दो सामाजिक प्रवचन लिखे - 'पाटिल प्रताप' (1928) और 'अमृतकण' (1929)। बाद में, सामाजिक सुधार, अस्पृश्यता, हिंदू धर्म और हिंदू समाज जैसे विभिन्न मुद्दों पर उनका वैचारिक लेखन महाराष्ट्र की विभिन्न पत्रिकाओं में प्रकाशित हुआ। 'शूद्र से पहले' कौन थे? (1951), उन्होंने 'उपनिषद और हिंदू महिलाओं का ह्रास' (1961), 'संविधान' पर तीन भाषण' लिखे।


विकिपीडिया : 8.1.2018
D. S. Ravindra Doss

From Wikipedia
D. S. Ravindra Doss (20 November 1945 – 22 June 2012) was a senior Indian journalist, and founder and president of the Tamil Nadu Union of Journalists. He was also Vice President of All India Journalists.

D. S. Ravindra Doss
Born 20 November 1945
Died 22 June 2012 (aged 66)

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Occupation newspaper editor, journalist


Although journalism was the largest part of his career, Doss was also a writer, social activist, and political critic. He wrote more than 1,000 articles in different Tamil magazines and daily newspapers. He authored more than 15 books, mainly on social issues and Indian cinema. He was the editor and publisher of the monthly Tamil magazine Tamil Thendral, which was captioned as "A Magazine by Journalists for Journalists".
Dev Kumar
Dev Kumar (born February 6, 1972) is a Dalit writer and dramatist.

Early life and career

Dev Kumar belonging to the Bhangi community, was born on 6 February 1972 in Haddi Godam locality of Kanpur. His mother Smt. Ganga Devi worked as a maid-servant in a school and his father Shri Prabhu dayal was a Supervisor in Municipal Corporation, Kanpur. He had four children and, thus, the burden of their up bring and education was enormous. But it did not deter him from encouraging his children to join school to obtain education. Dev had his primary education in a school set up by members of his own community and was situated in his own locality. All students in his school were either Dalits or Muslims. Not a single upper caste student even studied there. He passed his 8th standard from this school in the year 1984. In 1987 he passed his High School from Bishambhar Nath Sanatan Dharma Inter College, Kanpur. He sought admission in the Christ Church College for pursuing his B.sc. in 1991. He was admitted to the college, but this time his fortune had something different for him in store. When he was in the 1st year of his graduation, his father died; a trauma too severe for a man struggling economically to raise his educational status. Suddenly, all his dreams were shattered, and he had no option but to leave his studies. Being the eldest in the family, he had to shoulder the entire responsibility of looking after his ailing mother and other members of the family. As per law of the land, he was offered a job on his father’s post i.e. a supervisor in the Municipal Corporation which he accepted with a heavy heart.

During his early days he encountered multiple instances of discrimination on account of being a Dalit, and that too a Bhangi, a torment that he had to bear for no fault of his. What afflicted him more was his neglect by the members of the other Dalit communities, as the community of sweepers was considered to be the lowest in their hierarchy. While studying in Inter College, one day he missed his classes. The next day, a Brahman class fellow of his inquired from him the reason for his absence. He replied, “I had gone to the dentist for getting one of my teeth extracted”. On this his friend knocked him down with his shoes, saying “When you people perform everything with your own hand why should you visit a doctor for this”. Dev was amazed and failed to understand the hidden meaning in this act.

The insult he met in his intermediate class was not a solitary incident of rebuke and repression. There were several other such humiliating and tormenting experiences. He began to understand what all this meant after reading the works of Ambedkar. Ambedkar gave him the vision through which he viewed not only his own past, but also the shortcomings in the Dalit communities and the injustice meted out to them by the savarna (the upper caste people). Ambedkar’s books transformed his perception of life, and evoked in him the zeal to work for the uplift of the marginalized communities. He pondered for many days on the status of the culturally marginalized communities. How to improve their condition? How to bring them out from a history that stretched so much into the past? At this critical moment, Ambedkar’s thought helped him to formulate strategies. Pen to him was mightier than the sword. So he took to writing booklets.

Literature work

‘More Bazaar’ was his first booklet to be published from the money he had saved from his tuition fee in 1992–1993. He published other booklets which include ‘Haan Haan Haan Main Bhangi Hoon’. Two booklets ‘Dom Se Mahar Tak’ and ‘Aatmaghati Dasta’ are the in press. His unpublished writings include Bhangi Tola, Yugdarshan-Sudarshan, Meri Lal Diary, Bheem Bawani (Poems), Vo Jhelti Gaadi, Bharat Mein Bhangi: Bhangi Mein Bharat, Abhang Shastra, Barood and Bhangiyon Ke Bachche. His desire for social transformation is so deep that he has no reluctance in paying for the publication, even at the cost of his means of livelihood.
Dramatic work

Conscious of the fact that the booklets do not reach out to all sections of society, he set up his own theatre known as ‘Apna Theatre’ on 14 April 1992. Through the medium of this theatre, he strives to awaken consciousness among the people of the Dalit communities. His first Natak (drama), ‘Daastan’, was based on the ill deeds of the Aryans. His other plays include Nakhuda, Bhadra Angulimaal, Chakradhari, Sudarshan, Kapat, Bhulni, Bhamti, Lautri Ke Beemar, Nihang, Agyat Etihaas (based on Veerangana Udadevi Pasi), Amar Shaheed Matadin Bhangi and Jamadaar Ka Kurta, etc.

Social work

In the year 2000, he also started publication of a bi-monthly newsletter called ‘Jai Bhim’, which was completely dedicated to the Dalit issues. But it closed down in 2001 due to financial crisis. He organized discussions among children, helping them to learn about leading a respectful life, unlike his own. He brings out pamphlets for distribution in different localities. These pamphlets contain messages to awaken self-respect among the people and develop a feeling of pride in being a member of their own community. But now he is a disillusioned man due to the attitude of indifference and apathy of his own community members towards his efforts. They refuse to give up their traditional occupation of sweeping. To inspire them, he has created captions like ‘Jharu ke upar kalam, kalam ke upar taj’, (pen over broom, crown over pen). His other slogans are, ‘Jharu chodo Kalam Pakdo’ (Leave broom, hold pen) and ‘Vote se raj tak, jharu se taj tak’(From vote to governance, from broom to crown). Despite his community’s attitude he refuses to lose faith in future and believes that the tears of Baba Saheb Ambedkar will never let him sleep and always encourage his dream of establishing an egalitarian social system. His passion for social work propels him to do anything and everything for the uplift of the marginalized communities.
Deb Roy
From Wikipedia

Deb Roy

Deb Roy at an MIT faculty meeting, 2014
WinnipegManitoba, Canada
Alma mater MIT
Scientific career
Institutions MIT, Bluefin Labs, Twitter

Deb Roy is a tenured professor at MIT and served as Chief Media Scientist of Twitter from 2013-2017. A native of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Roy received his PhD in Media Arts and Sciences from MIT. He directed the Cognitive Machines group and now directs the Laboratory for Social Machine at the MIT Media Lab where he conducts research on language, games, and social dynamics at the intersection of artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. An author of over 100 academic papers in machine learning, cognitive modeling, and human-machine interaction, his TED talk, Birth of a Word, (based on the 2006–2009 Human Speechome Project) has been viewed over 2.5 million times.

In 2008, he co-founded and was the founding CEO of Bluefin Labs, a social TV analytics company, which MIT Technology Review named as one of the 50 most innovative companies of 2012. Bluefin was acquired by Twitter in 2013.

The Laboratory for Social Machines started in 2014 with an investment of $10 million from Twitter over a five-year period. The agreement also gives the lab access to all historical Twitter data and access to the firehose of all real-time tweets. The lab aims to "create new platforms for both individuals and institutions to identify, discuss, and act on pressing societal problems In 2018, Soroush Vosoug hi, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral published "The spread of true and false news online" in Science. The paper examined "~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times," and found that "Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information." Additionally, the authors found that "Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it."

Drishadwati Bargi
The rather long title could have been longer if it were to encapsulate the full range of the subjectivity of this scribe. It should have been "The dilemma of being an upwardly mobile, English speaking, Dalit Feminist and ideologue who is simultaneously a wannabe intellectual, a commodity fetishist and a person with ambivalent sexual orientation (I am deliberately choosing not to use the word "queer" since I am not sure what it means) and who is working in Kolkata, West Bengal".

Much as I sound so, this paper is not a narcissistic exercise in dissecting, identifying and cataloguing my subjectivities. Rather, my focus will be on the experience of working in a University and a city which boast of being the intellectual hotbed of the country. Of course, I will be talking as a student who has studied here for five years. I do not claim to speak for other Dalit students. Nor do I claim to represent the sum total of the experience of caste discrimination that is faced by other Dalit students. There might be Dalits who will deny facing any discrimination, there might be Dalits who have had to physically bear the burden of their caste in the University. I belong to neither camp. Rather this article is about my personal journey with my caste in the campus, how I have sought to negotiate with it and the way I perceive it. Not only is the personal nature of the gaze very important here so is the personal motive since I am also writing, thinking and theorizing about caste for academic purpose.

It is not uncommon for Bengali Bhadroloks and Bhadromahilas to claim that caste does not exist in West Bengal. Why, do we hear or read about caste riots or caste rapes? There are Brahmins who reject their threads, relish beef and do not mind sharing hash, fag or biri with a scheduled caste (not Dalit) friend or two. The radicals take their time out of their busy schedules to have long addas at humble roadside tea stalls, binge (read gobble) into street food prepared by scheduled castes (not Dalits) and occasionally sneer at a scheduled caste (not Dalit) colleague who is hesitating to sit on the dusty pavement for fear of dirtying the first Peter England trousers of his life and is being castigated for his snobbishness.

If one desires to know the real radical that rests and occasionally bursts out in flames in every Bhadrolok and Bhadromahila's heart one must take into account what goes on in the addas. The addas are a gateway to the heart, mind and not to forget the stomach of Bengalis. One confronts the romantic, the intellectual and the splenetic or the bilious side of the Bengali Bhadrosamaj in its most unabashed nakedness in the adda sessions. The addas may include a heated discussion on the revolution in Cuba to the expression of anathema at having a Punjabi (i.e., non-Bengali) as an editor of a reputed literary journal in English, from the price of the newly purchased four bedroom apartment to Mayawati's lavish bungalow.

Being a Bengali Dalit who has been extremely fortunate/unfortunate to enjoy and observe the company of the Bhadrosamaj for a long time, I have also caught some of the quirks of their nature. Perhaps you are thinking that I am simply beating about the bush by talking about bhadrosamaj and addas, but it is through these sessions that I have encountered the most obscene forms of casteism. It has come when classmates and professors have made fun of people with non-brahmanical surnames and then smiled at you in mock apology, when the academic failure of reserved category (not Dalit) students has been used to justify that reservation is an unmixed evil, when the ignorance of English language of reserved category (not Dalit) students is perceived as something that insults the intellect of the English speaking teacher.

Caste came to me when I ditched an upper caste guy for his sexism and was told in turn that he let me go easily because I was three notches lower than him in the caste ladder. It came from my Dalit friends who perceived my friendship with upper caste students as a form of betrayal. It invaded my mind and entered my bed when I was being caressed by a lover. The tenets of Manu that forbade Dalits from wearing gold and precious stones suddenly hit me when I was celebrating my first branded bag or reminiscing about my first experience of drinking a cup of hot chocolate at the age of twenty four in spite of living in a metropolis for the last ten years.

My recently acquired 'commodity fetishism' as pronounced by some Marxists has revealed that I am a hypocrite masquerading as Dalit emancipator. If the ignorance of the English language of scheduled caste students allegedly mocked the intelligence of our teachers my knowledge of the language (however incomplete and insufficient it is) is now seen as something that is making me a class enemy by otherwise anglophile Bengali Comrades.

The result is a dilemma, a kind of intellectual, emotional and psychological paralysis of sorts. Should I identify myself as a Dalit? Do I have the right to work on Dalit Literature? Do I have the right to do so, given my alleged hypocrisy and betrayal, which has been felt in some way or the other by Dalits as well as non-Dalits? This dilemma has been quite unnerving for me. It has led to mental and psychological alienation, anxiety and a sense of extreme loneliness.

Once, in an interview I was told, rather absurdly by a professor that there are no Dalits in West Bengal. I had responded with a wry smile and had nothing to say. It is my contention that there are no Dalits in West Bengal because of the simple fact that Dalits are not allowed to exist. You can be a casteless Brahmin, Baidya or Kayastha. On the other side of the equation, you can be an untouchable/achyut waiting to be emancipated (accultured) by upper caste casteless radicals or you can be a scheduled caste employee perpetually embarrassed for enjoying the "privilege" of affirmative action.

The word Dalit as I understand it refers to dignity of the person concerned without taking away the history of prejudice and discrimination that he or she still faces in forms that cannot be explained through Bhadrolok Marxism. It has gradually incorporated within itself the long history of resistance against caste system as well as our claim to an autonomous identity that cannot be equated with the predicament of being poor, working class or an untouchable but includes something more than that.

When I identify myself as a Dalit I am making a claim and seeking recognition for that discrimination, prejudice as well as that resistance. But inadvertently by identifying myself as a Dalit I am also doing something more. I am challenging a practice of "division of labourers" that is endemic to West Bengal. This is the division between emancipators (which includes writers, intellectuals, social activists, doctors, economists, trade union leaders, Naxalite leaders) and the to be emancipated (which includes peasants, workers in factories and homes, taxi drivers, rickshaw pullers etc).

Just browse at any book store or go through the names of the faculty of the famous universities or the list of authors in any random little magazine dedicated to social transformation in the state. You will find the Bhattacharjees, Mukherjees, Boses, and Dasguptas glittering on the pages. And then try to find out the surnames of the thousands of men and women who form the crowd at any political rally or gathering, the men who clean the streets every morning and take away our shit and waste the women who commute daily to keep the houses of Bhadrolok clean.
In this context a Brahmin taxi driver or a Dalit lecturer or activist (especially) is an eyesore, a cause of moral and political anathema. This is feudalism twisted to suit the needs of Bhadrolok Radicalism. Bhadrolok Marxism entailed that a caste of people /bhadrolok will be destined to emancipate another caste of people, the chotolok. If the chotolok suddenly claims to be a Dalit and emancipates himself or herself then he/she challenges the bhadrolok's prerogative to liberate the chotolok thereby challenging a system of dependence, power and relationship of dominance and subordination. He/she is also laying a claim to a history of movement that has focused on the agency of Dalits and suspected the benevolence and the radicalism of the savarnas.

The identity Dalit challenges the hierarchy between the caste of emancipator and the caste of emancipated and renders the emancipator redundant and useless. As a result not a single opportunity is missed to target the person, intellectually as well as psychologically who attempts to challenge this division and decry his/her claim to the identity. The question then is not whether I should identify myself as a Dalit or whether I have the right to. The question is whether I can afford to identify myself as a Dalit and bear the resultant alienation, intellectual and emotional that will inevitably accompany it. The dilemma then stems from an angst and a very human fear of being left alone in the world. All said and done I will love to be proved false. I would really love it if any other Bengali Dalit opposes my thesis and presents a better picture.
Dr. D. Shina

Dr D Shina (Shina Radhakrishnan, D. Shyna, Malayalam – ഡി. ഷൈന) is an academic, researcher and writer in Electricity Finance. She is actively engaged in research activities in various aspects of Power Industry. Her views and analysis of power sector are widely noticed and published by national dailies. She started her career as an academician and retired as Associate Professor in the Commerce Department in Sree Narayana College, Kollam. a premiere center of higher education in South India. She is currently with the Sree Narayana Guru College of Legal StudiesKollam. She lives at No 11 Aradhana Nagar, Kollam
Birth and education

She was born 19 February 1957 at KollamKerala in 1957 as the daughter of Kootungal Divakaran and Panamoottil Bhasurangi.. She had her school education in Craven L M S High School, Kollam and the higher education at Sree Narayana College for Women, Kollam. She took her M Com degree from S N College, Kollam. Her M Phil and Ph D were awarded by the University of Kerala. K. Radhakrishnan former member (Generation Kerala State Electricity Board is her husband. Sruthi R Krishan and Anath R Krishnan are children married to Unnikrishnan K P and Revathy Lal respectively.

Career and Achievements

She has been teaching in graduate and post graduate levels in various colleges under Kerala University for more than 33 years now. She is actively engaged in research activities mainly centering power sector. Her comments on the sector are often well accepted. Her study on the Financial Performance of the Kerala State Electricity Board completed in 2007 made strong recommendations for continuance of Electricity Industry in Public Sector. Currently she is conducting a study on the impact of load shedding in industries. This study is sponsored by the University Grants Commission (India). She had several works to her credit including articles in research journals, periodicals and news papers. Her study with Dr M Sarngadharan on Indian power industry in the public sector  published by Cooperjal Ltd UK was well noted. From 2008 onward she analyzes the Union Budget about power sector for the national daily the Hindu  and is often described as an electricity finance expert by news papers
Dharamvir Bharati
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dr. Dharamvir Bharati
Born 25 December 1926
Died 4 September 1997 (aged 70)
Occupation Writer (essayist, novelist, poet)
Nationality Indian
Education M.A. Hindi, PhD
Notable works Gunahon Ka Devta (1949, novel)
Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda (1952, novel)
Andha Yug (1953, play)
Notable awards 1972: Padmashree
1984: Valley Turmeric Best Journalism Award
1988: Best Playwright Maharana Mewar Foundation Award
Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman
Bharat Bharati Samman
1994: Maharashtra Gaurav
Kaudiya Nyas
Vyasa Samman
Spouse Kanta Bharti (married 1954) (first wife), Pushpa Bharti (second. wife)
Children daughter Parmita (first wife); son Kinshuk Bharati and a daughter Pragya Bharati (second wife)

Dharamvir Bharati (25 December 1926 – 4 September 1997) was a renowned Hindi poet, author, playwright and a social thinker of India. He was the chief editor of the popular Hindi weekly magazine Dharmayug, from 1960 till 1987.

Bharati was awarded the Padma Shree for literature in 1972 by the Government of India. His novel Gunaho Ka Devta became a classic. Bharati's Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda is considered a unique experiment in story-telling and was made into a National Film Award-winning movie by the same name in 1992 by Shyam BenegalAndha Yug, a play set immediately after the Mahabharata war, is a classic that is frequently performed in public by drama groups

He was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Playwriting (Hindi) in 1988, given by Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama.

Early life

Dharamvir Bharati was born on 25 December 1926 in a Kayastha Family of Allahabad to Chiranji Lal and Chanda devi. The family underwent considerable financial hardships after his father died early. He had a sister, Dr. Veerbala.

He did his MA in Hindi from Allahabad University in 1946 and won the "Chintamani Ghosh Award" for securing highest marks in Hindi.

Dharamvir Bharati was the sub-editor for magazines Abhyudaya and Sangam during this period. He completed his PhD in 1954 under Dr. Dhirendra Verma on the topic of "Siddha Sahitya" and was appointed lecturer in Hindi at Allahabad University. The 1950s were the most creative period in Bharati's life: He wrote many novels, dramas, poems, essays, and critical works during this phase.

Journalism (Mumbai)

In 1960 he was appointed as chief-editor of the popular Hindi weekly magazine Dharmayug by the Times Group and moved to Bombay. He remained the editor of Dharmayug till 1987. During this long phase the magazine became the most popular Hindi weekly of the country and reached new heights in Hindi journalism. As a field reporter, Bharati personally covered the Indo-Pak war that resulted in the liberation of Bangladesh.

Personal life

Dr Bharati married in 1954 and later divorced Kanta Bharati with whom he had a daughter: Parmita. A few years later he remarried and had a son Kinshuk Bharati and a daughter Pragya Bharati with Pushpa Bharati.

Bharati developed heart ailments and died after a brief illness in 1997.

Prominent works

Gunaho Ka Devta (गुनाहों का देवता) (1949)
Suraj ka Satwan Ghoda (सूरज का सातवां घोड़ा, 1952) (The Seventh Steed of the Sun) — A short novel published in 1952 that may be viewed as a set of connected mini-narratives can be called one of the foremost instances of metafiction in 20th century Hindi literature. The protagonist is a young man named Manik Mulla who recounts these tales to his friends. The name of the work is an allusion to Hindu mythology according to which the chariot of the Sun-God Surya is said to be drawn by seven horses. (viz. seven days in a week). This novella has been translated into Bengali by poet Malay Roy Choudhury of Hungry generation fame, for which he was bestowed with the Sahitya Academy Award. Shyam Benegal's film by the same name (1992), based on the novel, won the National Film Award for Best Actor.

Giyara sapno ka desh (ग्यारह सपनों का देश)
Prarambh va Samapan (प्रारंभ व समापन)


Kanupriya, Thanda Loha, Saat Geet Varsh, Sapana Abhi Bhi and Toota Pahiya are amongst his most popular works of poetry. Toota Pahiya tells a story of how a broken wheel helped Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war.

Play in poetry

Andha Yug (The Age of Blindness) is a poetic play. Structured on events in the MahabharataAndha Yug focuses on the last day of the Mahabharata war. It is a powerful metaphorical work. It has been directed by Ebrahim AlkaziRaj Bisaria, M.K. Raina, Ratan ThiyamArvind GaurRam Gopal BajajMohan MaharishiBhanu Bharti [Pravin kumar gunjan ]and many other Indian theatre directors.
Story collections

Drow Ka gaon (र्दों का गाव), Swarg aur Prathvhi (स्वर्ग और पृथ्वी), Chand aur Tute hue Log (चाँद और टूटे हुए लोग), Band gali Ka Aakhkri Makaan (बंद गली का आखिरी मकान), Saas ki Kalam se (सास की कलम से), Samasta Kahaniya ek Saath (समस्त कहानियाँ एक साथ)


Thele par Himalayas (ठेले पर हिमालय), Pashyanti stories: Ankahi (पश्यंती कहानियाँ :अनकही), The river was thirsty (नदी प्यासी थी), Neel Lake (नील झील), Human values and literature (मानव मूल्य और साहित्य), Cold iron (ठंडा लोहा)
Film about Bharati

Dr. Bharati: documentary directed by young story writer Uday Prakash for Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1999


Padma Shri by the Government of India, 1972
Rajendra Prasad Shikhar Samman
Bharat Bharati Samman
Maharashtra Gaurav, 1994
Kaudiya Nyas
Vyasa Samman
1984, Valley turmeric best journalism awards
1988, best playwright Maharana Mewar Foundation Award
1989, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, Delhi


Andha Yug: Dharamvir Bharati, translated in English by Alok Bhalla, published by Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567213-8ISBN 0-19-567213-5
Fazal Tabish

Name:-FazalTabish Birth:-5 August 1933 Bhopal Death:-10 November 1995 Fazal Tabish kisi ek khaas vichardhaha ke saath nahi hain wo zindagi ke saath jude hain wo banaye hue raaston se katra kar nikal jaate hain unki shayari tajurbon ki den hai.

Fazal Tabish ki shayari ka majmuan (book)" Roshni kis jagha se kali hai" ek novel "Wo Aadmi" do drame "Dara hua aadmi" aur"Akahre ke bahar se"hain.Unka pehla stage drama "Bila Unvan" Central Government ministry of S.R.C.A. ne pehla enaam diya. "Dara hua aadmi" aur "Akahre ke bahar se" stage drame hindi mein bhi publish huye hain . In dramon ke Shri Alaknandan ne stage shows kiye. Shri Rajendra Shukl ne "Dara hua aadmi" direct kiya. Premchand ke novel "Karmbhumi" ko dramein ka roop diya aur usey Shri B.V. Karant ne direct kiya. Danish drama "The judge" ka translation urdu mein kiya yeh darama Bharat Bhawan mein 20-25 baar pesh kiya gaya.Ek Tele Film "Urdu hai jiska naam" Shri Raam Tiwari ne Bhopal Durdarshan ke liye bnayi. Mani Kaul ki Film "Satah se uthta aadmi" aur Kumar Shahni ki film "Khyaal Gaatha" mein kaam kiya. Merchant-Ivory ke liye Ismail Merchant ki direct k hui film "Muhaafiz" mein location organiser ke saath script mein madad ki aur kaam bhi kiya.Hindi ke 50 kaviyon k kavitaon ko Urdu lipi mein tranlate kiya. "Jharokha" naam se yeh kitab Madhay Pradesh Urdu Academy ne publish ki.

Fazal Tabish, Urdu zubaan ka baaNkaa shaair thaa. This is often you get to hear about Fazal Sahab. I had heard a lot about him especially his personality and bohemian lifestyle.

In my school days I knew him through his son, who was our teacher. But I never met him. It was only after his death that I read some of his poetry and was instantly drawn towards it. Fazal's poetry is different in the sense that all his ghazals and Nazms stand out amongst hundreds of contemporary poets of his generation.

shakhsiyat hai ki sirf gaalii hai
jaane kis shakhs ne uchhaalii hai

shahar dr shahar haath ugte haiN
kuchh to hai jo har ek savaalii hai

jo bhii haath aaye TuuT kar chaaho
haar ke yah ravish nikaalii hai

meer kaa dil kahaaN se laaoge
Khuun kii buund to bachaa lii hai

jism meN bhii utar ke dekh liyaa
haath Khaalii thaa ab bhii khaalii hai

resha resha udheD kar dekho
roshnii kis jagah se kaalii hai

din ne chehraa kharoNch Daalaa thaa
jab to suuraj pe Khaak Daalii hai

A group of Qawwals rendered it at a function a few years back. They sung it differently and started with the last two couplets but had a magical affect on the audience. Of course, his sexually explicit couplets once floated across the Urdu world:

chaahte the aazmuudaa aurat ka visaal
khair jaisii bhii haath aaye, nibhaayaa chaahiye....(aazmuuda=experienced)

But it is Nazm where Fazal Tabish reveals his brilliance. Never in the history of Urdu poetry, a poet had treated the subject of sex like Fazal did. Amongst the voices of Nazm in the post-Progressive movement era, Shaharyar, Nida Fazli, Shamsur Rahman Faruqi, Ameeq Hanafi are counted but I surely consider Fazal amongst them. His nazm for another day.
Girija Kumar Mathur
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

गिरिजाकुमार माथुर
Born 22 August 1919
Died 10 January 1994 (aged 75)
Occupation Writer, Poet
Nationality Indian
Notable works Nash aur Nirman, Nayi Kavita: Seemae aur Sambhavnae
Notable awards Sahitya Akademi Award
Children Pawan Mathur, Amitabh Mathur , Ashok Mathur

Girija Kumar Mathur (Hindi: गिरिजाकुमार माथुर) (22 August 1919 - 10 January 1994) was a notable Indian writer of the Hindi language. He is noted for his translation of the popular English song "We Shall Overcome" into Hindi (हम होगें कामयाब). His father, Devicharan Mathur, was a teacher in a local school and greatly admired music as well as literature. his mother name was laxmidevi Girijakumar Mathur is considered one of the most important writers in Hindi due to his efforts to modernise Hindi literature and promote it through many of his works.

Early life

Girijakumar Mathur was born in Ashoknagar which was tehsil of guna before 2003 Madhya Pradesh, on 22 August 1919. He was homeschooled by his father in History, Geography and English. After obtaining his primary education in Jhansi, he was awarded a degree of M.A (English) and L.L.B from Lucknow University. After practicing law for a few years, he started working in All India Radio and later Doordarshan.

Professional and musical career

On obtaining his law degree, Mathur initially worked as a lawyer, but subsequently joined the Delhi office of All India Radio. After a few years there, he moved on to join the then only television broadcasting organization of India, Doordarshan.

Mathur published his first collection of poems, Manjir in 1941.

It was during his service in Doordarshan that mathur translated the popular gospel and civil rights movement song "We shall overcome" into Hindi as "Honge Kaamyab" (होंगे कामयाब). It was sung by a female singer of the Doordarshan orchestra and the music was arranged by Satish Bhatia using Indian musical instruments. This version of the song was subsequently released by TVS Saregama. This Hindi rendition was released in 1970 as a song of social upliftment and was often broadcast by Doordarshan in the 1970s and 1980s. Doordarshan at that time was the only television station of India, and this song was especially played on days of national significance.

Mathur continued to work in Doordarshan, retiring in 1978 as the Deputy Director general.


Girijakumar Mathur started his career in literature in 1934 in the Braj language.Greatly influenced by authors such as Makhanlal Chaturvedi and Balkrishna Sharma 'Navin', he published his first anthology, 'Manjir' in 1941. He was an important contributor to Hindi literature and used his works to spread moral messages through society. His notable works include:

Nash aur Nirman
Dhup ke Dhan
Sheilapankh Chamkile
Bhitri Nadi Ki Yatra (Anthology)
Janm Kaid (Play)
Nayi Kavita:Seemae aur Sambhavnae

Girijakumar Mathur was one of the seven eminent Hindi poets included in Tar Saptak, an anthology edited and published by Agyeya in 1943. Apart from poems, he wrote many plays, songs as well as essays. In 1991, he was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award for his anthology, "Main Vakt ke Hun Samne" as well as the Vyas Samman in the same year. He is noted for his translation of the popular English song "We Shall Overcome" into Hindi.

Mathur described his life's journey in his autobiography Mujhe aur abhi kehna hai (मुझे और अभी कहना है) (I still have to say something).


Girijakumar Mathur died on 10 January 1994, aged 75 in New Delhi.
गोपाल राम गहमरी

गोपाल राम गहमरी (1866-1946) हिंदी के महान सेवक, उपन्यासकार तथा पत्रकार थे। वे 38 वर्षों तक बिना किसी सहयोग के 'जासूस' नामक पत्रिका निकालते रहे, २०० से अधिक उपन्यास लिखे, सैकड़ों कहानियों के अनुवाद किए, यहां तक कि रवीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर की 'चित्रागंदा' काव्य का भी (पहली बार हिंदी अनुवाद गहमरीजी द्वारा किया गया) अनुवाद किए। वह ऐसे लेखक थे, जिन्होंने हिंदी की अहर्निश सेवा की, लोगों को हिंदी पढऩे को उत्साहित किया, ऐसी रचनाओं का सृजन करते रहे कि लोगों ने हिंदी सीखी। यदि देवकीनंदन खत्री के बाद किसी दूसरे लेखक की कृतियों को पढ़ने के लिए गैरहिंदी भाषियों ने हिंदी सीखी तो वे गोपालराम गहमरी ही थे।

गहमरी ने प्रारंभ में नाटकों का अनुवाद किया, फिर उपन्यासों का अनुवाद करने लगे। बंगला से हिन्दी में किया गया इनका अनुवाद तब बहुत प्रामाणिक माना गया। बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी गोपालराम गहमरी ने कविताएं, नाटक, उपन्यास, कहानी, निबंध और साहित्य की विविध विधाओं में लेखन किया, लेकिन प्रसिद्धि मिली जासूसी उपन्यासों के क्षेत्र में। 'जासूस' नामक एक मासिक पत्रिका निकाली। इसके लिए इन्हें प्रायः एक उपन्यास हर महीने लिखना पड़ा। 200 से ज्यादा जासूसी उपन्यास गहमरीजी ने लिखे। 'अदभुत लाश', 'बेकसूर की फांसी', 'सरकती लाश', 'डबल जासूस', 'भयंकर चोरी', 'खूनी की खोज' तथा 'गुप्तभेद' इनके प्रमुख उपन्यास हैं। जासूसी उपन्यास-लेखन की जिस परंपरा को गहमरी ने जन्म दिया, उसका हिन्दी में विकास ही न हो सका।


गोपाल राम गहमरी का जन्म पौष कृष्ण 8 गुरुवार संवत् 1923 (सन् 1866 ई) में उत्तर प्रदेश के गाजीपुर जिले के गहमर में हुआ था। इनके प्रपितामह श्री जगन्नाथ साहू फ्रांसीसी छींट के व्यापारी थे। उनके दो पुत्र थे-रघुनंदन और बृजमोहन। रघुनंदनजी के तीन पुत्र हुए राम नारायण, कालीचरण और रामदास। गोपालराम गहमरी, रामनारायणजी के पुत्र थे। कालीचरण नि:संतान थे और रामदास के एक ही पुत्र थे महावीर प्रसाद गहमरी। गोपालराम गहमरी को भी एक ही पुत्र थे इकबाल नारायण। महावीर प्रसाद गहमरी के दो पुत्र थे देवता प्रसाद गहमरी एवं दुर्गा प्रसाद गहमरी। देवता प्रसाद गहमरी बहुत दिनों तक काशी से प्रकाशित होने वाले दैनिक 'आज' और 'सन्मार्ग' से जुड़े रहे।

गोपाल राम गहमरी जब छह मास के थे तभी पिता का देहांत हो गया और इनकी माँ इन्हें लेकर अपने मैके गहमर चली आईं। गहमर में ही गोपाल राम का लालन-पालन हुआ। प्रारंभिक शिक्षा-संस्कार यहीं संपन्न हुए। गहमर से अतिरिक्त लगाव के कारण उन्होंने अपने नाम के साथ अपने इस ननिहाल को जोड़ लिया और गोपालराम गहमरी कहलाने लगे।

उनकी प्रारंभिक शिक्षा गहमर में हुई थी। वहीं से वर्नाक्यूलर मिडिल की शिक्षा ग्रहण की। 1879 में मिडिल पास किया। फिर वहीं गहमर स्कूल में चार वर्ष तक छात्रों को पढ़ाते रहे और खुद भी उर्दू और अंगरेजी का अभ्यास करते रहे। इसके बाद पटना नार्मल स्कूल में भर्ती हुए, जहां इस शर्त पर प्रवेश हुआ कि उत्तीर्ण होने पर मिडिल पास छात्रों को तीन वर्ष पढ़ाना पड़ेगा। आर्थिक स्थिति अच्छी न होने के कारण इस शर्त को स्वीकार कर लिया। लेकिन बीच में ही पढ़ाई छोड़कर गहमरी जी बेतिया महाराजा स्कूल में हेड पंडित की जगह पर कार्य करने चले गए। सन 1888 ई में सब कामों से छुट्टी कर हाई फर्स्ट ग्रेड में नार्मल की परीक्षा पास की। इसके तुरंत बाद 1889 में रोहतासगढ़ में हेडमास्टर नियुक्त हो गए। मगर, यहां भी वे टिक नहीं पाए और बंबई के प्रसिद्ध प्रकाशक सेठ गंगाविष्णु खेमराज के आमंत्रण पर 1891 में बंबई चले गए।

गहमरी जी जब रोहतासगढ़ में थे तो वहीं से पत्र-पत्रिकाओं में अपनी रचनाएं भेजा करते थे। बंबई में जब रहने लगे तो वहां भी उनकी कलम गतिशील रही। यह अलग बात है कि वे वहां भी अधिक दिनों तक नहीं टिक सके। चूंकि खेमराज का व्यवसाय पुस्तकों के प्रकाशन का था, इसलिए वहां उनके लिए रचनात्मकता के लिए कोई विशेष जगह नहीं थी। पत्र-पत्रिकाओं का प्रकाशन वहां से होता नहीं था। इसलिए, यहां अपने अनुकूल अवसरों को न देखकर वहां से त्यागपत्र देकर कालाकांकर चले आए। कालांकाकर (प्रतापगढ़, उत्तर प्रदेश) से निकलने वाले दैनिक 'हिन्दोस्थान' के गहमरी जी नियमित लेखक थे। इसके साथ ही उस समय की श्रेष्ठ पत्र-पत्रिकाएं 'बिहार बंधु', 'भारत जीवन', 'सार सुधानिधि' में भी नियमित लिखते थे।

जब 1892 में गहमरी जी राजा रामपाल सिंह के निमंत्रण पर कालाकांकर चले आए तो यहां वे संपादकीय विभाग से संबंद्ध हो गए और एक वर्ष तक रहे। यहीं पर काम करते हुए बांग्ला सीखी और अनुवाद के जरिए साहित्य को समृद्ध करने का प्रयास भी किया।

गहमरी जी एक जगह बहुत दिनों तक नहीं टिकते थे। एक बार फिर सन् 1893 में वे बंबई की ओर उन्मुख हुए और यहां से निकलने वाले पत्र 'बंबई व्यापार सिंधु' का संपादन करने लगे। इस पत्र को वहां के एक निर्भीक और असीम साहसी पोस्टमैन निकालते थे। लेकिन इस पत्र का दुर्भाग्य कहें या गहमरी जी का कि यह पत्र छह महीने के बाद बंद हो गया, लेकिन गहमरी जी बेकार नहीं हुए। वहीं के एक हिंदी प्रेमी एसएस मिश्र ने गहमरी जी को बुलाकर उन्हें 'भाषा भूषण' के संपादन का भार सौंपा। यह पत्र मासिक था। लेकिन यह पत्र भी बंद हो गया। लेकिन इसके बंद होने के पीछे न आर्थिक कारण थे न अन्य दूसरी तरह की प्रकाशकीय समस्याएं। बल्कि इस पत्र को एक दंगे के कारण बंद कर देना पड़ा।

'भाषा भूषण' के बंद होने के बाद नए ठौर की तलाश में चल पड़े। इनके चाहने वालों और इन पर स्नेह रखने वालों की कमी नहीं थी। उन्हीं में थे पं बालमुंकुद पुरोहित। इन्हीं की कृपा से गहमरी जी मंडला की ओर रुख किए। लेकिन यहां भी बहुत दिनों तक नहीं रह सके। यहां से मासिक 'गुप्तकथा' का प्रकाशन तो शुरू हुआ, लेकिन अर्थाभाव के कारण इस पत्र को असमय बंद कर देना पड़ा। गहमरीजी एक बार फिर चौराहे पर आ गए। लेकिन इस चौराहे से एक रास्ता फूटा जो बंबई की ओर जाता था। खेमराज जी ने 'श्री वेंकटेश्वर समाचार' नाम से पत्र का प्रकाशन शुरू कर दिया था। यह पत्र गहमरी जी के कुशल संपादन में थोड़े समय में ही लोकप्रिय हो गया। इसी दौरान प्रयाग से निकलने वाले 'प्रदीप' (बंगीय भाषा) में ट्रिब्यून के संपादक नगेंद्रनाथ गुप्त की एक जासूसी कहानी 'हीरार मूल्य' प्रकाशित हुई थी। गहमरीजी ने इस कहानी का हिंदी में अनुवाद कर श्री वेंकटेश्वर समाचार में कई किश्तों में प्रकाशित किया। यह जासूसी कहानी पाठकों को इतनी रुचिकर लगी कि कई पाठकों ने इस पत्र की ग्राहकता ले ली।

उस दौर में जासूसी ढंग की कहानियों में पाठकों की गहरी रुचि जग रही थी। इसमें रोचकता और रहस्य की ऐसी कथा गुंफित होती कि पाठकों के भीतर एक तरह की जुगुप्सा जगाती और पढऩे को विवश। गहमरी जी पाठकों के मन-मस्तिष्क को समझ चुके थे। 'हीरे का मोल' के अनुवाद की लोकप्रियता और 'जोड़ा जासूस' लिखकर पाठकों की प्रतिक्रियाओं से वे अवगत हो चुके थे। इस लोकप्रियता के कारण वे कई तरह की योजनाएं बनाने लगे। वे यह भी समझ चुके थे कि जासूसी ढंग की कहानियों के जरिए ही पाठकों का विशाल वर्ग तैयार किया जा सकता है। गहमरी जी पूरी तैयारी के साथ जासूसी ढंग के लेखन की ओर प्रवृत्त हुए। उल्लेखनीय बात यह भी है कि उनके साथ घटी कुछ घटनाओं ने भी जासूसी ढंग के लेखन की ओर उन्हें ढकेला। इस तरह 1899 में ही वे घर आकर जासूस निकालना चाहते थे, किंतु बालमुकुंद गुप्त के पुत्र की शादी होनी थी और वे 'भारत मित्र' के संपादन का भार गहमरी जी को देकर अपने गांव गुरयानी चले गए। कुछ दिनों तक गहमरी जी ने 'भारत मित्र' का कुशलता पूर्वक संपादन किया। इसकी वजह से 'जासूस' का प्रकाशन थोड़े समय के लिए स्थगित हो गया। उनकी इच्छा थी कि 'सरस्वती' के साथ ही 'जासूस' का भी प्रकाशन हो, लेकिन यह इच्छा उनके मन में ही रह गई। इस तरह जासूस का प्रकाशन जनवरी, 1900 में 'सरस्वती' के साथ न होकर चार महीने बाद यानी मई 1900 में हुआ।

गहमरी जी ने 'भारत मित्र' के संपादन के दौरान जासूस के निकलने की सूचना दे दी थी। इसका लाभ यह हुआ कि सैकड़ों पाठकों ने प्रकाशित होने से पहले ही पत्रिका की ग्राहकी ले ली। एक और उल्लेखनीय बात यह है कि हिंदी में 'जासूस' शब्द के प्रचलन का श्रेय गहमरी जी को ही जाता है। उन्होंने लिखा है कि '1892 से पहले किसी पुस्तक में जासूस शब्द नहीं दिख पड़ा था।' उन्होंने अपनी पत्रिका का नामकरण ऐसे किया जिससे आम पाठक आसानी से उसकी विषय वस्तु को समझ सके। 'जासूस' शब्द से हालांकि यह बोध होता है कि इसमें जासूसी ढंग की कहानियां ही प्रकाशित होती होंगी, लेकिन ऐसी बात नहीं थी। उसके हर अंक में एक जासूसी कहानी के अलावा समाचार, विचार और पुस्तकों की समीक्षाएं भी नियमित रूप से छपती थीं। जासूस निकालने के लिए उन्हें कुछ धन की आवश्यकता थी, इसकी पूर्ति उन्होंने 'मनोरमा' और 'मायाविनी' लिखकर कर ली। 'जासूस' का पहला अंक बाबू अमीर सिंह के हरिप्रकाश प्रेस से छपकर आया और पहले ही महीने में वीपीपी से पौने दो सौ रुपए की प्राप्ति हुई। इसने अपने प्रवेशांक से ही लोकप्रियता की सारी हदों को पार करते हुए शिखर को छू लिया था। इसकी अपार लोकप्रियता को देखकर गोपालराम गहमरी जब जासूसी ढंग की कहानियों और उपन्यासों के लेखन की ओर प्रवृत्त हो हुए तो फिर पीछे मुड़कर नहीं देखा और न इसकी परवाह की कि साहित्य के तथाकथित अध्येता उनके बारे में क्या राय रखते हैं। अपने प्रवेशांक में जासूस की परिचय कुछ इस अंदाज में पेश किया-

'डरिये मत, यह कोई भकौआ नहीं है, धोती सरियाकर भागिए मत, यह कोई सरकारी सीआईडी नहीं है। है क्या? क्या है? है यह पचास पन्ने की सुंदर सजी-सजायी मासिक पुस्तक, माहवारी किताब जो हर पहले सप्ताह सब ग्राहकों के पास पहुंचती है। हर एक में बड़े चुटीले, बड़े चटकीले, बड़े रसीले, बड़े गरबीले, बड़े नशीले मामले छपते हैं। हर महीने बड़ी पेचीली, बड़ी चक्करदार, बड़ी दिलचस्प घटनाओं से बड़े फड़कते हुए, अच्छी शिक्षा और उपदेश देने वाले उपन्यास निकलते हैं।..कहानी की नदी ऐसी हहराती है, किस्से का झरना ऐसे झरझराता है कि पढऩे वाले आनंद के भंवर में डूबने-उतराने लगते हैं।'

इस तरह यह पत्रिका अपनी पाठकों की बदौलत और उनके अपार स्नेह के कारण एक दो वर्ष नहीं, पूरे 38 वर्ष तक गहमर जैसे गांव से निकलती रही। जिस तरह बाल कृष्ण भट्ट ने भूख से जूझते हुए 33 वर्षों तक 'हिंदी प्रदीप' को प्रदीप्त रखा, वैसे ही गोपाल राम गहमरी ने येनकेनप्रकारेण 38 साल तक इसे जीवित रखा।

इस बीच उन्हें एक बार फिर बंबई जाने का अवसर मिला। वेंकटेश्वर समाचार पत्र निकल रहा था। उन्हें संपादक की जरूरत थी। यद्यपि उस समय उस पत्र के संपादक यशस्वी लेखक लज्जाराम मेहता जी थे। उन्हें अपने घर बूंदी जाना था। इसलिए पत्र को एक संपादक की जरूरत थी। गहमरी जी उनके बुलावे पर गए और कार्यभारा संभाला, लेकिन 'जासूस' बंद नहीं हुई। वह लगातार निकल रही थी। इस बीच गहमरी जी के समक्ष सेठ रंगनाथ ने प्रस्ताव रखा कि जासूस उनको दे दिया जाए और आजन्म रु 50 बतौर गुजारा लेते रहें। सेठ जी ने उनके समक्ष यह भी प्रस्ताव रखा कि बंबई में रहने की इच्छा न हो जो गहमर से ही लिखकर भेज दिया करें, प्रकाशित करता रहूंगा। लेकिन, गहमरी जी ने इस प्रस्ताव को अस्वीकार कर दिया और अपने गांव लौट आए।

इस दौरान गहमरी जी ने जासूसी विधा से हटकर आध्यात्मिक विषयक दो पुस्तकें लिखीं। 'इच्छाशक्ति' उनकी बंगला से अनुवादित रचना थी और 'मोहिनी विद्या', मैस्मेरिज्म पर अनूठी और हिंदी में संभवत: पहली रचना थी। ये दोनों पुस्तकें हिंदी पाठकों द्वारा काफी पसंद की गईं। बाद के दिनों में जासूसी लेखन से उनकी विरक्ति भी हो गई थी और वे धर्म-अध्यात्म की ओर मुड़ गए थे।


गहमरी जी का कहना था कि 'जिसका उपन्यास पढ़कर पाठक ने समझ लिया कि सब सोलहो आने सच है, उसकी लेखनी सफल परिश्रम समझनी चाहिए।' गहमरी जी अपनी रचनाओं में पाठकों की रुचि का विशेष ध्यान रखते थे कि वे किस तरह की सामग्री पसंद करते हैं। साहित्य के संदर्भ में उनके विचार भी उच्च कोटि के थे। वे साहित्य को भी इतिहास मानते थे। उनका मानना था कि साहित्य जिस युग में रचा जाता है, उसके साथ उसका गहरा संबंध होता है। वे उपन्यास को अपने समय का इतिहास मानते थे। गुप्तचर, बेकसूर की फांसी, केतकी की शादी, हम हवालात में, तीन जासूस, चक्करदार खून, ठन ठन गोपाल, गेरुआ बाबा, 'मरे हुए की मौत' आदि रचनाओं में केवल रहस्य रोमांच ही नहीं हैं, बल्कि युग की संगतियां और विसंगतियां भी मौजूद हैं। समाज की दशा और दिशा का आकलन भी है। यह कहकर कि वे जासूसी और केवल मनोरंजक रचनाएं हैं, उनकी रचनाओं को खारिज नहीं किया जा सकता है, न उनके अवदानों से मुंह मोड़ा जा सकता है। गहमरी जी की बाद की पीढ़ी को जो लोकप्रियता मिली, उसका बहुत कुछ श्रेय देवकीनंदन खत्री और गहमरी जी को ही जाता है। इन्होंने अपने लेखन से वह स्थितियां बना दी थी कि लोगों का पढऩे की ओर रुझान बढ़ गया था। गहमरी जी ने अकेले सैकड़ों कहानियों, उपन्यासों क अनुवाद किए।

आचार्य रामचंद्र शुक्ल ने तो अपने साहित्य के इतिहास में गोपालराम गहमरी के कृतित्व को सराहा, लेकिन बाद के आलोचकों ने उन्हें बिसरा दिया। गौतम सान्याल ने हंस के एक विशेषांक में लिखा कि, 'प्रेमचंद के जिस उपन्यास को पठनीयता की दृष्टि से सर्वोच्च स्थान प्राप्त है, उस 'गबन' की अनेक कथा स्थितियां एक विदेशी क्राइम थ्रिलर से मिलती-जुलती हैं और जिसका अनुवाद गोपालराम गहमरी ने सन् 1906 में जासूस पत्रिका में कर चुके थे।' इस उद्धरण से गोपालराम गहमरी के बारे में कुछ और कहने की जरूरत नहीं है।

गोपालराम गहमरी

जन्म : 1866, गहमर, गाजीपुर (उत्तर प्रदेश) भाषा : हिंदी
विधाएँ : उपन्यास, कहानी, कविता, नाटक, निबंध

मुख्य कृतियाँ

उपन्यास : अद्भुत लाश, बेकसूर की फाँसी, सरकती लाश, डबल जासूस, भयंकर चोरी, खूनी की खोज, गुप्त भेद आदि लगभग दो सौ उपन्यास
निधन 1946 , 20 June.

गोपालराम गहमरी का ऐतिहासिक लेख ‘हिंदी की चिंदी’
Prabhat Ranjan

जोशीले पत्रकार संजय कृष्ण की सम्पादित पुस्तक आई है ‘गोपालराम गहमरी के संस्मरण’, जिसका प्रकाशन दिल्ली के विकल्प प्रकाशन द्वारा किया गया है. उस पुस्तक पर बाद में विस्तार से लिखूंगा. लेकिन हिंदी दिवस के मौके पर उस पुस्तक में संकलित उनके इस लेख की याद आई जो भाषा की अशुद्धियों और भाषा प्रयोग की अराजकता को लेकर है. 70-75 साल पहले लिखा गया यह लेख आज भी कितना प्रासंगिक लगता है- मॉडरेटर
इन दिनों जब हमारी माननीय मातृभाषा हिन्दी सब तरह से राष्ट्रभाषा के सिंहासन पर विराजने के लिए अग्रसर होकर उस मर्यादा पर अधिष्ठित हो रही है, हिन्दी लेखकों में बेमाथे की दंवरी देखकर दुःख होता है। आजकल के नव शिक्षित युवक लेखकों में एक बड़ा रोग देखने में यह आता है कि वे अंगरेजी के नियम और कानून से हिन्दी को जकड़ देना चाहते हैं। इस प्रयास में वे अपने समान ही हिन्दी के अनभिज्ञ सहयोगियों से समर्थन से लाभ उठाकर सफल परिश्रम भी होते जा रहे हैं। दूसरी ओर हिन्दी अनमेल वाक्य रचना, अशुद्ध प्रयोग और भद्दे मुहावरों की भरमार होती जा रही है।

हिन्दी में अब अशुद्धियों की नांव दिनों-दिन बोझिल होती जा रही है। ऐसे अवसर पर हिन्दी के मर्मज्ञ सुलेखकों की चुप्पी और आफत ढा रही है। यह बड़े दुःख की बात है कि हिन्दी के वर्तमान महारथी नए हिन्दी लेखकों के अनर्थ चुपचाप देख रहे हैं। समझ में नहीं आता कि इस अवसर पर माननीय सर्वश्री अम्बिका प्रसाद बाजपेयी, सकल नरायण शर्मा तीर्थत्रय, कामता प्रसाद गुरु, जगन्नाथ प्रसाद ‘भानु’, माखनलाल चतुर्वेदी, ज्वालादत्त शर्मा,राय नरायण मिश्र, रामनरेश त्रिपाठी, झाबरमल शर्मा,मूलचन्द्र अग्रवाल, डाॅक्टर श्यामसुन्दर दास, रामकृष्ण दास आदि महोदय हिन्दी में यह मनमानों पर जाने क्यों और कैसे देख रहे हैं।

इस अवसर पर यह दोहा याद आ रहा हैः-

सरस कविन के मम्म कौ, वेधत द्वै मो कौन।
असमझवार सराहिबौ, समझवार को मौन।

यहाँ किसी का नाम नहीं लेकर या किसी की अशुद्धियों का उदाहरण देकर किसी के वाक्य युद्ध करना अभीष्ट नहीं है। हिन्दी की चिन्दी करने वाले भाइयों के कार्य से मर्माहत होकर अपने आदरणीय उपर्युक्त महारथियों से मेरी विनती है कि आप लोग अपना मौन भंगकर इस ओर ध्यान देने का अनुग्रह करें।

हिन्दी संसार में अब सर्वमान्य सर्वश्री अम्बिकादत्त व्यास, दुर्गा प्रसाद शर्मा, राय देवी प्रसाद पूर्ण, बालमुकुन्द गुप्त, रामचन्द्र शुक्ल,महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेद्वी, पद्मसिंह शर्मा, जगन्नाथ प्रसाद, सखाराम चतुर्वेदी, शिवनाथ शर्मा,मेहता लज्जाराम, गणेश देवत्कर, चन्द्रधर शर्मा गुलेरी, अमृत लाल चकवर्ती आदि तो हैं नहीं,जिनके समय में लेखकों को हिन्दी की चिन्दी करने का भी अवसर नहीं मिलता था। जरा-जरा सी भूल पर मर्मज्ञ आलोचकों को समयानुसार कनेठियां और चाबुक की फटकार मिलती थी। ‘अनस्थिरता और शेष’ शब्द पर कैसी तीखी मर्मभेदिनी आलोचनाओं का समाचार पत्रों में सर्वोपयोगी वाक्युद्ध चला था।

इस अवसर पर मेरे मित्रा माननीय रामचन्द्र वर्मा की ‘अच्छी हिन्दी’मुझे मिली, जिसको पढ़ते ही दिल की कली खिल उठी। वर्मा ने भी इस पुस्तक में बहुत सी बातें लिख दी हैं, जिसको मैं समय पर लिखना चाहता था, किन्तु लिख नहीं सका।

‘अच्छी हिन्दी’में वर्मा जी ने नवयुवक हिन्दी लेखकों के लिए ही नहीं सबके लिए अच्छी रहनुमायी की है। आशा है, इससे सब हिन्दी लेखकों का उपकार होगा। मैं आदरणीय वर्मा जी से यह कहने के लिए क्षमा चाहता हूँ कि आपने ऐसी भी भूलों का विवरण दिया है जो अब गमतुल क्षाम फसीहती आम हो गई, जैसे खिदमतगार आदि कुछ भूलें न जाने आपने क्यों छोड़ भी दी है, जिनका उल्लेख इस पुस्तक में अवश्य होना चाहिए था। जल्दी में या भूलों की अधिकता से ऐसा हुआ होगा।

आज कल लिखा जाता है ‘अमृत धारा आपकी मित्र है’। ‘अमुक स्त्री उसकी मालिक है’, भाषा राष्ट्र की प्राण है’, मिहनत करनी पड़ती है।

वर्मा जी की यह बात मुझे बहुत पसन्द आई आपने उदाहरण बहुत दिए हैं लेकिन उनके लेखकों का नाम कहीं नहीं दिया है। इससे कटुता और वाद विवाद पढ़ने के सिवाय और कुछ लाभ नहीं होता।

मेरी राय है कि इस तरह लिखा पढ़ी से यह उद्यम होगा कि सब माननीय महारथी एक राय होकर एक स्थान पर एकत्र हो इन त्रुटियों से हिन्दी को निर्मल कर देने का सुगम उपाय निर्धारित करके भाषा का इन संकटों से उद्धार करें। इस तरह शीघ्र और सुगमता से हिन्दी की चिन्दी से रक्षा हो जाएगी और अधिक विलम्ब अथवा अनेक कठिनाइयों का सामना नहीं करना पड़ेगा। इसके लिए समुचित स्थान नागरी प्रचारिणी सभा है, जहाँ अखिल भारतीय हिन्दी साहित्य सम्मेलन का जन्म हुआ था। उसके जन्मदाता माननीय महामना पण्डित मदन मोहन मालवीय हैं।

Gopal Ram Gahmari

Gopal Ram Gahmari (1866–1946) was a great Hindi servant, novelist and journalist . He continued to run a magazine called 'Detective' for 38 years without any cooperation, wrote more than 200 novels , translated hundreds of stories, even the 'Chitraganda' poetry of Rabindranath Thakur (first translated by Ghamriji) Translated. He was a writer who rendered Hindi Ahnish service, encouraged people to read Hindi, created such works that people learned Hindi. If non- Hindi speakers learned Hindi to read the works of another writer after Devkinandan Khatri , then he was Gopalram Gahmari.

Gahmari initially translated plays, then started translating novels. His translation from Bangla to Hindi was then considered very authentic. Rich in versatility, Gopalaram Gahmari wrote in a variety of genres of poems, plays, novels, stories, essays and literature, but gained prominence in the field of detective novels. Launched a monthly magazine called 'Detective'. For this, he often had to write a novel every month. Ghamriji wrote over 200 detective novels. 'Awesome Corpse', 'Innocent hanging', 'Sarkati corpse', 'Double detective', 'Fierce theft', 'Killer hunt' and 'Guptabhed' are his major novels. The tradition of espionage novel writing, which Ghamri gave birth, could not develop in Hindi.


Gopal Ram Ghmri born POUSH Krishna 8 Thursday Samvat 1923 (circa 1866 AD) Uttar Pradesh 's Ghazipur district was in Gahmar of. His great-grandfather, Mr. Jagannath Sahu, was a merchant of French Chintz. He had two sons - Raghunandan and Brijmohan. Raghunandanji had three sons, Ram Narayan, Kalicharan and Ramdas. Gopalram Gahmari was the son of Ramnarayanji. Kalicharan was a childless and Mahavir Prasad Gahmari had only one son of Ramdas. Gopalram Gahmari also had one son, Iqbal Narayan. Mahavir Prasad Gahmari had two sons, Deity Prasad Ghamri and Durga Prasad Ghamri. Devta Prasad Gahmari was associated with the daily 'Aaj' and 'Sanmarga' published from Kashi for a long time .

When Gopal Ram Gahmari was six months old, his father died and his mother moved to his Mache Gahmar . Gopal Ram was brought up in Gahmar itself. Early education and rites were concluded here. Due to his extra attachment to Gahmar, he added this nanihal with his name and started to be called Gopalaram Gahmari.

He had his early education in Gahmar. Educated at Vernacular Middle from there. Passed middle in 1879. Then at the Gahmar School, he continued to teach students for four years and also continued to practice Urdu and English . After this, Patna was admitted to the Normal School, where admission was made on the condition that upon passing, the middle pass students would have to teach for three years. Accepted this condition due to poor economic condition. But leaving middle school, Gahmari ji went to work at Betia Maharaja School instead of Head Pandit. In the year 1888, he discharged himself from all work and passed the examination of normal in the High First Grade. Soon after in 1889, RohtasgarhI was appointed headmaster. However, he could not survive here and moved to Bombay in 1891 at the invitation of Seth Gangavishnu Khemraj, the famous publisher of Bombay.

When Gahmari ji was in Rohtasgarh, he used to send his compositions to newspapers and magazines. When he started living in Bombay, his pen was also moving there. It is another matter that they could not stay there for long. Since Khemraj's business was the publication of books, there was no special place for creativity for him. Papers and magazines were not published from there. Therefore, not seeing his favorable opportunities here, resigned from there and went to Kalakankar. Gahmari ji was a regular writer of the daily ' Hindosthan ' originating from Kalankarkar ( Pratapgarh , Uttar Pradesh). Along with this, the best newspapers and magazines of that time used to write regularly in 'Bihar Bandhu', 'Bharat Jeevan', 'Saar Sudhanidhi'.

When Gahmari came to Kalakankar at the invitation of Raja Rampal Singh in 1892, he became associated with the editorial department here and stayed for a year. While working here, she learned Bangla and also tried to enrich literature through translation.

Gahmari ji did not last long in one place. Once again in 1893, he turned to Bombay and started editing the letter 'Bombay Business Sindhu' emanating from here. This letter was carried out by a fearless and infinitely courageous postman there. But say the misfortune of this letter or that of Ghamri ji that this letter stopped after six months, but Ghamri ji did not go in vain. At the same time, a Hindi lover SS Mishra called Ghamri ji and gave him the responsibility of editing 'Bhasha Bhushan'. This letter was monthly. But this letter also stopped. But there were no economic reasons behind this shutdown nor any other type of optical problems. Rather this letter had to be closed due to a riot.

After the closure of 'Bhasha Bhushan', they started searching for a new place. There was no dearth of those who loved them and loved them. Among them were Pt. Balmunkud Purohit. By the grace of him, Gahmari Ji MandlaTurned to But could not stay here for long. The publication of the monthly 'Guptakatha' started from here, but due to lack of meaning, this paper had to be stopped untimely. Gahramiji once again came to the crossroads. But this intersection led to a road leading to Bombay. Khemraj ji started publishing the letter named ‘Sri Venkateswara Samachar’. This paper became popular in a short time in the efficient editing of Gahmari ji. Meanwhile, in the 'Pradeep' (Bangla language) originating from Prayag, a detective story 'Hirar Price' was published by the tribune's editor Nagendranath Gupta. Gahamariji translated this story into Hindi and published it in several installments in Sri Venkateswara Samachar. This detective story found the readers so interesting that many readers subscribed to this letter.

At that time, there was a keen interest of readers in detective stories. It would have confounded such a tale of interestingness and mystery that aroused a kind of jugupas within the readers and forced them to read. Gahmari ji understood the minds and minds of the readers. He had become aware of the popularity of the translation of 'Hire Ka Mole' and the reactions of readers by writing 'Jodi Detective'. Due to this popularity, he started making many schemes. He had also understood that a vast section of readers could be created only through detective stories. Gahmari ji tended towards spying writing with complete preparation. It is also worth mentioning that some incidents that happened to him also pushed him towards espionage writing. In this way, in 1899, he wanted to come home and find the detective, but Balmukund GuptaK's son was to be married and went to his village Gurayani, giving the burden of editing 'Bharat Mitra' to Ghamri ji. For a few days, Ghamri ji edited 'Bharat Mitra' efficiently. Because of this, the publication of 'Detective' was postponed for a short time. He wished that along with ' Saraswati ', 'Detective' should also be published, but this desire remained in his mind. In this way, the spy was not published with 'Saraswati' in January 1900, but four months later i.e. in May 1900.

During the editing of 'Bharat Mitra', Ghamri ji had informed about the exit of the detective. The advantage was that hundreds of readers subscribed to the magazine before it was published. Another notable thing is that the credit of the word 'detective' in Hindi goes to Ghamri ji. He wrote that 'before 1892 no word spies appeared in any book'. He named his journal in such a way that the general reader could easily understand its subject matter. Though the word 'detective' suggests that it would have published detective stories, but this was not the case. In addition to a detective story in every issue, news, views and reviews of books were also published regularly. He needed some money to get the detective, which he completed by writing 'Manorama' and 'Mayavini'. 'Spy'Hariprakash came out from the press and in the first month he received a quarter to two hundred rupees from the VPP. It had touched the summit, crossing all the limits of popularity with its inception. Seeing its immense popularity, Gopalaram Gahmari did not look back when he turned to writing espionage stories and novels and did not care what the so-called scholars of literature thought of him. In his entry, the detective introduced something like this -

'Don't be afraid, this is not a travesty, don't run away, dhoti sariyakar, this is not a government CID. What is What is it? This is a fifty-page beautifully decorated monthly book, menstrual book that reaches every customer every first week. Each one has big, big, spicy, big juicy, very hot, big intoxicating cases. Every month a lot of interesting, big circling, big interesting happenings burst forth, good education and preaching novels come out ... The river of the story is such that the water falls, the waterfall of this river is such that the drowning of the joy of reading - Starts landing.

In this way, due to its readership and due to their immense affection, this magazine kept on coming out of a village like Gahmar for a full 38 years, not for two years. Just as Bal Krishna Bhatt kept 'Hindi Pradeep' illuminated for 33 years while battling hunger, similarly Gopal Ram Gahmari kept it alive for 38 years.

Meanwhile, he again got an opportunity to go to Bombay. Venkateswara newspaper was coming out. He needed an editor. Although at that time the editor of that paper was the famous writer Lajjaram Mehta ji. They were to go to Bundi at their home . Therefore the letter needed an editor. Gahmari ji went to his invitation and took charge, but the 'spy' did not stop. She was constantly leaving. Meanwhile, Seth Ranganath proposed to Gahmari ji that the detective be given to him and he should continue to live for Rs 50 as his life. Seth ji also proposed to him that there is no desire to stay in Bombay, who should send and write from Gahmar itself, I will keep publishing. However, Gahmari ji declined the offer and returned to his village.

During this period, Gahmari ji moved from espionage to writing two books on spiritual matters. 'Shakti Shakti' was a translation from his Bengali and 'Mohini Vidya', a unique work on Mascarism and possibly the first in Hindi. Both these books were well liked by Hindi readers. In later days, he was also disgusted by espionage writing and he turned to religion and spirituality.


Gahmari ji said that 'whose reader has read the novel and understood that all sixteen is true, his writing should be considered successful.' Gahmari ji took special care of the readers' interest in his creations as to what kind of material he liked. In terms of literature, his views were also of high order. He also considered literature as history. He believed that literature has a deep connection with the era in which it is composed. He considered the novel as the history of his time. Detectives, execution of innocents, marriage of Ketaki, Hum hawala, three spies, whirling blood, Than Than Gopal, Gerua Baba, 'Death of the Dead', etc. are not only mystery adventures, but also the accompaniments and inconsistencies of the era Are present. The condition and direction of the society is also assessed. Saying that they are espionage and only amusing compositions cannot be dismissed, Neither their contributions can be turned away. Much credit goes to the popularity of Gahmari ji to the later generations.The same goes to Devkinandan Khatri and Ghamri ji. In his writings, he created conditions that people had moved towards studying. Gahmari ji alone translated hundreds of stories, novels.

Acharya Ramchandra Shukla praised Gopalram Gahmari's work in the history of his literature, but later critics ignored it. Gautam Sanyal wrote in a special episode of Hans that, 'Premchand's novel which has the highest position in terms of readability, many of the situations of' embezzlement 'are similar to a foreign crime thriller and translated by Gopalram Ghamri In 1906, the detective had done it in the magazine. There is no need to say more about Gopalram Gahmari from this quote.

Poverty does not deter you from self-respect

About 70 years ago, when I had passed the Secondary Examination, the novel writer used to read novels by Mr. Gopalram Gahmari. At that time, novels like "Chandrakanta," Chandrakanta-Santati "and" Bhootnath "were very well read, etc. Although these novels have played an important role in the propagation of Hindi, but we have grown old in our homes We used to refuse to read novels. But many of Gahmari ji's novels were available to us in those days to read from the local library and we got Pandit Sundarlal's writing "In India English Raj ", which was confiscated by the then British Government." Gahmar "- the name of the birth place of Gahmari ji, where he studied in the 5th grade in the" Madrasa ". The name" School "was not much in vogue - Urdu. The word Madrasa was understood by everyone. It is about 1873. "Gahmar" K had three teachers in that seminary. Babu Ramnarayan Singh was the Principal. The second one was Munshi ji, Yogeshwar Prasad and the third was Munshi Kali Prasad Srivastava. The boys used to call the teachers "Badaka Munshi ji" and "Chhotka Munshi ji". Students from the age of 5 to the age of 12 studied in the madrasa. Here Ghamari ji also used to study.

The remarkable thing was that Munshi Kali Prasad, the third teacher, did not get any salary at the end of the month. While Munshiji used to take the boys to madrasas everyday, then they used to leave them at their homes during the holiday. He was teaching very kindly. It seemed as if all those students were his children. The boys were very happy to see such behavior. The salary was Munshi ji's chana, Chabena which the boys of Madrasa used to bring with him for breakfast, from that same breakfast, the boys put some portion in Munshi ji's bag - every month also gave some money to the Munshi ji. Every day, the gram and chabana they got from those boys filled their big bag. Munshiji was satisfied with this - it was his salary for a month's teaching work. But if we think according to today's inflation, then we have to pay about six and a quarter thousand rupees to buy 11 and a quarter of the whole month. What is 1 rupee then? A penny of copper was also worth a lot. Once when Gahmari ji studied in the sixth grade, the then writer Raja Shiva Prasad "Stars Hind" came to that madrasa. Seeing the beautiful letter, script of Gahmari ji, King Shiva Prasad gave Ghamri in 1 rupee prize which was considered a big reward for a child at that time. Gahmari ji was studying in poverty. One day got to eat betel leaf from somewhere. After eating a paan, they came to the madrassa with red lips. Munshi Kali Prasad caught him and beat him a lot. By the way, he never beat the stick of a flower. Gahmari ji writes- "Guruji's death became a mantra for me because of eating betel leaf and that's why I was protected from tobacco-bidi-cigarette-Surti." Father left them for 6 months and passed away. Mother used to feed them bunnery of rice-salt-flour, but she also left them in her childhood and died. While dying, she had told the boy Gahamri that son! Stay hungry but don't borrow from anyone. "Gahmari ji learned this by tying the knot for a lifetime. In poverty, he read the government books of the madrasa. When he was hungry, he ate the breakfast of Munshi Yogeshwar Prasad, which Ghamri ji gave in gratitude. Wrote Juthan. Passed the upper primary examination at the age of 13. In 1879 Gahmari ji's fame spread that "he passed middle". Ghamri ji also became a writer by reading. Trust written and considered the author of the first line of his age. His life story, it inspires that poverty can not stop the way of a move. Which Gahmari ji wrote with gratitude. Passed the upper primary examination at the age of 13. In 1879, Gahmari ji's fame spread that he had "passed the middle". By reading and writing, Ghamri ji also became a writer. Wrote several novels and was considered the first-line author of his era. His life story gives inspiration that poverty cannot stop anyone from moving forward. Which Gahmari ji wrote with gratitude. Passed the upper primary examination at the age of 13. In 1879, Gahmari ji's fame spread that he had "passed the middle". By reading and writing, Ghamri ji also became a writer. Wrote several novels and was considered the first-line author of his era. His life story gives inspiration that poverty cannot stop anyone from moving forward.

By Vachnesh Tripathi

Gopalram Ghamri

Birth: Paush Krishna, Eight, Thursday, Samvat 1923, (1866), Gahmar, District Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh.

Education: Normal examination, first class.

Editing: Bharat Bhushan (Bombay Weekly, 1893), Co-operative Editor: Sahitya Saroj (Meerut, Fortnightly, 01 December 1895), Guptakha (first Hindi detective monthly paper, Meerut), Bihar Bandhu (Patna, 1907 to 1909), substitute editor : In Bharatamitra (Calcutta, Weekly) for a few months in 1899. Co-operative Editor: Venkateswara Newspaper (Bombay 1897 to 1899), Dainik Hindosthan (Kalakankar, 1889 to 1890), Business Indus (Monthly Bombay). Went to Bombay again in 1892 and edited the letter for only one month. Detective: Monthly Papers, published from his village Gahmar from 1900 to 1939. Father of detective novels in Hindi.

Compositions: Creating over two hundred original espionage, social novels. Translation from Bangla. A translation of the story 'Hirale Ke Mol' from Bangla for the first time. The earliest translation of Rabindranath Tagore's work 'Chitrangada' in Hindi. Desh Dasha, Janmabhoomi, Babhruvahana and Vanveer (drama). Gold century and spring development (poetry). Statement of plague and talk of color (satirical humor).

Language knowledge: Hindi, Urdu, Persian, Sanskrit, Bangla, English.

Souvenirs: 20 June 1946, Benaras.

Gopal Ram Gahmari: A detective writer who learned Hindi to read

Gopal Ram Gahmari created a large section of Hindi readers. The tradition of espionage writing that he started later had many big names like Ibne Safi

(Death: 20 June 1946)

'Don't be afraid, this is not a travesty, do not run away, dhoti sariyakar, this is not a government CID. What is What is it? This is a fifty-page beautifully decorated monthly book, menstrual book that reaches every customer every first week. Each one has big, big, big, lush, big juicy, big drug cases. Every month there are big punches, big circles, big interesting events, big teachings, good education and preaching novels come out ... The river of Kahani is such a tremor, the waterfall of this story is such that the reading bliss is drowning Looks like.

This was an advertisement for Gopal Ram Gahmari's monthly magazine 'Detective' which came in his own editing newspaper 'Bharat Mitra' and which created a stir in the market at that time. The result was that hundreds of readers had already subscribed to it yearly before it was published. This was probably the first time in the history of a magazine. It is a matter of 1900. Even in that era, the amount received from this pre booking was Rs 175.

He was the only journalist who recorded the entire trial of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in his own words. Not only this, he also did the first official translation of Rabindra Nath Tagore's 'Chitrangada'.

Gopal Ram Gahmari was a journalist by profession. He was the only journalist who recorded the entire trial of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in his own words. Not only this, he also did the first official translation of Rabindra Nath Tagore's 'Chitrangada'. There is a long series of journals and magazines to be published in his edits. These include names ranging from Hindusthan Daily published from Kalakankar of Pratapgarh to Bombay Business Indus, Guptagatha, Sri Venkateswara Samachar and Bharat Mitra.

Although they did not last anywhere very much. One reason for this was the closure of many magazines under economic pressure. The second and important reason was that on the one hand there was an uneasiness to do something different and elaborate for the Hindi language and on the other hand, there was also a framework of 'spy' that thrives within them. However, spying out and doing something new in the service of Hindi language were not two separate issues. They wanted to do something new for this language only by taking out spies.

देवकी नंदन खत्री के बाद गोपाल राम गहमरी ही वे अकेला नाम हैं जिन्हें पढ़ने की खातिर कितने ही अहिंदी भाषा भाषियों ने हिंदी भाषा सीखी. जिसे हम हेय भाव के साथ लुगदी साहित्य कहते हैं हिंदी में खत्री जी के साथ गोपालराम गहमरी ही उसके प्रणेता रहे हैं. लुगदी साहित्य का स्वर्णकाल इन्हीं दोनों के नाम से जुड़ा हुआ है और जो भी मान सम्मान इस साहित्य का रहा वह भी इन दोनों तक ही रहा. बाद में अकादमिक और साहित्यिक भेदभाव ने इस विधा को अछूतों की श्रेणी में रख दिया. बिना यह सोचे कि आधुनिक हिंदी की यात्रा इसी से शुरू होती और फैलती है. उनके इस योगदान के लिए पंडित रामचंद्र शुक्ल ने भले ही अपने हिंदी साहित्य के इतिहास में इनकी सराहना की पर अधिकांशतः आलोचकों और साहित्य इतिहासकारों ने इन पर उपेक्षा भरी दृष्टि डालने से भी इनकार कर दिया.

हालांकि इन दोनों लेखकों की बची-खुची साख ही थी कि इन दोनों द्वारा शुरू ‘जासूसी लेखन’ की परंपरा साहित्यिक पंडितों की उपेक्षा और तिरस्कार के बावजूद लंबे समय तक चलती रही. इस परंपरा से इस विधा को न जाने कितने नए लेखक मिले. इब्ने सफी, कुशवाहा कान्त, रानू, गुलशन नंदा, कर्नल रंजीत, ओमप्रकाश शर्मा, सुरेन्द्र मोहन पाठक, वेद प्रकाश शर्मा जैसे नाम इसी परम्परा को आगे बढ़ाते हुए सामने आये.

इन दोनों लेखकों की बची-खुची साख ही थी कि इन दोनों द्वारा शुरू ‘जासूसी लेखन’ की परंपरा साहित्यिक पंडितों की उपेक्षा और तिरस्कार के बावजूद लंबे समय तक चलती रही

Gahmari ji's vision of writing was very clear and settled.

He used to condemn such a language which had to be raised to understand it. The standard for a story and novel to be good was for him 'to be true to the fact that sixteen people are coming, despite the fact that the story is completely fictitious'. Even he gave the name 'espionage' to the compositions of this genre first. Gopal Ram Ghamri understood the minds and minds of the readers very well. They had understood that a vast section of Hindi readers could be prepared only through detective stories. He came to detective writing with complete preparation and a detailed thinking. There was not only mystery and thrill in his works. There were also compatibilities and inconsistencies of the time. Even contrary to our original belief, that magazine called 'Detective' contained news, views and reviews related to contemporary times.

Actually, we express our time in fantasy by not expressing it directly. So 'espionage story' was the chosen fantasy of Gahmari ji in which he kept saying his point. It was not an ordinary thing that the village of his maternal grandfather, Gahmar, in which he was born, where he grew up after the death of his father, whom he loved and respected so much that he had added his name to him; From the same campaign, he continued to run Detective magazine for 38 years without any major and external support. In the past, his intentions for the magazine can only be compared to keeping 'Pradeep' illuminated while in Balakrishna Sharma's failure, or Rajendra Yadav's swan in recent times.

The example is enough to know his love and love for Hindi language and detective. When Lajjaram Mehta, the then editor of 'Venkateswara Patrika', who had been the editor, asked him to rejoin the magazine for a short period of time and stay in Bombay for some reason for some reason. Had taken The detectives continued to leave during that time and they also kept watching the editing load of that magazine. Meanwhile, Seth Ramdas once asked him to give the 'spies' to him and continue to practice his personal literature by taking 50 rupees a month as a pension from him throughout his life. Seth Ramdas also offered this to Gopalaram Gahmari, if he wants, he can also handle the detective as editor, if he is in Bombay or not while living in Gahmar. But despite his trouble Gopalram Gahmari refused to do so.

The number of original detective novels of Gopalram Gahmari is 64. Even if we translate the translated novels, then it reaches close to 200.

The number of original detective novels of Gopalram Gahmari is 64. Even if we translate the translated novels, then it reaches close to 200. His major creations are sliding corpse, marvelous corpse, hanging innocent, double spies, horrific theft, secret secrets, etc. One reason for writing in this abundance was also the pressure that a detective novel had to go to the detective every month. The impact of his writings can also be judged that in an early issue of 'Hans' magazine, Gautam Sanyal even wrote that' many situations of Premchand's novel embezzlement which is supreme in terms of readability, a foreign crime thriller. Which was translated and published by Gopal Ram Gahmari in his spy magazine in 1906. This also indicates that very big names have been included in the readers of Gopal Ram Gahmari.

Sahaj, Sugam, Sunder and Subodh Hindi-Prachar was the main objective of Gahmari Ji's Sahitya Seva. Just before Chhayavad, when the dialect of Khadi Boli Hindi and Brajbhasha was at its Uruj, the supporters of Ghamri ji Khadi Boli came not only in support of Sridhar Pathak, but also against the opposition of Hindi and pro-Brajbhasha, Pandit Pratap Narayan Mishra (who of Bharatendula period He was a strong creator and journalist) and he also did the risky task of bringing and standing in favor of Hindi on his own. We remember him with reverence for his unforgettable contribution to the Hindi language on his death anniversary.

Secret story
Gopalram Gahmari

First tableau

Detective life identity is also a unique way. Hyder was the son of Chirag Ali, a wealthy Muslim merchant. He had a deep explanation for the detective. Hyder would be four to five years younger than the detective in Omar, but both of the same Omar were seen from the body. Despite being a Muslim, Haidar did not live like that and Muslims go away from Hindus. When at work, Hyder would stay with the detective for eighteen days and the detective would sometimes go to Hyder's house to meet his father Chirag, sit and talk with him. Chirag Ali also lived in such a manner that the detective knew him like his elders.

In those days Chirag Ali had risen from the seventies. On seeing the bright white beard mustache on the body, all the body full of form, everyone can have devotion in Chirag Ali. Even in this old age, it seems that Chirag Ali must have been a beautiful young man in his ascending age.

Chirag Ali has never seen anyone speaking to anyone. Even if someone insults him, Chirag would bear him and would laugh and speak to him. No beggar left the lamp door empty handed.

It is heard that Chirag Ali started the work of the boat first and by the same work he became a famous rich man by the time. Chirag, with his muscle power, built a palace-like residence building and deposited a lot of money in the treasury.

There was always a crowd of men in Chirag Ali's palace. In his family, there was no one except Chirag for his wife, son, son's wife and some small children, but the wealth also increases in the world due to the wealth, that is why Chirag's house was filled with packed people. . Among them, there was a confluence of the maid of the father and the servant of the women and many such male women who came into the shadow of Chirag Ali due to their wealth. Chirag Ali did not nurture the poor who came to his house, but also used to feed the unhappy poor people outside. Instead of saying all these things, it would be so much better that Chirag Ali was a serious sociable and sweetest speaker, so was Dani too. His heart was full of mercy.

Hyder was not as sweet-spoken and a donor as the father, yet he was not a man of bad nature. Those who saw Haider's behavior and his equanimity on the afflicted, used to say in his mind that he too would become a kind and deenbandhu like the father.

Whatever we have said about the father son's movement here, there is no work to say anymore. We complete the chapter of his attribution by saying that Chirag Ali was like the lamp of his city. And his dignity was the same among all the people, he was equally magnified in his community. Wherever the caste gathering took place, Chirag Ali had to be the Chairman Editor. Wherever there was some kind of panchayati case, there was no response to Chirag Ali without his opinion. This means that Chirag Ali was the leader in all kinds of work.

Second tableau

Two or three months later, when the detective reached Calcutta after working outside, Hyder came to him as soon as the morning broke. Today, he did not meet like he used to get a detective. Seeing the face of Hyder, the detective took a note that today there is black in some lentils. Hyder talks to the mouth but is smitten inside. Looks with eyes, but they do not have the first light.

Seeing him, the detective asked - 'Why Hyder! Why is your face like this today? Is everyone efficient at home? Father is good, isn't it?

Hyder said - 'It is okay for you to understand. I am really sad. And I have come to say that sadness, my father has reached the stage of death. Now it should be known that then, this is the only thing happening, Dr. Vaidya does medicine, even for service, the servants have been handcuffed to him, but somehow his illness does not get interrupted. If you ask them any situation, they do not tell anything. Suffice it to say that no matter how much medicine is to be taken this time. Now the day has come for me to die. Now say what to do? My wisdom doesn't work. Just now I heard that you came from outside yesterday. I have run from this, that after listening to them, you will tell me something. '

The detective asked - 'Good! Tell me what has happened to them, then I will tell my opinion back. '

'Well, listen, I say all their condition.' Saying this, Hyder started saying -

'Tis three months. One day I was sitting in the verandah with my father on the evening. In this way, an old Muslim came to meet my father, as he came and sat on one of the many chairs lying next to us, as he said to the father - 'Why? You do not recognize me? '

The father said - 'We remember your face but do not remember where I met you.'

In response, the old man said - 'I will tell you one thing and you will remember that. I met you in a village in the state of Bombay. You will remember Ali Bhai's name there, I live there too. My name is Ibrahim Bhai. '

On hearing this, father's face changed. They said to me - 'Son! You will move away from here and I will talk to them.

After listening to my father, I left. Then I do not know what happened in those people. His age was higher than his father. He always used to live near his father, from this I could not even know anything about him, since then he started staying at my house. The father set up a cell to let them live, two servants were also given their rest.

When someone else came to ask his father's address, he used to say that he is the companion of boyhood.

Hearing from the very first day, I understood that his name is Ibrahim Bhai and is from one of the villages towards Bombay. Apart from this, I do not know anything else till date.

At first, he appeared to be very simple but when he got old, he gave a big boost. We started suppressing people. The servants started issuing unaccountable orders on the chakras. Those who did not obey their orders and delayed in obeying them, started beating them up in addition to calling them high in front of the father. Father did not speak anything after seeing his behavior. Because of this, the servants all started to suffer. Those who were not supported started leaving the job. Even, many old servants quit their jobs. We were deeply saddened by his departure. We did not know the reason why father had pity on that old man like this.

The servant who was in the hands of all the business, one day, the old man said very lowly and tortured him so badly that he was not endured. He told all his grief to Dad. At that time the old man was also sitting near Dad. In front of father too, the old man hit him with many things. When the father did not say anything there, the old believer left the job and went on saying that it was no longer a day to work in this court. The respect of good men is no longer here.

After he left all his work hit my head. I used to do everything that was made for me. One day the old man came to me and said, 'Haider! Fill up a small tobacco. '

After listening to him, I asked a servant to bring him a filling of tobacco.

On hearing this, the old fire broke out. He shouted - 'Why Hyder! Your heart is so much! Do not obey me? Instead of doing what I ordered to do, I ordered another servant to do it? What work did your father not do till today?

We already had a lot of pomp on that Ibrahim Bhai, but we could not say anything to him because of my father. But, that day I did not get it right and I got up with a shoe and said, OK, I will tell you to do it with my own hand. And near by, he deposited many on his head.

The old man woke up to a brinjal of burning oil, and left me very eggless. I did not even look at him again.

In this way, seeing how he was beaten by my hand and how happy everyone was in his mind, I cannot say.

Some time after this incident, father sent me to call. When I went in front of them, I saw the old man sitting there too. By showing him the father said -

'Why son! Have you hit them with shoes? '

I said - 'Yes Dad! I had to do this when the anger was no longer out of anger. Having said this, he told me everything that he had asked me to fill with tobacco and he told the father as far as he remembered what he had done to other servants. After listening to me, Dad kept quiet for a while and then said -

Oh! You have done a very bad job. See, if you were happy just by filling one of your tobacco, then it would have erased all the trouble. You have done a very bad thing by not doing like that.

Hearing the father's anger, my body trembled. I never said such a thing in front of the father. I was spoiled by what he said -

'Father! You never taught me how to fill tobacco, nor ordered me to fill tobacco, that I would have learned that work. Then, to do such a thing which I have never done, call me a man who feeds on food after eating food. Whether you are happy or not, I cannot do such a thing by saying that. Hearing this, Dad said -

'Hey, you have done such a bad thing that no one will do. To whom I respect you so much, you will apologize for your bad work and failure on those shoes, so what will you answer? You should understand that the shoes you killed are not lying on their heads. You have not killed them, I have killed them. Now you need to apologize to them in some way or else, it is not good in your right. ' I listened to them and said -

'Whether it is good or not in my favor, but I cannot say that in this matter. You are giving us absolutely unfair orders. I am unable to understand why you have been hurt by this. This is a lowly man, like an ordinary Pahune coming into the house, now he considers himself a master of the house and counts us all as servants. He does not remember his first condition. I have not yet given it the full results of its action. Let me say in front of you, if it does this again with us in this way, then I will color it before you. And I will hold it out on my own. ' Dad said after listening to me -

'Look Hyder! I understood that you are our child. In all things Daya Maya, people will look at you with respect like me. But now I see, I find you completely the opposite. It is also a sin to see the face of the son who avoids the father's talk. Get away from me right now. Old people have been saying that the son who disobeys the father is not the son. Now I listened to my father and said -

'Father, you are a rage on me. If punished then give both. And if not, you are our birth father, I have to obey your command with sheer eyes. I go away from here after obeying you, but this old person is taught to me every time.

Having said this, I took the shoe out of my foot and gave that Ibrahim brother a lot of market value. Father wanted to save them a lot, but due to old age the body is weak due to 'Arere! Hey Cad! Be far away! ' Could not say anything except to say so much. The father shouted and called the servants, but no one came there, then I went on arbitrary worshiping him with Jutan Das, saying that now even if you stay here, know that your hands are your time. '

Dad was so angry at me that he could not speak again from his mouth, he kept trembling while sitting there.

Moved away from there but left home. Hiding in a nearby room, he started listening to what happens there. I saw with a crack that the old man got up from there and said to Dad -

Look, Sir! I go but take revenge, then my name is Ibrahim, if not brother. The old man left from there. The father stopped him a lot but he did not accept anything. He disobeyed and went away from there.

Third tableau

The day the old man left my house, the color of his father changed. Kalimasi fell on his face. He always started living quietly in some worry. Along with the worry, his diet also decreased, now he could not eat even a tenth of what was his diet.

The day the old man came in front of his father with his shoes, I did no he lived, how his day passed, all the conditions of his servants. Used to take from Seeing this condition of my father, I too was afraid of what would happen. Has the father really considered his insult with the insult of Ibrahim Bhai or what? I was very worried about why Dad is so sad and why he is in such a situation. I started searching for this day by day but could not find out wht go in front of the father again the same day, but always kept an eye on what the father did, howat was the matter? One day, Dad was sitting in his meeting, seeing that it seemed that he was thinking something in his mind with some deep concern. In the meantime, the dakpian came and gave a letter in his hand. I was very upset to see him coming to the meeting and giving his hand to the father, Because until now he was always the gatekeeper and gave letters to the servants. I had never seen any dakpian before coming inside the meeting and giving my father a letter with my hand.

But when that letter came in my hand at the back, I saw that it was written on it, but do not give it in the hands of anyone except the one who has the letter.

After the dakpian left, Dad opened the letter and read it. Not once or not twice, after reading it with great enthusiasm, kept the letter in his pocket.

Dad's face changed after reading the letter. A bright line of laughter appeared on his somber body. The happiness of many days which had been removed from his body in a way, again came in my sight that day.

I was also very happy to see my father happy after reading the letter. I understood that the father has found some good news in the letter, which has removed his worries. But when I looked back that he was happy for a while, then he got very scared in his mind. I came to know that an extinguished lamp shines once in the end. Once upon a time like a human being gets rid of all diseases, father's happiness was exactly the same.

The father got happy after reading that letter and called a servant and ordered that my sick bath was not suitable for many eighteen days due to sickness, today to arrange bath food properly. My body is well today. The servant did the same after getting the order. Father happily ate his diet well that day. He had the practice of lying down for some time behind the diet, but I got very worried after seeing it upside down that day.

Father came to the meeting behind the diet and started writing the letter. This worried me more. Father always gave the task of writing letters to the servants. That day, writing my letter to Dad with my hand, I first saw the initiative. Father started writing the letter only after having food, but I do not know when he finished. Until two o'clock in the night, when I saw that his letter had not finished writing, I fell asleep then I did not know when his letter was completed.

The next day when I got up from the bed, I saw that my father was sleeping. Always a servant tried to wake him up when he did not get up even two or three hours later when he got up from the bed. Father told him that -

'My body is not good. Neither do I have the strength to get up from the SEZ.

'I could no longer listen to such a thing from the servant's mouth. I did not go in front of my father the day Ibrahim bhai used to put shoes on me, but when he heard his father's illness, he could not. Immediately he went to his room and sat in a corner on the SEZ. Turning his hand over his body, the entire body was on fire. I asked Dad what happened to you? How is the body

After listening to me, Dad said - 'Son! I myself cannot know what has happened and what I will tell you. But it seems so much that I have febrile fever and I will not be able to escape from this fever anymore. This is my age. After listening to them I said -

'Father! Fever happens to many people. Why are you so afraid of it? Then there is also no shortage of doctor practitioners in Calcutta. You will be cured with their medicine. ' Dad said after listening to me -

'When I am well aware that this time it is not written to be my rest, then what will be the benefit of throwing unaccounted money?' I said in his reply - 'For whom is the money. Whose wealth is it all? You have accumulated this money by earning a lifetime, then if this money is not spent for you, what will happen with this money? In which work will it be used? Whether you believe it or not, I will not delay it now. I will invest as much money as you can to improve your body and bless you. I will not accept your refusal in this. I just go and remedy it. ' Having said this, he left. And for his service help, he hired more maids than the slaves who were maids. After consulting with his old and trusted staff, the clever veteran of Calcutta called the doctor Vaidya and applied him to the father's treatment. But in spite of everything, Father's disease started increasing day by day. As much as the medicine was carefully done by the Vaidya and the doctors, the disease increased. There was no benefit from any medicine. Everyone showed upside down. There are no more famous doctors in this city who have not seen Dad once. His condition is very bad at this time. Now they have no faith in living. If you see them walking and dying too, then it is good. Better if you go with me now Do not trust. If you see them walking and dying too, then it is good. Better if you go with me now Do not trust. If you see them walking and dying too, then it is good. Better if you go with me now

Fourth tableau

The detective listened to Hyder's story. The detective believed Chirag Ali a lot, as soon as he heard Hyder, he got up from there and sat in Hyder's car to meet his father. But on the way, the detective began to get various types of anxiety. Ibrahim brother's arrival in Chirag Ali's house, Chirag Ali's treatment of him like a god, Hyder's putting on his shoes, Ibrahim's departure from anger, all these things have something to do with Chirag Ali's illness. Whether or not this idea came to the mind of the detective. Where did Chirag Ali get that letter, what was written in it? Why was the color changed after reading that letter? Then Chirag Ali sat for more than two nights and wrote with his hand, what was that? What was the answer to the letter they received or what? If the answer was the same, then how did they send it to him? Mindfully, the detective asked Haider -

'The letter that your father had received;

Haider - 'I had a desire to know what was written in that letter, where it came from, who had sent it. Even that letter came to me. We still have it with us, but I do not understand what is written in it. The person writing on it is also not right. You see, maybe you can understand.

Having said this, Hyder gave a letter to the detective. The detective read the letter several times, but nothing was understood. Which was written in the letter.

'Ali! Everything is done Now it is not too late. Get ready

City of Bombay. '

The detective read it and handed it to Hyder and said - 'Take it. Nothing can be understood from this letter. It is known that the writer of this letter asked your father to do something. He has written it to your father after completing that work, but there is no way to know as long as you do not tell him what work your father told you for. The reason that your father was happy after receiving this letter is that he showed happiness only after hearing the success in his work. Nothing written about this letter shows any attachment to his illness. Do you know anything about the long letter he wrote?

Haider - 'I did a lot to know, but could not know anything.'

Detective - 'Well, did you also know that for which that letter was sent to him or not?'

Haider - 'As far as I know, the night that it was completed, it did not leave that night, because till two o'clock in the night I kept myself awake and asked the servants later, they did not say any such thing, so that It would seem to leave.

Detective - 'So I understand what he wrote was not a letter. He would have written a will to manage his property behind his dead, presuming to have died of his illness and not even sent it out somewhere, lying somewhere in his house.

Hyder - 'I searched a lot but didn't find him anywhere in the house.' Similar things were happening in both of them that they came in front of Hyder's house.

Fifth tableau

Both Hyder and the detective get into the car and go inside to hear the cry from the Janankhana. It was known that Chirag Ali's body was left before we reached there.

Chirag wanted to return to the detective knowing Ali was dead, but in this case, leaving Hyder, did not make him return from the spy. The detective, who was in tears, went to Kuharampuri with Hyder but upon going there it was found that there was no way to go to Chirag Ali's room. Women who had never stepped outside from the inner palace, have also come to Chirag Ali's meeting and started screaming and tearing the sky. The servants are all wiping their tears standing apart. There is no one in the palace who does not have tears in his eyes.

Hyder went in with the detective, but after seeing the situation there was no longer with him, became impatient and wept like a boy. Now it is not an easy task to silence Hyder, considering that the detective called the two four old believing servants separately and told them to tell the women to go to the womb. After hearing the news of Chirag Ali's death, so many people of the city will come here in a while that there will be no place to keep mole. It is better to go inside immediately and do all their work as it happens in you.

Those servants did the same. Sent all women inside. When the meeting was empty of women, Chirag Ali's body was brought out. According to Muslim religion, many people took them to burial by placing them on the bed. Hyder also went along.

The only detective left in the meeting. Many good friends of Chirag Ali came there after leaving the dead body, but all went away. Two or three of them sat there with the detective.

After getting home, the detective started doing his work. At first, he slowly reached the house in which Chirag Ali fell ill. I saw that the bed on which Hyder's father was lying there was nothing in that house except two tables, chairs and tripods. Seeing the detective going into that house, a servant of Chirag Ali reached there. The detective saw him several times with Chirag Ali. They considered him an old and trusted servant of Chirag Ali. Seeing him, the detective asked him - 'Why! Is this Chirag Ali's bedroom? '

Servant - 'Yes sir, I slept in it for a few days. Except him, no one was ordered to sleep here. '

Detective - 'How long did he sleep in this house?'

Servant - 'We saw them sleeping in this house for five-seven years?'

Detective - 'In which house does his coffer live?'

Servant - 'I have never seen him keeping anything with his hand. When he needed what he needed, he would ask Hyder Ali Saheb or ask a servant.

Detective - 'Where did he keep his necessary paper sheets?'

Servant - 'We did not see him holding any paper with his hand.'

Detective - 'And money money?'

Servant - 'We never saw him touching his hand even with money. When needed, he used to fulfill the orders by ordering the servants.

Detective - 'Chirag Ali wrote a big paper in his hand before he saw you?'

Servant - 'Yes. One day, he wrote a lot, sitting day and night.

Detective - 'You know, where did they put it?'

Servant - 'I don't know what they did to him?'

Detective - 'Did he give it to anyone?'

Servant - 'Didn't even see anyone. It seems that he has not given it to anyone. We would have known if given.

Detective - 'Then what did he do?'

Servant - 'I understand you have been placed somewhere.'

Detective - 'Where can you be kept, you can know?'

Servant - 'I don't know any place to keep it. If it is kept then it will definitely be somewhere in this house. Could not keep out of it.

Detective - 'Well let us find you together and see if you can get the paper out of this house?'

Now both of them started looking for the long paper written by the same Chirag Ali in that house. There was not much stuff in that house. Except the bed, it did not take even five minutes to search the house.

Began to find a bed behind it. Even after looking at the five six pillows above, both of them did not find any paper. Then two sheets were laid, picked them up and threw them. Below were two tricks. He was also picked up, but nowhere was the paper detected. Three cushions were placed under Tosak. Even if I removed the cushion, nothing came.

When the detective hurried the second throne, what is seen is that there is a big envelope between the second and third padding. When the detective picked it up and saw it, it was written on it - 'If someone wins this envelope, return it to me without opening it.' Just below it is Chirag Ali's right. As soon as he read it, the detective understood that the paper which Chirag Ali had written by awakening day and night before he died, is within this envelope, the detective was excited to open the envelope and read it, but then after thinking something in his mind, that is exactly it Did not open or read until Hyder Ali returned from the cemetery.

Sixth tableau

When Hyder returned home with all the people burying his father, the detective gave him a large envelope found under the same pad in his hand and narrated everything as he had found it.

Hyder first read the above written on it, then immediately torn the envelope and took out a long letter from within, it was written in the same manner as the letter but it was very long. Seeing his handwriting, Hyder said - 'This paper is written by our Baba's own hand'.

Having said this, Hyder gave the long letter to the detective and said - 'I am very tired, you read it and see what is written?'

The detective started reading with a letter from Hyder. In it it was written:

'Son Hyder! You are my boy The owner has also given you a boy. By this you can understand very well how you are our love. I remember the day when I was unhappy on you and drove you away from the front? A man of an ordinary lifeless identity was killed. I insulted you for that, but who was that Ibrahim brother, so I did not tell you. Why did I believe in him so much, why did I forgive him many great mistakes, why did I respect so much like his man, that day was not an opportunity to tell it, today the opportunity has come to tell all those things.

'I know that he used to persecute you a lot, persecute our very old and faithful servants too, many times I have seen him brutally assaulting slaves, many deserving men have left our house from their oppression. . Even after those servants had gone away, you were very sad, even though I could not tell you their condition in those days, the opportunity has come now to say all that.

'Who were they and why do I bear such a crime of theirs, if you could know all those days, then you also do not pay any attention to their crimes, all the things that you would do, you would keep watching silently. But by not doing so, you are not guilty of anything in it. You don't have even a single fault in it. I now tell my own story before I tell them all, with that you will understand all.

'look son! My real name is not Chirag Ali nor am I born in Calcutta. My real name is Ali Bhai. The Madanpur village of Bombay Hatay is my birthplace. I am also born where Ibrahim's brother lives. My Baba was not very popular or even an ordinary man. Even when I am not born in the house of a very rich person, as the rich and the virgin people get involved in boyhood, the movement gets spoiled in the same way. son! I am ashamed to tell you all this and I understand that you will understand this. But what should I do if I do not tell you all these secret things, then you will be in doubt throughout your life. This is what I tell the father to the son that is outside the ethos, that is what I say today.

'There was a rich landowner in the village where I lived. He died leaving a boy equal to me. In those days I will be sixteen or seventeen years old. I had the friend of that rich son. It is often the same as that of Dhani's boys. Then, by staying with him forever, my behavior will deteriorate, what was the doubt. After owning a lot of money on his father's death, he made his move worse. Apart from me, there were two and four Kumaragi, all of them got together with their wealth and started committing so much misdeeds that it became difficult for good men in that village to live with a female son. The householder's daughter, whose daughter and sister had their eyes on us, could not be spoiled in any way, whether by force or by money. The messengers of our people were such that they used to fulfill the promise that they said immediately,

'In the village where I lived, there was a very rich man of our caste in another village. He had a beautiful young girl. Our beautiful friend caught her eye on that beauty. We took a lot of effort to bring it in hand, when it did not make sense in any way, then we started to post. One day the father of that beauty went out for some work, He was accompanied by several other servants of his household. We were spies. The same night we received this news, we prepared to fulfill our meaning. And right at midnight, we along with our colleagues entered her house and brought that beautiful girl. There was a huge breakup after this work was done. His father returned from outside after receiving the news. He came to the police station as soon as he came home. The police set out to search for the girl. He exhausted after searching a lot and reported that the robbery had been lost, it was a false thing that the robber's house was not robbed because not a speck went to his house. It seems that the rich widow Sundari has gone out. He insulted it in the same way by using it as an excuse for robbery. What he means is that the police will search for the bandits and if that girl is found in it, then her job will be done. Did not go to his house. It seems that the rich widow Sundari has gone out. He insulted it in the same way by using it as an excuse for robbery. What he means is that the police will search for the bandits and if that girl is found in it, then her job will be done. Did not go to his house. It seems that the rich widow Sundari has gone out. He insulted it in the same way by using it as an excuse for robbery. What he means is that the police will search for the bandits and if that girl is found in it, then her job will be done.

Here, our rich mite spent a few days with that young widow. So someone told them about another beautiful girl, then they gave their mind to that. And after spending a lot of money, she did that beauty in hand. When this second beauty came, she lost her love for that first widow. But I took them away from there and started raising them like a woman. I was not married in those days, so my love for him grew by the day. As I grew up, I started to know her as my marriage house and her actions also made me feel that she considered me like her master. Similarly, one year passed by both of us, even though his father could not find out anything about his girl. That girl also did not want to give her address to the father.

'Similarly, after a few more days, I got something wrong in his movement. Gradually I came to see such works from which I understood that my suspicion is not of unmatched feet. Yasin, the younger brother of this Ibrahim brother lived there where I had kept him. I know that Yasin has met that Papin. Now I was very upset with my unfortunate heart and when I would get both, I started spending days worrying about this. One day I went out with that Papini saying that I would go to another village with my friend, I would come back three to four days. Just walking from home, I stayed at my friend's house overnight. Stayed there the next day too. When my friend was asleep after having dinner, I took a big arm and left. Where the sinner was kept, but did not go inside and stood hidden like a theft at the door.

There was silence everywhere, then the beautiful snake came out of the house and stood at the door. Shortly afterwards Yasin also came from his home. The two then barged into the house together. Locked the door. I went inside by dripping back wall. I reach the hallway from the courtyard that Yasin was found in front. With the arm of my hand I hit him so hard that he fell there. Papin shouted seeing Yasin falling. I cut it all off and did all his work. And when the corpse of both of them came out, I see that many men of the locality are standing at the door. When I got out, they all ran to catch me, but nobody came near seeing the knife in their hands. I ran quickly after saving my life, but someone from behind came with a stick on my hand that the arm fell on the ground. Then I was caught empty handed and caught by several other runners. Getting the police got the news. And by handcuffing me, he locked me in lockup

'I had left both of them dead in my understanding, but when I went to lockup, I started hearing that both Yasin and that Papini won. After some time someone came and said that both of them died now.

'I was sued because of two bloodshed. At the same time, the father of that Kukarmini also received news that he also filed a petition in the government. Now I felt guilty that I had stolen the girl by robbing her in her house and now I have murdered her. His father just stood in the court and started trying to prove his case against me with his wealth. On the other hand, because of Yasin's blood, his brother was the same Ibrahim who pleaded to avenge his brother. I started rotting in the air.

'Prosecution took place after many days of increasing muscle on muscle. My father spent a lot of money to save me and raised a very famous lawyer barrister. That rich friend of mine also did not draw his hands for the expenses. He too was a great help to save me but nothing happened to anyone. On being proven guilty, the judge ordered me to be hanged. I did not think the judge was visiting in the district. I also thought in a village. When I got the idea, I started to be brought to the district, due to the night, I was kept in a police station. Two soldiers were guarded on the guard of the police station. When the night was too late Who knew the fate of the cold wind, both the guards slept there. When I saw him in his sleep from within the guard, he pulled his handcuffs out loud. My hand leather was very cut in it. Handcuffs left the same yard and started worrying about coming out, But after seeing it very well, it was found that there is no way to get out of the guard, which is closed. There are no iron rods in the gates, and both the guards are sleeping outside.

'I grabbed one of those sticks and started moving. It was found that the frame in which he is rooted is rotten. I pulled a rod vigorously, and it was separated from the wood from Satak. With the release of a single rod, my nickel escaped. I ran out of guard.

'Ran out, but one of the guard soldiers woke up. Both ran after me shouting 'Asami Bhaga'. I ran away as loud as I could. I do not care how the thorns fall under the feet. What greed for the person who has prepared to hang himself? I ran so dark that the pursuers could not find my address. I entered a jungle running, and after running for a while, that forest also ended. I then ran on the field and ran the same way all night.

'When I got up early in the morning, I found a dense forest and entered it. I did not know how much I went through the night. When the day came, he stayed in the same forest all day. Then I was out when the sun set. And went on the same night as the first night. After walking for two nights, I now believed that I had come too far, I did not go to the forest again when dawn. At daybreak, I found a colony. I went to the door of a householder, he respected me like a Pahun. After several days I rested after eating the grain of that householder. On inquiring, it was found that I have come forty kos away from my place. After resting for the whole day, he left again and stayed up in the morning.

'Now I have destroyed my fakery. Begging for a hand with a coconut in hand, he started begging. Wherever Sadvartta or Dharamshala would be found, there was a meal in the stomach and would spend the morning in the morning. After six months of running like this, I reached Calcutta. When I came to Calcutta when there were twenty five rupees left from me by begging.

'Calcutta was a city of lifeless identity for me in those days. I wandered throughout the day and roamed all night, but could not find a place to stay, there was no man of any identity. Many Muslims from Bombay came here to see, but I did not go to them for fear of getting caught.

'Walking in a myriad form, I understood that if I get a place for rent in the thatched houses outside the rich colony, then I can be able to spend two to three months to sit.

'On the fourth day I went to a Muslim house and found a closet near the outside door for a quarter and a quarter. When I started living at home, I left my fakery form and became an ordinary Muslim, but did not wear my previous style.

'I lived there in disguise of the ordinary Muslims of Calcutta. Now there was a worry in the mind that how the days will be cut. Who should work so that the stomach is full Ten-fifteen days passed while caring for it. He spent twenty-five rupees in the expenses of bedware, utensils and simple clothes and rice dal, but did not do any way to spend the day happily.

'One day I was sitting on the banks of Gangaji in the morning. It would have been good if I could have got some work on the ship, I used to think in my mind that an old Muslim came and asked me - 'Why is sitting here? I said in response - 'I am sitting on the job of filling my stomach.'

Hearing me, he said - 'Well, for one day I give you work. My man who used to work on a ship to look after them has not come to work today. If you can do that work then come with me, I will keep you for that work for today. '

'I obeyed the old man and went with him. He must have been working on a ship, above a hundred porter or a hundred. The old man walked away from there keeping me there for his care. The old man said that I will come before the time of vacation.

'The old man returned at the right time. Very happy to see my work. For that day and days, that old man had a double job. The old man gave fare to all porters and gave me one rupee and hired a servant for twenty rupees a month on the same work. He became happier with my work day by day. Even for five years I kept doing the same thing. In the fifth year he paid me fifty rupees salary. He died the same year. His work also stopped after he died. From the money I had accumulated, I bought a boat and started to hire it. I benefitted greatly from that. I bought ten boats even after one and I got so much income from them that I became rich. I started being counted among the eminent priests. I left the house of thatch and opened a six-storey house in it, I married myself in those days. My day turned around so that you were also born with the benefit of money. Now my business has grown a lot. I changed my name as soon as I came to Calcutta. Everyone here knows the same name. I am a hangman. I have escaped by breaking handcuffs from the guard, so no one here knows.

I wrote to my father and mother from here that I have not run away. Am well here I will not come there, I will not meet you, but I will send money to you, I will not write a letter either. After that, I did not write to him again nor did I meet him. He used to send so much money every year that he did not have any problem. I did not send money from Calcutta, sometimes I went to Madras, sometimes Rangoon, sometimes I went to some far away city and sent money from there and then went here.

'For so many days, no one was cut off from happiness here, but did not know how Ibrahim brother came here after getting my news. You must now understand why I believed him and tolerated him so much. Now he has deteriorated from here to Bombay and has written a letter to the police there telling me all the situation.

'The police will now immediately come here and take me to Bombay. I am ready to hang here. Son haider This is our secret.

'When the police come here, then they will quietly return in vain. Because I will not live here. Because of this there will be some breakup in your dignity. I will not live here. Now it's time for me to die. I leave the world happily. son! Say goodbye to me I have done everything I want for you. Don't get caught in any misdeeds like I do.

Everyone was amazed after reading the entire letter. The detective said in mind. Oops! What a terrible Leela. This old man was also an amazing man.

Fifteen days later, policemen arrived from Bombay. When he heard that Ali Bhai alias Chirag Ali is no longer in the world, everyone returned unhappy.

Gopalram Ghamri's compositions in Hindi time

Gangadhar Pantawane
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gangadhar Pantawane
Born 28 June 1937
NagpurBritish India
(now in Maharashtra, India)
Died March 27, 2018 (aged 80)
Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
Occupation Writer, social activist
Language Marathi
Nationality Indian
Education D.C. Mission School, Nagpur
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University,
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University
Genre Ambedkarite movement
Notable works Dhammacharcha (1963)
Mulyavedha (1972)
Mooknayak (1978)
Leni (1997)
Children 2 daughters: Nandita and Nivedita

Gangadhar Vithoba Pantawane (28 June 1937 – 27 March 2018) was an Indian Marathi language writer, reviewer and Ambedkarite thinker from the state of Maharashtra. He was the follower of B. R. Ambedkar, polymath and the father of the Indian Constitution. He is one of the pioneers of the dalit literary movement" in Maharashtra. In 2008, he was elected president of the first Marathi Vishwa Sahitya Sammelan that was held in the United States. His pioneering journal, Asmitadarsh, galvanised generations of Dalit writers and thinkers. In 2018, he was honored with the Padma Shri by the Government of India.

Life and career

Gangadhar Pantawane was born on 28 June 1937 in a dalit family in the Pachpawali area of Nagpur city. His father Vithoba Pantawane was not well-educated but he was linked to Babasaheb Ambedkar's egalitarian movement. Their lives have been spent in poverty. Gangadhar completed his elementary education from D.C. Mission school and secondary education from Navyug Vidyalaya and Patwardhan High School, Nagpur. When Babasaheb Ambedkar had come to Nagpur in 1946, when he was 9 years old, he was very impressed by seeing them. For the second time when Babasaheb came to Nagpur, he got a chance to meet and talk to him. After matriculation examination in 1956, Gagangadhar Pantawane got BA and MA degree from Nagpur College. in 1987, he got PhD from Marathwada University (now Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University. His PhD's thesis research is about on journalism of Ambedkar named "Patrakar Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar" (English: Journalist Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar). Before moving to Aurangabad in the early 1960s as a professor in Milind College, Aurangabad where he spent 15 years of service and than worked as a professor of Marathi at Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad for 20 years. He used to write articles and plays with studies, teachers and editorials. "Mrutyu Shala" (School of Death) is a drama written by him. He also organized the Asmitadarsh Sahitya Sammelan every year.


With the presence of 6,00,000 Ambedkarite people Pantawane embraced Buddhism at the hands of Babasaheb Ambedkar at DeekshabhoomiNagpur on 14 October 1956.


Pantawane died on 27 March 2018 in city of Aurangabad due to illness.


Pantawane, had written 16 books and edited 10 books in Marathi language. He was also a founder of journal called 'Asmitadarsh'.

Marathi books

Ambedkari Janivanchi Aatmapratyayi Kavita (Goda publication)
Sanity: Shod ani Samvadh (2002)
Sahitya Nirmiti: Charcha ani Chikitsa
Sahitya: Prakruti ani Pravruti (1999)
Arth ani Anvayarth
Chaitya Dalit Vaicharik Wangmay
Dusrya Pidhiche Manogat
Kille Panhala te Kille Vishalgad
Dhamma Charchha
Patrakar Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (1987)
Mulyavedhleni (1972)
Wadlache Vanshaj
Vidrohache Pani Petale Aahe (1976)
Smrutishesh (Suvidya publication)
Dalitanche Prabodhan (1978)
Prabodhanachya Disha (1984)

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Yanche Nivdak Lekh
Dalit-Gramin Marathi Shabdkosh
Dalit Atmakatha
Dalit Sahitya
Charcha ani Chintan
Shtri Atmakatha
Maharancha Sanskrutik Itihas

Honors & awards

List of awards and honours won by Gangadhar Pantawane.
Padma Shri, 2018
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Jivan Gaurav Award, 2016
Maharshi Vittal Ramaji Shinde Award, 2006, Wai, Satara
Phadakule Pursakar, 2018
Aurangabad Bhushan Award, 2014, Rotary club of Aurangabad
Ganpatrao Jadhav

From Wikipedia

Ganpatrao Jadhav
Born 5 May 1908
Kolhapur district
Died 20 May 1987
Other names Ganpatrao Govindrao Jadhav
Occupation Journalist
Years active 1930-1987
Known for Pudhari
Spouse(s) Indira Devi
Children Pratapsinh Jadhav and six daughters
Awards Padma Shri
Kakasaheb Limye Award
Acharya Atre Award

Ganpatrao Govindrao Jadhav was an Indian freedom activist, journalist and writer. He was the founder of Pudhari, a Marathi daily started publishing in 1937. The Government of India awarded him the fourth highest Indian civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1984 and issued a commemorative postage stamp depicting his image on 12 November 2009.

Ganpatrao Jhadav was born on 5 May 1908 at Gaganbavada, a small hamlet in the Kolhapur district of the western Indian state of Maharashtra. His education at the local school did not go beyond the primary levels due to financial constraints but Jhadav taught himself by reading books. He started his career as a journalist at Tej, a weekly published from Mumbai and later worked at other local publications.

During this period, he was involved with Satyashodhak Samaj, a social organization founded in 1873 by Jyotirao Phule, in their reformist activities and this gave him the opportunity to interact with several known Marathi personalities such as Keshavrao Jedhe, Dinkarrao Jawalkar, Achyutrao Kolhatkar, Bhaskarrao Jadhav, Bhargavaram Viththal Varerkar and M. G. Ranganekar. Soon, he launched a daily, Daily Kaiwari, with the assistance from Bhaskarrao Jadhav and became its editor. His association with Jyotirao Phule and Satyashodhak Samaj influenced him to participate in the Dandi March in March 1930 and he established the Kolhapur district chapter of the Satyashodhak Samaj.During the Indian civil disobedience movement of 1930, he oversaw the information flow between the Indian National Congress leadership and the frontline and underground activists. When Dinkarrao Jawalkar, one of the leaders of the movement in Maharashtra was arrested by the British government, Jhadav stayed underground and organized the picketing movements at Wadi Bunder and Carnak Bunder. He continued clandestine activities till the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5 March 1931, granting dominion status to India. During this period, he was also associated with B. R. Ambedkar for the upliftment of the dalit communities and was involved in the temple entry protest at the Kalaram Temple in March 1930.

The latter half of 1930s saw Jhadav getting involved with journalism with renewed vigour and started a weekly by name, Sevak, which was renamed Pudhari on 13 May 1937. The publication is reported to have gained popularity and from the New Year's Day of 1939, it turned a daily to become the largest circulated daily in the western Maharashtra and north Karnataka, with an online edition. Around this time, he founded the Journalists' Association of Kolhapur (Kolhapur Patrakar Sangha) and became its founder president. He also served as the president of the Satyashodhak Samaj and was involved with the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement of 1956. His involvement with the farmers led to the establishment of Kolhapur District Agriculturist Co-operative Society of which he was a founder member. His contributions are also reported in the establishment of educational institutions such as Shivaji University, Tararani Vidyapeeth and Mouni Vidyapeeth.
Awards and honours

Jhadav was awarded the Kakasaheb Limye Award by the Pune Press Club in 1983. The Government of India awarded him the civilian honour of Padma Shri in 1984.He received the Acharya Atre Award of the Mumbai Marathi Patrakar Sangh in 1985 and the next year, the Shivaji University selected him for the DLitt degree (honoris causa). On 12 November 2009, the government issued a commemorative postage stamp with his image on it.

Personal life

Jhadav was married to Indira Devi and the couple had a son and six daughters. He died on 20 May 1987 at the age of 79. His son, Pratapsinh Jadhav, is the incumbent head of Pudhari and is a recipient of Padma Shri in 2003.

G. Sankara Kurup

Widely regarded as a harbinger of new line of thought after the towering literary legacy of the triumvirate poets, G. Sankara Kurup with his large volume of work, phenomenal ideas and inimitable style has left an indelible imprint on Malayalam literature. G. Sankara Kurup entered into the arena of literature at a time when literature was flaring up with romanticism and Marxian ideology.

Known throughout his life as ‘G’, the great poet was born on June 3, 1901 at Nayathodu near Kalady, as the son of Nellikkappilli Varieth Shankara Warrier and Vadakkini Veetl Lakshmikuttyamma. When the poet was five years old, his father passed away and it was his mother’s resilience and hard work that helped tide over the crisis.

G was raised under the strict discipline of his uncle Govinda Kurup, a Sanskrit Pandit as well as an astrologer, who forbade the poet from playing games or making friends. The loneliness thus induced helped the poet forge an irrevocable bond with nature and that has significantly influenced and moulded the poet. It is this influence which is reflected immensely in his works and earned him the name as a mystic poet. G was taken into the world of knowledge by this uncle who taught him lessons from Sanskrit and also verses from Raghuvamsha.

G completed his schooling till fourth standard from a primary school in Nayanthode village and continued his studies till seventh standard from a school at Perumbavoor. In those times, completing seventh standard qualified one to teach in primary classes. However G joined a school in Muvattupuzha to prepare for Vernacular Higher Exam. After successfully passing the Vernacular Higher Exam, he prepared for the Malayalam Pandits’ examination and passed it in flying colours. However his thirst for knowledge never subsided and he passed the Vidwan examination as well.

He started his official career as soon as he passed the Vernacular Higher Exam. G was just 16 when he joined as the head master of Kottamathu Convent School and in the later years he served in many schools. He served as the Malayalam Pandit at Thiruvilluamala High School in 1921. In 1927 he served as a teacher at Thrissur training school and then in 1931 he served as a lecturer at Ernakulam Maharajas College and later retired as a professor in 1956.

G’s first anthology ‘Sahitya Kouthukam’ was published in the year 1923 which includes his poems from 1917 to 1922. The second part of this collection was published in 1925, the third in 1927, while the fourth was published in 1930. One of his works titled ‘Suryakanthi’ published in 1946 with a preface by famous playwright Kainikkara Kumara Pillai is widely regarded as a noted work. ‘Poojapushpam’, ‘Nimisham’, ‘Navathidhi’, ‘Ithalukal’, ‘Pathikante Paattu’, ‘Muthukal’, ‘Anthardaham’, ‘Chenkathirukal’, ‘Odakkuzhal’, ‘Vishwadarshanam’, ‘Madhuram Soumyam Deeptham’, and ‘Sandhya Ragam’ figure among the important works of the poet.

Of these, Odakkuzhal earned him the renowned Jnanpith award in 1965 and was translated and published in Hindi as ‘Bansuri’. Kendra Sahitya Academy has published G’s important works in English under the title “Selected Poems”. Many of his poems have been translated to Russian as well.

One of G’s works titled ‘Meghachaya’ is a translation of the Sanskrit poem ‘Meghasandesham’ of Kalidas while ‘Vilasalahari’ is a translation of the Persian poem Rubáiyát by Omar Khayyám. He has also translated the collection of poems ‘Gitanjali’ by renowned poet Rabindhranath Tagore into Malayalam.

Gadhyopaharam, Lekhanamala, Rakkuyilukal are some of the major articles penned by G. He has also contributed immensely in the field of children’s literature. He also served as an editor of a journal of Sahitya Parishad and the later years also saw him publish a periodical titled ‘Thilakam’. ‘Anthivenmukil’, which was published in the magazine Manorajyam was the last poem penned by G.

On February 2, 1978, the litterateur who ushered in a new era and made unsurpassable contribution to Malayalam literature breathed his last. (http://www.keralaculture.org/g-sankara-kurup/676)
Gurdas Alam

First SC Punjabi Language Poet

Gurdas Ram Alam was born in Bundla village, Jalandhar, Punjab. His mother's name was Gionee and father's name was Shri Ram. They lived in a small mud house in the village. He did not go to school, learned to read and write Gurmukhi from his friends. Being a labor family, he started working as a bhatta laborer at a very young age, and started writing poems from his childhood. His first source of inspiration to get into writing was the oppression of the poor people by the rich which he experienced while working as child labor (child laborers). Despite being illiterate, he emerged as a popular name in Punjabi folk poetry before the partition of India. Alam ji is recognized as an SC activist poet and voice of the underprivileged, exploited castes and communities.


Alam ji was a progressive poet and an active poet of SC standing at the margins of society. He was the poet of the literary movement Progressive Poetry. His notable writing work is Alam Kava (1965). His writing subjects were inequality, revolution, social change.

As a poet of SC-consciousness, he was also inspired by the thoughts and philosophy of Dr. Ambedkar. He wrote a poem "Bada Shor Dardada Gariaban de Vahan" which was recited in 1956 in the presence of Dr. Ambedkar during a public meeting at Buta Mandi Jalandhar, Punjab.
Gurram Jashuva

Portrait of Gurram Jashuva
Born September 28, 1895

Died July 24, 1971 (aged 75)

Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Occupation Poet
Spouse(s) Mariyamma

Gurram Jashuva (or G Joshua) (September 28, 1895 – July 24, 1971) was a Telugu poet. His real name was Anil Kumar.
Early life
Jashuva was born to Virayya and Lingamma in Vinukonda, Guntur, Andhra PradeshIndia to a community of leather workers. His father belonged to the Yadav caste and his mother belonged to the Madiga caste. Due to poverty and the intercaste marriage of his parents, his childhood was difficult in a society in which some castes were considered "untouchable." Jashuva and his brother were raised by his parents as Christians. In order to fulfill the requirements of higher education, Jashuva obtained the diploma Ubhaya Bhasha Praveena as a scholar of Telugu and Sanskrit languages later in his life.
Protests against "untouchability," Dalit rights, and segregation have been common themes in all of Jashuva's works. Some of the more notable entries into his literary canon include Gabbilam (A Bat), Firadausi (A Rebel) and Kandiseekudu (A Refugee). A number of verses from Jashuva's work have been incorporated into the popular mythological play, Harischandra, most notably during a scene set in the midst of a cremation ground.

Dalit communities in Andhra Pradesh consider Jashuva to be the first modern Telugu Dalit poet, and actively protest his erasure from Telugu and Indian literary history. In 1995, Dalit communities in Andhra Pradesh began to organize various centennial celebrations for Jashuva's birth, and have recently begun efforts to revive the remembrance of his literary contributions.
Literary works
Gabbilam (1941) is Jashuva's best known work, fashioned after Kālidāsa's Meghadūta (The Cloud Messenger), in which an exiled lover attempts to communicate his affections to his beloved wife.
In one stanza, Jashuva writes, "To this friendly bat he began telling his life-story with a heart scorched by sorrow. In this senseless and arrogant world, other than lowly birds and insects, do the poor have any intimates or neighbors, any noble swans to explain his warm tears?"
The man in the poem muses at the irony of his situation, wherein a bat is allowed inside a temple, yet not within a human being, requesting that the bat convey his message to Siva with caution. As the bat travelled to Lord Siva in Kasi, Jashuva utilized the feeling of patriotism, another theme significant to his work, through vivid descriptions of various historical locations throughout India from the perspective of the bat.
Firadausi (1932) is another of his more recognized works. The story details the Persian poet Firdousi under the rule of King Mahmud of Ghazni, who promises compensation for his work in the form of one gold mohur for every word that the poet is commissioned to write. Despite the poet toiling day and night for ten consecutive years compiling the magnum opus of his literary career, King Mahmud, swayed by the influence of jealous courtiers, dishonors his agreement with his subordinate, offering only silver coins, and leading the poet to commit suicide. Jashuva's depiction of the poet's struggles resonated with Indian audiences, leading to Firadausi becoming one of his most widely acclaimed works.(Joshua, Gurram (1996). Piradausi. Jāṣuvā Phauṇḍēṣan.)
Baapoojee (1948) is an expression of Jashuva's personal anguish related to the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. His enormous love and respect for Gandhiji is poignantly expressed in the collection of poems eulogizing his life and work, as well as lamenting his death as one of India's greatest misfortunes.(Joshua, Gurram (1963). Bāpūjī. Buk Lavars.)
Rukmini Kalyanam (1919)
Chidananda Prabhatham and Kushalavopakhyanam (1922)
Kokila (1924)
Dhruva Vijayam, Krishna Nadi and Samsara Saagaram (1925)
Shivaji Prabandham, Veera Bai, Krishna Deva Raayalu, Vemana Yogeendrudu and Bhaarata Maatha (1926)
Bhaarata Veerudu, Suryodayam, Chandrodayam and Gijigaadu (1927)
Ranachyuthi, Aandhrudanu and Thummeda Pendlikoduku (1928)
Sakhi, Buddhudu, Telugu Thalli, Sishuvu and Baashpa Sandesham (1929)
Deergha Nishwasamu, Prabodham, Shilpi, Hechcharika, Saaleedu and Maathru Prema (1930)
Bheeshmudu, Yugandhara Manthri, Sama Dhrushti, Nela Baaludu, Nemali Nelatha, Loka Baandhavudu, Anasuya, Shalya Saaradhyamu and Sandeha Dola (1931)
Swapna Katha, Anaadha, Firdousi, Mumtaj Mahal, Sindhuramu, Budha Mahima, Kreesthu, Gunturu Seema, Vivekananda, Cheetla Peka, Jebunnisa and Paschatthapam (1932)
Ayomayamu, Akhanda Gouthami, Aashwasam, Meghudu and Smashana Vaati (1933)
Aandhra Bhojudu (1934)
Gabbilam (1941) [12]
Kandiseekudu (1945)
Thera Chaatu (1946)
Chinna Naayakudu, Baapuji and Nethaji (1948)
Swayam Varam (1950)
Kottha Lokam (1957)
Christhu Charithra (1958)
Raashtra Pooja and Musafirulu (1963)
Naagarjuna Saagaram and Naa Katha (1966)
Jashuva was presented the Sahitya Akademi Award for his work titled Kreesthu Charitra in 1964.
Jashuva was appointed to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council as a member in 1964.
Jashuva was awarded the honorary doctorate degree of Kala Prapoorna by Andhra University in 1970.
Jashuva was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1970.
Critical studies
Endluri Sudhakar researched Gurram Jashua's literature and published a book on his outlook and impact.
Awards instituted in his memory
The Jashuva Sahitya Puraskaram was established by the Jashuva Foundation to distribute an annual prize to poets from varying Indian backgrounds for enriching Indian literature with their contributions. The founder and secretary, Hemalatha Lavanam, is Jashuva's daughter. Nilmani Phukan, an Assamese poet, received the award in 2002.
Padma Bhushan Dr Gurram Jashuva Research Centre of Telugu Akademi distributes three awards to poets and writers for contributions to Telugu literature. These are the "Jashuva Jeevita Saphalya Puraskaram" for male poets aged sixty or above, the "Jashuva Visishta Mahila Purasakaram" for female poets aged fifty or above, and the "Jashuva Sahitya Visishta Puraskaram" for any contributor to Dalita sahityam (Dalit literature). The first of these awards was presented on September 28, 2013, during the one-hundred-and-eighteenth anniversary of Gurram Jashuva's birth. A payment of two-hundred-thousand rupees are included with each award. Dasaradhi Rangacharya was awarded the "Jashuva Jeevita Saphalya Puraskaram" award, Kolakakuli Swaroopa Rani the "Jashuva Visishta Mahila Purasakaram" award, and Kaluva Mallaiah the "Jashuva Sahitya Visishta Puraskaram" award. Damodar Raja Narasimha, Deputy Chief Minister of India, Dokka Manikya Vara Prasad, Minister for Rural Development of India, Kaki Madhava Rao, former Chief Secretary of India, and Medasani Mohan all either hosted or participated in various award-related functions. A commemorative book on the poet was released during one of the functions.
Gurcharan Das
From Wikipedia

Gurcharan Das

Gurcharan Das
Born 3 October 1943
Lyallpur, British India
Occupation Author, Commentator, public speaker, Intellectual.

Gurcharan Das (born 3 October 1943) is an Indian author, commentator and public intellectual. He is the author of The Difficulty of Being Good: On the subtle art of dharma which analyses the epic, Mahabharata. His international best-seller, India Unbound, is a narrative account of India from independence to the "global information age", and has been published in many languages and filmed by BBC.

He is a regular columnist for six Indian newspapers in English, Hindi, Telugu and Marathi. He writes periodic pieces for the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, Foreign Affairs, and Newsweek.

Gurcharan Das graduated with honours from Harvard University in Philosophy. He later attended Harvard Business School (AMP), where he is featured in three case studies. He was CEO of Procter & Gamble India and later managing director, Procter & Gamble Worldwide (Strategic Planning). In 1995, he took early retirement to become a full-time writer.

His other literary works include a novel, A Fine Family, a book of essays, The Elephant Paradigm, and anthology, Three English Plays.

Early life

Gurcharan Das was born in Lyallpur, India (now Faisalabad, Pakistan). His mildly autobiographical novel, A Fine Family, sheds light on his early life. After the partition of India, Das's family migrated to India. His father was an engineer with the government and he spent his childhood in Shimla and Delhi. When staying in Delhi he studied in Modern School, he also went to a high school in Washington D.C. when his father was posted there in the mid-1950s. He attended Harvard University and graduated with honours in Philosophy. He wrote his thesis under John Rawls. Later he attended Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program, where he is featured in three case studies.


Gurcharan Das was the CEO of Procter & Gamble India and Vice-President for Procter & Gamble Far East between 1985 and 1992. He was later Vice-President and managing director, Procter & Gamble Worldwide, responsible for global strategic planning. Prior to P&G, he was chairman and managing director of Richardson Hindustan Limited from 1981 to 1985, the company where he started as a trainee.

At the end of 1994, after a 30-year career in six countries, he took early retirement to become a full-time writer.

He began to write a regular column on Sundays for The Times of India and continued to do so for 15 years. Gradually, he added Dainik Bhaskar, Prabhat Khabar, Eenadu, Sakal, andMathrubhumi. He also wrote occasional guest columns for Time and Newsweek magazines and occasional pieces for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times,and Foreign Affairs .


Gurcharan Das has published India Grows at Night: A liberal case for a strong state in 2012. He is also general editor for a 15 volume series, The Story of Indian Business (Penguin) of which three volumes such as Arthashastra: The Science of Wealth, Merchants of Tamilakam: Pioneers of International Trade, The East India Company: The World's Most Powerful Corporation have already appeared.

He is now mainly known for his two best-selling books, India Unbound and The Difficulty of Being Good. India Unbound, is a narrative account of India from Independence to the global information age, and has been published in over a dozen languages and filmed by BBC. The Difficulty of Being Good: On the subtle art of dharma (Penguin 2009) examines contemporary moral failures through the lens of the millennia year old epic, the Mahabharata.

India Unbound is mainly about the transformation of India from birth of the writer in (1942) to (1999). The author majorly speaks about the Indian politics and the economy of India. He categorises the complete timeline from 1942 to 1999 in three major sections: 'Spring of Hope (1942–65)', 'the Lost Generation (1966–91)' and 'Rebirth of Dream (1991–99)' and tells various stories (memoirs) and the historical facts of that time.

Gurcharan Das began to write soon after college. He wrote three plays in his twenties, which have been published as an anthology, Three English Plays (Oxford University Press, 2001). It consists of Larins Sahib, a prize-winning play about Sir Henry Lawrence and the British in India, which has been presented by Akademeia Repertory Theatre (ART) and its producer and artistic-director Rumi Palsetia, as the first-ever Indian theatre production in English, in the then 40-year history of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, in 1991; Mira, which was produced off-Broadway to critical acclaim from New York critics; and 9 Jakhoo Hill which has been performed in major Indian cities. A new edition of the anthology, titled Three Plays, was published by Penguin India in 2011.

He wrote a novel in his thirties, A Fine Family, which follows the stories of several generations of a Punjabi family beginning with the Partition

The Elephant Paradigm is a book of essays which covers subjects such as Panchayati raj, national competitiveness, and the sacred and philosophical concerns of the average Indian consequent to India's entry into what the author calls the "age of liberation."

Personal life

Gurcharan Das is married and lives with his wife in New Delhi, and has two children. He is a Classical Liberal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gaddar in a meeting in Nizam College Grounds- 2005
Personal details
Born 1949 (age 68–69)
Toopran, Hyderabad State, India
(now in Telangana, India)
Political party Telangana Praja Front
Residence Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Gummadi Vittal Rao, popularly known as Gaddar (born 1949), is a poet, revolutionary Telugu balladeer and local Naxalite activist from what is now the state of Telangana, India. The name Gaddar was adopted as a tribute to the pre-independence Gadar party which opposed British colonial rule in Punjab during the 1910s.

Telangana separatism

Gaddar protests against arrest of Varavara Rao- 2005

With the resurgence of Telangana movement, Gadar expressed his support for the cause of a separate Telangana state and those people who were advocating it with the intention of uplifting the lower castes, particularly dalits and also backward castes. He said he was strongly with those who are for a Telangana of social justice where Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes have political representation on par with the OCs and BCs of the state. He expressed his solidarity with Devendar Gouds NTPP (Nava Telangana Praja Party) in spite of being shot at by the police during Goud's term as AP Home Minister.

Gadar's song "Amma Telanganama Akali kekala gaanama" has been selected as the state song of Telangana.

Gaddar performing in Kolkata in 2010 against the Operation Green Hunt


Nandi Awards:

2011 - Nandi Award for Best Male Playback Singer for Jai Bolo Telangana
G. N. Devy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ganesh Narayandas Devy
Born 1 August 1950
Occupation Critic, thinker, editor, educator, cultural activist
Nationality Indian
Notable awards

Padmashri 2014

Ganesh N. Devy (born 1 August 1950) is an Indian literary critic and former professor. He is known for the People's Linguistic Survey of India and the Adivasi Academy created by him. He is credited to start the Bhaashaa research and Publication Centre. He writes in three languages—Marathi, Gujarati and English. His first full length book in English After Amnesia (1992). He has written and edited close to ninety books in areas including Literary Criticism, Anthropology, Education, Linguistics and Philosophy.


G. N. Devy was educated at Shivaji UniversityKolhapur and the University of LeedsUK. Among his many academic assignments, he held fellowships at Leeds University and Yale University and has been THB Symons Fellow (1991–92) and Jawaharlal Nehru Fellow (1994–96). He was a Professor of English at the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda from 1980 to 96. In 1996, he gave up his academic career in order to initiate work with the Denotified and Nomadic Tribes (DNT) and Adivasis. During this work, he created the Bhasha Research and Publication Centre at Baroda, the Adivasis Academy at Tejgadh, the DNT-Rights Action Group and several other initiatives. Later he initiated the largest-ever survey of languages in history, carried out with the help of nearly 3000 volunteers and published in 50 multilingual volumes.


In response to the growing intolerance and murders of several intellectuals in India, he launched the Dakshinayan (Southward) movement of artists, writers, and intellectuals. In order to lead this movement and to initiate his work on mapping the world's linguistic diversity, he moved to Dharwad in 2016. Devy returned his Sahitya Akademi Award in October 2015 as a mark of protest and in solidarity with other writers sensing a threat to Indian democracy, secularism and freedom of expression and "growing intolerance towards differences of opinion" under the right-wing government. The Dakshinayan movement follows the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. The movement has spread to several states in India such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Telangana, West Bengal, Uttara Khand, Punjab and Delhi.


G. N. Devy has received several Lifetime Achievement Awards. He was awarded Padma Shri on 26 January 2014 in recognition of his work with denotified and nomadic tribes and endangered languages. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award (1993) for After Amnesia, and the SAARC Writers’ Foundation Award (2001) for his work with denotified tribals. He was given the reputed Prince Claus Award (2003) for his work for the conservation of tribal arts and craft. His Marathi book Vanaprasth received eight awards including the Durga Bhagwat Memorial Award and the Maharashtra Foundation Award. Along with Laxman Gaikwad and Mahashweta Devi, he was one of the founders of The Denotified and Nomadic Tribes Rights Action Group (DNT-RAG). He won the 2011 Linguapax Prize for his work for the preservation of linguistic diversity.


Critical Thought (1987)
After Amnesia (1992)
Of Many Heroes (1997)
India Between Tradition and Modernity (co-edited, 1997)
In Another Tongue (2000)
Indian Literary Criticism: Theory & Interpretation (2002).
Painted Words: An Anthology of Tribal Literature (editor, 2002).
A Nomad Called Thief (2006)
Keywords: Truth (contributor, date unknown)
Vaanprastha (in Marathi, date unknown)
Adivasi Jane Che ( Tribal People Knows, in Gujarati, date unknown).
The G. N. Devy Reader (2009)
The Being of Bhasha (2014)
Samvad ( in Gujarati, 2016)
The Crisis Within: On Knowledge and Education in India (2017)
Trijyaa (in Marathi, 2018)
The question of Silence (2019)
Countering Violence (2019)
Gangadhar Meher
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Swabhaba Kabi

Gangadhara Meher
Swabhaba Kabi Gangadhara Meher
Born 9 August 1862(On the full moon day of Sravana Purnima)

Died 4 April 1924 (aged 61)
Nationality Indian
Education Std V
Occupation Judicial Moharir (Accountant)

Notable work Tapaswini, Rasa-Ratnakara, Balarama-deba, Pranaya Ballari, Kichaka Badha, Indumati (First Published work), Ayodhya Drusya, Padmini (Last work); genre (Poet)
Spouse(s) Shanta Devi, Champa Devi (After the death of Shanta Devi)
Children Arjuna Meher (died at the age of 12), Bhagaban Meher (Famous as Kabi-Putra), Basumati Meher, Lakhmi Meher
Chaitanya Meher (father)
Sevati Devi (mother)

Swabhaba kabi Gangadhara Meher (Odiaସ୍ୱଭାବକବି ଗଙ୍ଗାଧର ମେହେର) was a renowned Odia poet of the 19th century. Though poor in wealth and education, he remained one of the most prolific and original contributor to Odia literature.


Gangadhara was born in 1862 on the full moon day of Shravana Purnima at Barpali of present-day Bargarh district of Odisha. Chaitanya Meher was working as a village Vaidya (Ayurvedic doctor) besides his family profession of weaving. But as he could not maintain his family with the income of these works, he opened a village school and began to teach a few children. Gangadhara Meher could read up to the Middle Vernacular Standard hurdling over diverse disadvantages, and his keen eagerness for literature eventually sparked his skills in writing poems.

As a young boy, he heard the Jagamohana Ramayana composed by Balarama Dasa and afterwards he himself read it as well as the Odia Mahabharata by Sarala Dasa. He also read and mastered a great number of Sanskrit books; of which ‘Raghuvamsham’, deserve mention. Tulasi Ramayana in Awadhi used to be held by him in great respect. He used to read Bengali magazines and newspapers.

Gangadhara got married at the age of 10. As his father’s pecuniary condition was not satisfactory, Gangadhar used to go to school in the morning and help his father in weaving in the afternoon. His clear and beautiful hand writing also garnered attention from many people willing to get their transcribed by him. The pecuniary condition of the family improved a bit due to his hard labour when to the misfortune of the family, the ancestral house caught fire.


The then Zamindar of Barpali, Lal Nruparaj Singh offered him the post of an Amin (Patwari). Coming to learn of amicable behaviours and good virtues of Gangadhara, the Zamindar promoted him to the post of a Moharir. He continued to serve in the said post and was transferred to Sambalpur, Bijepur and Padmapur and at last transferred to him own native place Barapali on a salary of Rs.30/- per month.

The poet was very liberal and progressive socially. During the last age of his life, the poet organized an All Odisha Social Conference of Mehers with a view to uplifting the entire weaver society. Nearly three thousand Mehers from different parts of Odisha assembled in the Conference. The poet put up twelve proposals for the reform of the society and all were passed unanimously.

Literary career

Gangadhara started composing poems from a very tender age. His first writings follow the style and technique of the ancient Odia writers. His first kabya (poetic work) was “Rasa-Ratnakara”. Then being persuaded by some friends he changed his ways and wrote poems and kabyas in the modern Odia style. Kabibara Radhanatha Ray praised his writing very much. The works produced by Gangadhara Meher are marked by vivid imagination, in beauty and clarity of language, in the novelty of style, in point of forceful character painting and in the lively description of nature from different perspectives. His writings remain as some of greatest creations in Odia literature..His literary career was frequently influenced by the writings of Radhanath Rai, who wrote in western influences. A research was conducted in North orissa University which reveals many similarities between Gangadhar Meher and western romantic poets like P.B Shelley, Lord Byron, John Keats.The treatment of nature is equally same in their poetries.

Institution and award named after Gangadhar Meher

In 1949, Sambalpur College which is in Sambalpur district, opened in 1944 was renamed Gangadhar Meher College in his honour later upgraded to a university, now it is known by Gangadhar Meher University. In 2015, this college was upgraded to a university. Sambalpur University, Burla, instituted the Gangadhar Meher National Award for Poetry which is conferred annually on the foundation day of Sambalpur University. In January 2020 the Gangadhar Meher National award will be conferred to Viswanath Prasad Tiwari.
Geetha Hiranyan
From Wikipedia
Geetha Hiranyan
Born Geetha Potti
20 March 1958
Kottavattom, KottarakkaraKollam districtKerala, India
Died 2 January 2002 (aged 43)
ThrissurKerala, India
Occupation Writer, author
Notable works

Ottasnappil Othukkanavilla Janmasathyam
Iniyum Veedaatha Hridayathinte Kadam
Notable awards

1994 Kunju Pilla Smaraka Award
2001 G. Sankara Kurup Janmasathabdhi Kavitha Award
2001 T. P. Kishor Award
2001 Ankanam Award
Spouse K. K. Hiranyan
Children Uma and Anand

Sreedharan Potti (father)
Vasumathy Devi (mother)

Geetha Hiranyan (20 March 1958 – 2 January 2002) was an Indian writer of Malayalam literature. Known for her short stories, compiled in three books, Ottasnappil Othukkanavilla Janmasathyam, Asangaditha and Iniyum Veedatha Hrudayathinte Kadam, she was a recipient of a number of honours including G. Sankara Kurup Janmasathabdhi Kavitha Award and Kunju Pilla Smaraka Award.


Geetha Hiranyan, née Geetha Potti, was born on 20 March 1956 at Kottavattom, near Kottarakara in Kollam district of the south Indian state of Kerala to Thottavttath C. Sreedharan Potti and Vasumathy Devi; she was related to the noted writer and social reformer, Lalithambika Antharjanam. After earning master's and MPhil degrees, she started her career as a lecturer at Malabar Christian College, simultaneously continuing her doctoral studies. Later she taught at various government colleges in MalappuramKalpettaPerinthalmannaThrissurPattambi and Kodungalloor before joining Kerala Sahitya Akademi as the publications officer on deputation. It was at this time, she became ill due to which she could not continue her service.

Geetha was married to K. K. Hiranyan, a writer, critic and an academic, and the couple had a daughter, Uma and a son Ananthakrishnan. She died on 2 January 2002, aged 43, at Thrissur and the body was cremated at Ullannoor Mana, her ancestral house.

Legacy and honours

Geetha participated in a literary competition organized by Mathrubhumi for their Vishu edition in 1979 and her story, Deerghapankan, was selected for the consolation prize. Two decades later, in 1999, she published her first short story anthology, Ottasnappil Othukkanavilla Janmasathyam (It is not Possible to Frame Life's Truth in a Single Shot). Her next two anthologies, Iniyum Veedaattha Hridayathinte Kadam and Asangaditha were published in 2002, shortly after her death. Her last story, Shilpa is Writing a Story, was included in Asangaditha. In 2008, a complete collection was published under the title, Geetha Hiranyante Kathakal (The Stories Of Geetha Hiranyan). Her story was also included in the book, Daughters of Kerala : twenty-five short stories by award-winning authors, which contains the English translations of stories by women writers of Kerala.

Geetha received the Kunju Pilla Smaraka Puraskaram in 1994. She received three awards in 2001, the Ankanam Award, G. Sankara Kurup Centenary Award for Poetry and T. P. Kishore Award. Kerala Sahitya Akademi has instituted an annual award, Geetha Hiranyan Endowment Award, in her honour, for writers below the age of 35, to recognize excellence in Malayalam literature. Kerala Bhasha Institute has published her biography, under the title, Geetha Hiranyan:Jeeva Charithram, written by Sheeba Divakaran.

Sukham, the poem of Geetha Hiranyan in Prathibhavam newspaper.


Geetha Hiranyan (1999). Otta Snapil Othukkanavilla Oru Janmasathyam. Current Books, Thrissur: Current Books.
Geetha Hiranyan (2002). Asankhatitha. Current Books, Thrissur: Current Books.
Geetha Hiranyan (2002). Iniyum Veedatha Hridayathinte Kadam. Kottayam: DC Books. ISBN 8126404485OCLC 51086224.
Geetha Hiranyan (2008). Geetha Hiranyante kadhakal. Thrissur: Current Books.


Sukham (Prathibhavam-2000)
Girija Kumar Mathur
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Girijakumar Mathur
गिरिजाकुमार माथुर
Born 22 August 1919
Died 10 January 1994 (aged 75)
Occupation Writer, Poet
Nationality Indian
Notable works Nash aur Nirman, Nayi Kavita: Seemae aur Sambhavnae
Notable awards Sahitya Akademi Award
Children Pawan Mathur, Amitabh Mathur , Ashok Mathur

Girija Kumar Mathur (Hindi: गिरिजाकुमार माथुर) (22 August 1919 - 10 January 1994) was a notable Indian writer of the Hindi language. He is noted for his translation of the popular English song "We Shall Overcome" into Hindi (हम होगें कामयाब). His father, Devicharan Mathur, was a teacher in a local school and greatly admired music as well as literature. His mother name was laxmidevi Girijakumar Mathur is considered one of the most important writers in Hindi due to his efforts to modernise Hindi literature and promote it through many of his works.

Early life

Girijakumar Mathur was born in Ashoknagar which was tehsil of guna before 2003 Madhya Pradesh, on 22 August 1919. He was homeschooled by his father in History, Geography and English. After obtaining his primary education in Jhansi, he was awarded a degree of M.A (English) and L.L.B from Lucknow University. After practicing law for a few years, he started working in All India Radio and later Doordarshan.

Professional and musical career

On obtaining his law degree, Mathur initially worked as a lawyer, but subsequently joined the Delhi office of All India Radio. After a few years there, he moved on to join the then only television broadcasting organization of India, Doordarshan.

Mathur published his first collection of poems, Manjir in 1941.

It was during his service in Doordarshan that mathur translated the popular gospel and civil rights movement song "We shall overcome" into Hindi as "Honge Kaamyab" (होंगे कामयाब). It was sung by a female singer of the Doordarshan orchestra and the music was arranged by Satish Bhatia using Indian musical instruments. This version of the song was subsequently released by TVS Saregama. This Hindi rendition was released in 1970 as a song of social upliftment and was often broadcast by Doordarshan in the 1970s and 1980s. Doordarshan at that time was the only television station of India, and this song was especially played on days of national significance.

Mathur continued to work in Doordarshan, retiring in 1978 as the Deputy Director general.


Girijakumar Mathur started his career in literature in 1934 in the Braj language.Greatly influenced by authors such as Makhanlal Chaturvedi and Balkrishna Sharma 'Navin', he published his first anthology, 'Manjir' in 1941. He was an important contributor to Hindi literature and used his works to spread moral messages through society. His notable works include:

Nash aur Nirman
Dhup ke Dhan
Sheilapankh Chamkile
Bhitri Nadi Ki Yatra (Anthology)
Janm Kaid (Play)
Nayi Kavita:Seemae aur Sambhavnae

Girijakumar Mathur was one of the seven eminent Hindi poets included in Tar Saptak, an anthology edited and published by Agyeya in 1943. Apart from poems, he wrote many plays, songs as well as essays. In 1991, he was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award for his anthology, "Main Vakt ke Hun Samne" as well as the Vyas Samman[9] in the same year. He is noted for his translation of the popular English song "We Shall Overcome" into Hindi.

Mathur described his life's journey in his autobiography Mujhe aur abhi kehna hai (मुझे और अभी कहना है) (I still have to say something).


Girijakumar Mathur died on 10 January 1994, aged 75 in New Delhi.
हीरा डोम
मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से

हीरा डोम (जन्म- 1885 ई॰ के आसपास) उन्नीसवीं सदी के पूर्वार्द्ध में विद्यमान प्रथम दलित कवि के रूप में विख्यात हैं जिनकी एकमात्र उपलब्ध भोजपुरी कविता सुप्रसिद्ध साहित्यिक पत्रिका सरस्वती में छपी थी और जिसमें तत्कालीन सामाजिक, आर्थिक एवं धार्मिक विसंगतियों-विडम्बनाओं की विवेकपूर्ण अभिव्यक्ति मार्मिक रूप में हुई है।


हीरा डोम का जन्म बिहार राज्य के पटना जिले के दानापुर में सन् 1885 के लगभग हुआ था। इनका जीवन-विवरण प्रायः अनुपलब्ध है। डॉ॰ माताप्रसाद ने इन्हें वाराणसी का निवासी बताया है, परन्तु डॉ॰ रामविलास शर्मा[2] से लेकर रमणिका गुप्ता तक इन्हें पटना का निवासी ही मानते हैं।


इनकी लिखी हुई एकमात्र कविता 'अछूत की शिकायत' उपलब्ध है। यह कविता महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी द्वारा संपादित ‘सरस्वती’ (सितंबर 1914, भाग 15, खंड 2, पृष्ठ संख्या 512-513) में प्रकाशित हुई थी। कवि-समीक्षक मदन कश्यप के अनुसार "हालांकि, सरस्वती में प्रकाशित होना ही इस बात का सुबूत है कि इस कविता को उस समय भी महत्व दिया गया था। फिर भी, समय रहते हिन्दी संसार ने हीरा डोम की खोज खबर नहीं ली अन्यथा उनकी कुछ और रचनाएं, उनके बारे में कुछ और सूचनाएं-- हमारे सामने होतीं।"

अछूत की शिकायत

हीरा डोम तथा उनकी कविता 'अछूत की शिकायत' को प्रकाशन के लम्बे समय बाद व्यापक हिन्दी संसार में चर्चित करने का श्रेय डॉ॰ रामविलास शर्मा को है। "1977 में प्रकाशित अपनी पुस्तक 'महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी और हिन्दी नवजागरण' में डॉ॰ रामविलास शर्मा ने इस कविता को उद्धृत किया। उसके बाद ही इसकी ओर लोगों का ध्यान गया।"

डॉ॰ शर्मा ने इस कविता का परिचय देते हुए लिखा था कि "सितम्बर १९१४ की सरस्वती में पटना के हीरा डोम की कविता 'अछूत की शिकायत' प्रकाशित हुई। यह भोजपुरी में है और सम्भवतः उस भाषा में लिखी हुई यह एकमात्र कविता है जो द्विवेदी जी की सरस्वती में प्रकाशित हुई थी। यह कविता उनके पास भेजी गई थी क्योंकि कविता के ऊपर कोष्ठकों में छपा है-- 'प्राप्त'। हिन्दी में इससे पहले (और बाद को भी) किसी डोम-बन्धु की लिखी कविता मेरे देखने में नहीं आई।"

आगे पूरी कविता उद्धृत करने के बाद डॉ॰ शर्मा की टिप्पणी है कि "हीरा डोम ने किसी से सरस्वती का नाम सुना होगा। मैथिलीशरण गुप्त की तरह सरस्वती में कविता प्रकाशित कराके प्रसिद्ध कवि बनने का स्वप्न तो उन्होंने न देखा होगा पर अपनी शिकायत सरस्वती के माध्यम से शिक्षितजनों तक उन्हें जरूर पहुँचानी थी। द्विवेदी जी ने साहसपूर्वक वह कविता अपनी उस पत्रिका में छापी जिसमें बड़े-बड़े लोग रचनाएँ छपाने को तरसते थे।"

यह कविता पहली दलित कविता के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित है। इसमें निहित गहरी वैचारिकता इसका रचनात्मक वैशिष्ट्य है। सुप्रसिद्ध दलित साहित्यकार शरणकुमार लिंबाले के अनुसार "इसे दलित सोच की वर्तमान धारा की पहली रचना कहा जा सकता है चूँकि इसमें केवल दलितों की शिकायत या व्यथा ही दर्ज नहीं की गई बल्कि आक्रोश और विरोध भी जताया गया है।"


मदन कश्यप के अनुसार "इस कविता को पढ़ने से स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि यह रात-दिन दुख भोगने वाले जन की करुणा नहीं ताकत की अभिव्यक्ति है और इसका शीर्षक 'अछूत की शिकायत' निश्चित रूप से सम्पादक अथवा किसी अन्य व्यक्ति का दिया हुआ है। अन्यथा इसका शीर्षक 'अछूत की हुंकार' होना चाहिए था।"

डॉ॰ रामविलास शर्मा के अनुसार:

"गाँव के सर्वहारा-समुदाय की वर्ग-चेतना यहाँ पहली बार साफ-साफ प्रतिबिम्बित हुई है।... हीरा डोम कि उक्त रचना में जो प्रतिरोध का स्वर है, शोषण-चक्र के भीतरी तंत्र की जो पहचान है, श्रम करने वालों के महत्व का जो ज्ञान है, करुणा और व्यंग्य के साथ आत्म सम्मान की जो भावना है, वह सब हिन्दी कविता में अभी दूसरी जगह व्यक्त नहीं हुआ।"

मदन कश्यप के अनुसार:

"...अपने गुस्से का इजहार करने के साथ-साथ हीरा डोम ने धर्म-परिवर्तन की चालाकी और निरर्थकता को भी रेखांकित कर दिया है। सामन्ती समाज में श्रम को सबसे निचले पायदान पर रखा जाता है। और जिसके कर्म जितने श्रम विरोधी होते हैं, उसे उतना ही श्रेष्ठ समझा जाता है। हीरा डोम ने इस कविता में श्रम की प्रतिष्ठा और अपकर्मों की निन्दा के माध्यम से सामन्ती समाज के एक बड़े विपर्यय को उजागर किया है। ... इसकी दूसरी बड़ी विशेषता यह है कि यह कविता बिना किसी बौद्धिक विमर्श के सिर्फ अपने सहज अनुभव के आधार पर, यह स्थापित करने में सफल होती है कि ईश्वर एक वर्गीय अवधारणा है।..।"

हमनी के राति दिन दुखवा भोगत बानी,

हमनी के सहेब से मिनती सुनाइबि

हमनी के दुख भगवानओं न देखता ते, हमनी के कबले कलेसवा उठाइबि

पदरी सहेब के कचहरी में जाइबिजां, बेधरम होके रंगरेज बानि जाइबिजां

हाय राम! धसरम न छोड़त बनत बा जे, बे-धरम होके कैसे मुंहवा दिखइबि

Prof. Hari Narke 
Prof. Hari Narke (मराठीः प्रा. हरी नरके) Born on 1 June 1963 is a Scholar, Author and Orator of International repute. He is serving as professor and Head of Mahatma Phule Chair, in the University of Pune, India.

Early life

Prof. Hari Narke was born on 1 June 1963 in Ramchandra Narke and mother Sonabai Narke a very poor Mali caste family at Talegaon Dhamdhere, Tal. Shirur, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India. Prof. Narke's education was mostly in Pune. He has attended. He has completed his education by working in a graveyard

He is married to Sangita. They have a daughter Pramiti. Pramiti is attending her higher education.

List of works

Prof. Hari Narke is one of the prominent author of post globalized period of India. Till date he has penned 35 books on different issues in all three languages that are in Marathi, Hindi & English.
Mahatma Phule yanchi Badnaami - Ek Satyashodhan
Jnyanajyoti Savitribai Phule in second edition
OBC chya Bhavitavyavar Kurhad
Dalit Sahityachya Shodhat (Published at the hands of the then President of India K.R.Narayanan)
Mahatma Phule Shodhachya Navya Vata (Fifth edition)
Mahatma Phule Sahitya aur Vichaar - Published at the hands of the then President of India, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma)
Mahatma Phule Samasta Sahitya - Vols. 1 to 4
Editor of Dr. Ambedkar’s speeches and writings, Vols. 17 to 22
Collected Works of Mahatma Phule, Vols. 1 to 3

Prof. Hari Narke has delivered 6,000 lectures in the last 30 years, lectures at London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bedford, Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Al-ain, Kathmandu, Lumbini were widely acclaimed.


‘Samajbhushan Award’ by the Shahu Phule Ambedkar Vichaar Manch, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
‘Karandikar Trust’s award for researched writing’, Dharwad, Karnataka.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Dalitmitra award’ by the Government of Maharashtra.
‘Best Orator award’ of the Aagya Publication Trust, Kolhapur.
‘Dainik Mahanagar Award’ for scholarly writing.
‘Samata Award’ by All India Mahatma Phule Samata Parishad.
‘Best Professional Excellence Award’ by Rotary Club, Pune.

Special Contribution

Full-time contribution to the publication of Phule, Shahu, Ambedkar’s literature. Till date, Ambedkar’s literature has been translated and published in 13 languages and Phule’s in 9 languages.
Published 400 articles in well-known national newspapers and periodicals in the country. Participated in 70 programmes on television.
Presented research papers and delivered lectures at National Seminars in 40 Universities.
Taken initiative for the building of Mahtama Phule memorial at Pune, Savitribai Phule memorial at Naigaon (Satara) and the erection of Mahatma Phule’s statue at the Parliament of India.

Initiated the commemoration of 11 April Phule Jayanti and 14 April Dr.Ambedkar Jayanti jointly as well as commemoration of 3 January Savitribai Phule Jayanti and 12 January Jijau Jayanti jointly. Also initiated the government commemoration of Shahu Jayanti.
Chairperson of the Third All India Satyashodhak Literature Conference, Nagpur and First Satyashodhak Round Table Conference, Pune 2010.
Personal collection of Ten Thousand rare and precious books.

Additional responsibilities

Member-Secretary of Mahatma Phule Source Material Publication Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra, Mantralaya, Mumbai.
Member of MAaharashtra State Commission for backward classes.
Harjeet Atwal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Harjeet Atwal
Born September 8, 1952 (age 68)

Nationality Indian
Occupation Writernoveliststoryteller
Known for Literature

Harjeet Atwal (Punjabi: ਹਾਰਜੀਤ ਅਤਵਾਲ, born 8 August 1952) is a British Punjabi writer and novelist. He has written more than 20 books and he is also the editor of Punjabi magazine 'Shabad'. He is also known as a storyteller and poet. Now he lives in London with his wife and three children. He received runner-up Dhahan Prize for his novel 'Mor Udari' in 2015.

Early life

Harjeet Atwal, a well known Punjabi writer was born on 8 September 1952, in village Pharala, district Jallandhar now district Nawanshahar in PunjabIndia. His father's name was Darshan Singh and mother name was Balbir Kaur. He is eldest brother of three sisters and a late brother. He was brought up at his native village Pharala. He got his secondary education from Govt. High School Pharala, and graduation from Sikh National College, Banga. After his degree in law he started his legal practice in Nawanshahar courts but he migrated to U.K. in July, 1977. Since then he is living in U.K. with his family. He has his interest in literature since his childhood and started writing short stories and poems in his school days. He has written more than two dozens books in Punjabi. His work is a part of universities courses. He lives in London since he moves to U.K. He has three grown up children, two daughters and one son.

Writing career

Harjeet Atwal has written more than two dozens of books which includes novels, poetry, short stories, biography, travelogue, essays and articles, literary analytical articles, editing the books, editing the magazines etc. His work is also available in other languages like Hindi, English and other Indian languages. He has been writing columns for few daily newspapers and magazine as well. He, regularly, delivers his lectures on the concerns about modern literature in Indian universities and other educational institutions. He is President of 'Adara Shabad' which is a Punjabi writers association based in London and Chandigarh. Here are main books written by Harjeet Atwal

'Sard Pairan di udik' (A wait with naked feet). a collection of poems.
'Suka Pata Te Hawa', (A dead leaf in wind) a collection of short stories.
'Kala lahu', (Black blood). a collection of short stories.
'Sapan Da Bhar Bartainia', (Britain, full of snakes)[citation needed] a collection of short stories.
'Khuh Wala Ghar', (A house with well). a collection of short stories.
'Ik Sach Mera Vi', (One truth from me). a collection of short stories.
'Nawen Geet Da Mukhra', (First stanza of new song). a collection of short stories.
'Ik Gal Je Dil Lage, (a matter if you feel right) a collection of short stories.
'Das Darvaze', (Ten doors) a collection of short stories.
'Focus', (The focus). a travelogue.
'Pachasi Variyan Da Jashan', (The celebration of 85 years) a biography of his father Mr Darshan Singh.
'One Way', a novel.
'Ret', (The sands) a novel.
'Swari', (The passenger) a novel.
Southall, a novel.
'British Born Desi', (Indians born in Britain). a novel.
'Akal Sahai', (God helps) a historical novel
'Aapana' (My own). a historical novel.
'Geet', (The song). a novel.
'Mudri Dot Com', (mundri.com) a novel.
'Mor udari', (A flight of peacock) a novel.
'Kale rang gulaban de', (Black roses), a novel.
'Jetthu', (a name). This novel was advertised as name Shalmai
'A Collection of Diasporas Punjabi Short Stories', an edited book. And he has edited few more books.

He is co-editor of tri-monthly Punjabi magazine named 'Shabad' (The word) He has done lot of translation work as well.
Hira Bansode
“Slave” by Hira Bansode: Study Notes
About the Poet

Hira Bansode. born in 1939 in Maharashtra, is one of the early Dalit women writers. She talked for the working class Dalit women who experienced double marginalisation in their work space as well as domestic space. Her poetry carries themes of alienation, freedom from all kinds of bondage and subjugation, estrangement, search of identity and dignity both as a Dalit and as a woman. She often blended ancient myths of women who underwent discrimination with contemporary situations of the Dalit women.

Summary of the Poem

The poet says that woman is still a slave/ servant (the apt translation of the Marathi word ghulam which is the original title of the poem is servant) in spite of the auspicious ritualistic practices which are based on the stories of Sita and Ahalya who were known for their tests and challenges of their chastity. The poet is angry when she states that to be born as a woman in ‘unjust’ since she is still a slave to everyone regardless of time period. The identity of a woman fades like flowers and her emotions are taken for granted and called as mere ‘dreams’. Her desire is not given due importance and her protests are nipped in the bud. A woman is dried up by tradition where her growth is stunted and forever she has to remain as someone’s shadow. When festivals celebrate the stories of lords the stories of women in it are painful.

Re-reading of the Poem

The poem “Slave” weds women of two generation bringing their atrocities as a common platform to discuss what has significantly changed in the world of women even when the term ‘modernity’ is attached to women these days. For Hira Bansode religion ad tradition have never offered equality to women. They were marginalised and made second class beings in the name of customs and purity. The second reason-purity- has been used and abused in order to portray women often as trouble makers. Women had to take responsibility for the mistakes and insecurities of men and their bodies and minds had to be tested in fire to prove the worth of their husbands. The chastity of a wife was often seen as a protective tool to defend her husband’s life in battles and other dangerous expeditions.

According to Bansode, in her attempts to live her life to make the life of men around her fulfilled, woman loses her identity. Her emotions are considered as the temporary and weak reflections of being a woman. Her freedom was cut short and she was leashed to her house and her close relatives. Manu famously said that a woman had to be protected by her father in her adolescence, by her husband in her youth and by her son in her old age. Even when this quotation is discussed in another way where Manu is pictured as the champion of feminism the nature of Manusmriti proves that Manu meant nothing about the security of women for their sake but he was talking about guarding women to maintain the purity of one’s caste.

The poem ends with a strong and thought provoking statement where the poet laments that to be born a woman in ‘unjust’. The world offers woman an unjust situation from her birth to death. She is chained in the name of religion, tradition and purity. The poem is a dirge for all women regardless of caste.
H. Govindaiah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
H. Govindaiah (born 1954) is a prominent Dalit poet writing in Kannada. He was associated with Dalit Sangharsha Samiti (DSS) and was the publisher of Panchama, a fortnightly magazine of DSS for ten years until 1985. He has worked as a lecturer at Mysore Universityand the Karnataka Open University and was Deputy Registrar of the latter for two years.

Further reading

Satyanarayana, K & Tharu, Susie (2011) No Alphabet in Sight: New Dalit Writing from South Asia, Dossier 1: Tamil and Malayalam, New Delhi: Penguin Books.
Satyanarayana, K & Tharu, Susie (2013) From those Stubs Steel Nibs are Sprouting: New Dalit Writing from South Asia, Dossier 2: Kannada and Telugu, New Delhi: HarperCollins India.
Haldhar NagIndian

Date of Birth: 31-Mar-1950
Place of Birth: Bargarh, Odisha, India
Profession: writer, poet
Nationality: India
Zodiac Sign: Aries

About Haldhar Nag

Haldhar Nag (Born: 31 March 1950) is a Sambalpuri poet and writer from Bargarh, Odisha, India.
Popularly known as "Lok kabi Ratna" .
He was awarded Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award of India by Government of India in 2016.
He was born in a poor family of Ghens.
He is best known for his work Kavyanjali, an anthology of English translation of Nag's selected poetry which was launched in 2 October 2016.
In 2019 Haldhar Nag get Doctorate Degree by Sambalpur University.Sambalpur University is coming up with a compilation of his writings — Haldhar Granthabali-2 — which will be a part of its syllabus.
Hemendra Singh Panwar
Born 22 March 1937

Awards Padma Bhushan

Hemendra Singh Panwar is an Indian conservationist and civil servant, known for his efforts in the fields of wild life and conservation. He was the first director of the Wildlife Institute of India and was the director of Project Tiger. The Government of India honoured him, in 2013, with Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award, for his services to the environment and conservation.


Hemendra Singh Panwar was born on 22 March 1939. He started his career in Indian Forest Service, which took off with his posting at Mandla. In 1969, he was transferred to South Mandla which covered the forest areas of Kanha which had a sparse head count of 30 tigers and Barasinghas (swamp deer) numbering 66. Panwar's efforts on deear conservation was given a boost when he was put in charge of barasingha conservation as an independent unit.

During his stint at Kanha, Panwar is reported to be successful in converting the park into an efficiently managed unit, and the park won the award for the best managed park in India in 1976. The headcount of tigers grew to 150 and the deer to over 400 and the park management was able to relocate 22 interior villages.

In 1981, Panwar was transferred to Delhi, as the head of Project Tiger, a project conceptualised in 1973, for the protection of tiger population in India. He worked for 4 years on the project, till 1985, during which time, the project brought seven additional reserves under its umbrella. The population of tigers in India rose from 1900 to 3000. He was also invited to present a paper on the subject by the Smithsonian Institution

At this time, the idea of setting up an institute focusing wildlife conservation was being mooted by V. B. Saharia, and as a result of his efforts, the Wildlife Institute of India was established in 1985 with Hemendra Singh Panwar as its first director. Panwar established the institute into a full-fledged learning centre with specialised focus on wildlife biology, management, and extension. Research facilities were also set up in the topics of focus. The Wildlife Institute of India is rated as one of the six best conservation research institutions by the World Conservation Union and has won Rajiv Gandhi Conservation Award. Panwar retired as its director in 1994.

Awards and recognition

Hemendra Singh Panwar has won several awards and honours for his services.
Padma Bhushan – 2013
The Duke of Edinburgh Conservation Medal – WWF International – 2002
Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award – 1998
Tree of Learning Award – World Conservation Union (WCA-IUCN) – 1996
Fred M. Parker International Parks Merit Award – World Conservation Union (WCA-IUCN) – 1996
Prime Minister's Memento in 1992 for Project Tiger
Government of Madhya Pradesh Gold Medal – 1981
Hem Raj Phonsa



Occupation Executive Engineer (Retd),Chairman J&K Branch of the Institution of Valuers, All India Spokes Person the Bhartiya Dalit Sahitya Akademy Delhi& J&K Jammu

Location Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India

Introduction Author of the book - Dr Ambedkar and His Associates.Spokesman of the Bhartiya Dalit Sahitya Akademy Delhi, J&K (Regd) Recipient of Dr Ambedkar National Award 2012 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar State Award ( J&K State) 1994 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar State Award ( J&K State) 1994 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Distinguished Service Award 2003 Babu Jagjivan Ram centenary state( J&K) Award Dr B.R. Ambedkar Plaque of

Interests Civil Structural Designing and Planning, Registered/Empanelled Valuer with I-Tax and many Banking Institutions including Nationalized Banks, Free lance writing on Technical topics, social and religious problems, Reading and writing of History and Biographies of Dalit Political, social and religious personalities. Many essays have been published in Dailies and Magazines country over in English and Hindi. Contributing Technical papers as well with having won many honors. I also give talks, interviews on Radio and TV Channels, Composing Poems in Dogri and Hindi, Striving for establishing universal brotherhood based on equal rights and privileges. Dalit problems have particularly concern and interests.

Favorite Books W&S of Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar. Life and Mission of Dr.Ambedkar by D. Keer. Any other book on Dr. Ambedkar, Dalit Saints, social, political personalities

Indira Dangi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indira Dangi
Born 13 February 1980 
Datia, Madhya Pradesh, India
Occupation Novelist, playwright, writer
Education MA
Notable works Haweli Sanatanpur, Ek Sou Pachas Premikayen, Acharya, Rapatile Rajpath Rai, Rani Kamalapati
Notable awards Yuva Puraskar

Indira Dangi (Hindi: इन्दिरा दाँगी) (born 13 February 1980) is a Hindi novelist, playwright and short story writer She has published one novel, one theatrical play and two books of short stories. Her works are widely acclaimed and acknowledged. She is a recipient of the Yuva Puraskar and Jnanpith Navlekhan Anushansa Award.
Imayam (pen name of V. Annamalai) is a school teacher in Viluppuram district of Tamil Nadu, Imayam is the author of five novels and five short story collections. He is known among Tamil readers for his novels “Koveru Kazhudaigal” (The Mules) and “Arumugam”. He is the recipient of multiple awards such as the Tamil Nadu Progressive Writers’ Association Award, the Agni Akshara Award, and the Autham Adigal Award.

Early Life

Imayam was born in 1964. The family lived in Meladanur, but later shifted to Vriddhachalam. He finished his higher studies in Periyar E.V.R. College, Tiruchirappalli. During his college days, he got books from some Sri Lankan Tamils on the ethnic crisis in their country and also attended the exhibitions and photo displays that they put up. In addition, he bought and read Russian Literature in translation. Imayam's first piece was written for a competition in St Joseph's college in Trichy around 1984-1985. For Imayam, it was S. Albert, a professor from Trichy, who 'opened the door to the world'. He went on to attend a thirty-day writer's workshop organized by the All India Catholic Universities Federation. This set Imayam thinking seriously about his own writing and its themes.


Koveru Kazhudhaigal (Novel) 1994 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Arumugam (Novel) 1999 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
ManBaram (Short Stories) 2002 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Sedal (Novel) 2006 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Video Mariamman (Short Stories) 2008 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Kolai Cheval (Short Stories 2013 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Pethavan (Novella) 2013 Bharathi Puthagalayam, Chennai – 18.
Savu Soru(Short stories) 2014 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
En Kathe (Novel) 2015 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Narumanam 2016 Cre-A, Chennai – 41
Selladha Panam 2018 Cre-A, Chennai – 41

About his works

His first novel Koveru Kazhudhaigal created heated debates on issues like the role of a Dalit writer in the context of oppression seen in Dalit community. This novel is now included in the digitalisation project of the University of Chicago and Columbia University, the first Tamil novel to be made available via the Internet, at least at that address. This novel is considered as one of the classic of modern Tamil literature specially in Dalit writing. It is the realistic chronicle of a family of launderers who wash the clothes of other untouchables, receiving grain and other food in return. The novel is constructed between two journeys: a pilgrimage of hope at the beginning; a routine trip to the washing pool in drudgery and despair in the end. Imayam invents for Arokkyam a particular spoken style, which is not quite formal lament, but is very similar, often depending on a string of related exclamations. He presents an ebullient mix of the past, present and future in his works. About his novel Koveru Kazhudaigal the writer Sundara Ramasamy wrote "There is no novel that equals this one in the last 100 years of Tamil writing." However Dalit intellectuals like Raj Gauthaman have criticized the novel for focusing only on shortcomings of Dalits and being the kind of novel that "upper"-castes praised.. 'Koveru Kazhudhaigal' won many awards including Agni Aksara Award, award from TamilNadu Progressive Writers' Forum (1994), Amudhan Adigal Ilakkiya Award for Literature (1998) and honored with a state award. The English translation of this novel appeared as 'Beasts of Burden' in 2001 and the second one appeared in 2006 and also translated into Malayalam. Imayam's second novel, 'Arumugam', appeared in 1999, and translated into French, won him accolades from doyens of Tamil literature. 'Manbaram', a collection of stories was published in 2002. 'Sedal', another novel, published in 2006, deals with a dalit community whose women are designated as oracles. These women, appointed during droughts, fix the date for village festivals, perform koothu, participate in death rituals, and are not allowed a marital relationship. The novel tracts the life of Sedal, given over to the temple during the 1945-46 drought in Tamilnadu, whose family leaves her behind and migrates to Sri Lanka. This novel is also translated into English. His novella 'Pethavan' was first published in September 2012 in Uyirmai (Tamil literary Magazine). November 2012 saw its appearance as a little book through Oviya Publications TVS, Villupuram, which reprinted it five times in three months. Bharati Publications published the novella in February 2013 and, has since, sold more than 1,00,000 copies, reprinting ten times.

This novella is set against the back of rural Tamil Nadu, and is the story of a father who is faced with the brutal realities of caste and communal prejudice as he is ordered by the panchayat to murder his daughter for being firm in her resolve to marry a Dalit boy. The narrative is an unflinching account of the stress and ugliness that await those who dare to transcend caste borders. When Bhakkiyam falls in love with a Dalit sub-inspector, death is the only punishment that will satisfy her village panchayat. Pazhani, her father, is ordered to kill her. But how can a father murder his own daughter? Imayam's tale eerily preceded an actual event that occurred two months later in the year 2012 in Dharmapuri in Tamil Nadu. The animals in the story stand apart from humans who seem to exist with no humanity. The bullock licks Pazhani's face and calms him down. He allows his face to be licked by the bullock, and slowly, his trembling stops. His dog hovers around, concerned and unwilling to leave him in this trying moment. About 'Pethavan', Ambai wrote "I have cried when the father feeds his daughter, places her head on his chest, and hugs her. His language is abusive and abrasive throughout, but his words, when he bids Bhakkiyam goodbye and tells her to go live with her life, make not only his daughter and his future son in lay, who speaks to him on the mobile, cry, but also the readers. When a story rises above the public image of the writer, it has truly succeeded in having an existence of its own that goes beyond the writer." This novella is translated into Malayalam, Telugu


Agni Akshara Award (1994)
Amudhan Adigal Literature Award (1998)
Junior Fellowship – Department of Cultural, Govt. of India, New Delhi (2002)
Thamizh Thendral Thiru.V.Ka. Award, Govt. of Tamil Nadu (2010)
Puthiya Thalaimurai (Nambikkai Natchathiram) Award (2015)
Tamil Peravai Award - SRM (2016)
Anantha Vikatan Award (2016)

Award for Contemporary Tamil Literature - The Hindu (Tamil) - (2018)
Anita Bharti

Prof. Inderjeet Parmar

Professor Inderjeet Parmar

Professor of International Politics

School of Arts and Social Sciences Department of International Politics

Contact details
+44 (0)20 7040 4517

Professor Inderjeet ParmarD502, Rhind building
City, University of London
Northampton Square
London EC1V 0HB
United Kingdom

Professor Inderjeet Parmar read Sociology at the London School of Economics, and Political Sociology at the University of London. His doctorate, from the University of Manchester, was in the fields of political science and international relations. Prior to appointment at City, University of London in 2012, he taught at the University of Manchester (1991-2012), mainly in its Department of Government which, between 2006-09, he served as Head of Department.

Other professional activities

Professor Inderjeet Parmar is past president, chair and vice chair of the British International Studies Association.

He is currently Visiting Professor at LSE (2019-2022) and a Visiting Research Fellow at the Rothermere American Institute, Oxford.

2013 – 2014 he was Visiting Research Scholar at the Empires Research Community, Princeton University
He held visiting fellowships at Princeton and Oxford (1998, 1999, 2010).

He is co-editor of a book series, Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy.

He served as Principal Investigator and co-ordinator of the AHRC Research Network on the Presidency of Barack Obama. He is currently working with colleagues to establish the Trump Project: http://ucdclinton.ie/trump-project/

Professor Parmar was a member of the Working Group on Think Tanks of the Social Science Research Council, New York, 2007, and co-convenor of the BISA Working Group on US Foreign Policy, 2005-09.

Media work and appearances

Professor Parmar appears regularly on numerous TV and radio stations, including Al Jazeera, CNN, BBC, RT, TRT; TalkRadio, and Sputnik

He is a columnist for The Wire: https://thewire.in/author/iparmar/

- US Foreign Policy
- Theories of Global Politics
- Foreign Policy Analysis
- US Foreign Policy
Inderjeet Parmar
Jayant Parmer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jayant Parmar (born 11 October 1954) is an Indian Urdu language poet known for raising Dalit issues in his poetry. Parmar was born in a poor family. At a young age, he began to paint miniature paintings for a frame maker. Parmar realized that the frame maker had a separate pot for him because he was Dalit. This saddened Parmar and he quit.

Parmar taught himself Urdu from a language learning guide at age 30 after he developed an appreciation for Urdu poetry while living in a Muslim-dominated area in the walled city area of Ahmedabad. He has published a number of poetry collections: Aur in 1998, Pencil Aur Doosri Nazmein in 2006, Manind in 2008, Antaral in 2010 and Giacometti ke sapne in 2016. Parmar won the 2008 Sahitya Akademi Award in Urdu for Pencil Aur Doosri Nazmein. His work has been translated into Kashmiri, Punjabi, Hindi, Marathi, Bangla, Kannada, Gujarati, Oriya and Slovenian
Jatin Bala

Born 5 May 1949 in East Pakistan, Bala had lost both his parents by 1953 and had to bear the tribulations of the Bengal partition without the support of a family. Despite having to live in refugee camps, he educated himself.

The Bengali writer is the author of several anthologies of poetry and short stories as well as well as a novel. He also edited multiple periodicals from the 1970s. He has been awarded the Nitish Smriti Sahitya Puroshkar, Dabdaho Sahityo Potrika Puroshkar, Kobi Nikhilesh Sahitya Puroshkar, etc.

Jatin Bala is a Dalit author who was born Parhiyali, Manirampur in Jessore in the then East Pakistan on 5 May 1949.

One of his stories, "On firm ground", is included in translation in Survival and Other Stories: Bangla Dalit Fiction in Translation. 2012.



Jeebaner Naam Jantrana (The name of Life is Pain)
Minati Keu Rakheni (Nobody Has Kept Request)
Aamar Shabdai Shanita Astra (My Words as Sharpened Weapon)
A Verse as a Sharpened Weapon (Translated into English by Satya Debnath)

Short Story

Nepo Nidhan Parba (Nepo Slain Episode)
Gondir Bandhe Bhangan (Dissolution in the Barrage of Circle)
Vanga Banglar Dui Mukha (Two faces of Broken Bengal)
Samaj Chetanar Galpo
Stories of Social Awakening: Reflections of Dalit Refugee Lives of Bengal(translated from Bangla into English by Jaydeep Sarangi)


Aamriter Jiban Kotha (Life of Elixir)
Shikarh Chhenrha Jeeban(Root Severing Life) (Autobiographical)Research Articles

Dalita Sahitya Aandalan (Dalit Literary Movement)
Bastu Badi Motua Aandalan (Materialistic Motua Movement)
Satya Aannetion (In Search of Truth)
Itihasher Aloke Sri Hari Guruchand o Matua Aandalan (Sri Hari Guruchand in the light of History and Matua Movement)

Jogesh Das
Indian writer

From Wikipedia
Jogesh Das
Born 1 April 1927
Lakhimpur Assam
Died 9 September 1999
Occupation Writer, Journalist, Lecturer
Language Assamese
Education MA
Alma mater Gauhati University
Period 1953 - present
Genre Fiction
Notable works Prithivir Axukh
Daawor Aru Nai
Notable awards 1980: Sahitya Akademi Award
1994: Assam Valley Literary Award
 Literature portal

Jogesh Das (Assamese: যোগেশ দাস; 1 April 1927 – 9 September 1999) was an Indian short-story writer and novelist from Assam. He was born in 1927. He won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his book Prithivir Oxukh. He is also associated with many cultural organization including the Asom Sahitya Sabha.

Education and career

Das was the first Sonowal Kachari who was elected as a president in Asom Sahitya Sabha. Das completed his MA in Assamese literature from Gauhati University in 1953 and then started working as a journalist.

As a writer
Das emerged as a fiction writer in the early fifties. He has written short stories and novels with equal distinction. His first novel is Kolpotuwar Mrityu published in 1953. His second novel Daawor aru nai in 1955 established him as a powerful novelist. This book has been translated into all other major Indian language by National Book Trust. His short-story collection Prithivir Oxukh brought him the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award. His "Folklore of Assam" which was originally in English and then in other Indian language, is a simple and comprehensive book on Assamese folklore.

Literary works

Some of his notable works are:
1953: Kolpotuwar Mrityu (Death of Kolpotuwa)
1955: Daawor aaru naai (No more cloud is there)
1959: Jonakir Jui (Flame of the Firefly)
1963: Nirupai-Nirupai (Helpless... Helpless)
1965: Emuthi Dhuli (A Handful of Dust)
1967: Haazaar Phul (Thousands of Flowers)
1972: Nedekha Juir Dhowa (Smoke of an unseen fire)
1972: Obidha (Illegitimate)
1977: Naresh Maloti Aru (Naresh, Maloti and...)
Story books
1956: Popiya Tora (Falling Star)
1958: Andharor Are Are (Under the Shadow of Darkness)
1961: Triveni (Confluence of Three)
1963: Modaror Bedona (Grief of the Sunshine Tree)
1965: Haazaar Lokor Bhir (A crowd of thousands)
English books
1972: Folklore of Assam

In 1980, Das received the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award for his collection of short stories Prithivir Oxukh.
In 1994 Das received the Assam Valley Literary Award for his contribution to Assamese literature.
Joseph Edamaruku
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Joseph Edamaruku
Born September 7, 1934

Died June 29, 2006 (aged 71)
Occupation Journalist, author, activist
Organization Indian Rationalist Association
Spouse(s) Solley Edamaruku
Children Sanal Edamaruku

Joseph Edamaruku (7 September 1934 – 29 June 2006), popularly identified by his surname Edamaruku, was a journalist and rationalist from Kerala. He was the Delhi Bureau chief of the Malayalam magazine Keralasabdam for more than twenty years, and the founder-editor of Therali, a rationalist periodical in Malayalam. He was president of the Indian Rationalist Association from 1995 to 2005.

Joseph Edamaruku influenced a generation of freethinkers in 1970s and 1980s. His books were best-sellers in Kerala during those times. As a rationalist and an atheist, he wrote over 170 books on various subjects ranging from religion to philosophy to miracles. His autobiography, The Times that Raised the Tempest, won a Kerala Literary Academy award. He also translated and published in Malayalam the complete works of Abraham Kovoor. His son, Sanal Edamaruku, is an Indian rationalist and president of the Rationalist International, who is currently in exile in Finland. Some of his works are:
Kristhuvum Krishnanum Jeevichirunnilla (Christ & Krishna Never Lived)
Upanishathukal Oru Vimarsana Patanam 1(Upanishands: A Critical Study)
Upanishathukal Oru Vimarsana Patanam 2
Quran Oru Vimarsana Patanam (Quran: A Critical Study)
Bhagavad Gita Oru Vimarsana Patanam (Bhagavad Gita: A Critical Study)
Yukthivada Rashtram (Rationalist Nation)
Kovoorinte Sampoorna Krithikal (Complete Works of Abraham Kovoor: Translation)
Jaina Matham
Naveena Brahmana Matham
Ivar Matha Nishedhikal
India Gazetteer and Bhoomisasthra Nighandu
Kodumkattuyarthiya Kalam
Samsarikkunna Kuthira
Jogesh Das
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jogesh Das
Born 1 April 1927
Lakhimpur Assam
Died 9 September 1999
Occupation Writer, Journalist, Lecturer
Language Assamese
Nationality Indian
Citizenship Indian
Education MA
Alma mater Gauhati University
Period 1953 - present
Genre Fiction
Notable works Prithivir Axukh
Daawor Aru Nai
Notable awards 1980: Sahitya Akademi Award

Jogesh Das (Assamese: যোগেশ দাস; 1 April 1927 – 9 September 1999) was an Indian short-story writer and novelist from Assam. He was born in 1927. He won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his book Prithivir Oxukh.He is also associated with many cultural organization including the Asom Sahitya Sabha.

Education and career

Das was the first Sonowal Kachari who was elected as a president in Asom Sahitya Sabha Das completed his MA in Assamese literature from Gauhati University in 1953 and then started working as a journalist.

As a writer

Das emerged as a fiction writer in the early fifties. He has written short stories and novels with equal distinction. His first novel is Kolpotuwar Mrityu published in 1953. His second novel Daawor aru nai in 1955 established him as a powerful novelist. This book has been translated into all other major Indian language by National Book Trust. His short-story collection Prithivir Oxukh brought him the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award. His "Folklore of Assam" which was originally in English and then in other Indian language, is a simple and comprehensive book on Assamese folklore.

Literary works

Some of his notable works are:

1953: Kolpotuwar Mrityu (Death of Kolpotuwa)
1955: Daawor aaru naai (No more cloud is there)
1959: Jonakir Jui (Flame of the Firefly)
1963: Nirupai-Nirupai (Helpless... Helpless)
1965: Emuthi Dhuli (A Handful of Dust)
1967: Haazaar Phul (Thousands of Flowers)
1972: Nedekha Juir Dhowa (Smoke of an unseen fire)
1972: Obidha (Illegitimate)
1977: Naresh Maloti Aru (Naresh, Maloti and...)

Story books

1956: Popiya Tora (Falling Star)
1958: Andharor Are Are (Under the Shadow of Darkness)
1961: Triveni (Confluence of Three)
1963: Modaror Bedona (Grief of the Sunshine Tree)
1965: Haazaar Lokor Bhir (A crowd of thousands)

English books

1972: Folklore of Assam


In 1980, Das received the prestigious Sahitya Akademi Award for his collection of short stories Prithivir Oxukh.
In 1994 Das received the Assam Valley Literary Award for his contribution to Assamese literature

Jibanananda Das

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jibanananda Das

The most widely used portrait of Jibanananda Das (date unknown)
Born Jibanananda Dasgupta
17 February 1899
BarisalBengal PresidencyBritish India
(present day Bangladesh)
Died 22 October 1954 (aged 55)
Calcutta, West Bengal, India
Occupation Poet, writer, and professor
Language Bengali
Nationality British Indian (1899–1947)
Indian (1947–1954)
Alma mater Brajamohan College
University of Calcutta
Genre Poetry, novels, short stories, criticism
Literary movement Bengali Modernism
Notable works Banalata SenRupasi Bangla, "Akashlina", "Banalata Sen", "Campe", "Bodh"
Notable awards Rabindra Puraskar Award (1952)
Sahitya Akademi Award (1955)
Spouse Labanyaprabha Das (née Gupta)
Children 2
Relatives Kusumkumari Das (mother)


Jibanananda Das (/dʒɪbɒnʌnɒndɔː dʌʃ/) (17 February 1899 – 22 October 1954) was an Bengali poet, writer, novelist and essayist in the Bengali language. Popularly called "Rupashi Banglar Kabi'' (Poet of Beautiful Bengal), Das is the most read poet after Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam in Bangladesh and West Bengal. While not particularly recognised initially, today Das is acknowledged as one of the greatest poets in the Bengali language.

Born in Barisal to a Vaidya-Brahmo family, Das studied English literature at Presidency College, Kolkata and earned his MA from Calcutta University. He had a troubling career and suffered financial hardship throughout his life. He taught at many colleges but was never granted tenure. He settled in Kolkata after the partition of India. Das died on 22 October 1954, eight days after being hit by a tramcar. The witnesses said that though the tramcar whistled, he did not stop, and got struck. Some deem the accident as an attempt at suicide.

Jibanananda Das was very underrated poet in his time; he wrote profusely, but as he was a recluse and introvert, he did not publish most of his writings during his lifetime. Most of his work were hidden, and only seven volumes of his poems were published. After his death, it was discovered that apart from poems, Das wrote 21 novels and 108 short stories. His notable works include Ruposhi Bangla, Banalata Sen, Mahaprithibi, Shreshtha Kavita. Das's early poems exhibit the influence of Kazi Nazrul Islam, but in the latter half of the 20th century, Das's influence became one of the major catalysts in the making of Bengali poetry.

Das received Rabindra-Memorial Award for Banalata Sen in 1953 at All Bengal Rabindra Literature Convention. Das's Shrestha Kavita won the Sahitya Academy Award in 1955.


Poetry and life are two different outpouring of the same thing; life as we usually conceive it contains what we normally accept as reality, but the spectacle of this incoherent and disorderly life can satisfy neither the poet's talent nor the reader's imagination ... poetry does not contain a complete reconstruction of what we call reality; we have entered a new world.
— Jibanananda Das
Early life

Young Jibanananda Das

Jibanananda Das was born in 1899 in a Baidya family in the small district town of Barisal. His ancestors came from the Bikrampur region of Dhaka district, from a now-extinct village called Gaupara on the banks of the river Padma. Jibanananda's grandfather Sarbānanda Dāśagupta was the first to settle permanently in Barisal. He was an early exponent of the reformist Brahmo Samaj movement in Barisal and was highly regarded in town for his philanthropy. He erased the -gupta suffix from the family name, regarding it as a symbol of Vedic Brahmin excess, thus rendering the surname to Das. Jibanananda's father Satyānanda Dāś (1863–1942) was a schoolmaster, essayist, magazine publisher, and founder-editor of Brôhmobadi, a journal of the Brahmo Samaj dedicated to the exploration of social issues

Jibanananda's mother Kusumakumārī Dāś (1875-1948) was a poet who wrote a famous poem called Adôrsho Chhēlē ("The Ideal Boy") whose refrain is well known to Bengalis to this day: Āmādēr dēshey hobey shei chhēlē kobey / Kothae nā boṛo hoye kajey boro hobey. (The child who achieves not in words but in deeds, when will this land know such a one?)

Jibanananda was the eldest son of his parents, and was called by the nickname Milu. A younger brother Aśōkānanda Dāś was born in 1901 and a sister called Shuchoritā in 1915. Milu fell violently ill in his childhood, and his parents feared for his life. Fervently desiring to restore his health, Kusumkumari took her ailing child on pilgrimage to LucknowAgra and Giridih. They were accompanied on these journeys by their uncle Chandranāth.

In January 1908, Milu, by now eight years old, was admitted to the first grade in Brojomohon School. The delay was due to his father's opposition to admitting children into school at too early an age. Milu's childhood education was therefore limited to his mother's tutelage.

His school life passed by relatively uneventfully. In 1915 he successfully completed his matriculation examination from Brajamohan College, obtaining a first division in the process. He repeated the feat two years later when he passed the intermediate exams from Brajamohan College. Evidently an accomplished student, he left his home at rural Barisal to join University of Calcutta.

Life in Calcutta: first phase

Jibanananda enrolled in Presidency College, Kolkata. He studied English literature and graduated with a BA (Honours) degree in 1919. That same year, his first poem appeared in print in the Boishakh issue of Brahmobadi journal. Fittingly, the poem was called Borsho-abahon (Arrival of the New Year). This poem was published anonymously, with only the honorific Sri in the byline. However, the annual index in the year-end issue of the magazine revealed his full name: "Sri Jibanananda Das Gupta, BA".

In 1921, he completed the MA degree in English from University of kolkata, obtaining a second class. He was also studying law. At this time, he lived in the Hardinge student quarters next to the university. Just before his exams, he fell ill with bacillary dysentery, which affected his preparation for the examination.

The following year, he started his teaching career. He joined the English department of City College, Calcutta as a tutor. By this time, he had left Hardinge and was boarding at Harrison Road. He gave up his law studies. It is thought that he also lived in a house in Bechu Chatterjee Street for some time with his brother Ashokanananda, who had come there from Barisal for his MSc studies.

Travels and travails

His literary career was starting to take off. When Deshbondhu Chittaranjan Das died in June 1925, Jibanananda wrote a poem called 'Deshbandhu' Prayan'e' ("On the Death of the Friend of the nation") which was published in Bangabani magazine. This poem would later take its place in the collection called Jhara Palok (1927). On reading it, poet Kalidas Roy said that he had thought the poem was the work of a mature, accomplished poet hiding behind a pseudonym. Jibanananda's earliest printed prose work was also published in 1925. This was an obituary entitled "Kalimohan Das'er Sraddha-bashorey," which appeared in serialised form in Brahmobadi magazine. His poetry began to be widely published in various literary journals and little magazines in Calcutta, Dhaka and elsewhere. These included Kallol, perhaps the most famous literary magazine of the era, Kalikalam (Pen and Ink), Progoti (Progress) (co-edited by Buddhadeb Bose) and others. At this time, he occasionally used the surname Dasgupta as opposed to Das.

In 1927, Jhara Palok (Fallen Feathers), his first collection of poems, came out. A few months later, Jibanananda was fired from his job at the City College. The college had been struck by student unrest surrounding a religious festival, and enrolment seriously suffered as a consequence. Still in his late 20s, Jibanananda was the youngest member of the faculty and therefore regarded as the most dispensable. In the literary circle of Calcutta, he also came under serial attack. One of the most serious literary critics of that time, Sajanikanta Das, began to write aggressive critiques of his poetry in the review pages of Shanibarer Chithi (the Saturday Letter) magazine.

With nothing to keep him in Calcutta, Jibanananda left for the small town of Bagerhat in the far south, there to resume his teaching career at Bagerhat P. C. College. But after about three months he returned to the big city, now in dire financial straits. To make ends meet, he gave private tuition to students while applying for full-time positions in academia. In December 1929, he moved to Delhi to take up a teaching post at Ramjas College; again this lasted no more than a few months. Back in Barisal, his family had been making arrangements for his marriage. Once Jibanananda went to Barisal, he failed to go back to Delhi – and, consequently, lost the job.

In May 1930, he married Labanyaprabhai Das, a girl whose ancestors came from Khulna. At the subsequent reception in Dhaka's Ram Mohan Library, leading literary lights of the day such as Ajit Kumar Dutta and Buddhadeb Bose were assembled. A daughter called Manjusree was born to the couple in February of the following year.

Around this time, he wrote one of his most controversial poems. "Camp'e" (At the Camp) was printed in Sudhindranath Dutta's Parichay magazine and immediately caused a firestorm in the literary circle of Calcutta. The poem's ostensible subject is a deer hunt on a moonlit night. Many accused Jibanananda of promoting indecency and incest through this poem.[citation needed] More and more, he turned now, in secrecy, to fiction. He wrote a number of short novels and short stories during this period of unemployment, strife and frustration.

In 1934 he wrote the series of poems that would form the basis of the collection called Rupasi Bangla. These poems were not discovered during his lifetime, and were only published in 1957, three years after his death.

Back in Barisal

In 1935, Jibanananda, by now familiar with professional disappointment and poverty, returned to his alma mater Brajamohan College, which was then affiliated with the University of Calcutta. He joined as a lecturer in the English department. In Calcutta, Buddhadeb BosePremendra Mitra and Samar Sen were starting a brand new poetry magazine called Kobita. Jibanananda's work featured in the very first issue of the magazine, a poem called Mrittu'r Aagey (Before Death). Upon reading the magazine, Tagore wrote a lengthy letter to Bose and especially commended the Das poem: "Jibanananda Das' vivid, colourful poem has given me great pleasure." It was in the second issue of Kobita (Poush 1342 issue, Dec 1934/Jan 1935) that Jibanananda published his now-legendary "Banalata Sen". Today, this 18-line poem is among the most famous poems in the language.

The following year, his second volume of poetry Dhusar Pandulipi was published. Jibanananda was by now well settled in Barisal. A son Samarananda was born in November 1936. His impact in the world of Bengali literature continued to increase. In 1938, Tagore compiled a poetry anthology entitled Bangla Kabya Parichay (Introduction to Bengali Poetry) and included an abridged version of Mrityu'r Aagey, the same poem that had moved him three years ago. Another important anthology came out in 1939, edited by Abu Sayeed Ayub and Hirendranath Mukhopadhyay; Jibanananda was represented with four poems: Pakhira, Shakun, Banalata Sen, and Nagna Nirjan Haat.

In 1942, the same year that his father died, his third volume of poetry Banalata Sen was published under the aegis of Kobita Bhavan and Buddhadeb Bose. A ground-breaking modernist poet in his own right, Bose was a steadfast champion of Jibanananda's poetry, providing him with numerous platforms for publication. 1944 saw the publication of Maha Prithibi. The Second World War had a profound impact on Jibanananda's poetic vision. The following year, Jibanananda provided his own translations of several of his poems for an English anthology to be published under the title Modern Bengali Poems. Oddly enough, the editor Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya considered these translations to be sub-standard, and instead commissioned Martin Kirkman to translate four of Jibanananda's poems for the book.
Life in Calcutta: final phase

The aftermath of the war saw heightened demands for Indian independence. Muslim politicians led by Jinnah wanted an independent homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent. Bengal was uniquely vulnerable to partition: its western half was majority-Hindu, its eastern half majority-Muslim. Yet adherents of both religions spoke the same language, came from the same ethnic stock, and lived in close proximity to each other in town and village. Jibanananda had emphasized the need for communal harmony at an early stage. In his very first book Jhora Palok, he had included a poem called Hindu Musalman. In it he proclaimed:

আবার আসিব ফিরে
আবার আসিব ফিরে ধানসিঁড়িটির তীরে – এই বাংলায়

হয়তো মানুষ নয় – হয়তো বা শাঁখচিল শালিকের বেশে,
হয়তো ভোরের কাক হয়ে এই কার্তিঁকের নবান্নের দেশে
কুয়াশার বুকে ভেসে একদিন আসিব কাঁঠাল ছায়ায়।
হয়তো বা হাঁস হবো – কিশোরীর – ঘুঙুর রহিবে লাল পায়
সারাদিন কেটে যাবে কলমীর গন্ধভরা জলে ভেসে ভেসে।
আবার আসিব আমি বাংলার নদী মাঠ ক্ষেত ভালোবেসে

জলঙ্গীর ঢেউ এ ভেজা বাংলার এ সবুজ করুণ ডাঙ্গায়।

However, events in real life belied his beliefs. In the summer of 1946, he travelled to Calcutta from Barisal on three months' paid leave. He stayed at his brother Ashokananda's place through the bloody riots that swept the city. Violence broke out in Noakhali and Tippera districts later in the autumn, and he was unable to return to Barisal. Just before partition in August 1947, Jibanananda quit his job at Brajamohan College and said goodbye to his beloved Barisal. He and his family were among the 10 million refugees who took part in the largest cross-border migration in history. For a while he worked for a magazine called Swaraj as its Sunday editor. However, he left the job after a few months.

In 1948, he completed two of his novels, Mallyaban and Shutirtho, neither of which were discovered during his life. Shaat'ti Tarar Timir was published in December 1948. The same month, his mother Kusumkumari Das died in Calcutta.

By now, he was well established in the Calcutta literary world. He was appointed to the editorial board of yet another new literary magazine Dondo (Conflict). However, in a reprise of his early career, he was sacked from his job at Kharagpur College in February 1951. In 1952, Signet Press published Banalata Sen. The book received widespread acclaim and won the Book of the Year award from the All-Bengal Tagore Literary Conference. Later that year, the poet found another job at Barisha College (now known as Vivekananda College, Thakurpukur). This job too he lost within a few months. He applied afresh to Diamond Harbour Fakirchand College, but eventually declined it, owing to travel difficulties. Instead he was obliged to take up a post at Howrah Girl's College (now known as Bijoy Krishna Girls' College), a constituent affiliated undergraduate college of the University of Calcutta. As the head of the English department, he was entitled to a 50-taka monthly bonus on top of his salary.

By the last year of his life, Jibanananda was acclaimed as one of the best poets of the post-Tagore era. He was constantly in demand at literary conferences, poetry readings, radio recitals etc. In May 1954, he was published a volume titled 'Best Poems' (Sreshttho Kobita). His Best Poems won the Indian Sahitya Akademi Award in 1955.
Love and marriag

Young Jibanananda fell in love with Shovona, daughter of his uncle Atulchandra Das, who lived in the neighbourhood. He dedicated his first anthology of poems to Shovona withou
t mentioning her name explicitly. He did not try to marry her since marriage between cousins was not socially acceptable. She has been referred to as Y in his literary notes. Soon after marrying Labanyaprabha Das (née Gupta) in 1930, a personality clash erupted and Jibanananda Das gave up the hope of a happy married life. The gap with his wife never narrowed. While Jibanananda was near death after a tram accident on 14 October 1954, Labanyaprabha did not visit her husband on his deathbed more than once. At that time she was busy in film-making in Tallyganj.


One poet now dead, killed near his fiftieth year ... did introduce what for India would be "the modern spirit" – bitterness, self-doubt, sex, street diction, personal confession, frankness, Calcutta beggars ect [sic] – into Bengali letters.
— Allen Ginsberg

On 14 October 1954, he was crossing a road near Calcutta's Deshapriya Park when he was hit by a tram. Jibanananda was returning home after his routine evening walk. At that time, he used to reside in a rented apartment on the Lansdowne Road. Seriously injured, he was taken to Shambhunath Pundit Hospital. Poet-writer Sajanikanta Das who had been one of his fiercest critics was tireless in his efforts to secure the best treatment for the poet. He even persuaded Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy (then chief minister of West Bengal) to visit him in hospital. Nonetheless, the injury was too severe to redress. Jibanananda died in hospital on 22 October 1954 eight days later, at about midnight. He was then 55 and left behind his wife, Labanyaprabha Das, a son and a daughter, and the ever-growing band of readers.

His body was cremated the following day at Keoratola crematorium. Following popular belief, it has been alleged in some biographical accounts that his accident was actually an attempt at suicide. Although none of the Jibanananda biographers have indicated such, it appears from circumstantial evidence that it was an attempt to end his own life.

The literary circle deeply mourned his death. Almost all the newspapers published obituaries which contained sincere appreciations of the poetry of Jibanananda. Poet Sanjay Bhattacharya wrote the death news and sent to different newspapers. On 1 November 1954, The Times of India wrote:

The premature death after an accident of Mr. Jibanananda Das removes from the field of Bengali literature a poet, who, though never in the limelight of publicity and prosperity, made a significant contribution to modern Bengali poetry by his prose-poems and free-verse. ... A poet of nature with a serious awareness of the life around him Jibanananda Das was known not so much for the social content of his poetry as for his bold imagination and the concreteness of his image. To a literary world dazzled by Tagore's glory, Das showed how to remain true to the poet's vocation without basking in its reflection."

In his obituary in the Shanibarer Chithi, Sajanikanta Das quoted the poet:

When one day I'll leave this body once for all −
Shall I never return to this world any more?
Let me come back
On a winter night
To the bedside of any dying acquaintance
With a cold pale lump of orange in hand.

Jibanananda and Bengali poetry
Influence of Tagore

As of 2009, Bengali is the mother tongue of more than 300 million people living mainly in Bangladesh and India. Bengali poetry of the modern age flourished on the elaborate foundation laid by Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824–1873) and Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941). Tagore ruled over the domain of Bengali poetry and literature for almost half a century, inescapably influencing contemporary poets. Bengali literature caught the attention of the international literary world when Tagore was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature for Gitanjali, an anthology of poems rendered into English by the poet himself with the title Song Offering. Since then Bengali poetry has travelled a long way. It has evolved around its own tradition; it has responded to the poetry movements around the world; it has assumed various dimensions in different tones, colours and essence.

Contemporaries of Jibanananda

In Bengal, efforts to break out of the Tagorian worldview and stylistics started in the early days of the 20th century. Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam (1899–1976) popularised himself on a wide scale with patriotic themes and musical tone and tenor. However, a number of new -ration poets consciously attempted to align Bengali poetry with the essence of worldwide emergent modernism, starting towards the end of the 19th century and attributeable to contemporary European and American trends. Five poets who are particularly acclaimed for their contribution in creating a post-Tagorian poetic paradigm and infusing modernism in Bengali poetry are Sudhindranath Dutta (1901–1960), Buddhadeb Bose (1908–1974), Amiya Chakravarty (1901–1986), Jibanananda Das (1899–1954) and Bishnu Dey (1909–1982). The contour of modernism in 20th-century Bengali poetry was drawn by these five pioneers and some of their contemporaries.

However, not all of them have survived the test of time. Of them, poet Jibanananda Das was little understood during his lifetime. In fact, he received scanty attention and some considered him incomprehensible. Readers, including his contemporary literary critics, also alleged faults in his style and diction. On occasions, he faced merciless criticism from leading literary personalities of his time. Even Tagore made unkind remarks on his diction, although he praised his poetic capability. Nevertheless, destiny reserved a crown for him.

Growth of popularity

During the later half of the twentieth century, Jibanananda Das emerged as one of the most popular poets of modern Bengali literature. Popularity apart, Jibanananda Das had distinguished himself as an extraordinary poet presenting a paradigm hitherto unknown. Whilst his unfamiliar poetic diction, choice of words and thematic preferences took time to reach the hearts of readers, by the end of the 20th century the poetry of Jibanananda had become a defining essence of modernism in 20th-century Bengali poetry.

Whilst his early poems bear the undoubted influence of Kazi Nazrul Islam and other poets like Satyendranath Dutta, before long Jibananda had thoroughly overcame these influences and created a new poetic diction. Buddhadeb Bose was among the first to recognise his style and thematic novelty. However, as his style and diction matured, his message appeared obscured. Readers, including critics, started to complain about readability and question his sensibility.

Only after his accidental death in 1954 did a readership emerge that not only was comfortable with Jibanananda's style and diction but also enjoyed his poetry. Questions about the obscurity of his poetic message were no longer raised. By the time his birth centenary was celebrated in 1999, Jibanananda Das was the most popular and well-read poet of Bengali literature. Even when the last quarter of the 20th century ushered in the post-modern era, Jibanananda Das continued to be relevant to the new taste and fervour. This was possible because his poetry underwent many cycles of change, and later poems contain post-modern elements.

Jibanananda Das started writing and publishing in his early 20s. During his lifetime he published only 269 poems in different journals and magazines, of which 162 were collected in seven anthologies, from Jhara Palak to Bela Obela Kalbela Many of his poems have been published posthumously at the initiative of his brother Asokananda Das, sister Sucharita Das and nephew Amitananda Das, and the efforts of Dr. Bhumendra Guha, who over the decades copied them from scattered manuscripts. By 2008, the total count of Jibananda's known poems stood at almost 800. In addition, numerous novels and short stories were discovered and published about the same time.

Jibanananda scholar Clinton B. Seely has termed Jibanananda Das as "Bengal's most cherished poet since Rabindranath Tagore". On the other hand, to many, reading the poetry of Jibanananda Das is like stumbling upon a labyrinth of the mind similar to what one imagines Camus's 'absurd' man toiling through. Indeed, Jibanananda Das's poetry is sometimes an outcome of profound feeling painted in imagery of a type not readily understandable. Sometimes the connection between the sequential lines is not obvious. In fact, Jibanananda Das broke the traditional circular structure of poetry (introduction-middle-end) and the pattern of logical sequence of words, lines and stanzas. Consequently, the thematic connotation is often hidden under a rhythmic narrative that requires careful reading between the lines. The following excerpt will bear the point out:

Lepers open the hydrant and lap some water.
Or maybe that hydrant was already broken.
Now at midnight they descend upon the city in droves,
Scattering sloshing petrol. Though ever careful,
Someone seems to have taken a serious spill in the water.
Three rickshaws trot off, fading into the last gaslight.
I turn off, leave Phear Lane, defiantly
Walk for miles, stop beside a wall
On Bentinck Street, at Territti Bazar,
There in the air dry as roasted peanuts.
(Night – a poem on night in Calcutta, translated by Clinton B. Seely)

বনলতা সেন
হাজার বছর ধরে আমি পথ হাঁটিতেছি পৃথিবীর পথে,

সিংহল সমুদ্র থেকে নিশীথের অন্ধকারে মালয় সাগরে
অনেক ঘুরেছি আমি; বিম্বিসার অশোকের ধূসর জগতে
সেখানে ছিলাম আমি; আরো দূর অন্ধকারে বিদর্ভ নগরে;
আমি ক্লান্ত প্রাণ এক, চারিদিকে জীবনের সমুদ্র সফেন,
আমারে দুদণ্ড শান্তি দিয়েছিলো নাটোরের বনলতা সেন।

চুল তার কবেকার অন্ধকার বিদিশার নিশা,
মুখ তার শ্রাবস্তীর কারুকার্য; অতিদূর সমুদ্রের 'পর
হাল ভেঙে যে নাবিক হারায়েছে দিশা
সবুজ ঘাসের দেশ যখন সে চোখে দেখে দারুচিনি-দ্বীপের ভিতর,
তেমনি দেখেছি তারে অন্ধকারে; বলেছে সে, 'এতোদিন কোথায় ছিলেন?'
পাখির নীড়ের মত চোখ তুলে নাটোরের বনলতা সেন।

সমস্ত দিনের শেষে শিশিরের শব্দের মতন
সন্ধ্যা আসে; ডানার রৌদ্রের গন্ধ মুছে ফেলে চিল;
পৃথিবীর সব রঙ নিভে গেলে পাণ্ডুলিপি করে আয়োজন
তখন গল্পের তরে জোনাকির রঙে ঝিলমিল;
সব পাখি ঘরে আসে—সব নদী—ফুরায় এ-জীবনের সব লেনদেন;

থাকে শুধু অন্ধকার, মুখোমুখি বসিবার বনলতা সেন।

Though Jibanananda Das was variously branded at times and was popularly known as a modernist of the Yeatsian-Poundian-Eliotesque school, Annadashankar Roy called him the truest poet. Jibanananda Das conceived a poem and moulded it up in the way most natural for him. When a theme occurred to him, he shaped it with words, metaphors and imagery that distinguished him from all others. Jibanananda Das's poetry is to be felt, rather than merely read or heard. Writing about Jibanananda Das' poetry, Joe Winter remarked:

It is a natural process, though perhaps the rarest one. Jibanananda Das's style reminds us of this, seeming to come unbidden. It has many sentences that scarcely pause for breath, of word-combinations that seem altogether unlikely but work, of switches in register from sophisticated usage to a village-dialect word, that jar and in the same instant settle in the mind, full of friction – in short, that almost becomes a part of the consciousness ticking.

A few lines are quoted below in support of Winter's remarks:

Nevertheless, the owl stays wide awake;
The rotten, still frog begs two more moments
in the hope of another dawn in conceivable warmth.
We feel in the deep tracelessness of flocking darkness
the unforgiving enmity of the mosquito-net all around;
The mosquito loves the stream of life,
awake in its monastery of darkness.
(One day eight years ago, translated by Faizul Latif Chowdhury)

Or elsewhere:

... how the wheel of justice is set in motion
by a smidgen of wind -
or if someone dies and someone else gives him a bottle
of medicine, free – then who has the profit? -
over all of this the four have a mighty word-battle.
For the land they will go to now is called the soaring river
where a wretched bone-picker and his bone
come and discover
their faces in water – till looking at faces is over.
(Idle Moment, translated by Joe Winter)

Also noteworthy are his sonnets, the most famous being seven untitled pieces collected in the publication Shaat-ti Tarar Timir ("The Blackness of Seven Stars), where he describes, on one hand, his attachment to his motherland, and on the other, his views about life and death in general. They are noteworthy not only because of the picturesque description of nature that was a regular feature of most of his work but also for the use of metaphors and allegories. For example, a lone owl flying about in the night sky is taken as an omen of death, while the anklets on the feet of a swan symbolises the vivacity of life. The following are undoubtedly the most oft-quoted line from this collection:

বাংলার মুখ আমি দেখিয়াছি, তাই আমি পৃথিবীর রূপ খুঁজিতে যাই না আর...

Jibanananda successfully integrated Bengali poetry with the slightly older Eurocentric international modernist movement of the early 20th century. In this regard he possibly owes as much to his exotic exposure as to his innate poetic talent. Although hardly appreciated during his lifetime, many critics believe that his modernism, evoking almost all the suggested elements of the phenomenon, remains untranscended to date, despite the emergence of many notable poets during the last 50 years. His success as a modern Bengali poet may be attributed to the facts that Jibanananda Das in his poetry not only discovered the tract of the slowly evolving 20th-century modern mind, sensitive and reactive, full of anxiety and tension, bu that he invented his own diction, rhythm and vocabulary, with an unmistakably indigenous rooting, and that he maintained a self-styled lyricism and imagism mixed with an extraordinary existentialist sensuousness, perfectly suited to the modern temperament in the Indian context, whereby he also averted fatal dehumanisation that could have alienated him from the people. He was at once a classicist and a romantic and created an appealing world hitherto unknown:

Banalata Sen's Cover by Satyajit Ray.

For thousands of years I roamed the paths of this earth,
From waters round Ceylon in dead of night
to Malayan seas.
Much have I wandered. I was there
in the grey world of Asoka
And Bimbisara, pressed on through darkness
to the city of Vidarbha.
I am a weary heart surrounded by life's frothy ocean.
To me she gave a moment's peace –
Banalata Sen from Natore.
(Banalata Sen)

While reading Jibanananda Das, one often encounters references to olden times and places, events and personalities. A sense of time and history is an unmistakable element that has shaped Jibanananda Das's poetic world to a great extent. However, he lost sight of nothing surrounding him. Unlike many of his peers who blindly imitated the renowned western poets in a bid to create a new poetic domain and generated spurious poetry, Jibanananda Das remained anchored in his own soil and time, successfully assimilating experiences real and virtual and producing hundreds of unforgettable lines. His intellectual vision was thoroughly embedded in Bengal's nature and beauty:

Amidst a vast meadow the last time when I met her
I said: 'Come again a time like this
if one day you so wish
twenty-five years later.'
This been said, I came back home.
After that, many a time, the moon and the stars
from field to field have died, the owls and the rats
searching grains in paddy fields on a moonlit night
fluttered and crept! – shut eyed
many times left and right
have slept
several souls! – awake kept I
all alone – the stars on the sky
travel fast
faster still, time speeds by.
Yet it seems
Twenty-five years will forever last.
(After Twenty-five Years, translated by Luna Rushdi)

– জীবনানন্দ দাশ
সুরঞ্জনা, অইখানে যেয়োনাকো তুমি,
বোলোনাকো কথা অই যুবকের সাথে;
ফিরে এসো সুরঞ্জনা :

নক্ষত্রের রুপালি আগুন ভরা রাতে;
ফিরে এসো এই মাঠে, ঢেউয়ে;
ফিরে এসো হৃদয়ে আমার;
দূর থেকে দূরে – আরও দূরে
যুবকের সাথে তুমি যেয়োনাকো আর।

কী কথা তাহার সাথে? – তার সাথে!
আকাশের আড়ালে আকাশে
মৃত্তিকার মতো তুমি আজ :
তার প্রেম ঘাস হয়ে আসে।

তোমার হৃদয় আজ ঘাস :
বাতাসের ওপারে বাতাস –
আকাশের ওপারে আকাশ।

Thematically, Jibanananda Das is amazed by the continued existence of humankind in the backdrop of eternal flux of time, wherein individual presence is insignificant and meteoric albeit inescapable. He feels that we are closed in, fouled by the numbness of this concentration cell (Meditations). To him, the world is weird and olden, and as a race, mankind has been a persistent "wanderer of this world" (Banalata Sen) that, according to him, has existed too long to know anything more (Before death, Walking alone) or experience anything fresh. The justification of further mechanical existence like Mahin's horses (The Horses) is apparently absent: "So (he) had slept by the Dhanshiri river on a cold December night, and had never thought of waking again" (Darkness).

As an individual, tired of life and yearning for sleep (One day eight years ago), Jibanananda Das is certain that peace can be found nowhere and that it is useless to move to a distant land, since there is no way of freedom from sorrows fixed by life (Land, Time and Offspring). Nevertheless, he suggests: "O sailor, you press on, keep pace with the sun!" (Sailor).

Why did Jibanananda task himself to forge a new poetic speech, while others in his time preferred to tread the usual path? The answer is simple. In his endeavours to shape a world of his own, he was gradual and steady. He was an inward-looking person and was not in a hurry.

I do not want to go anywhere so fast.
Whatever my life wants I have time to reach
there walking
(Of 1934 – a poem on the motor car, translated by Golam Mustafa)

In the poet's birth centenary, Bibhav published 40 of his poems that had been yet unpublished. Shamik Bose has translated a poem, untitled by the poet. Here is the Bengali original, with Bose's translation in English:

ঘুমায়ে পড়িতে হবে একদিন আকাশের নক্ষত্রের তলে
শ্রান্ত হয়ে-- উত্তর মেরুর সাদা তুষারের সিন্ধুর মতন!
এই রাত্রি,--- এই দিন,--- এই আলো,--- জীবনের এই আয়োজন,---
আকাশের নিচে এসে ভুলে যাব ইহাদের আমরা সকলে!
একদিন শরীরের স্বাদ আমি জানিয়াছি, সাগরের জলে
দেহ ধুয়ে;--- ভালোবেসে ভিজইয়েছি আমাদের হৃদয় কেমন!
একদিন জেগে থেকে দেখিয়েছি আমাদের জীবনের এই আলোড়ন,
আঁধারের কানে আলো--- রাত্রি দিনের কানে কানে কত কথা বলে
শুনিয়াছি;--- এই দেখা--- জেগে থাকা একদিন তবু সাংগ হবে,---

মাঠের শস্যের মত আমাদের ফলিবার রহিয়াছে সময়;
একবার ফলে গেলে তারপর ভাল লাগে মরণের হাত,---
ঘুমন্তের মত করে আমাদের কখন সে বুকে তুলে লবে!---
সেই মৃত্যু কাছে এসে একে একে সকলেরে বুকে তুলে লয়;---
সময় ফুরায়ে গেলে সব চেয়ে ভাল লাগে তাহার আস্বাদ!---

Under this sky, these stars beneath --
One day will have to sleep inside tiredness --
Like snow-filled white ocean of North Pole! –

This night – this day – O this light as bright as it may! --
These designs for a life – will forget all --
Under such a silent, fathomless sky! –

Had felt theragrance of a body one day, --
By washing my body inside sea water --
Felt our heart so deep by falling in love! --
This vigor of life had seen one day awaken –
Light stoking the edge of darkness --
Have heard the passionate whispers of a night – always for a day! –

This visit! This conscious vigil that I see, I feel --
Yet will end one day --
Time only remains for us to ripe like a harvest in green soil --
Once so ripen, then the hands of death will be likeable –
Will hold us in his chest, one by one --
Like a sleeplorn --
Fugitive lovelorn --
Inside tender whispers! –

When that time wi prosper to an end and he will come --
That savor will be ... the most relishing.

ch literary evaluation of his poetry has been produced since Jibanananda Das's untimely death, beginning with the ten-page Introduction of Naked Lonely Hand, an anthology of 50 of the poet's poems rendered into English. Winter appears to have caught the essence of the poet, who appeared to be subtle, mysterious and bizarre even to native readers and critics of his time. He was also known as a surrealist poet for his spontaneous, frenzied overflow of subconscious mind in poetry and especially in diction.

Prose style

During his lifetime Jibanananda remained solely a poet who occasionally wrote literary articles, mostly on request. Only after his death were a huge number of novels and short stories discovered. Thematically, Jibanananda's storylines are largely autobiographical. His own time constitutes the perspective. While in poetry he subdued his own life, he allowed it to be brought into his fiction. Structurally his fictional works are based more on dialogues than description by the author. However, his prose shows a unique style of compound sentences, use of non-colloquial words and a typical pattern of punctuation. His essays evidence a heavy prose style, which although complex, is capable of expressing complicated analytical statements. As a result, his prose was very compact, containing profound messages in a relatively short space.
Major works


Jhôra Palok (Fallen Feathers), 1927.
Dhushor Pandulipi (Grey Manuscript), 1936.
Banalata Sen, 1942.
Môhaprithibi (Great Universe), 1944.
Shaat-ti Tarar Timir, (Darkness of Seven Stars), 1948.
Shreshtho Kobita, (Best Poems), 1954: Navana, Calcutta.
Rupasi Bangla (Bengal, the Beautiful), written in 1934, published posthumously in 1957.
Bela Obela Kalbela (Times, Bad Times, End Times), 1961, published posthumously but the manuscript was prepared during lifetime.
Sudorshona(The beautiful), published posthumously in 1973: Sahitya Sadan, Calcutta.
Alo Prithibi (The World of Light), published posthumously in 1981: Granthalaya Private Ltd., Calcutta.
Manobihangam (The Bird that is my Heart), published posthumously in 1979: Bengal Publishers Private Ltd. Calcutta.
Oprkashitô Ekanno (Unpublished Fifty-one), published posthumously in 1999, Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
Bashmatir Upakhyan
Malyabaan (novel), New Script, Calcutta, 1973 (posthumuously published)
Nirupam Yatra
Pretinir rupkatha
Short stories
Pogi Ako
Aekgheye Jibon
Akankha-Kamonar Bilas
Basor Sojyar pase
Bibahito Jibon
Britter moto
Chakri Nei
Hater Tas
Jadur Desh
Kotha sudhu Kotha, Kotha, Kotha
Kuashar Vitor Mrityur Somoy
Ma hoyar kono Saadh
Mangser Kanti
Meyemanuser Ghrane
Mohisher Shingh
Nakoler Khelae
Nirupam Jatra
Paliye Jete
Premik Swami
Prithibita Sishuder Noy
Sadharon Manus
Sango, Nisongo
Sheetrater Andhokare
Somnath o Shrimoti
Taajer Chobi
Upekkhar Sheet
"Aat Bachor Ager Din" prosonge
Adhunik Kobita
Amar Baba
Amar Ma
Asomapto Alochona
Bangla Bhasa o Sahittyer Bhobshiyot
Bangla Kobitar Bhobishyot
Desh kal o kobita
"Dhusor Pandulipi" prosonge
Ekti Aprokashito Kobita
Jukti Jiggasha o Bangali
Keno Likhi
Ki hisebe Saswato
Kobita o Konkaboti
Kobita Prosonge
Kobitaar Kôtha (tr. On Poetry), Signet Press, Calcutta, 1362 (Bengali year)
Kobitar Alochona
Kobitar Atma o Sorir
Lekhar Kotha
Nazrul Islam
Prithibi o Somoy
Rabindranath o Adhunik Bangla Kobita
Rasoranjan Sen
Ruchi, Bichar o Onnanyo kotha
Sikkha, Dikkha Sikkhokota
Sikkha o Ingrezi
Sikkhar Kotha
Sottendranath Dutt

Sottyo Biswas o Kobita
Swapno kamona'r bhumika
Sworgiyo Kalimohon Daser sradhobasore
Uttoroibik BanglakabbyoEnglish essays
Aongikar: Krishna Dhar
Doctor Faustus: Thomas Mann
Gioconda Smile: Aldous Huxley
Journal: Gide
Konkaboti: Buddhadeb Basu
Sheete Upekkhita: Ranjan
The Bengali novel today
The Bengali Poetry today
Three Voices of Poetry: T. S. Eliot
Major collected texts
Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Kabya Songroho − Jibanananda Das (tr. Collection of Poetry of Jibanananda Das), 1993, Bharbi, 13/1 Bankim Chatterjje Street, Kolkata-73.
Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Kabya Songroho − Jibanananda Das (tr. Collection of Poetry of Jibanananda Das), 1999, Gatidhara, 38/2-KA Bangla Bazaar, Dhaka-1100, Bangladesh.
Bandopdhaya, Deviprasad : Jibanananda Das Uttorparba (1954–1965), 2000, Pustak Bipani, Calcutta.
Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1990), Jibanananda Das'er Prôbôndha Sômôgrô, (tr: Complete non-fictional prose works of Jibanananda Das), First edition : Desh Prokashon, Dhaka.
Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (editor) (1995), Jibanananda Das'er Prôbôndha Sômôgrô, (tr: Complete non-fictional prose works of Jibanananda Das), Second edition : Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
Chowdhury, F. L. (ed) : Oprokashito 51 (tr. Unpublished fifty one poems of Jibanananda Das), 1999, Mawla Brothers, Dhaka.
Shahriar, Abu Hasan : Jibanananda Das-er Gronthito-Ogronthito Kabita Samagra, 2004, Agaami Prokashoni, Dhaka.
Jibanananda in English translation

Translating Jibanananda Das (JD) poses a real challenge to any translator. It not only requires translation of words and phrases, it demands 'translation' of colour and music, of imagination and images. Translations are a works of interpretation and reconstruction. When it comes to JD, both are quite difficult.

However people have shown enormous enthusiasm in translating JD. Translation of JD commenced as the poet himself rendered some of his poetry into English at the request of poet Buddhadeb Bose for the Kavita. That was 1952. His translations include Banalata Sen, Meditations, Darkness, Cat and Sailor among others, many of which are now lost. Since then many JD lovers have taken interest in translating JD's poetry into English. These have been published, home and abroad, in different anthologies and magazines.

Obviously different translators have approached their task from different perspectives. Some intended to merely transliterate the poem while others wanted to maintain the characteristic tone of Jibanananda as much as possible. As indicated above, the latter is not an easy task. In this connection, it is interesting to quote Chidananda Dasgupta who informed of his experience in translating JD:

Effort has of course been made to see that the original's obliqueness or deliberate suppression of logical and syntactical links are not removed altogether. Sometimes Jibanananda's very complicated and apparently arbitrary syntax has been smoothed out to a clear flow. On occasion, a word or even a line has been dropped, and its intention incorporated somewhere just before or after. Names of trees, plants, places or other elements incomprehensible in English have often been reduced or eliminated for fear that they should become an unpleasant burden on the poem when read in translation.

Small wonder that Chidananda Dasgupta took quite a bit of liberty in his project of translating JD.

Major books containing poems of Jibanananda in English translation, as of 2008, are given below:

Ahmed, Mushtaque : 'Gleanings from Jibanananda Das', 2002, Cox's Bazaar Shaitya Academy, Cox's Bazaar, Bangladesh
Alam, Fakrul : 'Jibanananda Das – Selected poems with an Introduction, Chronology, and Glossary', 1999, University Press Limited, Dhaka
Banerji, Anupam : 'Poems : Bengal the Beautiful and Banalata Sen by Jivanananda Das', (Translated and Illustrated by Anupam Banerji), 1999, North Waterloo Academic Press, 482 Lexington Crescent, Waterloo, Ontario, N2K 2J8, 519-742-2247
Chaudhuri, Sukanta (ed): 'A Certain Sense – Poems by Jibanananda Das', Translated by Various Hands, 1998, Sahitya Akademi, Kolkata
Chowdhury, F. L. (ed) : 'I have seen the Bengal's face – Poems from Jibanananda Das' (An anthology of poems from Jibanananda Das translated in English), 1995, Creative Workshop, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Chowdhury, F. L. and G. Mustafa (ed) : 'Beyond Land and Time' (An anthology of one hundred selected poems of Jibanananda Das, translated into English), 2008, Somoy Prokashan, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Dashgupta, Chidananda : 'Selected Poems – Jibanananda Das', 2006, Penguin Books, New Delhi.
Gangopadhyay, Satya : Poems of Jibanananda Das, 1999, Chhatagali, Chinsurah, West Bengal, India
Seely, Clinton B. : 'A Poet Apart' (A comprehensive literary biography of Jibanananda Das), 1990, Associated University Press Ltd, USA
Seely, Clinton B. : 'Scent of Sun' (An anthology of poems of Jibanananda Das in English translation), 2008, — upcoming
Winter, Joe : 'Bengal the Beautiful', 2006, Anvil Press Poetry Ltd., Neptune House, 70 Royal Hill, London SE10 8RF, UK
Winter, Joe : 'Jibanananda Das – Naked Lonely Hand' (Selected poems : translated from Bengali), 2003, Anvil Press Poetry Ltd., London, UK

" After Rabindranath, Jibanananda was the creator of a new kind of modernity in Bengali poetry. He gave birth to a completely new kind of language. In this context all of his anthologies are important. But, I like most 'Dhusar Pandulipi', 'Rupasi Bangla', 'Bela Abela Kalbela'...all of them are good. Actually in good poetry, the mind is transformed...Actually, the life of poet cohabits both solitude and ambition. So was Jibananda's...it is difficult to defy and condradict the revered poets of the world. Jibananda, is one such revered poets."—Binoy Majumdar.

" In the Post-Tagore era, Jibanananda was the most successful in creating a ring of poetry of uniqueness." – Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee

" Whenever I started reading Jibanananda, I found known poems in a new light." – Joy Goswami.

" Death has never been a unidimensional concept in Jibanananda's poetry. It has multiple meanings, multiple scopes."—Pabitra Sarkar.

" Pure and layered symbol is the speciality of Jibanananda's poetry. By exploring the unnamed expressions of the poetry, readers get bewitched into the symbols, images."—Dilip Jhaveri

" Postmodernism in Bengali poetry started with Jibanananda Das's poem Paradigm. " Malay Roy Choudhury


" Calcutta, with all its blemishes and bad names, is, after all, even in its odd architectural medley not so graceless as many strangers and Indians are disposed to think of it."

" Despite important differences, Calcutta seemed as its intricate map of body and mind would be laid open to bear a rather near resemblance to Paris."

" A mature artist...does not propose to evade the riddles around him. He takes stock of the significant directions and the purposes of his age and of their more clear and concrete embodiments in the men of his age. He arrives at his own philosophy and builds his own world, which is never a negation of the actual one, but is the same living world organized more truly and proportionately by the special reading of it by the special poet."

" Garnered so much of experience when I reached Calucutta; got several possibilities regarding literary, trade etc."

" There were so many myths regarding my elder brother. He escaped from life. He could not tolerate human company. He was solitary. Away from the all hustle-bustle...may be most of them have already proved wrong."—Sucahrita Das on her elder brother, the poet.

" Among our modernist poets, Jibanananda is the most solitary, most independent."—Buddhadeb Basu
Books on Jibanananda
(1965) 'Ekti Nakkhatro Ase', Ambuj Basu, Mousumi.
(1970) 'Kobi Jibanananda Das', Sanjay Bhattacharya, Varbi.
(1971) 'Jibanananda(ek khando)', Gopal Chandra Roy, Sahittya Sadan;'Mauns Jibanananda', Labanya Das, Bengal Publishers; 'Jibanananda Sriti', Debkumar Basu edited, Karuna Prokasani.
(1972) 'Suddhatamo Kobi', Abdul Mannan Saiyad, Knowledge Home, Dhaka; 'Rupasi Banglar Kobi Jibanananda', Bijan Kanti Sarkar, Bijoy Sahitya Mandir; 'Rupasi Banglar Kobi Jibanananda', Shaymapada Sarkar, Kamini Prokasan.
(1973) 'Jibanananda das', edited by Birendra Bhattacharya, Onnisto.
(1975) 'Kobi Jibanananda', Suddhaswatto Basu, Sankha Prokasan.
(1976) 'Jibanishilpi Jibanananda Das', Asadujjan, Bangladesh Book Corporation, Dhaka.
(1979) 'Rupasi Banglar Kobi Jibanananda', Bijan Kanti Sarkar, Bijoy Sahitya Mandir; 'Rupasi Banglar Kobi Jibanananda', Shyamapada Sarkar, Kamini Prokashan.
(1980) 'Rupasi Banglar Dui Kobi', Purnendu Patri, Ananda Publishers Ltd.
(1983) 'Kacher Manus Jibanananda', Ajit Ghose, Bijoy Krishna Girls’ College Cheap Store;'Rabindranath Najrul Jibanananda ebong aekjon Probasi Bangali', Kalyan Kumar Basu, Biswagaen;'Adhunikata, Jibanananda o Porabastob', Tapodhir Bhattacharya and Swapna Bhattacharya, Nobark;'Jibananander Chetona Jagot', Pradumno Mitra, Sahityshri;'Jibanananda Das:Jiboniponji o Granthoponji', Provat Kumar Das, Hardo;'Prosongo:Jibanananda', Shibaji Bandopadhaya, Ayon.
(1984) 'Jibanananda', Amalendu Basu, Banishilpo,;'Uttor Probesh', Susnato Jana;'Jibanananda', edited by Abdul Manna Sayad, Charitra, Dhaka;'Jibanananda Prasongiki', Sandip Datta, Hardo,
(1985) 'Ami sei Purohit', Sucheta Mitra, A.Mukherji and Co;'Probondhokar Jibananada', Subrata Rudro, Nath Publishing;'Jibanananda Jiggasa', edited by Tarun Mukhopadhaya, pustok Biponi.
(2003) 'Jibananda : Kabitar Mukhamukhi', Narayan Haldar.
(2005) 'Amar Jibanananda', Dr. Himabanta Bondopadhyay, Bangiya Sahitya Samsad.
(2009) 'Etodin Kothay Chilen', Anisul Hoque.
(2014) 'Jibananander Andhokaare', Rajib Sinha, Ubudash, Kolkata-12.
Ekjon Komolalebu (Reincarnation as an Orange: The Story of Jibanananda), Sahaduzzaman
Joseph Macwan 
Jiddu Krishnamurti
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jiddu Krishnamurti

J. Krishnamurti c. 1920s
Born 11 May 1895

MadanapalleAndhra Pradesh, India)
Died 17 February 1986 (aged 90)

Ojai, California, U.S.

public speaker
Parent(s) Jiddu Narayaniah and Sanjeevamma. Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater (adopted).

Jiddu Krishnamurti ( 11 May 1895—17 February 1986) was a philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life, he was groomed to be the new World Teacher, but later rejected this mantle and withdrew from the Theosophy organization behind it. His interests included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. He stressed the need for a revolution in the psyche of every human being and emphasised that such revolution cannot be brought about by any external entity, be it religious, political, or social.

Krishnamurti was born in south India in what is now the modern day Madanapalle of Andhra Pradesh. In early adolescence, he met occultist and theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater on the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras. He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, who believed him to be a 'vehicle' for an expected World Teacher. As a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the Order of the Star in the East, an organisation that had been established to support it.

Krishnamurti said he had no allegiance to any nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life travelling the world, speaking to large and small groups, as well as individuals. He wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti's Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at his home in Ojai, California. His supporters — working through non-profit foundations in India, Great Britain, and the United States — oversee several independent schools based on his views on education. They continue to transcribe and distribute his thousands of talks, group and individual discussions, and writings by use of a variety of media formats and languages.

Krishnamurti was unrelated to his contemporary U. G. Krishnamurti (1918–2007), although the two men had a number of meetings.

Family background and childhood

Krishnamurti in 1910

The date of birth of Krishnamurti is a matter of dispute. Mary Lutyens determines it to be 11 May 1895 but Christine Williams notes the unreliability of birth registrations in that period and that statements claiming dates ranging from 4 May 1895 to 25 May 1896 exist. He used calculations based on a published horoscope to derive a date of 11 May 1895 but "retains a measure of scepticism" about it His birthplace was the small town of Madanapalle in Madras Presidency (modern-day Chittoor District in Andhra Pradesh). He was born in a Telugu-speaking Brahmin family His father, Jiddu Narayaniah, was employed as an official of the British colonial administration. Krishnamurti was fond of his mother Sanjeevamma, who died when he was ten His parents had a total of eleven children, of whom six survived childhood

In 1903 the family settled in Cudappah, where Krishnamurti had contracted malaria during a previous stay. He suffered recurrent bouts of the disease over many years A sensitive and sickly child, "vague and dreamy", he was often taken to be intellectually disabled, and was beaten regularly at school by his teachers and at home by his father In memoirs written when he was eighteen years old Krishnamurti described psychic experiences, such as seeing his sister, who had died in 1904, and his late mother. During his childhood he developed a bond with nature that was to stay with him for the rest of his life.

Krishnamurti's father retired at the end of 1907. Being of limited means he sought employment at the headquarters of the Theosophical Society at Adyar. Narayaniah had been a Theosophist since 1882. He was eventually hired by the Society as a clerk, moving there with his family in January 1909. Narayaniah and his sons were at first assigned to live in a small cottage that was located just outside the society's compound.


In April 1909, Krishnamurti first met Charles Webster Leadbeater, who claimed clairvoyance. Leadbeater had noticed Krishnamurti on the Society's beach on the Adyar river, and was amazed by the "most wonderful aura he had ever seen, without a particle of selfishness in it." Ernest Wood, an adjutant of Leadbeater's at the time, who helped Krishnamurti with his homework, considered him to be "particularly dim-witted". Leadbeater was convinced that the boy would become a spiritual teacher and a great orator; the likely "vehicle for the Lord Maitreya" in Theosophical doctrine, an advanced spiritual entity periodically appearing on Earth as a World Teacher to guide the evolution of humankind.

In her biography of Krishnamurti, Pupul Jayakar quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later: "The boy had always said "I will do whatever you want". There was an element of subservience, obedience. The boy was vague, uncertain, woolly; he didn't seem to care what was happening. He was like a vessel with a large hole in it, whatever was put in, went through, nothing remained."

Krishnamurti by Tomás Povedano

Following his discovery by Leadbeater, Krishnamurti was nurtured by the Theosophical Society in Adyar. Leadbeater and a small number of trusted associates undertook the task of educating, protecting, and generally preparing Krishnamurti as the "vehicle" of the expected World Teacher. Krishnamurti (often later called Krishnaji)[17] and his younger brother Nityananda (Nitya) were privately tutored at the Theosophical compound in Madras, and later exposed to a comparatively opulent life among a segment of European high society as they continued their education abroad. Despite his history of problems with schoolwork and concerns about his capacities and physical condition, the 14-year-old Krishnamurti was able to speak and write competently in English within six months. Lutyens says that later in life Krishnamurti came to view his "discovery" as a life-saving event. When he was asked in later life what he thought would have happened to him if he had not been 'discovered' by Leadbeater he unhesitatingly replied "I would have died".

During this time Krishnamurti had developed a strong bond with Annie Besant and came to view her as a surrogate mother. His father, who had initially assented to Besant's legal guardianship of Krishnamurti, was pushed into the background by the swirl of attention around his son. In 1912 he sued Besant to annul the guardianship agreement. After a protracted legal battle, Besant took custody of Krishnamurti and Nitya. As a result of this separation from family and home Krishnamurti and his brother (whose relationship had always been very close) became more dependent on each other, and in the following years often travelled together.

In 1911 the Theosophical Society established the Order of the Star in the East (OSE) to prepare the world for the expected appearance of the World Teacher. Krishnamurti was named as its head, with senior Theosophists assigned various other positions. Membership was open to anybody who accepted the doctrine of the Coming of the World Teacher. Controversy soon erupted, both within the Theosophical Society and outside it, in Hindu circles and the Indian press.

Growing up

Mary Lutyens, a biographer and friend of Krishnamurti, says that there was a time when he believed that he was to become the World Teacher after correct spiritual and secular guidance and education. Another biographer describes the daily program imposed on him by Leadbeater and his associates, which included rigorous exercise and sports, tutoring in a variety of school subjects, Theosophical and religious lessons, yoga and meditation, as well as instruction in proper hygiene and in the ways of British society and culture. At the same time Leadbeater assumed the role of guide in a parallel mystical instruction of Krishnamurti; the existence and progress of this instruction was at the time known only to a select few.

While he showed a natural aptitude in sports, Krishnamurti always had problems with formal schooling and was not academically inclined. He eventually gave up university education after several attempts at admission. He did take to foreign languages, in time speaking several with some fluency.

His public image, cultivated by the Theosophists, "was to be characterized by a well-polished exterior, a sobriety of purpose, a cosmopolitan outlook and an otherworldly, almost beatific detachment in his demeanor." Demonstrably, "all of these can be said to have characterized Krishnamurti's public image to the end of his life." It was apparently clear early on that he "possessed an innate personal magnetism, not of a warm physical variety, but nonetheless emotive in its austerity, and inclined to inspire veneration." However, as he was growing up, Krishnamurti showed signs of adolescent rebellion and emotional instability, chafing at the regimen imposed on him, visibly uncomfortable with the publicity surrounding him, and occasionally expressing doubts about the future prescribed for him.

Krishnamurti in England in 1911 with his brother Nitya and the Theosophists Annie Besant and George Arundale

Krishnamurti and Nitya were taken to England in April 1911. During this trip Krishnamurti gave his first public speech to members of the OSE in London. His first writings had also started to appear, published in booklets by the Theosophical Society and in Theosophical and OSE-affiliated magazines. Between 1911 and the start of World War I in 1914, the brothers visited several other European countries, always accompanied by Theosophist chaperones. Meanwhile, Krishnamurti had for the first time acquired a measure of personal financial independence, thanks to a wealthy benefactress, American Mary Melissa Hoadley Dodge, who was domiciled in England.

After the war, Krishnamurti embarked on a series of lectures, meetings and discussions around the world, related to his duties as the Head of the OSE, accompanied by Nitya, by then the Organizing Secretary of the Order. Krishnamurti also continued writing. The content of his talks and writings revolved around the work of the Order and of its members in preparation for the Coming. He was initially described as a halting, hesitant, and repetitive speaker, but his delivery and confidence improved, and he gradually took command of the meetings.

In 1921 Krishnamurti fell in love with Helen Knothe, a 17-year-old American whose family associated with the Theosophists. The experience was tempered by the realisation that his work and expected life-mission precluded what would otherwise be considered normal relationships and by the mid-1920s the two of them had drifted apart.

Life-altering experiences

In 1922 Krishnamurti and Nitya travelled from Sydney to California. In California, they stayed at a cottage in the Ojai Valley. It was thought that the area's climate would be beneficial to Nitya, who had been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Nitya's failing health became a concern for Krishnamurti. At Ojai they met Rosalind Williams, a young American who became close to them both, and who was later to play a significant role in Krishnamurti's life. For the first time the brothers were without immediate supervision by their Theosophical Society minders.They found the Valley to be very agreeable. Eventually, a trust, formed by supporters, bought a cottage and surrounding property there for them. This became Krishnamurti's official residence.

At Ojai in August and September 1922, Krishnamurti went through an intense 'life-changing' experience. This has been variously characterised as a spiritual awakening, a psychological transformation, and a physical reconditioning. The initial events happened in two distinct phases: first a three-day spiritual experience, and two weeks later, a longer-lasting condition that Krishnamurti and those around him referred to as the process. This condition recurred, at frequent intervals and with varying intensity, until his death.

According to witnesses, it started on 17 August 1922 when Krishnamurti complained of a sharp pain at the nape of his neck. Over the next two days the symptoms worsened, with increasing pain and sensitivity, loss of appetite, and occasional delirious ramblings. He seemed to lapse into unconsciousness but later recounted that he was very much aware of his surroundings, and that while in that state he had an experience of "mystical union". The following day the symptoms and the experience intensified, climaxing with a sense of "immense peace". Following — and apparently related to — these events the condition that came to be known as the process started to affect him, in September and October that year, as a regular, almost nightly occurrence. Later the process resumed intermittently, with varying degrees of pain, physical discomfort, and sensitivity, occasionally a lapse into a childlike state, and sometimes an apparent fading out of consciousness, explained as either his body giving in to pain or his mind "going off".

These experiences were accompanied or followed by what was interchangeably described as, "the benediction," "the immensity," "the sacredness," "the vastness" and, most often, "the otherness" or "the other." It was a state distinct from the process. According to Lutyens it is evident from his notebook that this experience of otherness was "with him almost continuously" during his life, and gave him "a sense of being protected." Krishnamurti describes it in his notebook as typically following an acute experience of the process, for example, on awakening the next day:

... woke up early with that strong feeling of otherness, of another world that is beyond all thought ... there is a heightening of sensitivity. Sensitivity, not only to beauty but also to all other things. The blade of grass was astonishingly green; that one blade of grass contained the whole spectrum of colour; it was intense, dazzling and such a small thing, so easy to destroy ...

This experience of the otherness was present with him in daily events:

It is strange how during one or two interviews that strength, that power filled the room. It seemed to be in one's eyes and breath. It comes into being, suddenly and most unexpectedly, with a force and intensity that is quite overpowering and at other times it's there, quietly and serenely. But it's there, whether one wants it or not. There is no possibility of getting used to it for it has never been nor will it ever be ..."

Since the initial occurrences of 1922, several explanations have been proposed for this experience of Krishnamurti's. Leadbeater and other Theosophists expected the "vehicle" to have certain paranormal experiences but were nevertheless mystified by these developments. During Krishnamurti's later years, the nature and provenance of the continuing process often came up as a subject in private discussions between himself and associates; these discussions shed some light on the subject but were ultimately inconclusive. Whatever the case, the process, and the inability of Leadbeater to explain it satisfactorily, if at all, had other consequences according to biographer Roland Vernon:

The process at Ojai, whatever its cause or validity, was a cataclysmic milestone for Krishna. Up until this time his spiritual progress, chequered though it might have been, had been planned with solemn deliberation by Theosophy's grandees. ... Something new had now occurred for which Krishna's training had not entirely prepared him. ... A burden was lifted from his conscience and he took his first step towards becoming an individual. ... In terms of his future role as a teacher, the process was his bedrock. ... It had come to him alone and had not been planted in him by his mentors ... it provided Krishna with the soil in which his newfound spirit of confidence and independence could take root.

As news of these mystical experiences spread, rumours concerning the messianic status of Krishnamurti reached fever pitch as the 1925 Theosophical Society Convention was planned, on the 50th anniversary of its founding. There were expectations of significant happenings. Paralleling the increasing adulation was Krishnamurti's growing discomfort with it. In related developments, prominent Theosophists and their factions within the Society were trying to position themselves favourably relative to the Coming, which was widely rumoured to be approaching. He stated that "Too much of everything is bad"."Extraordinary" pronouncements of spiritual advancement were made by various parties, disputed by others, and the internal Theosophical politics further alienated Krishnamurti.

Nitya's persistent health problems had periodically resurfaced throughout this time. On 13 November 1925, at age 27, he died in Ojai from complications of influenza and tuberculosis. Despite Nitya's poor health, his death was unexpected, and it fundamentally shook Krishnamurti's belief in Theosophy and in the leaders of the Theosophical Society. He had received their assurances regarding Nitya's health, and had come to believe that "Nitya was essential for [his] life-mission and therefore he would not be allowed to die," a belief shared by Annie Besant and Krishnamurti's circle. Jayakar wrote that "his belief in the Masters and the hierarchy had undergone a total revolution." Moreover, Nitya had been the "last surviving link to his family and childhood. ... The only person to whom he could talk openly, his best friend and companion." According to eyewitness accounts, the news "broke him completely." but 12 days after Nitya's death he was "immensely quiet, radiant, and free of all sentiment and emotion"; "there was not a shadow ... to show what he had been through."

Break with the past

Over the next few years, Krishnamurti's new vision and consciousness continued to develop. New concepts appeared in his talks, discussions, and correspondence, together with an evolving vocabulary that was progressively free of Theosophical terminology. His new direction reached a climax in 1929, when he rebuffed attempts by Leadbeater and Besant to continue with the Order of the Star.

Krishnamurti dissolved the Order during the annual Star Camp at Ommen, the Netherlands, on 3 August 1929. He stated that he had made his decision after "careful consideration" during the previous two years, and that:

I maintain that truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. That is my point of view, and I adhere to that absolutely and unconditionally. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or coerce people along a particular path. ... This is no magnificent deed, because I do not want followers, and I mean this. The moment you follow someone you cease to follow Truth. I am not concerned whether you pay attention to what I say or not. I want to do a certain thing in the world and I am going to do it with unwavering concentration. I am concerning myself with only one essential thing: to set man free. I desire to free him from all cages, from all fears, and not to found religions, new sects, nor to establish new theories and new philosophies.

Krishnamurti in the early 1920s.

Following the dissolution, prominent Theosophists turned against Krishnamurti, including Leadbeater who is said to have stated, "the Coming had gone wrong." Krishnamurti had denounced all organised belief, the notion of gurus, and the whole teacher-follower relationship, vowing instead to work on setting people "absolutely, unconditionally free." There is no record of his explicitly denying he was the World Teacher; whenever he was asked to clarify his position he either asserted that the matter was irrelevant[ or gave answers that, as he stated, were "purposely vague."

In hind-sight it can be seen that the ongoing changes in his outlook had begun before the dissolution of the Order of the Star. The subtlety of the new distinctions on the World Teacher issue was lost on many of his admirers, who were already bewildered or distraught because of the changes in Krishnamurti's outlook, vocabulary and pronouncements–among them Besant and Mary Lutyens' mother Emily, who had a very close relationship with him. He soon disassociated himself from the Theosophical Society and its teachings and practices, yet he remained on cordial terms with some of its members and ex-members throughout his life.

Krishnamurti often referred to the totality of his work as the teachings and not as my teachings.

Krishnamurti resigned from the various trusts and other organisations that were affiliated with the defunct Order of the Star, including the Theosophical Society. He returned the money and properties donated to the Order, among them a castle in the Netherlands and 5,000 acres (2,023 ha) of land, to their donors.

Middle years

From 1930 through 1944 Krishnamurti engaged in speaking tours and in the issue of publications under the auspice of the "Star Publishing Trust" (SPT), which he had founded with Desikacharya Rajagopal, a close associate and friend from the Order of the Star. Ojai was the base of operations for the new enterprise, where Krishnamurti, Rajagopal, and Rosalind Williams (who had married Rajagopal in 1927) resided in the house known as Arya Vihara (meaning Realm of the Aryas i.e. those noble by righteousness in Sanskrit). The business and organizational aspects of the SPT were administered chiefly by D. Rajagopal, as Krishnamurti devoted his time to speaking and meditation. The Rajagopals' marriage was not a happy one, and the two became physically estranged after the 1931 birth of their daughter, Radha. In the relative seclusion of Arya Vihara Krishnamurti's close friendship with Rosalind deepened into a love affair which was not made public until 1991. According to Radha Rajagopal Sloss, the long affair between Krishnamurti and Rosalind began in 1932 and it endured for about twenty-five years.

During the 1930s Krishnamurti spoke in Europe, Latin America, India, Australia and the United States. In 1938 he met Aldous Huxley. The two began a close friendship which endured for many years. They held common concerns about the imminent conflict in Europe which they viewed as the outcome of the pernicious influence of nationalism. Krishnamurti's stance on World War II was often construed as pacifism and even subversion during a time of patriotic fervor in the United States and for a time he came under the surveillance of the FBI. He did not speak publicly for a period of about four years (between 1940 and 1944). During this time he lived and worked at Arya Vihara, which during the war operated as a largely self-sustaining farm, with its surplus goods donated for relief efforts in Europe. Of the years spent in Ojai during the war he later said: "I think it was a period of no challenge, no demand, no outgoing. I think it was a kind of everything held in; and when I left Ojai it all burst."

Krishnamurti broke the hiatus from public speaking in May 1944 with a series of talks in Ojai. These talks, and subsequent material, were published by "Krishnamurti Writings Inc" (KWINC), the successor organisation to the "Star Publishing Trust." This was to be the new central Krishnamurti-related entity worldwide, whose sole purpose was the dissemination of the teaching. He had remained in contact with associates from India, and in the autumn of 1947 embarked on a speaking tour there, attracting a new following of young intellectuals. On this trip he encountered the Mehta sisters, Pupul and Nandini, who became lifelong associates and confidants. The sisters also attended to Krishnamurti throughout a 1948 recurrence of the "process" in Ootacamund. In Poona in 1948, Krishnamurti met Iyengar, who taught him Yoga practices every morning for the next three months, then on and off for twenty years.

When Krishnamurti was in India after World War II many prominent personalities came to meet him, including Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. In his meetings with Nehru, Krishnamurti elaborated at length on the teachings, saying in one instance, "Understanding of the self only arises in relationship, in watching yourself in relationship to people, ideas, and things; to trees, the earth, and the world around you and within you. Relationship is the mirror in which the self is revealed. Without self-knowledge there is no basis for right thought and action." Nehru asked, "How does one start?" to which Krishnamurti replied, "Begin where you are. Read every word, every phrase, every paragraph of the mind, as it operates through thought."

Later years

Krishnamurti continued speaking in public lectures, group discussions and with concerned individuals around the world. In the early 1960s, he made the acquaintance of physicist David Bohm, whose philosophical and scientific concerns regarding the essence of the physical world, and the psychological and sociological state of mankind, found parallels in Krishnamurti's philosophy. The two men soon became close friends and started a common inquiry, in the form of personal dialogues–and occasionally in group discussions with other participants–that continued, periodically, over nearly two decades. Several of these discussions were published in the form of books or as parts of books, and introduced a wider audience (among scientists) to Krishnamurti's ideas. Although Krishnamurti's philosophy delved into fields as diverse as religious studies, education, psychology, physics, and consciousness studies, he was not then, nor since, well known in academic circles. Nevertheless, Krishnamurti met and held discussions with physicists Fritjof Capra and E. C. George Sudarshan, biologist Rupert Sheldrake, psychiatrist David Shainberg, as well as psychotherapists representing various theoretical orientations. The long friendship with Bohm went through a rocky interval in later years, and although they overcame their differences and remained friends until Krishnamurti's death, the relationship did not regain its previous intensity.

In the 1970s, Krishnamurti met several times with then Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi, with whom he had far-ranging, and in some cases, very serious discussions. Jayakar considers his message in meetings with Indira Gandhi as a possible influence in the lifting of certain emergency measures Gandhi had imposed during periods of political turmoil.

Meanwhile, Krishnamurti's once close relationship with the Rajagopals had deteriorated to the point where he took D. Rajagopal to court to recover donated property and funds as well as publication rights for his works, manuscripts, and personal correspondence, that were in Rajagopal's possession. The litigation and ensuing cross complaints, which formally began in 1971, continued for many years. Much property and materials were returned to Krishnamurti during his lifetime; the parties to this case finally settled all other matters in 1986, shortly after his death.

In 1984 and 1985, Krishnamurti spoke to an invited audience at the United Nations in New York, under the auspices of the Pacem in Terris Society chapter at the United Nations. In October 1985, he visited India for the last time, holding a number of what came to be known as "farewell" talks and discussions between then and January 1986. These last talks included the fundamental questions he had been asking through the years, as well as newer concerns about advances in science and technology, and their effect on humankind. Krishnamurti had commented to friends that he did not wish to invite death, but was not sure how long his body would last (he had already lost considerable weight), and once he could no longer talk, he would have "no further purpose". In his final talk, on 4 January 1986, in Madras, he again invited the audience to examine with him the nature of inquiry, the effect of technology, the nature of life and meditation, and the nature of creation.

Krishnamurti was also concerned about his legacy, about being unwittingly turned into some personage whose teachings had been handed down to special individuals, rather than the world at large. He did not want anybody to pose as an interpreter of the teaching. He warned his associates on several occasions that they were not to present themselves as spokesmen on his behalf, or as his successors after his death.

A few days before his death, in a final statement, he declared that nobody among either his associates or the general public had understood what had happened to him (as the conduit of the teaching). He added that the "supreme intelligence" operating in his body would be gone with his death, again implying the impossibility of successors. However, he stated that people could perhaps get into touch with that somewhat "if they live the teachings". In prior discussions, he had compared himself with Thomas Edison, implying that he did the hard work, and now all that was needed by others was a flick of the switch.


Krishnamurti died of pancreatic cancer on 17 February 1986, at the age of 90. His remains were cremated. The announcement of KFT (Krishnamurti Foundation Trust) refers to the course of his health condition until the moment of death. The first signs came almost nine months before his death, when he felt very tired. In October 1985, he went from England (Brockwood Park School) to India and after that, he suffered from exhaustion, fevers, and lost weight. Krishnamurti decided to go back to Ojai (10 January 1986) after his last talks in Madras, which necessitated a 24-hour flight. Once he arrived at Ojai he underwent medical tests that revealed he was suffering from pancreatic cancer. The cancer was untreatable, either surgically or otherwise, so Krishnamurti decided to go back to his home at Ojai, where he spent his last days. Friends and professionals nursed him. His mind was clear until the last moment. Krishnamurti died on 17 February 1986, at 10 minutes past midnight, California time.

Krishnamurti on a 1987 stamp of India

Krishnamurti founded several schools around the world, including Brockwood Park School, an international educational center. When asked, he enumerated the following as his educational aims:

Global outlook: A vision of the whole as distinct from the part; there should never be a sectarian outlook, but always a holistic outlook free from all prejudice.

Concern for man and the environment: Humanity is part of nature, and if nature is not cared for, it will boomerang on man. Only the right education, and deep affection between people everywhere, will resolve many problems including the environmental challenges.

Religious spirit, which includes the scientific temper: The religious mind is alone, not lonely. It is in communion with people and nature.

The Krishnamurti Foundation, established in 1928 by him and Annie Besant, runs many schools in India and abroad.


Krishnamurti attracted the interest of the mainstream religious establishment in India. He engaged in discussions with several well known Hindu and Buddhist scholars and leaders, including the Dalai Lama Several of these discussions were later published as chapters in various Krishnamurti books. Those influenced by Krishnamurti include Toni PackerAchyut Patwardhan, and Dada Dharmadhikari.

Interest in Krishnamurti and his work has persisted in the years since his death. Many books, audio, video, and computer materials, remain in print and are carried by major online and traditional retailers. The four official Foundations continue to maintain archives, disseminate the teachings in an increasing number of languages, convert print to digital and other media, develop websites, sponsor television programs, and organise meetings and dialogues of interested persons around the world.
K. K. Raja
From Wikipedia
K. K. Raja
Born Kunju
28 March 1893
Kumarapuram, Thalappilli, Kingdom of CochinBritish India
Died 6 April 1968 (aged 75)
Occupation Poet
Language Malayalam
Nationality Indian

K. K. Raja (28 March 1893 – 6 April 1968) was a Malayalam poet from KeralaIndia. He received the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award in 1960 for the collection Malanatil.


K. K. Raja was born as Kunju in 1893 at Kumarapuram kovilakam (part of the Thalappilli Swaroopam of Kingdom of Cochin ) which is situated in Eravimangalam village, Nadathara. His father Meledath Nambothan Nambudiri was a Sanskrit scholar. After the death of his mother Kunjukkutti Thamburatti, young Kunju was well taken care of by his grandmother. He completed his school education in Trichur and Kunnamkulam. He started writing poems at a young age and the child's writing skills were encouraged by family friend and famous poet Kunhikuttan Thampuran. His first poem "Khshanika Vairagyam" was published in Kavana Kaumudi magazine. After passing successfully the Vidwan test, Raja worked as a teacher in Ernakulam Government Girls' High School and Irinjalakkuda Government High School. Raja became a full-time writer by this period and wandered all over India before joining St. Thomas School, Trichur.

Major works

Malanattil (മലനാട്ടിൽ)
Kavanakusumanjali (കവനകുസുമാഞ്ജലി)
Tulsidaamam (തുളസീദാമം)
Vellithoni (വെള്ളിത്തോണി)
Bashpanjali (ബാഷ്പാഞ്ജലി)
Harshanjali (ഹർഷാഞ്ജലി)
Kutty (cartoonist)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born 4 September 1921
Died 22 October 2011 (aged 90)
Occupation Cartoonist
Nationality Indian
Genre Political
Spouse Gauri
Children Narayanan, Maya

Puthukkody Kottuthody Sankaran Kutty Nair (4 September 1921 – 22 October 2011), better known as Kutty, was an Indian political cartoonist.


Kutty was born at Ottapalam, Kerala in 1921 to Kayarat Narayana Menon and Kottuthodi Lakshmi Amma.[2] Kutty was educated at Ottapalam and Malabar Christian CollegeKozhikode. Kutty's talent was discovered by the famous Malayalam satirist, Professor M. R. Nair (better known by his pen name "Sanjayan"). His first cartoon appeared in the Malayalam humor magazine Viswaroopam (edited by Sanjayan) in 1940.

Rao Sahib V. P. Menon, a relative of Kutty's father and a senior official in the British Imperial Secretariat (New Delhi) introduced him to the famous Indian cartoonist Shankar. Shankar used to sketch cartoons for Hindustan Times and was looking for a trainee. V. P. Menon requested Shankar to train Kutty, who reached New Delhi on 3 January 1941. In those days, Jawaharlal Nehru (later India's first Prime Minister), a great admirer of Shankar's cartoons, was looking for a cartoonist for his newly started English Daily, National Herald, published from Lucknow. Shankar trained Kutty for 6 months and recommended him for Nehru's newspaper. Kutty became staff cartoonist of National Herald (Lucknow). His first cartoon to appear in a daily newspaper was published in the National Herald 15 January 1941.

National Herald was shut down in 1942 due to repressive policies of the British India Government, following the start of Quit India Movement. Kutty then relocated to Madras (now Chennai), where he worked for Madras War Review from 1943 to 1945. From 1945 to 1946, he worked The Free Press Journal a Mumbai) daily newspaper. In 1946, Kutty relocated to New Delhi at behest of Shankar, who wanted him to work as a cartoonist for his planned evening newspaper. From 1946 to 1997, Kutty lived in New Delhi and worked for various publications. In 1947-48, he worked for National Call and Amar Bharat. Kutty also contributed to Shankar's Weekly, a humor magazine launched in 1948. Here he worked with other notable Indian cartoonists including Abu Abraham and O. V. Vijayan. From 1948 to 1951, he was associated with the Indian News Chronicle.

In 1951, Kutty joined the Ananda Bazar Group of Calcutta (now Kolkata). His cartoons appeared in many of the group's publications such as the English daily Hindustan Standard (New Delhi, 1951–1986), the Bengali language daily Ananda Bazar Patrika (1975–1986) and Desh (Bengali literary weekly). Kutty’s work was also syndicated for publication in various newspapers such as Hindustan Times (1961–1962) and The Indian Express (1962–1969). From 1987 to 1997, Kutty worked for another Bengali daily, Aaj Kaal. He was also associated with the Bengali publication Parivarthan (Calcutta) in 1986-1987.

Kutty didn't know the Bengali language, but he spent the most productive part of his career with Bengali publications. This was due to his direct and simple visual expression with which he cut across language barriers. His used to caption his cartoons in English, which were translated into Bengali. Kutty's cartoons have also appeared in many Malayalam language periodicals (Malayalam was his mother tongue).

Kutty officially retired in 1997. He then moved to Madison, Wisconsin. In May 2005, rumors of Kutty's death started circulating in Kolkata. In response to this, Kutty's former colleagues at Aaj Kaal published the denial of the rumor with a new cartoon drawn by Kutty. This led to requests for more cartoons from his admirers. Kutty complied and sketched few more cartoons that were published in Aaj Kaal. However, he could not continue due to his deteriorating eyesight. Kutty wrote an English-language memoir, Years Of Laughter: Reminiscences Of A Cartoonist, released in 2009. He died on 22 October 2011 in the Madison, Wisconsin.
Kum. Veerabhadrappa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Veerabhadrappa Kumbar
Born 1 October 1953 
Pen name KumVee
Occupation Teacher, novelist, poet, critic
Language Kannada
Nationality Indian
Education M.A
Genre Fiction, poetry, drama, essays
Notable work Aramane
Notable awards Sahitya Akademi Award

Spouse Annapoorna
Children 3

Veerabhadrappa Kumbar, popularly known by the pen name KumVee, is an Indian novelist, poet, story writer and critic in the Kannada-language. He was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2007 for his work Aramane.

Early life

KumVee was born on 1 October 1953 in Kotturu, a town in Bellary District of Karnataka to Kumbar Halappa and Kotramma. KumVee's family members includes wife Annapoorna and sons Purarava (elder), Shalivahana and younger son Pravara.


KumVee taught Kannada in many schools for 35 years in the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. After retirement he move to his native Kotturu with his family.

Writing Style

He uses the local Ballary dialet of Kannada in his writings to convey the sensitivities of the life he experienced. This is the main strength of KumVee's writing.

Collection of poems
Divi seemeya Haadu
Rajanaramanege Kavya

Story/ Collection of Stories
Nigi Nigi Hagalu
Manne Modalu
Doma Mattitara Kathegalu
Bhaalare Vichitram
Inaadaroo Saayabeku
Kumvee Ayda Kathegalu
Bhagavathi Kaadu
Apoorva Chintamani Kathe
Sushile Emba Naayiyoi Vaagili Emba Graamavoo
Enter the Dragon
KumVee Bareda Kathegalu
Idu Bari Katheyallo Anna...(Collection of Complete Short Stories)

Hemareddy mallammana Katheyu
Beli mattu Hola
Kotra Highschoolige Seriddu
Kendada Male
Beliya Hoogalu
Kattegondu Kaala
Rahula saakrutsayana
Neetaji Subhasha Chandra Bose
Subhadramma mansur
Sri Krishna Devaraya

Gandhi Classu

Chinnda tene
Telugu Kathegalu
Ondu Peeligeya Telugu Kathegalu
Tanna maarga ( Stories of Dr Abburi Chayadevi)

All the above four Translations have been published by "Sahitya AkademiNew Delhi" . In addition to this, KumVee has Translated more than 300 stories from many languages.


Work in Visual Media
Kotreshi Kanasu
Kendada Male
Bhagavati Kaadu
Beli mattu Hola

Noted Awards
Honorary Doctorate from Karnataka University of Dharwad
Sahitya Akademi Award (2007) - Returned in October 2015 on protest for intolerance in India.

Kamala Das

Kamala Das, (Kamala Suraiya), Indian author (born March 31, 1934, Thrissur, Kerala, British India—died May 31, 2009, Pune, India), inspired women struggling against domestic and sexual oppression with her honest assessments of sexual desire and marital problems in more than 20 books. Das was part of a generation of English-language Indian writers whose work centred on personal rather than colonial experiences, and her short stories, poetry, memoirs, and essays brought her both respect and notoriety. She grew up primarily in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in a family of artists, where she felt ignored and unloved. As a teenager she married an older relative, and the emotional and sexual problems arising from that unsatisfying relationship and her young motherhood provided material for her first memoir, My Story (1976).
Das wrote in English and, under the pen name Madhavikutty, in the Malayalam language of southern India. An advocate for human rights, especially for women and children, Das reflected her social concerns in such short stories as “Padmavati the Harlot” (1992) and “A Doll for the Child Prostitute” (1977). Her style and content both markedly departed from 19th-century romanticized ideas of love, a choice especially striking for an Indian Hindu woman. Das also broke with conventions in her personal life: she had extramarital affairs with men and women, refused to identify herself as a feminist, and briefly founded her own political party. In 1999 she converted to Islam, renaming herself Kamala Suraiya.

कोदूराम दलित

कोदूराम दलित का जन्म 5 March 1910 में जिला दुर्ग के टिकरी गांव में हुआ था। गांधीवादी कोदूराम प्राइमरी स्कूल के मास्टर थे उनकी रचनायें करीब 800 (आठ सौ) है पर ज्यादातर अप्रकाशित हैं। कवि सम्मेलन में कोदूराम जी अपनी हास्य व्यंग्य रचनाएँ सुनाकर सबको बेहद हँसाते थे। उनकी रचनाओं में छत्तीसगढ़ी लोकोक्तियों का प्रयोग बड़े स्वाभाविक और सुन्दर तरीके से हुआ करता था। उनकी रचनायें -
1. सियानी गोठ
2. कनवा समधी
3. अलहन
4. दू मितान
5. हमर देस
6. कृष्ण जन्म
7. बाल निबंध
8. कथा कहानी
9. छत्तीसगढ़ी शब्द भंडार अउ लोकोक्ति।

उनकी रचनाओं में छत्तीसगढ़ का गांव का जीवन बड़ा सुन्दर झलकता है।

एक और परिचय
कवि कोदूराम 'दलित' का जन्म ५ मार्च १९१० को ग्राम टिकरी(अर्जुन्दा),जिला दुर्ग में हुआ। आपके पिता श्री राम भरोसा कृषक थे। उनका बचपन ग्रामीण परिवेश में खेतिहर मज़दूरों के बीच बीता। उन्होंने मिडिल स्कूल अर्जुन्दा में प्रारंभिक शिक्षा प्राप्त की। तत्पश्चात नार्मल स्कूल, रायपुर, नार्मल स्कूल, बिलासपुर में शिक्षा ग्रहण की। स्काउटिंग, चित्रकला तथा साहित्य विशारद में वे सदा आगे-आगे रहे। वे १९३१ से १९६७ तक आर्य कन्या गुरुकुल, नगर पालिका परिषद् तथा शिक्षा विभाग, दुर्ग की प्राथमिक शालाओं में अध्यापक और प्रधानाध्यापक के रूप में कार्यरत रहे।

ग्राम अर्जुंदा में आशु कवि श्री पीला लाल चिनोरिया जी से इन्हें काव्य-प्रेरणा मिली। फिर वर्ष १९२६ में इन्होंने कविताएँ लिखनी शुरू कर दीं। इनकी रचनाएँ लगातार छत्तीसगढ़ के समाचार-पत्रों एवं साहित्यिक पत्रिकाओं में प्रकाशित होती रहीं। इनके पहले काव्य-संग्रह का नाम है — ’सियानी गोठ’ (१९६७) फिर दूसरा संग्रह है — ’बहुजन हिताय-बहुजन सुखाय’ (२०००)। भोपाल ,इंदौर, नागपुर, रायपुर आदि आकाशवाणी-केन्द्रों से इनकी कविताओं तथा लोक-कथाओं का प्रसारण अक्सर होता रहा है। मध्य प्रदेश शासन, सूचना-प्रसारण विभाग, म०प्र०हिंदी साहित्य अधिवेशन, विभिन्न साहित्यिक सम्मलेन, स्कूल-कालेज के स्नेह सम्मलेन, किसान मेला, राष्ट्रीय पर्व तथा गणेशोत्सव में इन्होंने कई बार काव्य-पाठ किया। सिंहस्थ मेला (कुम्भ), उज्जैन में भारत शासन द्वारा आयोजित कवि सम्मलेन में महाकौशल क्षेत्र से कवि के रूप में भी आपको आमंत्रित किया जाता था। राष्ट्रपति और प्रधानमंत्री के नगर आगमन पर भी ये अपना काव्यपाठ करते थे।

आप राष्ट्र भाषा प्रचार समिति वर्धा की दुर्ग इकाई के सक्रिय सदस्य रहे। दुर्ग जिला साहित्य समिति के उपमंत्री, छत्तीसगढ़ साहित्य के उपमंत्री, दुर्ग जिला हरिजन सेवक संघ के मंत्री, भारत सेवक समाज के सदस्य,सहकारी बैंक दुर्ग के एक डायरेक्टर ,म्यु.कर्मचारी सभा नं.४६७, सहकारी बैंक के सरपंच, दुर्ग नगर प्राथमिक शिक्षक संघ के कार्यकारिणी सदस्य, शिक्षक नगर समिति के सदस्य जैसे विभिन्न पदों पर सक्रिय रहते हुए आपने अपने बहु आयामी व्यक्तित्व से राष्ट्र एवं समाज के उत्थान के लिए सदैव कार्य किया है.

आपका हिंदी और छत्तीसगढ़ी साहित्य में गद्य और पद्य दोनों पर सामान अधिकार रहा है. साहित्य की सभी विधाओं यथा कविता, गीत, कहानी ,निबंध, एकांकी, प्रहसन, बाल-पहेली, बाल-गीत, क्रिया-गीत में आपने रचनाएँ की है. आप क्षेत्र विशेष में बंधे नहीं रहे. सारी सृष्टि ही आपकी विषय-वस्तु रही है. आपकी रचनाएँ आज भी प्रासंगिक हैं. आपके काव्य ने उस युग में जन्म लिया जब देश आजादी के लिए संघर्षरत था .आप समय की साँसों की धड़कन को पहचानते थे . अतः आपकी रचनाओं में देश-प्रेम ,त्याग, जन-जागरण, राष्ट्रीयता की भावनाएं युग अनुरूप हैं.आपके साहित्य में नीतिपरकता,समाज सुधार की भावना ,मानवतावादी, समन्वयवादी तथा प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिकोण सहज ही परिलक्षित होता है.

हास्य-व्यंग्य आपके काव्य का मूल स्वर है जो शिष्ट और प्रभावशाली है. आपने रचनाओं में मानव का शोषण करने वाली परम्पराओं का विरोध कर आधुनिक, वैज्ञानिक, समाजवादी और प्रगतिशील दृष्टिकोण से दलित और शोषित वर्ग का प्रतिनिधित्व किया है. आपका नीति-काव्य तथा बाल-साहित्य एक आदर्श ,कर्मठ और सुसंस्कृत पीढ़ी के निर्माण के लिए आज भी प्रासंगिक है.

कवि दलित की दृष्टि में कला का आदर्श 'व्यवहार विदे' न होकर 'लोक-व्यवहार उद्दीपनार्थम' था. हिंदी और छत्तीसगढ़ी दोनों ही रचनाओं में भाषा परिष्कृत, परिमार्जित, साहित्यिक और व्याकरण सम्मत है. आपका शब्द-चयन असाधारण है. आपके प्रकृति-चित्रण में भाषा में चित्रोपमता,ध्वन्यात्मकता के साथ नाद-सौन्दर्य के दर्शन होते हैं. इनमें शब्दमय चित्रों का विलक्षण प्रयोग हुआ है. आपने नए युग में भी तुकांत और गेय छंदों को अपनाया है. भाषा और उच्चारण पर आपका अद्भुत अधिकार रहा है.कवि श्री कोदूराम "दलित" का निधन २८ सितम्बर १९६७ को हुआ। —अरुण कुमार निगम

(५ मार्च १९१० को जन्मे कवि कोदूराम "दलित" की स्मृति में हरि ठाकुर द्वारा पूर्व में लिखा गया लेख)

छत्तीसगढ़ की उर्वरा माटी ने सैकड़ो कवियों,कलाकारों और महापुरुषों को जन्म दिया है. हमारा दुर्भाग्य है कि हमने उन