Dalit Spiritual Leaders

Avelin Mary
From Wikipedia
Avelin Mary
Mary in July 2017
Nationality Indian
Occupation Marine Biologist
Awards National Environmental Science Academy (NESA) Scientists of the Year for 2002, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose National Award for Excellence in 2003

Avelin Mary born 20 March 1943 is a marine biologist and a Roman Catholic nun belonging to the Congregation of the Mother of Sorrows, Servants of Mary. She is a Director of Sacred Heart Marine Research Center (SHMRC), Tuticorin.


Mary received her Ph.D. in marine biology from Marathwada University, Aurangabad. She completed her post-doctoral work at Osborne Laboratories (New York Zoological Society) and Duke University Marine Laboratories (Beaufort, North Carolina). She was a visiting scientist at Tulane UniversityDuke UniversityUniversity of DelawareUniversity of Hawaii and Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan.

In 1988, she returned to India to establish her own independent research group. Her research area is the biology of barnacles. Her specific interest is in the replacement of toxic chemicals affecting the ocean environment with alternative compounds from natural sources that may have similar functional properties without the toxic effects on other marine organisms.


Mary was the principal of St. Mary's College, a Catholic institution for higher education of women in Tuticorin.

In 1991, she founded Sacred Heart Marine Research Center (SHMRC) as an independent non-profit organization for the purpose of marine research and conservation. She is currently the Director of the institute, which is affiliated with U.S.-based research and development company Poseidon Ocean Sciences, Inc.

During her study of corals, she discovered they produce chemicals that could prevent fouling in ships and save millions of dollars.


Mary was named one of the "2,000 outstanding scientists of the 20th century" by the International Biographical Research Centre at Cambridge. In 1999, the vanity press American Biographical Institute awarded her "Woman of the Year 1998",

In 2002, she was recognized by India’s National Environmental Science Academy (NESA) in New Delhi as one of 14 Scientists of the Year. She received the award in Calcutta.

In January 2003, she was one of 12 recipients of the Jagruthi Kiran Foundation’s 2003 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose National Award for Excellence.

Aloysius Pazheparambil
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aloysius Pazheparambil.
Vicar Apostolic of Ernakulam-Angamaly
Diocese Ernakulam-Angamaly
Installed 11 August 1896
Term ended 1919
Predecessor none
Ordination 4 December 1870
Personal details
25 March 1847
Died 9 December 1919 (aged 72)
Nationality Indian

Mar Aloysius (Louis) Pazheparambil (Pulinkunnoo, 25 March 1847 – Ernakulam, 9 December 1919) was the Vicar Apostolic of Ernakulam in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. Originally a monk of the Syrian Carmelites, he was expelled along with nine others in 1875 from the religious order by the local bishop for writing to the Pope asking for an Indian bishop to rule his church. Later in 1896, he became one of three Indian bishops appointed to rule over the three Vicariates Apostolic newly created in his church.

Early life and ordination

Aloysius Pazheparambil was born in Pulinkunnoo at Alleppey and joined the Carmelite order for Catholic Syrians in 1860.

At that time, the local Catholic Thomas Christians were under the authority of a Latin Church bishop. There were constant quarrels, because these Latin bishops had little understanding of the Thomas Christians. The Thomas Catholics eventually began agitating for their own bishop.

Against this backdrop and to avoid such harmful future developments, a group of monks asked for a native bishop. Father Aloysius Pazheparambil was the head and spokesman of this group and for his actions was, in 1875, expelled from the Carmelite order along with the others by Leonardo Mellano, the Apostolic Vicar of Verapoly.

Pope Leo XIII soon intervened, and in 1887 dissolved the episcopal structure then present and designated for them the Apostolic Vicariates of Trichur and Kottayam, headed by the Latin bishops Adolph Edwin Medlycott and Charles Lavigne. Both were respectful to the Thomas Christians and their rite, and with an open mind prepared the transition to local bishops. This finally happened in 1896 when Medlycott and Lavigne resigned from their Vicariates and the Pope established two new ones in Ernakulam and Changanacherry. In that year came the first Syro-Malabar titular bishops, elevated as Vicars Apostolics to the dioceses. One of them, the Vicar Apostolic of Ernakulam, was Pazheparambil.

Bishop and Vicar Apostolic
The three new Catholic Apostolic Vicars of. Thomas Christians in India, 1896. From left: Aloysius Pazheparambil, Mathew MakilJohn Menachery

Aloysius Pazheparambil was one of the closest collaborators of the bishops Medlycott Adolph Edwin and Charles Lavigne. On 11 August 1896. he was made the titular bishop of Tymandus and Vicar Apostolic of the new diocese of Ernakulam. He was also made the Apostolic Delegate of India by Archbishop Ladislaus Zaleski on 25 October of that year, at his residence in Kandy (Sri Lanka). On 5 November 1896, Pazheparambil began the governing of his diocese, which he managed with great skill and zeal until his death in 1919. He was given the task of building all new diocesan structures as well as being tasked with allowing the native rite, after centuries of oppression, to unfold again.

His epitaph, written by his episcopal successor Augustine Kandathilreads:

`A Prelate specially devoted to the Blessed Virgin, simple in ways, frugal in habits, ever devoted to the interests of his Rite and Nation, steadfast of purpose, yet tactful in action, a scholar, a linguist, a historian, and a diplomat, he was a great Indian.'
A. C. Solomon Raj
From Wikipedia
A. C. Solomon Raj, CSI

Bishop Solomon Raj celebrating Good Friday Mass in 2021
Native name
మహ ఘనుడు యే. సి. సోలమన్ రాజ్ అయ్యాగారు
Church Church of South India (A Uniting church comprising Wesleyan MethodistCongregationalLutheranCalvinist and Anglican missionary societies – SPGWMMSLMSBasel MissionCMS, and the Church of England)

Appointed 12.10.2016
Predecessor T. S. Kanaka PrasadCSI
Successor Incumbent
Ordination As Deacon on 6.10.1992,
As Presbyter on 5.4.1994
Consecration 13.10.2016
by G. Dyvasirvadam, Moderator (Principal Consecrator)
Thomas K Oommen, Deputy Moderator (Co-consecrator)
Rank Bishop
Personal details
Birth name Avulamanda Christopher Solomon Raj

Born 18 March 1961
Nationality Indian
Denomination Christianity
Residence Medak
Parents Mother:
Smt. Esther Rani,
A. C. Dayanand
Spouse Mrs Vajra Solomon
Children Daughter (Shilpa); two sons (Finny, Benjamin)
Occupation Priesthood
Previous post(s) Pastor
Education B.Com. (Osmania),
Alma mater Giriraj Government College, Nizamabad, (Telangana)

A. C. Solomon Raj (born 18 March 1961) is the seventh successor of Frank Whittaker and eighth Bishop in Medak of the Protestant Church of South India Society and shepherds the Diocese from the Cathedra of the Bishop housed in the CSI-Medak Cathedral in Medak Town, TelanganaIndia. On 12 October 2016, the Church of South India Synod headquartered in Chennai, appointed Solomon Raj to assume the ecclesiastical Office of the Bishopric of Medak and was consecrated the next day on 13 October 2016 at the CSI-St. George's Cathedral, Chennai, ending four years of sede vacante in the Diocese of Medak which was without a bishop during the intervening period of 2012–2016.

Solomon Raj is an eloquent speaker with near native fluency in TeluguHindi, and English. His sermons centre around the eschatologies of the end times focusing on Christ. He spent nearly a decade undergoing spiritual studies under Old Testament Scholars E. C. JohnCSI and Gnana RobinsonCSI at the United Theological College, Bangalore, an affiliated seminary of the Senate of Serampore College (University), India's first University {a university under Section 2 (f) of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956} founded by the Baptist Missions led by Joshua MarshmanWilliam Carey, and William Ward.

On 8 April 2017, Solomon Raj was conferred with an honorary doctorate (D.Min.) by the Protestant Regional Theologiate, the near-Ecumenical Andhra Christian Theological College (ACTC), Secunderabad led by The Right Rev. G. DyvasirvadamCSI, the chairperson of the Board of Governors of ACTC and The Rev. T. Matthews Emmanuel, CBCNC, then Principal of ACTC in the presence of Bishop Emeritus John S. SadanandaCSI, the Master of the Senate of Serampore College (University).

Studies and ministerial formation

For early schooling and pre-university studies, Solomon Raj enrolled at the educational institutions established by the Christian missions, the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society and studied at BellampalliNizamabad and Secunderabad and took a basic degree from a State-run institution in Nizamabad. Solomon Raj first schooled at the CSI-Wesley Boys School on Colonel Prenderghast Road in Secunderabad and later pursued collegiate studies at the Giriraj Government College in Nizamabad leading to B.Com.

Spiritual studies

During the Bishopric of the Old Testament Scholar, the Cantabrigian Victor PremasagarCSI, Solomon Raj was admitted as a ministerial candidate of the Diocese of Medak to discern his avocation towards priesthood and spent a year assisting Presbyters during 1987–1988 in the Diocese of Medak that was predominantly Wesleyan Methodist with a couple of Anglican churches in the urban pastorate.

In the ensuing year, the Diocese of Medak sent Solomon Raj to the fully-ecumenicalUnited Theological College, a Protestant Regional Theologiate, in Bangalore where he pursued propadeutic studies during 1988–1992 during the Principalship of the leading Old Testament Scholar The Rev. E. C. JohnCSI, a direct student of Old Testament's Master Specialists, Gerhard von Rad and Claus Westermann at the University of HeidelbergGermany. During the subsequent convocation of the university held in 1993, Solomon Raj was awarded a Bachelor of Divinity degree by India's first University, the Senate of Serampore College (University)SeramporeWest Bengal during the Registrarship of the New Testament Scholar, The Rev. D. S. SatyaranjanIPC.

Between 1988 and 1992, in addition to the faculty at the seminary in Bangalore which comprised the Religious scholarThe Rev. G. D. MelanchthonAELC, the New Testament scholar The Rev. K. James Carl, SALC and other notable faculty, Solomon Raj was also benefited by the scholarship of the visiting faculty from the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate-Dharmaram College and the St. Peter's Pontifical Seminary, also in Bangalore. Incidentally, the Homiletics Scholar The Rev. P. Surya PrakashCSI, also hailing from the Diocese of Medak joined the college faculty in 1991, exactly a year before the final year of studies of Solomon Raj. Seminarians studying during that period included The Rev. Annie WatsonCSI while The Rt. Rev. B. D. Prasada Rao, CSI The Rev. H. R. CabralCSI The Rev. Jonadob Nathaniel, CSI and The Rev. Daniel Sadananda, CSI were pursuing postgraduate courses.
Bishop Solomon at CSI-Church of St. John the Baptist, Secunderabad in 2017.

Advanced spiritual studies

After a period of pastoral ministry, the Diocese of Medak once again re-sent Solomon Raj to the Protestant Regional Theologiate in Bangalore to upgrade his academics where Solomon Raj pursued a postgraduate course in spirituality specializing in Ethics during 1999–2001 leading to Master of Theology during the Principalship of the Old Testament Scholar Gnana RobinsonCSI a direct student of Old Testament's Master Specialist, Klaus Koch at the University of HamburgGermany. Solomon Raj's postgraduate thesis was entitled Can violence be a means of achieving social justice? An ethical evaluation of the Naxalite Movement in Telangana and was subsequently published in the Bangalore Theological Journal. During the ensuing annual convocation of the Senate of Serampore College (University) held in 2002, Solomon Raj was awarded the postgraduate degree, again during the Registrarship of the New Testament Scholar, The Rev. D. S. SatyaranjanIPC.

Ecclesiastical ministry
The CSI-Medak Cathedral where the Cathedra of the Bishop is located.

On completing spiritual studies in Karnataka, Solomon Raj was ordained as a Deacon on 6.10.1992 in the Church of South India Society (comprising Wesleyan MethodistCongregational and Anglican missionary societies – SPGWMMSLMSCMS, and the Church of England) by then Bishop Victor PremasagarCSI and began his ecclesiastical ministry in the pastorates within the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Diocese of Medak. Subsequently, after a two-year ministry, he was ordained as a Presbyter on 5.4.1994 by the successive Bishop B. P. SugandharCSI.


Solomon Raj as Presbyter served in all the three ecclesiastical District Church Councils of the Diocese of Medak and has been vice-chairperson of the Diocese of Medak for three terms, 2003–2007, 2007-2011 and 2013–2017.

Before assuming the Cathedra in 2016, Solomon Raj was Presbyter – in – charge at the CSI-Holy Trinity ChurchBolarumSecunderabad and had also led the Diocese of Medak as its Vice-chairperson under the guidance and mentorship of the Systematic theologianThe Most Reverend G. Dyvasirvadam.
The CSI-St. George's Cathedral, Chennai where Solomon Raj was consecrated on 13.10.2016.


In 2012, Bishop T. S. Kanaka PrasadCSI had to relinquish the Cathedra as per an ecclesiastical communique from the Church of South India Synod in Chennai resulting in sede vacante during which time the Medak Diocese was overseen from Chennai by the Church of South India Synod led by then Moderator and Systematic theologianThe Most Reverend G. DyvasirvadamCSI.

After nearly five years of ecclesiastical oversight of the Medak Diocese, the Church of South India Synod appointed A. C. Solomon Raj to shepherd the Diocese, consecrating him on Thursday, 13.10.2016 at the CSI-St. George's Cathedral, Chennai where he was principally consecrated by the Systematic theologianG. DyvasirvadamCSI, then Moderator and co-consecrated by Thomas K. Oommen, then Deputy Moderator in the presence of other Bishops including The Right Reverend Sister Eggoni PushpalalithaCSI Order of SistersBishop – in – Nandyal and The Right Reverend Daniel ThiagarajahCSI Bishop – in – Jaffna.

The consecration of Solomon Raj in Chennai makes him the second bishop from the Diocese of Medak after Frank WhittakerCSI to have been consecrated as Bishop at the St. George's Cathedral, Chennai and the third bishop – in Medak after H. D. L. Abraham, CSI to have been consecrated as Bishop at a Cathedral other than the Cathedral in Medak. After the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh State in 2014 into Telangana and the residuary Andhra Pradesh, Solomon Raj is the second bishop to have been consecrated in the new Telangana State with the first bishop being The Right Reverend K. Reuben MarkCSI of the adjoining Diocese of Karimnagar also in the new Telangana State who was consecrated on 4 May 2015 well after the formation of Telangana State.

Ex-officio endeavours

Solomon Raj has been a member of the Board of Governors representing the Diocese of Medak in the near-ecumenical[25] Andhra Christian Theological CollegeSecunderabad comprising a few Protestant Societies that include the Methodists, the Lutherans, the Baptists and the Church of South India (AnglicansCongregationalistsWesleyans), since the present period of the Old Testament Scholars The Rev. T. Matthews Emmanuel, CBCNC and The Rev. Ch. Vasantha Rao, CSI. In early 2016 when the annual convocation of the Senate of Serampore College (University) took place in Secunderabad in the presence of the Old Testament Scholar John SadanandaCSI the Master of the University, after a gap of nearly three and half decades with the earlier convocation having been held in Secunderabad in 1979 during the period of the Old Testament Scholars, The Rev. Victor PremasagarCSI and The Rev. G. Babu Rao,[28] CBCNC, the Diocese of Medak through Solomon Raj as vice-chairperson of the Diocese and as member of the Board of Governors of the college had substantially contributed to the logistics ensuring the successful holding of the convocation.

Church unity
Bishop Solomon leading the faithful in Secunderabad in 2017.

The Diocese of Medak of the Protestant Church of South India Society is represented on the fully-ecumenical Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Federation of Churches where Solomon Raj as vice-chairperson and now Bishop continues to represent the Diocese of Medak in the federation consisting of the Catholic Church (Latin and Syro-Malabar rites), Indian Orthodox ChurchProtestant Church, the Charismatic Church and, the small and indigenous Churches. At every periodical meeting of the federation held at the St. John's Regional Seminary (Theologiate), Solomon Raj has been active participant working towards Church unity along with fellow Clergy from the Catholic ChurchThe Most Reverend Doraboina Moses PrakasamRCMThe Most Reverend Gallela PrasadRCMThe Most Reverend Innayya Chinna AddagatlaRCM and from the Assemblies of God and other Churches. Incidentally, Solomon Raj's mentor and guide, the Systematic theologianThe Most Reverend G. DyvasirvadamCSI has been the President of the fully-ecumenical Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Federation of Churches.


The Bible Society of India Telangana Auxiliary was bifurcated from the Bible Society of India Andhra Pradesh Auxiliary and inaugurated on 2 February 2016 and takes forward the work of the Bible Society of India in translating and distributing the scriptures. The Bible Society of India has also published the complete Bible with the Deuterocanonical books making the scriptures available even to the Catholics. On 5 June 2016, Solomon Raj, as vice-chairperson of the Diocese of Medak participated in the installation mass of the new Auxiliary Secretary, The Rev. P. K. Praveen Prabhu Sudheer, CSI held at the CSI-Wesley Centenary Church in Secunderabad in the presence of the Old Testament Scholar and Bible Society of India General Secretary, M. Mani ChackoCSI.
Ambrose Rayappan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ambrose Rayappan
Archbishop Emeritus of Pondicherry and Cuddalore
See Pondicherry and Cuddalore
Appointed 7 August 1953
Installed 25 March 1953
Term ended 17 March 1973
Ordination 16 December 1923
Consecration 25 March 1953
Personal details
Birth name Ambrose Rayappan
Born 25 February 1901
Died 24 November 1999 (aged 98)
Buried Cathedral Cemetery, Pondicherry
Denomination Catholic
Motto Fides Vincit Mundum
Coat of arms 

Ambrose Rayappan (25 February 1901 – 24 November 1999) was the tenth and the first indigenous Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. He was born at Dharapuram, Tamil Nadu. He was ordained as a priest for the Diocese of Coimbatore on 16 December 1923. He participated in the Second Vatican council as a Council Father.

On 8 January 1953 he was appointed auxiliary bishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, and was consecrated on 25 March 1953 by Auguste-Siméon Colas. He was appointed as coadjutor of the same archdiocese on 7 August 1953. When Mgr. Colas resigned, he succeeded him on 28 November 1955. He resigned his post on 17 March 1973. He was succeeded by Venmani S. Selvanather.
Tomb of Mgr. Ambrose Rayappan
Styles of
Ambrose Rayappan
Spoken style Your Excellency
Religious style Monsignor
Arvind P. Nirmal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arvind P. Nirmal, (1936–1995) was a Dalit Christian theologian and a minister of the Church of North India. He questioned the Christian conversion of the upper castes, especially the Brahmin. A major proponent of Dalit theology, Nirmal argued that Jesus himself was a Dalit and that Christian theology should therefore reflect Dalit concerns.

Nirmal criticised Brahminic dominance of Christian theology in India, and believed that the application of liberation theology to India should reflect the struggle of Dalits, Nirmal also criticised the Marxist element within South American liberation theology. Nirmal drew on the concept of the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53 to identify Jesus himself as a Dalit – "a waiter, a dhobi, and bhangi."

Early life

Arvind Paulus Nirmal was born on 9 May 1936 in Jalna, Maharashtra. His father was an ordained priest of the Church of North India, and his mother Sonubai was a teacher. He spent his early years in Jalna, attending school and went to college at Milind Mahavidyalaya in Aurangabad. After studying for his BD at UTC Bangalore he was ordained a priest in the Church of North India and he served as a rural pastor for several years in the Jalna area, including at Kharpudi and Dahipuri villages. Before moving to Dahipuri, he would travel the distance on his bicycle. He was again selected to do his M.Th (Masters in Theology) at UTC Bangalore, where he then joined as a faculty, teaching systematic theology during the period 1968-1981.


Arvind Nirmal obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from Milind Mahavidyalaya in Aurangabad, Maharashtra.

Spiritual studies

During the early 1960s, Nirmal became an aspirante and studied Bachelor of Divinity (BD) during the years 1962-1965 at the United Theological College, Bangalore during the Principalship of the Systematic Theologian Joshua Russell Chandran. Nirmal's companions during that period included Regunta Yesurathnam, G. T. Abraham, Wesley Ariarajah Dhyanchand Carr and others while his seniors comprised K. C. Abraham, C. L. Furtado, M. J. Joseph, among others. In the ensuring convocation of the Senate of Serampore College (University), Nirmal was awarded a B. D. by then Registrar, Chetti Devasahayam.

After a year of pastoral ministry, Nirmal rejoined the Theologiate in 1966 to pursue an advanced course leading to Master of Theology specializing in Systematic theology with a research proposal entitled An evaluation of Origen's concept of the world in the light of the Christian theological task in relation to the Vedanta philosophy based on which the University awarded an M. Th. in the year 1969, again by Chetti Devasahayam, then Registrar. The Franciscan Friar J. A. G. Gerwin van Leeuwen, OFM was a companion of Nirmal during the period 1966-1968 at UTC, Bangalore.

Overseas study exposure

Joshua Russell Chandran wrote in 1997 that Nirmal was sent to Canada where he earned a Diploma in Christian Studies from the United Theological College of Montreal, Canada and was also sent to Oxford later in 1973 to study at Keble College, where he pursued postgraduate study.


(with V. Devasahayam), A Reader in Dalit Theology, Gurukul Lutheran Theological College & Research Institute, 1990, 180 pages.

Nirmal, Arvind P.ed. "Towards a Common Dalit Ideology." Madras: Gurukul Lutheran Theological College & Research Institute, 1989, 132 pages.
Anthony Swamy Thomasappa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most Reverend

Dr. Thomasappa Anthony Swamy
Archdiocese Bangalore
Diocese Chikmagalur
Appointed 2 December 2006
Installed 6 February 2007
Successor Incumbent
Ordination 20 May 1984
Consecration 6 February 2007
Personal details
Born 9 February 1951
Nationality India
Denomination Roman Catholic

Dr. Thomasappa Anthony Swamy is the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chikmagalur, India.

Early life

He was born in Mariyanna Palya, a small village in Bangalore on 9 February 1951.


He was ordained a priest for the Archdiocese of Bangalore on 20 May 1984.

He was a professor in St. Peter's Pontifical Seminary, Bangalore. Thomasappa was in charge of Seminary Publications and Director of Kannada Sanga in St. Peter's Pontifical Seminary, Bangalore.


Bishop Anthony Swamy Thomasappa did his doctorate in Missiology in Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.


He was appointed Bishop of Chikmagalur on Dec. 2, 2006, and was ordained bishop on Feb. 6, 2007. The Karnataka state diocese belongs to the ecclesiastical province headed by the Archdiocese of Bangalore.

He worked in various parishes of the Archdiocese before being elected as the Bishop of Chikkamagaluru.

He was appointed as the Bishop of Chikkamagaluru by Pope Benedict XVI. He was installed as bishop by Archbishop Emeritus of Bangalore Most Rev.Dr. Bernard Blasius Moras.

Mahatma Basvanna
Basavanna was a 12th-century Lingayat philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Niraakaara Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India

Anubhava Mantapa was the first parliament in history of mankind. Prabhudeva, a great Yogi of extraordinary achievement, was the president and Lord Basava acted as the prime minister. Chennabasava can be compared to the speaker while at the same time working as the editor, and compiler of Vachana literature.

The only difference between the present-day parliament and Anubhava Mantapa is that the members were not elected by the people, but were picked up or nominated by the higher authorities of the Mantapa; the necessary qualification expected being spiritual attainment. The problems tackled were of a various nature covering social, religious, spiritual, yogic psychological, economic and literary spheres.

Members of the Mantapa and followers of the religion were given full freedom of thought, speech and action. They were allowed to put any questions or doubts to get them cleared in front of the congregation and a systematic program was launched to record and to preserve the dialogues that were going on in the House.

Anubhava Mantapa criticized sharply the meaningless differentiation of human beings as high or low either on their birth or on their occupation. Unique preaching's of equality charged with the acceptance of the parenthood of god and the fraternity of humanity fascinated the tortured minds and consoled the gasping hearts of the oppressed and distressed masses.

The burning zeal of Basava to place religion on a democratic basis, his passionate love for God and his untiring energy in serving humanity added to the glory of Anubhava Mantapa .

The fundamental principles accepted Anubhava Mantapa may be summarized as follows:

1. All are equal;
2. No man is high or low either by birth, sex or occupation.
3. Woman has equal rights with man to follow the path of self-evolution.
4. Universal brotherhood, Community approach (team work) and Practice before preaching.
5. Each one should follow a profession of his own choice.
6. All Kayaka 's are honorable professions. No Kayaka is either low or high.
7. Varnas (or castes) and Ashrams (or stages) are to be discarded.
8. Renunciation and dwelling in forest are ruled out as cowardly tendencies to escape from life.
9. Inter-group marriages and free dining should be encouraged.
10. Untouchability has no place in the society.
11. Every man is free to think on all spiritual and social subjects.
12. Reason and experience are the only guiding lights for free thinking and spiritual advancement.
13. Language of the people should be the medium for imparting spiritual and secular education.
14. All men have equal rights to participate in spiritual discussions, to acquire spiritual knowledge and follow the same path of self-evolution.
Brahmasree Paravoor Sreedharan Thanthri

Paravoor Sreedharan Thanthrikal, the first non-Brahmin thantri in the tradition of Sree Narayana Guru, was an authority on astrology and thantric system. He was born on October 25,1925 as the son of Maman Vaidyar and Parvathiyamma from Kedamangalam Kalavampara veedu. After gaining high school education from Paravur HS, he mastered astrology through Gurukula custom. Sreedharan Tantri studied under the ancient gurukula system of education, guided by Sri. Pazhampilly Kandachan Asan and Sri. Sankaran Bhattathirippadu (Pazhur Padippura) and Nambiat Karnakara Pillai. He contributed immensely to the fields of astrology and thantric rituals for more than five decades. He held the position of thantri of more than 200 temples and consecrated the idols in many temples. He was also the first priest from the Ezhava community to perform Sahasra Kalasam. Thanthrikal was the main celebrant of Sahasra Kalasam held at various temples, including the Palarivattom Hariharasutha temple, Kozhikode Sree Kandeswara temple, Thalassery Jagannatha temple, Palluruthy Bhavaniswari temple, Nayarambalam Subramaniaswamy temple, Ernakulam Ayyappankavu temple, Moothakunnam Sree Narayana Mangalam temple and Cherai Gowriswara temple. He was the main celebrant at the Kodi Archana at the Kozhikode Sreekandeswara temple.His advice was always sought by scholars across the country during construction of temples. Thanthrikal proved that one can become a Brahmin by his deeds also. He was the recipient of several awards, including the Amrutha Keerthi Puraskar, Pavakulangara Award and the Swamy Mrudanandaji Memorial Adhyatma Puraskar.

He was lauded by Kanchi Kamakoti Jayendra Saraswathi Swamikal. Jayendra Saraswathi had draped Thanthrikal with a ponnada after he emerged the only one to answer the questions put forward by the scholars who took part in the Vidwal Sadas at the Guruvayur Parthasarathi temple.

Thanthrikal also provided solutions to various issues related to the temple. The controversy over the proposal to widen the Holy Steps at the Sabarimala was settled by the HC after hearing the version of Sreedharan Thanthrikal. Paravoor Sreedharan Thanthrikal participated in the Ashtamangala Devaprasnam at Sabarimala, Guruvayur, Vaikom, Chottanikkara, Kadambuzha and Kodungalloor temples.

Paravoor Sreedharan Thantrikal had won wide acclaim for his thorough knowledge of astrology and the Vedas. The thantri touched the lives of many who approached him with his ability to throw light on the mysteries of astrology to the common man. The Thantrikal was responsible in heralding reformation and change in the inequalities that existed in the performance of poojas. At the meeting of astrologers and vedic scholars held at Paliyam in 1985, the Thantrikal played a crucial role in drafting a proclamation which was acceptable to all. He was in the forefront of the thantric scholars who extolled the vitues of social equality at the Vishala Hindu Conference held in 1982. He was the last word in astrological and Vedic forums. Thantrikal earned a top name in thantric, Vedic and astrological fields,and had performed important rituals in more than 3,000 temples. He was humility personified.

Tantrikal was awarded the Amrita Keerti Puraskar {news} on 27th September 2007, the birthday of Mata Amritanandamayi Devi, for his meritorious contributions and perpetuation of India’s Kshetra Tantric and astrological traditions. He was honoured for his role as social reformer, standing as one of the main forces behind the opening of Hindu priesthood to all sections of society.

Sreedharan Tantri is the founder and chairman of Sri Narayana Tantrika Research Vidyalayam, a charitable institute in North Paravur, Ernakulam District that trains children, irrespective of caste and creed, in Kshetra Tanta Vidya. The institution also trains adults and conducts periodic reference courses for those already in the field, as well as conducts research and analysis into special ingredients and materials used as offerings in homas and kalasas. He is the author of an important book on Kshetra Tantra called Deva Yajana Paddhati. He is also the author of Pitru Dharma Vidhi, a book on rites performed for deceased ancestors, as well as many articles on Tantra and astrology.

His Sathabhishekam function was celebrated in a grand way in October 2009. Sreedharan Thanthri attained moksha at 12:20 pm on Thursday, July 21, 2011 at a private hospital in Kochi. The cremation was held on the premises of his house at KMK Junction North Paravoor at 9 am on Friday. His wife is late Amrithvalli and Jyothis, Gireesh and Rakesh are his children.

Bodhananda Swamikal
Sree Bodhananda Swamikal (1883–1928) was saint, disciple and Guru-nominated successor of Sree Narayana Guru, even though he attained SAMADHI three days after Narayana Guru’s SAMADHI (death), in 1928. He was an ordained sanyassi before he became Sree Narayana Guru’s ardent disciple. Though Bodhananda initially opposed idol worship, later he became member of all temple consecration committees under the instruction of Narayana Guru. He was also an active member of the Sree Narayana Guru statue samithi (committee) at Jagannatha Temple, Thalasserry, Kannur. This was first statue of Narayana Guru.Bodhananda Swamikal set up the Narayana Gurukula in Fernhill Neelagiri, Tamil Nadu, which he later handed over to Nataraja Guru, who was initially a teacher there. Bodhananda Swamikal was also major force behind establishing the Cochin National Bank which was intended to help the economic uplift of poorer sections of the society through self-employment and enterprise. He has written a book called Sree Narayana Dharmam. He reached Samādhi in 1928. Among Sri Narayana Guru's disciples Bodhananda Swami or Swami Bodhananda Giri may be considered equal to Sri Narayana in terms of his noble actions performed against caste system. In our sainthood of enlightened rishies Bodhananda Swami is the only sanyasi could owen lineage to Jain Thirthankars. In old Cochin State at Thrissivaperoor Taluk in Chirakkal village in a famous old Ezhava family called Ezhuvanparambil. He was born on Monday 10th Makaram 1058. His birth star is Punartham Nakshathram. Father's name is Ikkoran and mother's name was Cherone. He was their second son. He was named as Velayudhan. He studied Ganitham (Maths) Amarakosham, Neethisaram, and Kaviyam(Literature) under a Nattezhuthachan(Teacher in village school). After this his father compelled him to work at his farms. As a true son he agreed with his father. He worked hard in the farms. But at very early youthful stage he showed peculiar behaviour of sainthood so to tie him to material world parents arranged him a marriage. Swamy was forced to marry at the age of sixteen. A son called Kesavan was born in this marriage. When Kesavan was one year old he cannot restrain from the call of absolute wisdom so swamy decided to withdraw from family life. He accepted a path of eternal journey. Without saying anybody or possessing anything himself he left home. The eternal journey and acceptance of Sanyasam. We shall not under stood the ways and thoughts of those noble beings who accepts themselves Vajrayana and eternal solitude which leads to eternity. The divine life of rishies is always differ from the commonplace human life. As seeker of truth Swamy visited Gokarna. After six months journey he reached home. Then after two months with the permission of family members he started his second journey. This time he want to see the North India. He went to Pune, visited Kasi and near by shrines and the journey lasted a year. After this he reached home again spend some days with family members and again started journey. In this chronic stage of Avadoodha Swamy visited North Indian shrines and places like Haridwar, Hrishikesh, Badranarayanam at Himalaya, Lahore, Amrutsar, Rawalpindy, Kashmir and Delhi.When he was staying at Delhi he came to know about the great Festival at Ujjain.He started to see this famous Mela(Kumbamela). At Ujjain a very important person was waiting for him. The Noble High Priest of Jotsna Matt at Himalaya,established by Sri Shankara saw him and accepted and permitted him to follow his Matt. After some days passed the high priest of Jotsna Matt was very much pleased with our Swamy. He accepted him as his disciple.He adorned him with abhisheka and named him Swamy Bodhananda Giri. After the end of Kubamela Sage Easwarananda Mandaleeswar the name of the high priest, and his newly accepted beloved disciple Swamy Bodhananda Giri went together to various famous shrines. During this long pilgrimage Bodhananda Swamy accepted many many good and enlighted friends and accepted a lot of pure disciples.This long journey lasted for two years. During the journey with Guru Mandaleeswar, they were unseparated, discussed and read various scholarly books of Tharkkam,Vyakaranam,and Upanishads. After following his Guru two years(Padanupadayathra)and with the consent of Mandaleeswar, he returned to home. The Establishment of Avadhoodha Matt and the Popularisation of ideas Eat together;Study together and The Promotion of Inter Caste Marriage. Swamy reached home. His family members accepted this new life. They constructed an Ashramam for his living. This was a beautiful place near by it a river flowed. The family members submitted this entire property for the use of Swamy.
Bishop Devadass Ambrose Mariadoss

Bishop Devadass Ambrose Mariadoss
Bishop's House, P.O. Box 14, 12A Convent Road, Tiruchchirappalli-620001, Tamil Nadu, India
(0431)2415.635; 2401.568
Fax :2417.502

Bishop M. Devadass Ambrose was born on Oct. 6, 1947, in the village of Ammapet near Thanjavur. He was ordained priest on Aug. 5, 1974, and appointed bishop of Thanjavur on July 18, 1997, the third ordinary of the diocese. His episcopal ordination was on Sept. 24, 1997. Bishop Ambrose was the vice rector of St. Peter's Pontifical Seminary in Bangalore before his appointment as the diocesan prelate. He is now chairman for the commission for catechetics of the Tamil Nadu Bishops' Council.

On July 14, 2018, he appointed apostolic administrator of Tiruchirapalli.

On 24 September 1997, Devadass Ambrose was solemnly consecrated as the third Bishop of Thanjavur by Simon Card. Lourdusamy along with the co-consecrators, Archbishop Michael Augustine, the Archbishop of Pondicherry-Cuddalore and Packiam Arokiasamy, the then out-going bishop of Thanjavur. He has been serving as the Bishop of Thanjavur for more than 23 years.


In 1997 Devadass Ambrose began to push for the creation of new schools and colleges, which would give quality education to poor children in an affordable fees structure. A first institution for girls, named "Our Lady of Good Health School of Nursing", was opened in 2005 at Thanjavur, followed soon by a second one for boys and girls. Now there are at least five higher education institutions with various disciplines. The collected fee is used for the maintenance of the institutions and their infrastructure; deserving students also receive scholarships for their studies.

Education Institutions

Our Lady of Good Health School of Nursing
Our Lady of Good Health College of Nursing
St. John de Britto College of Education (BEd and MEd)
St. John de Britto Teachers Training Institute (D. T. Ed)
Annai Vailankanni Arts & Science College
Bishop Devadass Ambrose Vidyalaya

The central government has made NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) compulsory for all the students who aspire to study MBBS. The syllabus for the NEET is taken from CBSE. Unfortunately the diocese does not have a single CBSE school and hence to start with, the Bishop wanted to establish one such school in Thanjavur at Bishop Sundaram Campus. There are two blocks, one for Primary and the other for the Secondary. The Primary Block is dedicated to His Grace, Packiam Arokiasamy, the Second Bishop of Thanjavur and the Secondary Block is dedicated to Rt. Rev. R. A. Sundaram, the first bishop of Thanjavur. Affordable fee structure, Quality of Education and the Proximity have attracted the students and the parents and in the first year itself (2019-2020) the strength of the newly established CBSE school is 1097.
Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan

Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan was a Buddhist monk, Scholar, Traveller and a prolific writer from India. He is considered as one of the great activists of Buddhism of the 20th century. He was influenced by Great Buddhist Scholar, Social Reformer Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan and Dr. Ambedkar.

Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan

Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan was born Harnam Das on January 5, 1905 in Sohana Village of Ambala District in Punjab. He did B.A from National College in Lahore. His travels took him to different parts of World for promoting Buddhism just like his mentor Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan. He devoted his full life to serve Buddhism. He always wanted to have experience of traveling far distances across many countries and discover new things. His aim was to continue the tradition started by his inspirations.

He contributed a lot to Indian Travel Literature (यात्रा वृतांत) and Hindi. He loved Hindi as a child loves his mother and supported it in many ways. He worked for Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Prayag, Rastrabhasha Prachar Samiti, Vardha etc. He used very simple language in his books that every one can easily understand. He wrote many Essays, Novels, books on his travel to different places. Many of his books were also written on Buddhism. More than 20 of his books were published.

Dr. Ambedkar left behind lacs of Buddhist followers who were in need of strong Buddhist (religious) leader particularly in Maharashtra. So Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan travelled and guided Maharashtra dalit Buddhists. He also translated Dr. Ambedkar’s monumental work ‘The Buddha and His Dhamma’ in Hindi for the benefit of people. He also traced and collected original resources from Pali Tripitika and other Buddhist literature, which Dr. Ambedkar had not done.

Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan was the Chief Officiating Priest at the funeral ceremony of Dr. Ambedkar on 7 December 1956 at Dadar, Mumbai. He has solemnized the spontaneous ‘Diksha’ ceremony that was moved by Dadasaheb Gaikwad by the monk by making the whole assembly recite the sacred Buddhist hymns and 22 vows. He had declared that Dr Amabedkar had attained nirvana. It was under his guidance that the cremation ceremony was performed.

The books that he has authored are: Bhikkhu Ke Patra, Jo Bhula Na Saka, Aah! Aisi Daridrata, Bahanebazi, Yadi Baba Na Hote, Rail Ke Ticket, Kahan Kya Dekha, Sanskriti, Desh Ki Mitti Bulati hai, Bauddha Dharma Yek Buddiwadi Adhyayan, Shri Lanka, Hindi translation of Buddha and His Dhamma by Dr B R Ambedkar, Manusmriti kyon Jalai Gai?, Bhagwad Gita ki Buddhiwadi Samiksha, Ram Kahani Ram ki Jabani, An Intelligent Man’s Guide to Buddhism, ‘ ‘Bodhidrum ke kuch panne, Dharm Ke Naam par, Bhagvan buddha aur unke anuchar, Bhagvan buddha aur unke samkalin bhikshu, Boudh dharma ka sar a hidi translation of essence of buddhism by P l Narsu, Bhadant Anand Kaushalyan jeevan va karya – by Dr. M.L. Gautam (Life and work of Ven. Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyan), Avashyak Pali (Basic Pali) – by Ven. Dr. Bhadant Anand Kaushalyayan, The Gospel of Buddha : Translation by Ven. Dr. Bhadant Anand Kaushalyan of the book – The gospel of Buddha by Paul Carus, ‘ ‘Dhammapada Hindi translation, ‘Riddles of Hinduism hindi translation of Dr. Ambedkar’s book

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

5 January 1938: Speech of Dr, Ambedkar in Sholapur

This was the second day of Dr. Ambedkar’s visit to Sholapur where he made made another important speech. The local Christians were eager to hear his views on religion. So he addressed a meeting of the Christians under the Presidentship of the Rev. Gangadhar Jadhav.

He said in a very sarcastic tone that since the day he declared his intention to adjure Hindu religion, he had become a commodity for bargain or a source of comedy. He referred to the comedy, Vande Bharatam, written by Acharya P. K. Atre, a well-known playwright in Maharashtra, who had ridiculed the idea of conversion in his play. Yet he stated that he was firm in his resolve. From his study of comparative religion he could say that two personalities could captivate him. They were the Buddha and Christ. He further said that he wanted a religion which instructed people how they should behave with one another and prescribed for man his duty to another and relation with God in the light of equality, fraternity and liberty. He told the Christians that their co-religionists in Southern India observed caste system in churches.

5 Jan 2011: The Supreme Court of India acknowledged that Dronacharya did injustice with Eklavya

The Supreme Court upheld the conviction of four persons for stripping a tribal woman and parading her naked in a Maharashtra village in broad daylight, describing the incident as “shameful, shocking and outrageous”.

In the 17-page judgment, the SC has given a thorough research on tribals who constitute about 8 per cent of the population, concluding that they were the original inhabitants of India but were being subjected to injustice since the days of Mahabharat. The court even went to the extent of holding Dronacharya guilty of meting out injustice to Eklavya, a tribal, by extracting his right thumb as ‘guru dakshina’ for teaching archery.

“This is a shameful act on the part of Dronacharya. He had not even taught Eklavya, so what right had he to demand guru dakshina,” a Bench comprising Justices Markandey Katju and Gyan Sudha Misra questioned in their verdict.

The Bench virtually reprimanded the Maharashtra Government for not filing an appeal seeking enhancement of the punishment, ranging from three months to one year on various counts, awarded by the trial court.

“The dishonour of the victim, Nandabai, called for harsher punishment, and we are surprised that the state government did not file any appeal,” the apex court observed in its verdict, dismissing the petition of the accused who had challenged their conviction.
Chetty Bhanumurthy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chetti Bhanumurti, CBCNC
Born 23 February 1888

Died January 6, 1973 (aged 84)

Andhra Pradesh, India
Nationality Indian
Occupation Theologian

Offices held
Pastor, Convention of Baptist Churches of Northern Circars
TeacherBaptist Theological SeminaryKakinada and Ramayapatnam Baptist Theological Seminary, Ramayapatnam
Title The Reverend

Chetti Bhanumurti (born 23 February 1888; died 6 January 1973) was a Hymn Writer whose hymns are found in the Hymnal in Telugu. Bhanumurti was a Pastor of the Canadian Baptist Mission/Convention of Baptist Churches of Northern Circars who also led the Principalship of the Baptist Theological Seminary, Kakinada from 1945-1956 leading to its affiliation to the nation's first University, Senate of Serampore College (University) in 1946

Comparative religion Scholar R. R. Sundara Rao who researched at the University of Wisconsin–Madison highlighted the literary standard of Chetty Bhanumurti terming him as a pioneer hymn writer whose songs had the element of Bhakti. The Old Testament Scholar, Victor Premasagar was also enthused by the lyrical content in Bhanumurti's compositions, especially Hymn Number 94 titled Yesuku Samanulevaru (Translated Who is equal to you Lord?) with direct reference to Psalm 71:19 and strikingly similar to Tyagaraja's composition in Kharaharapriya. Dayanandan Francis brings Chetti Bhanumurti in the line of another Hymn writer, Puroshottam Choudhary and writes,

Like Choudari, Bhanumurti also is interested in picking up ideas, thought-forms and even ragas from popular Hindu poems and lyrics, while at the same time endeavouring to broaden the perspectives found in such religious literary forms with distinctive Christian ideas.


In 1915, Bhanumurthy discerned his avocation towards priesthood and went for ministerial formation to the Serampore CollegeSerampore, a constituent College of the nation's first University, studying up to 1918, during the Principalship of George Howells, as a candidate of the Canadian Baptist Mission/Convention of Baptist Churches of Northern Circars where Bhanumurthy obtained a Licentiate in Theology (L.Th.).

Theological Teacher

Bhanumurthy taught at the Ramayapatnam Baptist Theological Seminary in Ramayapatnam and later on moved to Kakinada where he taught at the Baptist Theological Seminary in Kakinada along with Muthyala Theophilus who was his colleague. This was the period when A. B. Masilamani joined the seminary for spiritual formation. In 1952, Bhanumurthy became Principal of the seminary.


Roger E. Hedlund, the Missiologist writes that along with the Bible, the Christian Hymnal in Telugu also forms the main bulwark of Christian spiritual life for the Telugu folk and of equal use to both the non-literates and the literates as well.[9] In such a context, it is noteworthy that sixteen of Bhanumurthy's compositions are found in the Christian Hymnal in Telugu with the following sequence,

9, Stuti Geethamu,
84, Neeti Suryudu,
87, Kreesthuku Namo Namo,
92, Yesu Sharanu,
94, Yesuku Samanulevaru,
116, Raraju Janmadinamu,
198, Siluva Balamu,
201, Yesu Shanthikarudu,
263, Kreesthu Sanghamunaku Sirassu,
361, Yesunaku Sakshulu,[406, Kreesthuni Vembadinchuta,
514, Kutumbaradhana,
522, Melukolupu,
524, Kraistava Yuvajanulara Kreesthu Koraku Nelavandi,
552, Abhinaya Christmas Geethamu,
579, Kruthagnathala Panduga,
Clement Tirkey
From Wikipedia
Most Reverend

Clement Tirkey
Archdiocese Calcutta
Diocese Jalpaiguri
Appointed 3 December 2014
Predecessor James Anthony Toppo
Successor Incumbent
Ordination 1978
Consecration 23 April 2006
Personal details
Born 12 September 1947
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Motto Collaborator of God with joy

Clement Tirkey is the current serving bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jalpaiguri, India.

Early life

Tirkey was born in Chhattisgarh, India on 12 September 1947.


Tirkey was ordained a priest in 1978 for the Darjeeling diocese but was incardinated in Bagdogra diocese on 14 June 1997.


Tirkey was appointed bishop of Jalpaiguri on 31 January 2006 and consecrated on 23 April 2006 by Cardinal Telesphore Toppo.[4]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dharmaskandha or Dharma-skandha-sastra is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. Dharmaskandha means "collection of dharmas". It was composed by Sariputra (according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Maudgalyayana (according to Chinese sources). The Chinese edition was translated by Xuanzang, and appears as: T26, No. 1537, 阿毘達磨法蘊足論, 尊者大目乾連造, 三藏法師玄奘奉 詔譯, in 12 fascicles.

It begins with a matrka as a summary of the topics, showing its antiquity, as these were supposedly only assigned by the Buddha himself. It presents 21 subjects, the first 15 of which concern the practice of the spiritual path, and the realization of its fruits. The 16th deals with "various issues". Subjects 17 to 20 deal with the enumeration of the ayatanas, dhatus and skandhas as encompassing "all dharmas". The 21st is regards dependent origination.

Frauwallner concludes that the Dharmaskandha is from a period before then split between the Sanskrit and Pāli Abhidharma traditions, based on its correlation with the Pāli Vibhanga. He thus dates it to pre-Ashoka Buddhism.[Shun notes it being mentioned in the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya-vyakaraṇa, indicating its early inclusion in the Sarvastivada canon. These two combined, would suggest the Mulasarvastivada having its own canon at quite an early date.

Yin Shun also cites three points for considering this text to be sourced in a pre-sectarian Abhidharma:

It similar analysis of rupa to the Sariputta Abhidhamma and the Dhammapariyaya (considered to be the oldest Abhidharma texts of any tradition).

No mention of avijnapti-rupa, as per the Sariputta Abhidhamma.

The emphasis on the five indriya and five bala, as paramount in the spiritual path.
March 19th, 1963
Eknath Easwaran
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Eknath Easwaran
Born December 17, 1910
Died October 26, 1999 (aged 88)

Nationality IndiaUnited States
Known for Spiritual teacher, author, translator and interpreter of spiritual literature, teacher of Passage Meditation

Eknath Easwaran (December 17, 1910 – October 26, 1999) was an Indian-born spiritual teacher, author and translator and interpreter of Indian religious texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads.

Easwaran was a professor of English literature at the University of Nagpur in India, and in 1959 he came to the United States as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley where he taught courses on meditation. In 1961, Easwaran founded the Blue Mountain Center of Meditation and Nilgiri Press, based in northern California. Nilgiri Press has published over thirty books that he authored.

Easwaran was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, whom he met when he was a young man. Easwaran developed a method of meditation – silent repetition in the mind of memorized inspirational passages from the world's major religious and spiritual traditions – which later came to be known as Passage Meditation.


Eknath Easwaran was born in 1910 in a village in KeralaIndia. Eknath is his surname, Easwaran his given name. Brought up by his mother, and by his maternal grandmother whom he honored as his spiritual teacher, he was schooled in his native village until the age of sixteen, when he went to attend St. Thomas College, Thrissur, a Catholic college fifty miles away. Here he acquired a deep appreciation of the Christian tradition. He graduated at the University of Nagpur in English and law.: 118  He served as Professor of English literature at the University of Nagpur.

In 1959, he came to the United States as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of California, Berkeley.
Eknath Easwaran teaching what is thought to be the first credit course on meditation offered at a major university in the U.S. at U.C. Berkeley in 1968

From 1960 he gave classes on meditation in the San Francisco Bay Area. He met his wife Christine at one of these talks. Together with his wife, he founded the Blue Mountain Center of Meditation in 1961. After a four-year stay in India, he returned to the Bay Area in 1965.

In 1970 he founded Ramagiri Ashram as a community of dedicated followers in Marin County.

He set up a publishing activity, Nilgiri Press, which printed his first book Gandhi The Man, telling the story of Gandhi as a spiritual as well as a political leader. His first major work was his 3-volume commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living, the first volume of which was printed in 1975 and the last in 1984. His book Meditation on the program of meditation and allied disciplines that he developed first appeared in 1978.

By 2018, Easwaran's methods of spiritual practice had been the focus of two major scientific research programs that had produced thirty refereed research reports.

Published works

A series on the life and works of
Eknath Easwaran

Easwaran's written works may be grouped into several major categories—primarily books, but also articles in newspapers and other periodicals. Most of his books have been reviewed by spiritually oriented publications or websites, or by nationally known media such as The New Yorker, or the New York Post.

In addition, a large number of Easwaran's recorded talks have been published in video and audio formats.


Easwaran's translations of the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, and the Dhammapada (see article) have been critically acclaimed. Religion scholar Huston Smith is cited by the publisher as writing: "No one in modern times is more qualified – no, make that 'as qualified' – to translate the epochal Classics of Indian Spirituality than Eknath Easwaran. And the reason is clear. It is impossible to get to the heart of those classics unless you live them, and he did live them. My admiration of the man and his works is boundless." In Buddhism: A Concise Introduction Smith and his coauthor Philip Novak wrote that "Our favorite translation is Eknath Easwaran's The Dhammapada. His Indian heritage, literary gifts, and spiritual sensibilities... here produce a sublime rendering of the words of the Buddha. Verse after verse shimmers with quiet, confident authority. A bonus is the sparkling 70-page introduction to the Buddha's life and teachings."

Since 2009, Easwaran's three translations "have each been the best-selling translations of these scriptures in the USA.": 96  In the US in 2016, each of Easwaran's translations outsold the second best-selling translation in its category "by more than 3:1",: 96  and the second editions have together sold more than 470,000 copies.


Essence of the Upanishads (see article), originally entitled Dialogue with death: The spiritual psychology of the Katha Upanishad, explains how the Katha Upanishad embraces the key ideas of Indian spirituality within the context of a powerful mythic quest – the story of a young hero who ventures into the land of death in search of immortality. "Essence of the Upanishads is a westerner's guide to this vitally important Indian text and its modern relevance to the Indian mindset and spirituality."

In Essence of the Bhagavad Gita, Easwaran places the Gita's teachings in a modern context and comments on the Gita's view of the nature of reality, the illusion of separateness, the search for identity, the meaning of yoga, and how to heal the unconscious. The book views the key message of the Gita as how to resolve our conflicts and live in harmony with the deep unity of life, through the practice of meditation and spiritual disciplines.

In Essence of the Dhammapada, Easwaran comments on the Dhammapada, sayings attributed to the Buddha himself, presenting it as a guide that gives straightforward teachings about spiritual perseverance, progress, and enlightenment.

Books on meditation

His book Passage Meditation (original title Meditation) describes the Eight Point Program that Easwaran developed, while his book Conquest of Mind goes further into the practice of these disciplines in daily life. Timeless Wisdom is a companion book to Passage Meditation and contains passages for meditation drawn from across the world's spiritual traditions. His book Mantram Handbook: a practical guide to choosing your mantram and calming your mind addresses The Mantram, the second point in the program.

His book Strength in the Storm is an introduction to The Mantram, containing many stories and practical examples to help the reader learn how to harness the inner resources for dealing with challenges in daily living. His book Take Your Time explores "Slowing Down" and "One-Pointed Attention" in daily lives. Renewal is a pocket book of short readings on themes such as loving relationships, raising children, living simply, and aging wisely; Patience, the second in the pocket book series, shows how to cultivate Patience – "the ornament of the brave" – at any age. Other (older) books describe various aspects of leading a spiritual life: Climbing the Blue Mountain, Compassionate Universe, and Undiscovered Country.

Daily readers and reference

God Makes the Rivers to Flow is an anthology of writings from the sacred literature of the world, selected by Easwaran as useful for meditation. A larger (and earlier) version of Timeless Wisdom, it contains dozens of passages from diverse traditions, and identifies passages for particular stages in life, such as caregiving, families with small children, death and dying, grief and loss, and for building positive qualities such as patience, courage, devotion to God, and putting others first. Words to Live By is a set of daily readings with Easwaran's commentary on applying the reading to daily life.

The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living

The Bhagavad Gita for Daily Living is a manual for living a spiritual life, comprising a verse-by-verse commentary on India's timeless scripture the Bhagavad Gita. The work is in three volumes, published in 1975, 1979 and 1984 respectively, in hardcover and later also in paperback. When the first paperbacks were published the volumes were given new subtitles: the End of Sorrow; Like a Thousand Suns; and To Love is To Know Me.

In 2020 the three-volume set was reissued as a second edition, and as a single-volume ebook.

In Volume 1 (the first six chapters of the Gita) Easwaran explains how readers can begin to transform themselves, even as householders engaged in busy lives. In Volume 2 (the next six chapters) Easwaran addresses the seeming divide between scientific knowledge and spiritual wisdom, and explains how the concept of the unity of life can help people in all their relationships. In Volume 3 (the final six chapters) he makes the connection between the Self within and the Reality underlying all creation – and how to make a difference to heal the environment and establish peace in the world.

Spiritual biographies

Gandhi the Man traces how Mohandas Gandhi transformed himself into one of the world's great spiritual leaders.

Nonviolent Soldier of Islam is the life story of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a Pathan (or Pushtun) of Afghanistan and a devout Muslim, who raised the first nonviolent army in history to gain Indian independence from British colonial rule. This book was favorably discussed in The New Yorker. The book also inspired filmmaker and writer T.C. McLuhan, daughter of Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan, to make the film The Frontier Gandhi: Badshah Khan, a Torch for Peace, which won the 2009 Black Pearl Award for Best Documentary Film.

Commentaries on Christian literature

Original Goodness (see article) is a commentary on the BeatitudesLove Never Faileth (see article) is a commentary on the writings of St FrancisSt PaulSt Augustine, and Mother TeresaSeeing with the Eyes of Love (see article) is a commentary on The Imitation of Christ.

Newspapers and other periodicals

In the 1980s and 1990s, Easwaran published a variety of commentaries on public events in prominent periodicals, especially The Christian Science Monitor, and also in The New York Times, elsewhere in the US, and internationally. He also wrote numerous commentaries that appeared in the Little Lamp (1961–1995), and in Blue Mountain (1990–present), quarterly journals published by the meditation center that he founded. In the 1960s, Easwaran published articles in other spiritual journals, such as the Mountain Path, published by Sri Ramana Maharshi's ashram. Before coming to the US in 1959, Easwaran contributed short stories and other writings to literary anthologies, and to magazines such as The Illustrated Weekly of India.

Video and audio

Many of Easwaran's recorded talks have been published in video and audio formats.

Several dozen of Easwaran's talks have been published as video DVDs, and now as downloadable MP4s as a free subscription from the Blue Mountain Center. Before publication as DVDs, videos of Easwaran's talks were first released in VHS videotape format. Some talks are published in downloadable audio/MP3 formats. Instructions for meditation by Easwaran have been published in audio form as CDs. Some of Easwaran's talks were earlier published as cassette tapes or LP records. Magazines have reviewed some of Easwaran's published talks, both audio and video, since the 1990s.

Several of Easwaran's written works, including Essence of the UpanishadsPassage Meditation – A Complete Spiritual PracticeThe Bhagavad GitaThe Dhammapada and Gandhi the Man, have been published as audio books, as voice-recorded by the British actor Paul Bazely, and also the philosopher Jacob Needleman

Eight-point program

Easwaran's program for spiritual growth consists of eight points, and is described comprehensively in his book Passage Meditation – A Complete Spiritual Practice (originally published in 1978 as Meditation). Each point had a dedicated chapter:
Meditation: Silent repetition upon memorized inspirational passages from one of the world's great religions. Practiced for one-half hour each morning.
The Mantram: silent repetition of a mantram, holy name or hallowed phrase from one of the world's great religions.
Slowing Down: set priorities to reduce stress and hurry
One-Pointed Attention: give full concentration to whatever matter is currently at hand
Training the Senses: enjoy simple pleasures in order to avoid craving for unhealthy excess
Putting Others First: denounce selfishness and cultivating altruism
Spiritual Companionship: practice meditation in the company of others
Reading the Mystics: draw inspiration from the writings of the scriptures of all religions.

Other influence

A variety of influences of Easwaran's life and work have been documented. Easwaran's students, inspired in part by his teachings about compassion and stewardship for the environment, published a well-known vegetarian cookbook entitled Laurel's Kitchen (1976), later republished in revised form as The New Laurel's Kitchen (1986). The book contained extensive nutritional information from a scientific point of view, and sold more than a million copies.

Easwaran's teachings or practices have sometimes been taught as part of traditional college courses, or as tools for self-management by health professionals.

Outside of the US, Easwaran's life and teachings were profiled, along with those of a variety of other spiritual teachers, in a book published in India entitled Meditation Masters and their Insights.

Easwaran's words have been included in collections of wisdom teachings, such as ones recently published by Chang (2006) and Parachin (2011). Quotations from Easwaran's translations have been used many times by both scholarly and popular writers. Easwaran's other writings have also been quoted by various types of authors, including writers of novels and short stories, popular spirituality, and articles on management theory. Psychiatrist Aaron Beck and his colleagues quoted from Easwaran's commentary on the Katha Upanishad. The NAPRA ReView wrote that "The volume of [Easwaran's] work and the quality of his discourse suggest a man who has had a profound impact on the spiritual lives of many."

Easwaran's method of passage meditation was followed by the poet Robert Lax.: 273  Near the end of his life, Lax's only reading each day was from Easwaran's book Words to Live By.: 272, 281 

New Hampshire State Representative Latha Mangipudi reported having given then-Senator Barack Obama a copy of Easwaran's book Gandhi the Man in December 2006.

Easwaran has been listed in reference works on spiritual and religious leaders.

In his survey of commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, Nadkarni described Easwaran as "respected worldwide as one of the most profound writers and orators on religion and spirituality".
Euphrasia Eluvathingal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Euphrasia Eluvathingal

Born Rosa Eluvathingal
17 October 1877
Died 29 August 1952 (aged 74)
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 3 December 2006 by Varkey Vithayathil
Feast 30 August

Euphrasia Eluvathingal (born Rosa Eluvathingal; 17 October 1877 – 29 August 1952) was an Indian Carmelite nun of the Syro-Malabar Church, which is an Eastern Catholic Church in Kerala. Euphrasia is said to have had a vision of the Holy Family, at which point the illness she had long felt ceased. She was canonised as a saint by Pope Francis on 23 November 2014 in Vatican City. Since the beheading of St. John the Baptist is celebrated on August 29, the feast of St. Euphrasia is postponed to August 30 .

Early life

She was born Rosa Eluvathingal on 17 October 1877 in a Syro-Malabar Catholic Nasrani family in KattoorIrinjalakudaThrissur district, in Kerala. Rosa was the eldest child of wealthy landowner Cherpukaran Antony and his wife Kunjethy. She was baptised on 25 October 1877 in Our Lady of Carmel, Forane Church, Edathiruthy. At the age of nine, Rosa is said to have experienced an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary which led her to make a commitment never to marry, and to commit her entire life to God. When she was ten, she entered the boarding school attached to the first indigenous Carmelite community in the Syro-Malabar Church, founded by Saints Kuriakose Elias Chavara and Leopold Beccaro in 1866 at Koonammavu in Ernakulam District.

As she grew older, Rosa wanted to enter the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel, who follow the Rule of the Third Order of the Discalced Carmelites. Her father opposed this, as he wanted to arrange a marriage for her with the son of another prosperous family in the region. Seeing her resolve, her father eventually relented and accompanied her to the convent.

Religious life

In 1897, Mar John Menachery, the first native Bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Archeparchy of Thrissur, established a Carmelite Convent in Ambazakad (now belonging to the Syro-Malabar Catholic Eparchy of Irinjalakuda). On 9 May, he brought in all five nuns from Koonammavu who belonged to his diocese. The next day Rosa was received as a postulant, taking the name Sister Euphrasia of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and was admitted to the novitiate of the congregation on 10 January 1898. Her constant poor health, however, threatened her stay in the convent, as the superiors considered dismissing her.
The bed where Euphrasia died in St Mary's convent, OllurThrissur, shown in the museum.

Euphrasia is said to have had a vision of the Holy Family, at which point the illness she had long felt ceased. Euphrasia made her solemn profession on 24 May 1900, during the blessing of the newly founded St. Mary's Convent, Ollur or Chinna Roma. After she took her perpetual vows, she was appointed assistant to the Novice Mistress. Though frail in health, in 1904 Euphrasia was appointed Novice Mistress of the congregation. She held this position for nine years until 1913, when she was made Mother Superior of the convent, where she was to live the rest of her life, serving as Mother Superior until 1916.

She endeavoured to lead a life of constant prayer and of devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, becoming known to many people as the Praying Mother. Euphrasia spent much of her day in the convent chapel before the Blessed Sacrament, to which she had a strong devotion. She also nourished a great love and devotion for the Virgin Mary. Euphrasia died on 29 August 1952 at St. Mary's Convent. Her tomb has become a pilgrimage site as miracles have been reported by some of the faithful.


The first reported miracle was curing a carpenter from bone cancer. Thomas Tharakan from Anchery in Ollur, a furniture polishing worker, was diagnosed with cancer by the Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute in Thrissur. Thomas was admitted to the hospital for one week. Later before the surgery, a scan by the doctor showed no sign of tumour, despite an earlier scan report showing clear evidence of a tumour. Thomas's sister, Rosy, later claimed that cure was the result of her prayer to Euphrasia.

The second reported miracle happened to a seven-year-old child named Jewel from Aloor in Thrissur District. The child had a tumour in his neck which made it difficult for him to swallow any food. Doctors at Dhanya Hospital in Potta, Thrissur District, had said that this disease was incurable. As Jewel's family came from a poor background, their only option was to pray for divine intercession. After his grandmother prayed to Euphrasia, doctors noticed that his tumour began to shrink. Dr Sasikumar of Dhanya Hospital examined him once again and found the tumour to have disappeared. Many other doctors examined the boy and stated that there was no medical basis for this event.

Stages of canonisation
Servant of God

On 27 September 1986 the process of canonisation began in Ollur. On 13 August 1987 Father Lucas Vithuvatikal was appointed as Postulator. He made the oath as Postulator in the presence of Mar Joseph Kundukulam, the Metropolitan Archbishop of Thrissur on 29 August 1987 and Euphrasia was declared a "Servant of God" on the same day.


Sister Perigrin was appointed as Vice-Postulator on 9 September 1987 and in 1988 a Diocesan Tribunal for the Cause of Euphrasia was established by Kundukulam, established an apostolic miracle on 8 January 1989. and concluded its work on 19 June 1991. On 30 January 1990 the tomb of Euphrasia was opened and her remains were transferred to a newly built tomb inside the chapel of St. Mary's Convent. Her case was submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of SaintsRome, on 20 April 1994, and on 5 July 2002 Pope John Paul II declared her "Venerable".


She was beatified on 3 December 2006 in St. Anthony's Forane Church, Ollur, with the declaration of the Major Archbishop, Varkey Vithayathil, on behalf of Pope Benedict XVIApostolic Nuncio to India Archbishop Pedro López Quintana and Archbishop Jacob Thoomkuzhy of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Archeparchy of Thrissur joined 30 prelates and 500 priests for the beatification events.


On 3 April 2014, Pope Francis authorised the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to promulgate the decrees concerning the miracle attributed to Euphrasia's intercession. This confirmed the Pope's approval of Euphrasia's canonisation. At a special Mass held at St Peter's Square at Vatican City on 23 November 2014, Pope Francis canonised Euphrasia as a saint. Mother Sancta, Mother General of Congregation of the Mother of Carmel (CMC), carried the relics of Euphrasia to the altar.
Dr. Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar

Reverend Dr Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar, a Dalit spiritual leader whose struggle and contributions have revolutionized the Church’s approach to religion, gender, caste and sexuality. Dr. Evangeline grew up in a family of 8 children raised single-handedly by her father following the early demise of her mother. Her father was a key influence in her life, planting the seeds of Dalit consciousness and Dalit spirituality in her young mind. He encouraged her to dream big and transcend the boundaries drawn by caste and gender. Walking the path of his lessons, young Evangeline, at 21, found herself the only girl in her divinity class. On the day of her interview, she was asked, “Why did you choose theological education as your option, when you know that the Church does not ordain women to be priests?” Evangeline’s answer challenged this logic of impossibility: “Perhaps, I will come back to teach in this College!”. And she did. Evangeline came back to teach in the same college where she gained that critical perspective. In 2006, when the United Evangelical Lutheran Church in India made an amendment to let women into their ministry, Evangeline became the first woman to hold office as the Vice President. Evangeline recalls the different painful glass ceilings that had to be shattered during that climb in life. She was told, “Evangeline, you may have secured the prestigious award for being the outstanding student of your theology class, but what will we, the male pastors do, if women opt for ministry and take away our jobs in the church? Women have enough work to do at home!” In her attempts to revolutionize the church’s relationship to gender, she asserts that the acceptance of body and sexuality is key to faith in God. Her fiery sermons ask why it is so difficult to find acceptance for effeminacy. She asks that we break free from the understanding of women’s bodies as polluting, leaking, bleeding and sexual. She says that the image of God as cis, male, and one who condones racism, sexism, classism, casteism and ethnocentrism has damaged not only the oppressed peoples’ self-esteem but has seriously curbed our communities’ larger possibility for liberation. Her ideas have stood tall and have shook the status quo of both church and caste patriarchal society. Today the Reverend Dr. Evangeline continues to be a theological juggernaut. She teaches at the Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary, Columbia, South Carolina and focuses on building a network of struggle and resistance between Dalits and other people of color.

Evangeline Anderson Rajkumar
From Wikipedia
Born 19 March 1963

Bengaluru, Karnataka
Master of Theology at Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary Arasaradi, Madurai;
Doctor of Theology from Serampore University;
Spouse(s) Samuel Rajkumar
Children Davina Rajkumar
Parent(s) Sheela Sujaya Kantha and John Anderson

Church Ordained in Arcot Lutheran Church
Ordained September 3, 2006

Offices held Professor of Theology and Ethics, Serampore College. Professor, Theology & Women's Studies* United Theological College, Bengaluru

Title Reverend Doctor

Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar is a feminist activist ecumenical theologian who taught at Serampore College, Serampore (1990-1994) the United Theological College, Bangalore, (1999-2014). Evangeline Anderson Rajkumar was the first permanent woman faculty to serve as faculty in the Theology Department of the renowned Serampore College, founded by William Carey when he came to India in 1792. She was the first Lutheran Woman to serve as first Vice President of the United Evangelical Lutheran Churches in India in 2006. She comes from a family of theologians - about 17 of them, her father, all eight siblings, and seven of the eight who married into the family. Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar served as the President of the Association of Theologically Trained Women of India (ATTWI) and is a sought after resource person on Body Theology.

Practicing Gender Justice as a Faith Mandate in India, Studies in World Christianity, triannual, Edinburgh University Press, April 2007, Volume 13, pp. 33–52, ISSN 1354-9901.

Dear God, Reveal Your Name!, The God of All Grace: Essays in Honour of O. V. Jathanna, Edited by Joseph George, Asian Trading Corporation, Bangalore, 2005. ISBN 81-7086-360-0, ISBN 978-81-7086-360-1

Engendering Leadership: A Christian feminist Perspective from India, in Responsible Leadership, Edited by Christoph Stückelberger and J.N.K. Mugambi pp. 168, Action Publishers, Nairobi, 2005.

Women’s Movements in Mission: Some lessons for the Church Today, Re-routing Mission: Towards A People’s Concept of Mission, Chraistava Sahitya Samithi, Tiruvalla, April 2004, pp. 39–60.

New Eyes, New Reading, New Woman…, Feminist Hermeneutics, Edited by Lalrinawmi Ralte and Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar, IWIT/ISPCK, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 102–114. ISBN 81-7214-710-4, ISBN 978-81-7214-710-5.

Mission from a Dalit Perspective, Mission Paradigm in the New Millennium, Edited by W. S. Milton Jeganathan, Indian Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, New Delhi, 2000, pp. 296–304.
Gender and Identity in Envisioning a New Heaven and a New Earth, Edited by Rini Ralte and others, Indian Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, New Delhi, 1999.

William Carey's Mission of Compassion and Justice, Carey's Obligation and India's Renaissance, Edited by J.T.K. Daniel and Roger E. Hedlund, Council of Serampore College, Serampore, First published 1993 and reprinted in 2005, pp. 323–333.

“Turning the Body inside out” in Dalit Theology of the 21st century. Ed. Sathianathan Clarke, Philip Peacock and Deenabandhu Manchala, Oxford Publications, Delh, 2010.

“The Violence of Silence: Reviewing the Church’s stance on the issue of Domestic Violence” in Asian Christian Review,

"Engaging the dis-ease of silence and passivity in church and society: New energy from rereading the Bible through a gender lens." In In love with the Bible and its ordinary readers: Hans de Wit and the intercultural Bible reading project, edited by Hans Snoek. Elkhart, IN: Institute of Mennonite Studies, 2015, pp.

“Womb: Is it inside or Outside? Reflections on the issue of Women renting their wombs” in The Yobel Spring. Vol 1 eds. Praveen PS Perumalla, et al., ACTC &ISPCK, Delhi, 2013, pp. 239–248.

Early days

Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar was born on 19 March 1963 in Bangalore. She is the third daughter in a family of eight siblings, (six sisters + two brothers) and all eight siblings completed their theological education and entered various forms of ministry. Acts 1: 8 "Be my Witnesses" is the under-girding Bible verse that motivates the whole family to witness to a loving and gracious triune God who sustained them in days of hardship and despair. Faith in God is therefore the richest resource that the family is endowed with, making the millionaires in faith to the rest of the world to state that God is a living and an ever present God, active in history, in everyone's lives. The neighborhood where Evangeline lived (The Jeremiah Road Neighborhood) is yet another large family comprising at least twenty families, belonging to all faiths: Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian, and those who were from different culture, caste, color and faith orientations. That this friendship and comradeship remains alive and vibrant even today after thirty – forty years speaks of the quality of relationship fostered in that neighborhood community. She went to Goodwill's Girls School and later joined Mount Carmel College,Bangalore where she obtained a BSc degree in the year 1983.

Studies in divinity

Evangeline Anderson-Rajkumar’s father stands as THE person who influenced her most, in her personal and faith formation. How do those parents who have faced difficult moments in their own lives, convert those experiences into faith and commit themselves to building a positive family, neighborhood,

In the year 1984, Anderson-Rajkumar joined the United Theological College, Bengaluru and enrolled herself for pursuing the degree of Bachelor of Divinity (BD). She later left for Sweden in the year 1987 and pursued a one-year programme of the Church of Sweden in Göteborg.

Research studies and lecturership


Anderson-Rajkumar later returned to India in 1988 and pursued the degree of Master of Theology M. Th. in the discipline of theology in the Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary, Madurai and completed it by 1990.


Serampore College, the constituent college of the Senate of Serampore College, Serampore, West Bengal invited her to be on its faculty. Accepting the offer, Anderson-Rajkumar left for Serampore in the year 1990 and taught Theology and Ethics. She later left for doctoral studies to Bengaluru in 1994.

Doctoral studies

Later, Anderson-Rajkumar enrolled as a doctoral candidate at the South Asia Theological Research Institute (SATHRI) in Bengaluru and earned the doctoral degree of Doctor of Theology (D. Th.) in the discipline of Feminist Theology.


The United Theological College, Bengaluru, Anderson-Rajkumar's alma mater invited Anderson-Rajkumar to join as a member of its faculty. Since then, Anderson-Rajkumar had been teaching theology to the students there.

Resource person

The Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Sisters of Loreto was founded by Mary Ward who have their Indian provincialate in Kolkata. They descended in India in the year 1842 and have their presence entirely in North India. Anderson-Rajkumar was invited in the years 2002 and 2003 to take up talks on re-reading the Bible.

Dharmararam Vidya Kshetram

Dharmaram Vidya Kshetram, Bengaluru is a pontifical atheneum with degree-granting authority validated by the Vatican. Anderson-Rajkumar also taught gender issues to the students there.

Federation of Asian Bishops Conference

In 2004, Anderson-Rajkumar delivered talks on Asian Feminist Christology at the Federation of Asian Bishop's Conferences in Bangkok, Thailand.

Anderson-Rajkumar on issues
on poverty

... poverty is the denial of opportunities and choices most basic to human development – to lead a long, healthy, creative life and to enjoy a decent standard of living, freedom, dignity,self-esteem and the respect of others.

Association of Theologically Trained Women of India

The Association of Theologically Trained Women of India (ATTWI), constituted in 1979 has a membership base of more than 500. Anderson-Rajkumar is a member of ATTWI and provided leadership to this ecumenical association from 2002 to 2006 as President of ATTWI.

Women's Institute for New Awakening

The Women's Institute for New Awakening (WINA) founded in 1982 in Karnataka.Anderson-Rajkumar has been serving as the Vice-President of WINA since the year 2000.

Indian Theological Association

Anderson-Rajkumar is a member of the Indian Theological Association (ITA) which meets every year. ITA was established in the year 1976 by Fr. Joseph Constantine Manalel. In the recent annual conference of the ITA held in Bengaluru on the theme Women's Concerns and Indian Theological Responses, a 34 recommendations were arrived upon.


Globethics.net, a network of institutions involved in applied ethics headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland was founded in 2004 by the ethicist Prof. Dr. Christoph Stückelberger. Anderson-Rajkumar was a board member of Globethics.net Association from 2004 to 2008. Since 2009, Globethics.net is a foundation with a new board.

Senate of Serampore College

The Senate of Serampore College (University) (India's first University with degree-granting authority) took note of Anderson-Rajkumar's activism and made her a member on its Academic Council in the year 2005. She earlier served as a member on the Board of Studies for Theology and Ethics under the Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore College (BTESSC), the regulatory body for theological education in India, from 2000 to 2003.

Anderson-Rajkumar is also the present Convenor of Board of Women's Studies of the BTESSC.

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Vice-President United Evangelical Lutheran Churches in India Succeeded by

Preceded by

Jessie Nesakumar President Association of Theologically Trained Women of India
2002–2006 Succeeded byNirmala Vasanthakumar
Francis Chullikatt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Styles of
Francis Chullikatt
Spoken style Your Excellency
Religious style Archbishop

Francis Assisi Chullikatt JCD (b 20 March 1953) is an Indian-born prelate of the Catholic Church. He has been the Apostolic Nuncio to Kazakhstan and Tajikistan since 30 April 2016. He was the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations from 17 July 2010 until 1 July 2014. He previously served as Apostolic Nuncio to Iraq and Jordan.

Early years

Chullikatt was born in 1953 in Bolghatty, KochiIndia. He was incardinated in the diocese of Verapoly where he was ordained a priest on 3 June 1978. He continued his studies and received a doctorate in canon law. He speaks English, Italian, French and Spanish. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See on 15 July 1988. He served in the papal representations in Honduras, in various countries of southern Africa, in the Philippines, at the United Nations in New York from 2000 to 2004, where he served as a Counsellor at the Holy See's Mission to the United Nations and, finally, in the Secretariat of State in the Vatican.

Nuncio to Iraq and Jordan

He was appointed as Apostolic Nuncio to Iraq and Jordan and Titular Archbishop of Ostra on 29 April 2006 by Pope Benedict, having served as the counsellor to the nunciature. He took Fidei in Virtute or "By the power of faith" as his episcopal motto.

In February 2010, Chullikatt said that Christians have often been targets, and especially the Christians of Mosul "have paid a high price, despite their unanimously recognized peaceful life." He continued saying "One has the impression that the reason to attack these minorities is strictly and only their religious faith or their different ethnic membership," the nunciature note continues. "Many Christians live in fear of staying in the territory which has seen them present for 2,000 years. The statement declares that "urgent help is needed: Especially necessary is that the pressure of world opinion not fall, so that all the violence and discrimination ends immediately." The statement suggests the future of minorities depends on international attention. "Moreover, it is hoped that the local authorities will not fail to attempt anything to guarantee the defenseless all the protection to which they are entitled, precisely in virtue of their Iraqi citizenship, which they have never betrayed," it continues. "Christians request that they be able to live their life in tranquility and profess their faith with total security, a basic condition of every civilization."

In March 2010 Chullikatt said that "any attempt to decrease the Christian presence or worse, to destroy the Christian presence in Iraq would mean destroying the history of the Iraqi nation." He noted that all the Christian churches and Christian leaders in the country are involved in interreligious dialogue and are in constant contact with Muslim leaders. Chullikatt said that international solidarity is crucial for the survival of Iraq's minorities, "especially the Christians who are most exposed to the kind of violence taking place now, particularly in Mosul."

In July 2011 in a speech in Kansas City on nuclear disarmament he said: "The simple truth about the use of nuclear weapons is that, being weapons of mass destruction, they cannot comply with fundamental rules of international humanitarian law forbidding the infliction of indiscriminate and disproportionate harm. Nor can their use meet the rigorous standards of the Just War principles' moral assessment of the use of force.... Viewed from a legal, political, security and most of all - moral - perspective, there is no justification for the continued maintenance of nuclear weapons."

Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations

Chullikatt was appointed as Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations by Pope Benedict XVI on 17 July 2010, the first non-Italian to hold the post. He was also named Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the Organization of American States.

In November 2012 Chullikatt welcomed the General Assembly vote which gave majority approval to Palestine becoming a Non-member Observer State of the United Nations. In January 2014 Chullikatt spoke before the United States House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights and International Organizations. In April Chullikatt praised the U.N.'s plan to eradicate poverty, emphasising the importance of the family in encouraging development and in fighting poverty. In eradicating poverty "we do not need to reinvent the wheel," Chullikatt said in a 31 March statement. "Setting a development agenda for the next 15 years is a powerful gesture of intergenerational solidarity. The future we want becomes, then, the future we want for our children and our children’s children.

On 1 July 2014 Chullikatt resigned from his post at the UN without receiving another assignment. He spent a semester as a fellow at Harvard Divinity School.

Later assignments

He was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Kazakhstan and Tajikistan in 30 April 2016. He was made Nuncio to Kyrgyzstan as well on 24 June 2016.
Felix Toppo
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Felix Toppo

See the source image
Archdiocese Ranchi
See Ranchi
Appointed 24 June 2018
Installed 6 August 2018
Predecessor Telesphore Toppo
Ordination 14 April 1982
Consecration 27 September 1997
Personal details
Birth name Felix Toppo
Born 21 November 1947 
Tongo, India
Previous post(s) Bishop of Jamshedpur (1997-2018)
Motto Adveniat regnum tuum

Felix Toppo S.J. (born 21 November 1947) is an Indian prelate of the Catholic Church who has been the Archbishop of Ranchi since 2018. He was Bishop of Jamshedpur from 1997 to 2018.

He is a member of India's indigenous tribal people, like his predecessor as Archbishop of Ranchi, Cardinal Telesphore Toppo. The two are not related


He was born on 21 November 1947 in Tongo, in the Diocese of Gumla in Jharkhand.

He joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1968. He was ordained a priest for the Society of Jesus on 14 April 1982. Within the Jesuits he has at times been director of pre-novices, novice master and superior.

He earned a master's degree in psychology from the Gregorian University, Rome, in 1990.

Pope John Paul II appointed him Bishop of Jamshedpur on 14 June 1997. He received his episcopal consecration from Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo on 27 September 1997. Toppo was the first tribal to head the Diocese.

He chaired the CBCI Office for Clergy and Religious and headed the National Vocation Service Centre in Pune for four years.

In 2016, in an essay he contributed to a volume on gender and justice, he wrote that the Church's patriarchal structure had immediate consequences for women: "In the Church men traditionally are given the authoritative and leadership positions and women, religious or lay, are assigned generally to subservient roles rather than to decision making positions."

On 24 June 2018 Pope Francis named him Archbishop of Ranchi. He was installed there on 6 August.[8] That same month, he confronted civil authorities, controlled by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, when they initiated investigations of Catholic NGOs accused of "proselytization activities through inducement". He said no specifics were provided and complained that "nothing of the sort happens with pro-Hindu organizations". He said the probes were designed to divide the Catholic and Hindu within the tribal population in advance of elections. In December he praised the government for protecting tribal land rights by denying the right to purchase tribal lands to the non-tribal husband of a tribal woman.

As of 2018, he chaired the governing body of the Society for Medical Education, North India, of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India (CBCI), which built a hospital to provide care for the tribal people and the poor. He was chairperson of the Regional Bishops' Council of Jharkhand and Andaman. He was also vice-chancellor of St. Albert's College, Ranchi, the region's major seminary. Within the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India, he was one of three members of the Commission for Vocations, Seminarians, Clergy and Religious
Francis Kallarakal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Francis Kallarakal
Archbishop Emeritus of Verapoly
The Most. Rev. Dr. Francis Kallarackal
Province Verapoly (Emeritus)
Diocese Verapoly (Emeritus)
Installed 11 April 2010
Term ended 18 December 2016
Ordination 29 June 1968
Consecration 4 October 1987
Personal details
Born October 10, 1941
Kottapuram, Trichur District.
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic

Styles of
Francis Kallarackal
Spoken style Your Excellency
Religious style Archbishop

Francis Kallarackal was the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Roman Catholic (Latin Rite) Archdiocese of Verapoly in India. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on 20 February 2010.

Born to Kallarackal Ouso and Brigitte of Kottapuram on 10 October 1941. He had his high school education from St. Albert's High School, Ernakulam and he joined the St. Joseph's Minor Seminary in 1956. After completing pre-degree course from St. Albert's College, Ernakulam, he joined St. Joseph's Pontifical Seminary, Carmelgiri, Alwaye, for pursuing studies in Philosophy. He completed his Masters in Theology from Propaganda College, Rome and was ordained as priest on 29 June 1968. He holds a Licentiate in Sacred Theology from Pontifical Urbaniana University, Rome and Post Graduation from Fairfiled University, USA. When he returned from abroad in 1970, he was appointed secretary to the then Archbishop Joseph Kelanthara.

From 1978 to 1986 he served as the social action director of the Archdiocese. He was then appointed the administrator of St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, which is established and managed by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India.

In 1987, as the Diocese of Kottapuram was created through the bifurcation of the Archdiocese of Verapoly, he became the first bishop of Kottapuram by the Apostolic Letter "Romani et Pontificis" dated 3 July 1987. With his episcopal consecration on the feast day of St. Francis Assisi, the Diocese of Kottapuram was inaugurated on 4 October 1987 As the Bishop of Kottapuram, he called for a Diocesan Synod, conducted in 2007-2008.

Archbishop Francis Kallarakkal is the Vice President of the Kerala Catholic Bishops Council and Kerala Regional Latin Catholic Council and Archbishop of Verapoly. He serves as vice-chairman of the Media Commission of the Kerala Catholic Bishops' Council, Chairman of the Carmelgiri Pontifical Seminary Episcopal Commission and KRLCC publication "Jeevanadam".

As the Metropolitan Archbishop of Verapoly the Kallarakal called a Diocesan Synod in Verpaoly, and a diocesan synod at Kottapuram while he was serving as the Bishop of Kottapuram. The Diocesan Synod in Verapoly proposed major reformas in the Archdiocese of Verapoly, giving the laity more participation in the Church.
Gabriel Lawrence Sengol
From Wikipedia
Gabriel Lawrence Sengol (18 September 1928 – 29 January 2012) was the Catholic bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli in India.


Ordained in 1955, Sengol was named Bishop on 30 December 1990 and resigned in 1997. He died in 2012, aged 83.

Most Rev. Sengole Lawrence Gabriel was born on 18 September 1928 at Madhakottai, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu. He did his schooling in Thanjavur and Seminary formation at Poonamallee, Chennai. He was ordained priest on 27 April 1955.

During his pastoral ministry Fr. Gabriel served as Asst. Parish Priest at Pudukottai (1955) and at Vailankanni (1955-1964); as Parish Priest at Alangudu (1964) and at Karunganni (1964-1967); as Rector of the St. Mary’s Minor Seminary, Thanjavur (1967-1982) and as Parish Priest at Vailankannni (1982-1990).

Fr. Gabriel contributed immensely to the phenomenal growth of the Shrine Basilica of Vailankanni both as Asst. Parish Priest and Parish Priest. He erected many buildings and bought a lot of land with the intention of developing Vailankanni just like Lourdes in France. In order to provide adequate safety to pilgrims, he reinforced the security personnel. It was at his time that, through the efforts of Bishop Sundaram and his own hard work, the Shrine of Our Lady of Health, Vailankanni was elevated to the status of Basilica by Pope John XXIII. He encouraged the pilgrimages from all corners of Tamil Nadu as well as from other parts of India.

In order to enhance the quality and extent of the accommodation of pilgrims, he undertook the construction of many houses/buildings/halls with other residential facilities, v.gr. a hospital for the sick pilgrims, a community hall and an open air auditorium, various cottages and lodges. He also established a new colony known as Antoniarpuram, and provided several quarters for the benefit of the staff.

Fr. Gabriel persuaded several Religious Congregations to establish their houses at the Shrine. While the Sisters of Immaculate Heart of Mary and the Sisters of St. Louis Gonzaga are catering to the spiritual needs of the pilgrims, the Missionaries of Charity (MC) take care of the abandoned children and the handicapped. The blessing of the extremely sick with the Blessed Sacrament on every First Saturday as in Lourdes has been a great consolation to the many sick pilgrims that come to the Shrine. He introduced the adoration of the Blessed Sacrament on every First Saturday, and the exposition of the Holy Eucharist every day all through the year. Besides, he was much interested in promoting Marian devotion through literature.

In the educational field, he not only built a school for the local boys and girls at Vailankanni but even got it upgraded to the status of a Higher Secondary School. Moreover, he set up schools in many sub-stations of the Parish of Vailankanni and built/renovated some Chapels, particularly where the Christians were less in number.

Press apostolate has always been his favorite option. Besides authoring and editing some books, he did encourage people to write for journals. He always advocated the belief that Catholic books sustain a high culture and nurture piety. He also promoted reading habits and for this purpose he founded Oli Nilaya and a Library in Thanjavur.

For 13 years he was editor of Vailankanni Kuraloli (Tamil monthly of the Shrine Basilica of Vailankanni) and also headed Vedanayakar Ezhuthalar Kazhakam (Tamil Writers’ Association). In fact, he initiated and encouraged the translation of the Papal Encyclicals.

He was National Secretary of the Pontifical Missionary Union for 15 years. In this capacity, he visited almost all the Dioceses of India from Kanyakumari to Kashmir. Wherever he went he spread the devotion to Our Lady of Health Vailankanni and introduced the English monthly ‘Vailankanni Calling’. He strengthened the Legion of Mary not only in the Diocese of Thanjavur but also in the whole of Tamil Nadu. He served as the Inspector of schools of the Diocese of Thanjavur for three years and as the Regional Secretary of TNBC for the Catechism.

On 6 October 1990 Fr. Gabriel was appointed Bishop of Tiruchirapalli and was ordained Bishop on 30 December 1990.

Simplicity, humility and kindness were the hallmarks of his personality. During his episcopal ministry, he visited the villages and constructed Chapels in many of them. He established at least 10 new parishes. He spared no efforts to make his Diocese financially self-reliant. He had a great devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, which he promoted wherever he went among priests and people. During his pastoral visits to parishes he catechized the faithful to deepen the faith of his flock.

In order to make Jesus Christ more and more known and loved, he encouraged the people to read the Word of God daily and he even supplied the Bible free of cost to all parishes and sub-stations. Very loyal to the Magisterium of the Church, Bishop Gabriel devoted himself tirelessly to the ministry of evangelization, catechesis and charismatic renewal. As a matter of fact, he was deeply convinced about the evangelization done through Kalai Kaviri School of Fine Arts. He gave many talks in All India Radio and his clearly articulated sermons were much appreciated by the people.

Despite all his wonderful achievements and exemplary pastoral leadership, Bishop Gabriel also had his share of suffering and crosses. But in all the adversities that he faced in his Diocese, he always trusted in the Providence of God and maternal protection of Blessed Virgin Mary. On 14 October 1997, he resigned as Bishop of Tiruchirapalli after serving the Diocese for seven years.

Thereafter, he retired to Vettaikaraniruppu, a remote rural village where he could spend his time in prayer and evangelizing the poor people. He helped the local parish priest in spiritual activities and went about preaching the Word of God all over Tamil Nadu.

The funeral service of Bishop Sengole Lawrence Gabriel held on 30 January 2012, at the St. Mary’s Cathedral, was largely attended by several Bishops, hundreds of priests, religious and lay faithful. The body was taken to his home Diocese of Thanjavur where it was buried as per his wish. May God of Mercies grant this zealous Pastor and faithful servant of the Church eternal bliss and heavenly reward!

You are kindly requested to offer one Holy Mass for the repose of the soul of Bishop Sengole Lawrence, late CBCI member.

Yours sincerely in Christ,


Fr. Thomas d’Aquino Sequeira Deputy Secretary General, CBCI
Gallela Prasad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

His Excellency

Gallela Prasad

Appointed 31 January 2008
Term ended 10 December 2018
Predecessor D. M. Prakasam
Ordination 1 March 1989
Consecration 1 March 2008

Personal details
Born 7 April 1962
Previous post Professor of Christian Doctrine, St. John's Regional Seminary, Kothavalasa

Gallela Prasad (born 7 April 1962) is an Indian prelate of the Catholic Church who served as the Bishop of the Cuddapah, Andhra Pradesh, from 2008 to 2018.

He is well versed in Latin as well as Telugu and English.


Prasad was born the fourth and youngest child in a family of teachers in Adoni in Andhra Pradesh. Smt. Mariamma and Sri Jojappa were his parents. He went to school in his hometown and later attended St. Pius Minor Seminary in Kurnool

He studied philosophy at St. John's Regional Seminary, Kondadaba, Visakhapatnam, and then theology at the St. John's Regional Seminary in Ramanthapur, Hyderabad.

On 1 March 1989, Prasad was ordained a priest of the Catholic Diocese of Kurnool by Bishop Matthew Cheriankunnel. After his ordination, Prasad served as a Youth Services Director of the diocese of Kurnool from 1989 to 1993 as well as a warden for St. Mary's Junior College, Kurnool. from 1989 to 1990.

From 1990 to 1995, he was a parish priest in Koilakunta. He also served as Spiritual Director of the Legion of Mary from 1993 to 1995.

From 1995 to 1999 Prasad studied in Rome at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas Angelicum where he earned a Doctorate of Sacred Theology degree. His thesis was entitled Christian Charity as Witnessed by Mother Teresa of Calcutta. On returning to India in 1999, he was Pastor in St. John's Church, Uppaladadiya till 2000. From 2000 to 2004 he served as a pastor in the Diocese of San Angelo, Texas, U.S.

In 2004, he was made Spiritual Director and Professor of Christian Doctrine in the St. John's Regional Seminary (Philosophate) in Kothavalasa, Visakhapatnam.

Pope Benedict XVI appointed Prasad Bishop of Cuddapah on 31 January 2008. He was consecrated on 1 March 2008 at the St. Mary's Old Cathedral Grounds, Mariapuram, Cuddapah, by Marampudi Joji, Archbishop of Hyderabad, with Kagithapu Mariadas, Archbishop of Visakhapatnam and the D. M. Prakasam, Bishop of Nellore as co-consecrators. Almost all the Catholic Bishops of the Andhra region took part in the consecration. Among the ecumenical invitees was K. B. Yesuvaraprasad, the Church of South India's Bishop of Rayalaseema. He chose as his episcopal motto Ego sum Pastor bonus or "I am the good shepherd".

In June 2018, two lay Catholics initiated a lawsuit against Gallela, charging that he misappropriated church funds to support his wife and 20-year-old son. Gallela denied the charges and the woman was his brother's widow, misidentified as his wife in certain deeds. Pope Francis accepted his resignation as bishop on 10 December 2018.

Guru Muni Narayana Prasad
Swami Muni Narayana Prasad is the Guru and Head of Narayana Gurukulam and is a disciple of Nataraja Guru. He has travelled widely teaching Indian Philosophy, reinterpreted and has restated by Narayana Guru.
He has authored about 90 books including commentaries on Kattha, Kena, Mundaka, Prasna, Taitariya, Aithareya and Chandogya Upanishads. Other major works of Guru Muni are “Commentary on Narayana Guru’s complete works” (English & Malayalam), “Karma and reincarnation” (English & Malayalam), “Vedanta Sutras of Narayana Guru”, “Life Pilgrimage through Gita” (English & Malayalam commentary on Bhagavat Gita) “Basic Lessons of India’s Wisdom”, “Garland of Visions” etc.
Hansa Yogendra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hansa Yogendra
Hansa Patni
8 October 1947

Nationality Indian
Education BSc.LLB
Alma mater Mithibai College
Occupation Yoga Guru, Author, Researcher & Director of The Yoga Institute
Organization The Yoga Institute
Known for Yoga
Television Yoga for Better Living on DD National (1980)
Yoga Sutra on Zee TV
Title President of The Yoga Institute
Term February 2018-
Predecessor Jayadeva Yogendra
Spouse(s) Jayadeva Yogendra
Family Shri Yogendra (father-in-law)

Dr. Hansa Yogendra (born 1947) is an Indian yoga guru, author and researcher and TV personality. She is director of The Yoga Institute in Mumbai, founded by her father-in-law Shri Yogendra. It is a government recognized non-profit organization and the oldest organized yoga center in the world, founded in 1918.

She was presenter of the television series Yoga for Better Living, aired on DD National in 1980s. She is the chair of the Yoga Certification Committee for Quality Council of India (QCI) and President of the International Board of Yoga. She is the Vice President of the Indian Yoga Association.

Early life

Born on 8 October 1947 to Jitendra Phulchand Patni and Tara Patni, in a Jain family, she completed her graduation in science from Mithibai College. Later, she completed her Yoga teacher training course at The Yoga Institute. She holds a degree in Law from the Government Law College, Mumbai. She received a PhD. from The Open International University for Complementary Medicines in February 2018.


In 1991, she and Jayadeva Yogendra advised the National Council of Educational Research and Training on a Yoga education syllabus for schools in India. She has conducted several seminars and lecture tours in India and in CanadaPakistanEuropeHong KongAustralia and USA.

Her book, Yoga For All (2018) was released by C. Vidyasagar Rao, the Governor of Maharashtra in January 2019. It took her 3 years to finish the book, based on a hundred years of research by The Yoga Institute.

Yoga Daily Planner - Heart Care, (1990) ISBN 978-8185053318
Yogic Life-Cure of Asthma and Bronchitis, (1992) ISBN 978-8185053325
Pregnancy, Parenthood and Yoga, (1991) ISBN 978-8185053257
Dincharya, (1997)
Yoga for Back and Joint disorders, (1997) ISBN 978-8185053363
Recipes For Happiness:Yogic lifestyle diet, (2002) ISBN 978-8185053561
Recipes for Happiness, (2001) ISBN 978-81-85053-56-1
Yogic Life-Control of Diabetes, (1992) ISBN 81-85053-33-2
Yoga of Caring, (1997) ISBN 978-8185053370
Thoughts on the Gita ISBN 9788185053493
Marriage A Spiritual Journey, (2010) ISBN 978-81-85053-80-6
Insights through Yoga, (2000) ISBN 978-8185053530
Swadhaya Practical Tips—For self-development, (2007) ISBN 978-81-85053-78-3
Yoga for the Police, (2011) ISBN 978-81-85053-82-0
Yoga for the Police - Tanmanachya Swasthya Sathi, (2011) ISBN 978-81-85053-82-0
Yoga of Caring, (2015) ISBN 978-93-84670-04-7
Inspiration, (2003)
Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, (2009) ISBN 978-81-85053-79-0
How to Reverse Heart Disease the Yogic Way-Research, Facts and Program, (2004) ISBN 978-8185053660
Values of Life, (2005) ISBN 978-81-85053-76-9
Growing with Yoga, (2008) ISBN 978-8185053448
Yoga for All: Discovering the True Essence of Yoga, (2018) ISBN 978-9353040857

Personal life

She married Jayadeva Yogendra in 1973. She is daughter-in-law of Shri Yogendra.

Awards & distinctions

1994 Vocational Excellence Award by Rotary Club of Bombay
Award for contribution to Women's Health from the Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres.
2011 Special Award by The International Association of Yoga Therapists for pioneering work in Yoga Therapy, Yoga education and research in 2011.
Yoga Tapaswini title at Pune International Yoga Week
Award of Excellence by Podar International School for her contribution to Yoga education.
2015 Special Award by Lions Clubs International
2015 Keynote speaker at International Conference on Yoga for Holistic Health at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi
2017 Rotary International Award for her contribution to spread the awareness of Yoga at Hotel Sahara Star, Mumbai
2018 Chief guest at Pune International Yoga Festival
2018 Vocational Excellence Award by Rotary Discon, Utsav
2018 PhD. from The Open International University for Complementary Medicines
2018 Divine Shakti Leadership Award at Parmarth Niketan, International Yoga Festival
2019 National Yoga Award 2019 from Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
Jegath Gaspar Raj
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rev.Fr.Jegath Gaspar Raj
Born 22 January 1966

Nationality Indian
Theological work

Jegath Gaspar Raj is a Chennai-based Catholic priest. He is the founder of the Tamil Maiyam organisation and co creator of the Chennai Sangamam festival. During 1995–2001 he served as the director of the Tamil service for Radio Veritas. He is also the organiser of the Idea-GiveLife Chennai International Marathon. He is also the founder of the Naller publications, a book publishing company. In 2009, during the final stages of Eelam War IV, he functioned as an intermediary between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and the Government of Tamil Nadu.

He also founded an organisation for business personalities of Tamil as a mother tongue. This is called (Confedaration of Tamil Agriculture, Commerce, Industry and Services - CTACIS) In Tamil THAMIZHAR THOZHIL VARTHGA VIVACYA PERUMANDRAM. All the members meet once in a week to discuss and improve their respective businesses.
John Mulagada
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Mulagada (12 December 1937 – 16 August 2009) was the Indian Roman Catholic bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of EluruIndia. Ordained to the priesthood on 4 January 1965, Pope Paul VI appointed Mulagada the first bishop of the newly created Eluru Diocese and he was ordained Bishop on 5 May 1977. Bishop Mulagada was the first Dalit to become bishop in India.
Joseph Kalathiparambil
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dr. Joseph Kalathiparambil
Province Verapoly
Diocese Verapoly
Latin: Archidioecesis Verapolitanus
Appointed 31 October 2016
Installed 18 December 2016
Predecessor Francis Kallarakal
Ordination 13 March 1978
by Archbishop Joseph Kelanthara
Consecration 19 May 2002
by Archbishop Daniel Acharuparambil
Personal details
Born 6 October 1952

Vaduthala, Kerala, India
Nationality Indian
Previous post(s)

Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calicut (2002-2011)
Motto "Super Omnia Caritas" ("Love is the greatest of all")

Styles of
Joseph Kalathiparambil

Ordination history of
Joseph Kalathiparambil

Joseph Kalathiparambil (born 6 October 1952) is the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Verapoly. He was formerly the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants. He also served as the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calicut for almost nine years.

Archbishop Kalathiparambil is fluent in speaking and writing Malayalam, English, Italian and Latin.


Bishop Joseph Kalathiparambil was born on 6 October 1952 in Vaduthala, a suburb of the city of Cochin in KeralaIndia. Bishop Joseph was ordained a priest on 13 March 1978 by Archbishop Joseph Kelanthara of the Verapoly Archdiocese. He is specialized in Canon Law from Rome and was appointed Vice Rector of Collegio San Paolo in Rome from 1984 to 1989. Later he moved back to Kerala and was appointed Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Verapoly on 15 August 1989. He served as the Chancellor for the Archdiocese from 1989 to 1996.

He was granted the title of Chaplain of His Holiness, Monsignor, in 1989 by Pope John Paul II. On 6 November 1996, he was made the Vicar General of Archdiocese of Verapoly. He was advanced to the papal Prelacy of Honour on 31 January 2001. He served as the Vicar-General of the Archdiocese from 1996 to 2002. He was nominated Bishop of Calicut on 19 April 2002 and was consecrated on 19 May 2002.

He served as the Bishop of Calicut for almost 9 years and was then appointed by Pope Benedict XVI as the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants on 22 February 2011. On 5 March, he was also appointed as a Member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples.

Dr. Joseph Kalathiparambil was appointed as the Archbishop of Verapoly by Pope Francis on 31 October 2016. His formal installation as Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Verapoly took place on 18 December 2016. Cardinal George Alencherry, Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church, and Cardinal Baselios Cleemis, Major Archbishop of Trivandrum were a part of the installation ceremony.

Episcopal motto

The motto of the Bishop's Coat of Arms is "Love is the greatest of all" ("Super Omnia Caritas") (I Cor. 13: 13).

Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants

On 22 February 2011, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Bishop Joseph Kalathiparambil the Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants. After serving as the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calicut for almost 9 years, Bishop Joseph returned to Rome to take up his new appointment. He worked under Pope Benedict XVI for two years until Benedict's resignation as pope. He continued to serve under Benedict's successor, Pope Francis. He has served mass with Pope Francis.

Visit to the Port of Tilbury, London

On 28 September 2011, a day before World Maritime Day, Bishop Joseph Kalathiparambil visited the Port of Tilbury, the principal Port for London. The main purpose of this visit was to oversee the work of the Catholic Maritime Agency, Apostleship of the Sea. Bishop Joseph also attended the launch of the Maritime Piracy – Humanitarian Response Programme in London. This was one of his first official overseas visits as Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants.

Mass on cruise ships

On 21 March 2015, Bishop Joseph Kalathiparambil celebrated mass on board the cruise ship Costa Fascinosa after five passengers from the vessel were killed in the Bardo National Museum attack. On 16 October 2015, he celebrated mass for the crew of MV Britannia when it docked in Civitavecchia, and on 17 May 2016, for the crew of MV Oceana.
Joseph Chennoth
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mar Joseph Chennoth
Ordination 4 May 1969
Consecration 30 October 1999
Personal details
Born 13 October 1943
Died 8 September 2020 (aged 76)
Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan

Joseph Chennoth (13 October 1943 – 8 September 2020) was a Syro Malabar Catholic prelate who worked in the diplomatic service of the Holy See. He was an archbishop and an apostolic nuncio since 1999.

He was ordained a priest on 4 May 1969 by Bishop Paul Ch’eng Shih-kuang of Tainan, Taiwan.

He prepared for a diplomatic career by completing the course of study at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in 1973.

Pope John Paul II named him titular archbishop of Milevum and Apostolic Nuncio to the Central African Republic and Chad on 24 August 1999. He received his episcopal consecration on 30 October from Cardinal Angelo Sodano.

Pope Benedict XVI named him Apostolic Nuncio to Tanzania and on 15 June 2005.

Benedict appointed him Apostolic Nuncio to Japan on 15 August 2011.

In 2018, he gave a supportive message to the March for Life in Tokyo.

He died in Tokyo on 8 September 2020.
Jerry Rosario
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jerry Rosario
Born 2 October 1952 
Occupation Catholic Priestwriter
Notable works Dhaanam, All the Best, Whisper With Fire, Gaining Momentum

Jerry Rosario (Tamil: ஜெரி ரொசாரியோ; born 2 October 1952) is an Indian Jesuit priest (from the Tamil Nadu area), a theologian, a pastor, spiritual counselor, a writer, a social activist, a motivator, a civil lawyer, a retreat- facilitator. And also, founder-director of four movements (DHAANAM for human donations, JEPASA for socio-pastoral animation, IGFA for Ignatian spirituality, and MANITHAM for political analysis and action)

He has completed a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Rural Development Science, an MA in Political Science, Bachelor of Laws (LLB) in Bangalore, PhD in Political Philosophy with Theology. He is a faculty-member of the Dhyana Ashram, Chennai.

Socio-Pastoral Activities

Rosario has done 23 years of insertional and involved services among the dalits, rural and slum poor. He has a doctorate in political theology. Other studies and searches have made him a pastor, professor, motivator, spiritual counselor, social analyst, writer and retreat facilitator. He is also a civil lawyer.

He is well known to many as "barefoot priest," because he has given up wearing footwear in solidarity with those dalits and poorest who are deprived the right to wear it by caste-ridden traditions. He is a visiting professor in 42 institutions and has lectured in 38 countries so far.


Fr. Jerry Rosario has a doctorate in Periyarism. The philosophy of Thanthai E.V.Ramaswamy Periyar, who undertook a political analysis of HinduismBuddhism, Islam and Christianity, and had birthed a "Self-respect movement" in Tamil Nadu and in other parts of South India. '


Books authored by Fr. Jerry Rosario have been published through Vaigarai Publications and other publishing houses. Dr. Jerry has so far authored 88 books, of which 26 books are in English and 62 are in Tamil. Seventeen of his books have become textbooks for Students of various autonomous colleges and universities. To date, nine students have completed their M.Phil researches based on Dr.Jerry’s thoughts and defended their theses in various secular universities. Three have gone ahead with doctorate research on Dr. Jerry's books. Of them, Dr. Sr. Selestin Mary, CTC, had completed and published her Ph.D. research on "The Societal Analysis of Contemporary World highlighted in the forty-five Tamil books of Dr.Jerry ".

Dr. Jerry is also Founder of movements which are JEPASA (Jesuit Pastors of South Asia), for socio-pastoral animation; DHANAM, for human organ donations; MANITHAM, for political analysis and action; and IGFA (Ignatian Family), for cosmic Ignatian spirituality.

He has donated his O-Rh Negative Blood 207 times as of March 2021. He ranks first among the highest number of blood donors in India. He has also signed relevant documents, civilly known as the 'Living Will', expressing his will to donate his vital organs and body after his death to the needy and also for medical research. He incidentally authored a book named Dhaanam in Tamil. This book explains different type of human donations, i.e., blood donationeye donationstem cell donation, bone and tissue donation, body donation, organ donation. Its English version is titled A Present for the Future. A website, http://www.dhanam.org/, by the Dhaanam movement dedicated to the promotion of human donations has been operated from 2016.
Kirthi Jayakumar
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kirthi Jayakumar
Self-portrait photograph
Kirthi Jayakumar
15 December 1987

Bangalore, India
Nationality Indian
Occupation Peace and gender equality activist, author and artist

Kirthi Jayakumar (born 15 December 1987) is a peace educator, a women, peace, and security practitioner, lawyer and writer.[1] She is a Commonwealth Scholar, a Vital Voices (VV) Lead Fellow, a VV Engage Fellow, a Local Pathways Fellow, and a World Pulse Impact Leader. Kirthi is also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.

She also founded The Gender Security Project, an initiative working at the cross section of gender, peace, security, feminist foreign policy, and transitional justice through research, reportage, and documentation. Previously, she founded The Red Elephant Foundation, an initiative built on storytelling, civilian peace-building and activism for gender equality.


Kirthi was born as Kirthi Jayakumar in Bangalore, India, to Hindu parents. She studied law at the School of Excellence in Law, ChennaiTamil Nadu.

She earned her MA in sustainable peace in a contemporary world from UPeaceCosta Rica,[4] and an MA in peace and conflict studies from the Centre for Trust, Peace, and Security at Coventry University, on a Commonwealth Scholarship. She has worked as a UN online volunteer.

Gender-based violence advocacy and peace activism

Kirthi is an activist on women's rights issues and peace and conflict. She runs The Red Elephant Foundation. She has worked in voluntary capacities with "16 civil societies and UN agencies" through the UN Online Volunteering program. She is a columnist for the Deccan Chronicle/Asian Age.

Kirthi is a Global Youth Ambassador with A World at School run by Sarah Brown.

Kirthi coded and created Saahas, a mobile app that supports survivors of gender-based violence world over to find support, and that facilitates active bystander intervention. Saahas was listed on the Global Innovation Exchange. The app received recognition from DEF India under the SM4E Awards. For her work with Saahas, Kirthi was listed on the shortlist for the WATC 100 Women in Tech List. Saahas supports access to information and helplines through a mobile app, Facebook Chatbot, and Telegram Chatbot.

In 2013, Kirthi founded her own initiative, The Red Elephant Foundation. She produced two e-Books on entrepreneurship in Africa with the AAE and headed a team that worked for the opening of the first ever school in Okoijorogu, Nigeria, a village that had never had a school for its children until 2013.


Kirthi is an artist, working on pen and ink to curate "Zen doodles." She uses doodling as a means to express her activism for gender equality and peace education.

She runs an Instagram based project called Femcyclopaedia where she doodles portraits of inspiring women through the ages and from across the world and curates their stories under these portraits. The story of Femcyclopaedia won a Story Award from World Pulse in February 2017.

Kirthi curated an exhibit for International Women's Day and Women's History Month at the US Consulate General in Chennai as part of Femcyclopaedia.


Stories of Hope is Kirthi's first solo book, comprising a collection of short stories. She co-authored a book titled Love Me Mama: The Unfavoured Child, along with Elsie Ijorogu-Reed, the founder of Delta Women NGO. She is also the author of The Dove's Lament, published by Readomania. The book was nominated for the Muse India Young Author's Award in 2015. A review by Femina of The Dove's Lament suggests that, "Kirthi embroiders a tapestry of unvanquished human spirit in words."

The Times of India reviewed The Dove's Lament, with its critic opining that "...The Dove's Lament takes the reader to several such places with a compassion that shakes you to your very core."


Kirthi wrote a play, Frankly Speaking, which, essentially starts off from where The Diary of Anne Frank ends. The play channels the voices of eight young women from conflict zones in different parts of the world, and is interspersed with passages from The Diary of Anne Frank.

She also wrote and acted in HerStory, which brings twelve women from history alive through poetry, performed through contemporary dance in sync with spoken word poetry. Kirthi wrote a monologue and performed it as part of Dolls, by Crea-Shakthi.

Kirthi also lent her voice to the audiobook version of "Like A Girl" by Aparna Jain, where she narrated the stories of Justice Leila SethMayawatiJayalalithaaDipa Karmakar, Shah Bano Begum, Tessy Thomas, and Gauri Sawant.

Public speaking

In October 2016, Kirthi delivered a TEDx Talk at TEDxChennai, addressing her work around peace education as a solution to end bullying. In November 2017, she delivered a TEDx Talk at TEDxChoice, addressing her art project, Femcyclopaedia.

In November 2016, she delivered a talk at the National Edu-Start Up Conference in Pune, talking about Peace Education as a sustainable solution to create well rounded citizens.

Kirthi was a speaker at Lakshya-SSN's annual event, SYCON, speaking about her work with The Red Elephant Foundation and the curation of the GBV Help Map. She was the keynote speaker at SRM Aarambh, speaking about her story as a social entrepreneur in the Gender Equality space.

In April 2017, Kirthi addressed the Rotary Club of Madras South on the topic "Women's Empowerment: Myths and Realities." She spoke at the Economic Times Women's Summit in March 2018, on her work with her app, Saahas.

Kirthi was a speaker at ISFiT 2019 alongside Tawakkol Karman and Gro Harlem Brundtland, addressing women and peacebuilding. In March 2021, Kirthi spoke at a special session convened by the President of the UN General Assembly on Political Leadership and Violence Against Women and Girls: Prevention First (23 March 2021).

Awards and recognition

Kirthi is the recipient of the United States Presidential Service Award from US Consul General Jennifer McIntyre. She won the Gold, Silver and Bronze awards. She received two United Nations Online Volunteering Awards, in 2012 and 2013, for her work with Delta Women and the Association for African Entrepreneurs.

In 2015, Kirthi was nominated for the Digital Women Awards 2015, presented by She The People TV.

In March 2016, she was one of the EU top 200 Women in the World of Development Wall of Fame. She was also one of the nominated changemakers for the United State of Women 2016. She is a two-time story award winner with World Pulse, and her work has been picked up and published by Time Magazine.

Kirthi has been acknowledged by India Today as one of the "Game changers" in the city of Chennai, "who are transforming the city with inspiring thought and hard work."

She was the youngest speaker to address a gathering at FICCI FLO, Chennai.

In September 2016, Kirthi was a shortlistee for the Rising Stars Award 2016 by We are the City India, which she went onto win. In October 2016, she was recognized as one of the "52 Feminists" by 52Feminists.com.

In October 2016, Kirthi was recognized as a Burgundy Achiever at the Digital Women Awards 2016, presented by She The People TV. She received the Peace Award from the Global Peace Initiative in November 2016. She was selected as an Impact Leader at World Pulse in November 2016. She won the Orange Flower Award for Video Blogging, awarded by Women's Web. Kirthi was featured in Sarah Brown's Better Angels Podcast alongside UN Secretary General Antonio GuterresHarriet Lamb, and Jakaya Kikwete.

Kirthi was featured on Google's WomenWill Landing page on International Women's Day, 2017, as part of a five-women-stories feature by World Pulse. She was declared as one of "eleven of India's feminist bloggers who are making a difference to women's lives" by Women's Web. She was featured on Show of Force: Social Good. She was awarded Outstanding Social Entrepreneur (NGO) of the Year, by FICCI FLO Chennai (2018) Kirthi received the Heroes of Chennai Award in the Social Good category in November 2018. She also served as a member of the youth council as part of the Global Business Coalition for Education (GBC-Education). She was nominated for the Better India's COVID Soldiers award in September 2020 and the We are the City TechWomen100 Awards for Global Achievement. She was also listed as one of the 100 Most Influential People in Gender Policy in 2021 by Apolitical.

List of awards received
US Presidential Services Medal (Gold, Silver and Bronze) 2011–2012
UN Online Volunteer of the Year Award (Delta Women) 2012
UN Online Volunteer of the Year Award (Association of African Entrepreneurs) 2012
UN Online Volunteer of the Year Award (Delta Women) 2013
UN Online Volunteer of the Year Award (Association of African Entrepreneurs) 2013
Finalist, Muse India Young Author's Award in 2015.
Rising Stars of India Award (We Are The City India) 2016
The Peace Award (Global Peace Initiative) 2016
Orange Flower Award for Video Blogging, Orange Flower Awards, (Women's Web), 2016
Local Pathways Fellow (UN SDSN), 2017
Social Entrepreneur of the Year, 2017 (Brew Magazine)
Young Achiever (Entrepreneurship) MOP Yuva Samman (2017–2018)
Outstanding Social Entrepreneur (NGO) of the Year, FICCI FLO Chennai (2018)
Nominee, True Honour Awards, 2018
Outstanding Woman Achiever Award 2018, FICCI FLO, Jaipur (2018)
Vital Voices VV Engage Fellow (2018)
Heroes of Chennai – Social Good (Rising) (2018)
HerStory Woman on a Mission Award (March 2019)
Web Wonder Woman (Ministry of Women and Child Development, Twitter India and Breakthrough India) (March 2019)
CII-IWN Award for Unsung Heroes, March 2019
Best Feminist Voice, The Lifestyle Journal Awards, August 2019
The TIAW World of a Difference Award, October 2020
The World Pulse Spirit Award (Champion), February 2021
Kuriakose Elias Chavara
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kuriakose Elias Chavara
St Kuriakose Elias Chavara of Holy Family
Founding member of CMI and founder of CMC Congregations
Born 10 February 1805
Died 3 January 1871 (aged 65)
KoonammavuKingdom of CochinBritish Raj (now in Ernakulam, Kerala, India)
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 8 February 1986, Kottayam by Pope John Paul II
Canonized 23 November 2014, Rome by Pope Francis
Feast 18 February (Roman Latin Catholic Church) 3 January (Syro-Malabar Church)
Attributes Catholic saint, founder and social reformer
Patronage Press industry, media, literature, congregations
Influences Palackal Thoma

St. Joseph's Church Mannanam. The tomb of Chavara and Mother House of CMI Congregation are here
Home of Kuriakose Elias Chavara at Kainakary
Relics of Kuriakose Elias Chavara at Mannanam
Marth Mariam and Infant Jesus, accompanied by John the Baptist from Peshitta. Painting of Ravi Varma found at Mannanam.
Part of a series on



Kuriakose Elias Chavara, C.M.I. (10 February 1805 – 3 January 1871) was an Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic priest, philosopher and social reformer. He is the first canonised Catholic male saint of Indian origin and belongs to the Syro-Malabar Church, an Eastern Catholic Church based in the state of Kerala. He was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregation for men in the Syro-Malabar Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (C.M.I.), and of a similar one for women, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel (C.M.C.). He is a pioneer in many fields.

Early life

Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born on 10 February 1805 at KainakaryKerala in a Nasrani Christian family as the son of Iko (Kuriakose) Chavara and Mariam Thoppil. Nasranis are Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syriac Christians) who are the ancient Christians of Kerala baptised by Thomas the Apostle in the first century. The name Kuriakose is derived from the Syriac Aramaic name ܩܘܪܝܩܘܣ (Quriaqos). He was baptised on 17 February 1805 at St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, Chennamkary. On 8 September 1805, Chavara was dedicated to Blessed Virgin Mary at St. Mary's Church, Vechoor. The Chavara family has derived from the ancient Nasrani family Meenappally in Kainakary.

In his childhood, Kuriakose attended the village school. There he studied language and elementary sciences. He entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram where Palackal Thoma Malpan was the Rector. He was ordained a priest on 29 November 1829 and celebrated first Holy Qurbana at St. Andrew's Catholic Forane Church Arthunkal Alappuzha. His special intention during the first Holy Qurabana was the realization of the religious institute which was being contemplated by Palackal Thomas Malpan, Porukara Thomas Kathanar, Brother Jacob Kaniathara and himself.

Later life

Kuriakose Elias Chavara joined with two other priests, Palackal Thoma Malpan and Porukara Thoma Kathanar to lead a monastic life. The name of the community they founded was Servants of Mary Immaculate. The foundation for the first monastery at Mannanam was laid on 11 May 1831 by Porukara Thomas Kathanar. Palackal Malpan and Porukara Kathanar died in 1841 and 1846 respectively. On 8 December 1855, Kuriakose Elias Chavara and ten other priests took vows in the Carmelite tradition. He was nominated as the Prior General of Mannanam monastery. The congregation became affiliated as a Third Order institute of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. From that point on they used the postnominal initials of T.O.C.D.

Social reformer

Kuriakose Elias Chavara initiated reforms in the Kerala society much before Narayana Guru(1853) Chattambi Swamikal(1853) and Vakkom Abdul Khadar Maulavi(1854). Though he hailed from a Syriac Christian family, which occupied a higher social status, he played a major role in educating and uplifting people especially of the lower ranks of society.


Kuriakose Chavara started an institution for Sanskrit studies at Mannanam in 1846.[citation needed] A tutor belonging to the Variar community was brought from Thrissur, to teach at this Sanskrit institution. After establishing the Sanskrit institution in Mannanam, Chavara took the initiative to start a school in a nearby village called Arpookara. On this Parappurath Varkey wrote in the Chronicles of the Mannanam monastery: “While the work on the Mannanam School began, a place on the Arpookara Thuruthumali hill was located to build a Chapel and school for the converts from the Pulaya caste." Chavara was the first Indian who not only dared to admit the untouchables to schools but also provided them with Sanskrit education which was forbidden to the lower castes, thereby challenging social bans based on caste, as early as the former part of the 19th century.

It was during this time Bishop Bernadine Baccinelly issued a circular in 1856 which would act as the root cause of tremendous growth of education and hundred percent literacy in Kerala. Kuriakose Chavara was the motivator for such a movement and he successfully convinced Bishop Bernadine to issue a circular, apparently as an order. It was a warning circular which stated, “each parish should establish educational institutions, or else they will be debarred from the communion”.The schools in Kerala are commonly called Pallikudams (school attached to Church (Palli)) because of this circular. Kuriakose Chavara took great interest in implementing the circular. He delegated the members of his Congregation to ensure the implementation of the order in the circular and to actively take up educational activities. Each monastery was to oversee these activities of the parish churches in its neighbourhood.

Midday Meal

Kuriakose Chavara knew that the schools he started in Mannanam and Arpookara would be successful if the poor students especially dalits were given midday meals. It was his original idea. It inspired Sir C P Ramaswamy Iyer to recommend this to King for being implemented in all government run schools. This practice is continued even today in queens government schools in India.


Kuriakose Chavara started a charity practice known as Pidiyari (a handful of rice) to encourage people to make daily small donations to help the needy. The Pidyari scheme supported the Midday meal Kuriakose Chavara popularized in schools The Pidiyari scheme was implemented in the following way: Participants would daily set aside a small quantity of rice in a special collection pot. The rice collected would be brought to Church during the weekends and was used to feed the poor, especially students for midday meal. A pious organization was formed by Kuriakose Chavara called “Unnimishihayude Dharma Sabha” who took care of the Pidiyaricollection.

Printing Press

Kuriakose Chavara started St. Joseph's Press at Mannanamin 1846, which was the third printing press in Kerala and the first press founded by a Malayali without the help of foreigners. From this printing press came the oldest existing Malayalam newspaper in circulation Nasrani Deepika.

Service to the Church

Kuriakose Elias Chavara introduced retreat preaching for the laity for the first time in the Kerala Church. He popularised devotions and piety exercises such as rosary, way of the cross and eucharistic adoration. He was the Vicar General of Syriac Rite Catholics in 1861 in order to counter the influence of Mar Thomas Rochos on Saint Thomas Christians.

Congregations Founded
CMI Congregation

In co-operation with Palackal Thoma Malpan and Thoma Porukara, Kuriakose Elias Chavara founded an Indian religious congregation for men, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate. Chavara took religious vows on 8 December 1855 and took the name of Kuriakose Elias of the Holy Family.

Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the Prior General of all the monasteries of the congregation from 1856 till his death in 1871.He was commonly called under the name 'Common Prior'. The activities of the members of CMI congregation under the leadership of Chavara created huge transformation in the society. This made priests and people to request Chavara to open religious houses in their area. He established seven new monasteries besides Mannanam. They are Koonammavu-1857, Elthuruth-(St. Aloysius College, Thrissur)1858, Plasnal-1858, Vazhakulam-1859, Pulincunnu-1861, Ambazhakad-1868, and Mutholy-1870. In 1864, The Vicar Apostolic transferred St.Chavara to Koonammavu Monastery.

Carmelite Congregation for Women

In 1866, 13 February, Kuriakose Elias Chavara founded the first Carmelite convent for women at Koonamavu under the name 'Third Order of Carmelites Discalced' which would later become CMC and CTC Congregation in Syro Malabar Church and Latin Church respectively. While CMC congregation acknowledges and upholds the role of Kuriakose Chavara in their foundation, CTC congregation denies any role for him and considers Mother Eliswa as the foundress.

Kuriakose Chavara hoped and prayed for the establishment of a religious congregation for women in the apostolic Church of St. Thomas. According to Kuriakose Chavara the lack of convents was a 'pathetic situation,' which led to deep sorrow within him. He conceived the convent as a house of sanctity where the girls could learn spiritual matters, grow up as good Christians and work for the intellectual development and education of women to achieve social welfare.

Leopold Beccaro – who was a close associate and confessor of Kuriakose Chavara – with whom Eliswa had communicated her desire to lead a life of chastity, during her meetings with him for confession and spiritual direction, wrote in Italian in his personal diary on 3 January 1871, the day of the death of Chavara: “The founder and the first prior of the Tertiaries of the Discalced Carmelites in Malabar, who with extreme fatigue has founded the monastery of the sisters [e fondato con somme fatiche il monastero delle Monache]...” Again, in another important document, a short biography of Chavara written by Beccaro himself, we come across the following affirmative statements: “Among these, specially, [he] earnestly desired to bring into existence an abode of virtues for the girls of Malayalam and a convent of sisters for learning doctrines and traditions of the Catholic religion as well as to make them grow as good Christian children... It is a fact known to all that even after the starting of the convent, he showed great fervour and interest to conduct everything in order and with virtues...” These two statements made by Beccaro give credence to the fact that Chavara had not only a deep and long-lasting desire to establish a convent for sisters, but had also made every effort, including the spiritual and administrative guidance in the realization of the project.


All the literary works of Kuriakose Chavara were written between 1829 and 1870. The literary writings of Kuriakose Chavara are unique in two aspects. First, it reflects the religious spiritualism of Christianity. Second, even after a century after the Kuriakose Chavara wrote, there are limited number of literary works with reference to Christianity.

The writings of Kuriakose Elias Chavara can be divided generally into following categories during the namely:

Chronics and historical writings

Spiritual writings
Prayer Texts
Writings on Liturgy
Writings related to administration

Chronicles and historical writings

The Chronicles (Nalagamangal) narrates the daily events not only of the monastery but also of the society. These writings were originally found in Malayalam, in Kuriakose Chavara's own handwriting. There are two manuscripts under the title 'Mannanam Nalagamangal.' Together with the events of the CMI Congregation the chronicles depict events associated with the Society and Kerala Church of that time. The book 'Complete Works of Chavara', Vol. 1 published in 1990 contains five Chronicles.

Spiritual writings

Atmanuthapam (The lamentations of a Repentant Soul)

It is an autobiographical poem written in epic style – Mahakavyam (Mahakavya). The poem gives life to life of Jesus from birth to ascension into heaven and life of Mary from ascension of Jesus to assumption of Mary into heaven. The uniqueness of the poem is that Kuriakose Chavara brings his own life experiences from childhood.

According to Dr. K.M.Tharakan Atmanuthapam reflects Kuriakose Chavara's philosophy of life which in turn exemplifies a Christian religious life. Dr. Tharakan states, "...Humility, which is not self-contempt, and repentance are the foundation stones of the philosophy of his life. Thus the first step is faith in God. The second is the belief that one can reach God through Jesus Christ. The third is the conviction that without repenting and accepting Jesus, one cannot reach Christ... what a Christian obtains is the awareness of the noble qualities. These qualities are 'faith', 'hope' and 'love'. Only through these triple qualities, a Christian can attain Christ." 

Maranaveetil Cholvanulla Parvam (A poem to be sung in the bereaved house)

It is intended to be sung when the corpus is placed in the coffin for public homage. The poem contains 1162 verses. The underlying message is that one should lead a virtuous and God-fearing life in order overcome the painful experience of death. The articles of faith related to the death of a man are enumerated and beautifully illustrated with stories or incidents, the poet heard or read.

Nalla Appante Chavarul (Testament of a Loving Father)

It is the counsel to the Christian Families of Kainakari parish but its relevance to the families resonates till date. This insightful and down-to-earth document is the first of its kind in the known history of the Church, offers practical direction to families in leading a God-fearing as well as socially commendable life.

Anastasiayude Rakthasakshyam (The martyrdom of Anastacia)

It contains 232 verses.
Dhyana Sallapangal (Colloquies in meditation)

Dhyana Sallapangal consists of the reflective meditative notes of Kuriakose Chavara.

Eclogues (Shepherd Plays)

They were the first dramatic plays in Malayalam in the pastoral (shepherd) genre or Eclogues of Italy. They were plays written for being performed during the Christmas season. Kuriakose Chavara wrote it between 1856 – 1858. He wrote 10 Eclogues (Shepherd Plays) and introduced them in the novitiate at Koonammavu Seminary.

The first Indian drama is Neeldarpan, published in 1860 and is written in Bengali by Dinabandhu Mitra on the miseries of the indigo cultivators. The first Malayalam play is considered Abhinjana Shakuntalam, translated into Malayalam by Kerala Verma Valiakovil Thampuran in 1882. Kuriakose Chavara wrote the 10 eclogues or liturgical dramas decades before. He could be considered the father of Malayalam drama.


These letters were written on different occasions to various persons or groups. There are 67 original copies of these letters. These letters are published in 'Complete Works of Chavara' Vol.IV. The chronicle in Koonammavu records three letters written to them by Kuriakose Elias Chavara. Even though the Chronicle states many letters and notes were written by Chavara, only three are recorded.

Prayer texts

Even though Kuriakose Chavara wrote many prayer texts only six of them have been preserved. They are: i) Meditation: method of beginning – Meditation: method of beginning is an intercessory prayer to mother Mary seeking help to be with him during the meditation. ii) Prayer to the Blessed virgin Mary. Thanksgiving prayer to the blessings that received from mother Mary. iii) Morning Prayer to Most Holy Trinity – Thanksgiving prayer for the favours received. iv) Evening prayer to Most Holy Trinity – Thanksgiving prayer for the favours received. v) Prayer for custody of eyes – Prayers to be recited by priests to remain rooted in their fidelity to Jesus Christ. vi) Prayer to be recited by priests – Prayers to be recited by priests to remain rooted in their fidelity to Jesus Christ.

Writings on Liturgy

Kuriakose Chavara wrote a number of liturgical texts that played an important role in reforming liturgy. They include the Divine office for priests, Divine office for the dead, office of the Blessed virgin Mary, prayers of various blessings, the order of Holy mass – Tukasa, liturgical calendar, forty hours adoration and prayer books for lay man.

Writings related to administration

In this category there are 16 writings that has been preserved. Some of these are written on palm leaves and others on paper. It deals with matters pertaining to administrative matters pertaining to the time of Chavara.

Prior Mango

Prior Mango (പ്രിയോർ മാങ്ങ) is a variety of mango which Kuriakose Chavara popularised. It is named after him who was endearingly called “Prior” based on his position as the Prior or head of the religious congregation. At Mannanam monastery there was a mango tree which was planted and taken care of by Kuriakose Chavara. He sent the mango seedlings to monasteries and convents and told the members: Please plant the sapling of this sweet mango, which I name it as ‘Dukran’(Orma = memory) in each of our monastery. "This is to make you realize that myself and all men are weak and faltering and don’t have long life even as these mango trees which give sweet fruits." In a letter he wrote : " This Mango-tree (1870) and its seedlings leave a loving patrimonial memory for us" It is because of the association of Carmelite Prior Kuriakose Chavara that this variety of mango came to be known all over Kerala as "Priormavu" (the mango tree of the Prior). Prior Mango is considered as one of the premium variety of mangoes in Kerala and is often exported to its neighbouring south Indian states. He also planted prior mango tree in koonammav at St: philominas churuch backyard the tree is still remaining here and giving fruit to all season.


Kuriakose Elias Chavara died on 3 January 1871, aged 66, at Koonammavu. He was buried in St.Philomena's Forane Church, Koonammavu His body was later moved to St. Joseph's Monastery Church in Mannanam.His memorial is celebrated on 3 January as per the Syro-Malabar liturgical calendar. whereas his memorial is celebrated on 18 February as per the Roman Liturgical Calendar of the Latin Rite.

The following were the last words of Kuriakose Chavara: “Why are you sad? All God’s people must die some day. My hour has come. By the grace of God, I prepared myself for it since long.” Showing a picture of the Holy Family, he continued, "My parents taught me to keep the Holy Family always in my mind and to honour them throughout my life. As I had always the protection of the Holy Family I can tell you with confidence that I have never lost the baptismal grace I received in baptism. I dedicate our little Congregation and each of you to the Holy Family. Always rely on Jesus, Mary and Joseph. Let the Holy Family reign in your hearts. Don’t be sad about my dying. Joyfully submit yourselves to the will of God. God is all powerful and His blessings are countless. God will provide you with a new Prior who will be a source of blessing for the Congregation as well as for you. Hold fast to the constitution, the rules of our elders and that of the Church. Love our Lord Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament with all your heart. Draw the waters of eternal life from that fountain as in the words of the Prophet Elijah. All the members of the congregation, especially elders must be charitable to one another. If you do so, God will be glorified by the congregation and which will be flourished day after day. Your charity will bring salvation to souls."


Scores of miraculous favours were reported by the intercession of Kuriakose Chavara. Alphonsa of the Immaculate Conception, who later became the first saint of India, has testified in 1936 that Kuriakose Elias Chavara had appeared to her twice during her illness and relieved her suffering. Alphonsa had a holy relic of Chavra's hair which was taken by one of his disciples Varkey Muttathupadathu and which she believed allowed her to pray to Kuriakose Chavara and receive miraculous cure. The relic is now preserved in Mannanam.


The miracle which Rome approved for the beatification of Kuriakose Chavara was the cure of the congenial deformity of the legs (clubfoot) of Joseph Mathew Pennaparambil happened in April 1960. Joseph was born club-footed with congenial deformity of both the legs. On hearing that many miracles have happened through the intercession of Kuriakose Chavara, Joseph and his family started praying. They prayed almost a month. One day when Joseph and his sister were walking back from school, she asked him to pray to Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara for the cure of his legs and asked him to recite 1 Our Father, 1 Hail Mary and 1 Glory be to the Father. As they walked reciting prayers suddenly Joseph's leg started shivering. Joseph pressed his right leg to the ground and he could now walk properly with right leg. They continued their prayers and on 30 April 1960, while Joseph and his sister was on the way to elder brother's house, the left leg too became normal. Since then he could walk normally. Joseph believes that it was the intercession Kuriakose Chavara which resulted in the miracle. Rome approved the miracle which led to the beatification of Kuriakose Chavara as Blessed in 1986.


The miracle which was approved for canonization of Kuriakose Chavara to sainthood was the instantaneous, total and stable cure of the congenital squint (alternating esotropia) in both eyes of Maria Jose Kottarathil, a Catholic girl of age 9 from Pala in Kottayam District of Kerala State in India. Even though Maria was suggested to have surgery by five doctors, Maria and her family decided to pray to Kuriakose Chavara. On 12 October 2007, Maria visited the room and tomb of Kuriakose Chavara at Mannanam with her parents. On 16 October 2007, the squint eyes disappeared. The miracle was approved by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on 18 March 2014 which lead to the canonization.

Chronicle of Canonization

The official canonization process of Kuriakose Chavara started in 1955, Mar Mathew Kavukattu, arch-bishop of Changanacherry, received instructions from Rome to start diocese-level procedure towards the canonisation. On 7 April 1984, Pope John Paul II approved Kuriakose Elias Chavara's practice of heroic virtues and declared him Venerable. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was beatified at Kottayam on 8 February 1986 by Pope John Paul II in the course of a papal visit to India.

On 3 April 2014, Pope Francis authorised the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to promulgate the decrees concerning the miracle attributed to Kuriakose Kathanar's intercession. This confirmed Pope's approval of Kuriakose Elias Chavara's canonisation. On 23 November 2014, he was canonised at Saint Peter's Square by Pope Francis along with Euphrasia Eluvathingal.[56] Pope Francis stated that "Father Kuriakose Elias was a religious, both active and contemplative, who generously gave his life for the Syro-Malabar Church, putting into action the maxim “sanctification of oneself and the salvation of others."


God the almighty granted more time to me than to my predecessors. This was granted to me not so much for me I know, as for the benefit of others. (From the Letter of Chavara to his nephew Joseph Chavara.)
A good Christian family is the image of heaven, where persons are living together, by the bond of blood and affection, duly respecting and obeying their parents, and walking peacefully before the Lord and people, ensures their salvation, according to each one’s state of life.
Just as without eyes one cannot see the material things of the world, so also without knowledge it will be impossible for us to see or understand the reality of this world and the eternity where God dwells in. As those who have no eyes are called “Blind”, so too those who have no learning are to be called “intellectually blind” Hence it is the responsibility of priest to teach the faithful and of parents to teach their children.

Kuriakose Elias Chavara on a 1987 stamp of India

There are various images of Kuriakose Elias Chavara all over the world. The National Shrine of Saint Jude, Faversham, United Kingdom has a beautiful icon of the Chavara. In 2004 a fire broke out in the Shrine Chapel which destroyed the murals which hung there, and it damaged much of the other artwork. The decision was made to install icons depicting saints inspired by the Carmelite Rule of Saint Albert, and in commemoration of the 8th centenary of the Carmelite Rule in 2007. The icons were written by Sister Petra Clare, a Benedictine hermit living in Scotland, United Kingdom.


There are many museums associated with life and activities of Kuriakose Elias Chavara. They significant ones are:

St. Chavara Museum, Archives and Research Centre, Mannanam.

The Museum at Mannanam consists of the room he stayed, articles used by him, the documents written by him, the replica of the press he founded, the first school he started and above all it is located in the place where he founded the first monastery.

St. Chavara Kuriakose Elias Museum, koonammavu

This visitors of this museum can enter the room where Chavara died and can also see various articles used by him. This museum is associated with St. Philomena's Church Koonammavu.

Chavara National Museum, Vazhakulam

The exhibits consists of a miniature model of Chavara's birth house, articles used by him and also various antique articles.

Chavara Museum and Art Gallery, Alappuzha

The exhibits in the museum consist of articles used by Chavara such as his cot, the chair used by him in the boat. One of the special exhibit is the box which was used to transfer the remains of Chavara from Koonammavu to Mannanam. It also has old holy Vestments, antique utilities and boxes. A number of books about Chavara are also displayed. Yet another attraction is the miniature model of his birth house.
Kuruvilla Pandikattu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kuruvilla Pandikattu Joseph
Pandikattu in 2004
Born 28 November 1957 
Areekara, Kerala, India
Other names Kuruvilla Pandikattu, Kuru Joseph

Region Western Philosophy

Idols to Die, Symbols to Live: Paul Ricoeur (1996)
Dialogue as Way of Life: Bede Griffiths (1995)
Doctoral advisor Emerich Coreth(PhD Philosophy) Lothar Lies (PhD Theology)

Main interests

Philosophy of death

Notable ideas

"Ever approachable, Never Attainable"
"Dialog as Way of Life"
"Between Before and Beyond"

Website kuru.in

Kuruvilla Pandikattu Joseph, SJ (born 28 November 1957) is an Indian Jesuit priest and Professor of Philosophy, Science and Religion at Jnana Deepa, Institute of Philosophy and TheologyPune, Maharashtra, India. He is also Director of JDV Centre for Science-Religion Studies (JCSR) and Association of Science, Society and Religion (ASSR), Pune.

He has authored/edited thirty-six books and written more than 160 academic articles. He has been a co-founder and a co-publisher with two journals, Jnanadeepa: Pune Journal of Religious Studies and AUC: Asian Journal of Religious Studies. Furthermore, he has organised more than forty academic conferences. His weekly column on "Contemporary Spirituality" appears on Tuesdays in Financial Chronicle. He has been contributing regularly to both academic and popular journals.

He is involved in science-religion dialogue and science-related activities and teaches courses on them as well. His areas of interest (and specialisation) include: Science-Religion Dialogue; Philosophical Anthropology (Emerich Coreth); Hermeneutics (Paul Ricœur) and Inter-religious dialogue (Bede Griffiths).

Philosophical approach

The two starting points of Pandikattu's academic research are in physics and religion. He became interested in the quest for the unification of the fourfold forces of nature in physics and the hermeneutics of dialogue by Paul Ricoeur. This led him to explore the interpretive and symbolic (or mythic) nature of religious experience and inspired his first doctoral thesis: "Idols to die, so that symbols might live". He traces the idol-symbol tension back to every aspect of human experience.

Dialogue as Way of Life

Pandikattu considered the dialogical dimension of not only of religions, but also of human existence. His second doctoral thesis on Bede Griffiths was published under the title, "Dialog as Way of Life." He also took up issues in science-religion dialogue, which according to him is "not an option but an obligation" for the very survival of the human species, believing it called for radial commitment. Two main areas of his research are physical immortality[7] and a viable or sustainable lifestyle.

God as "Ever Approachable, Never Attainable"

The infinite or God (also referred to as "The Reality") is the enticing and elusive dimension of our human life. God is ever-approachable, but never attainable exhaustively. Like the horizon, which invites and recedes from us, God is always near and far at the same time. He bases this insight on scientific details like the lowest temperature reachable (t →0) and knowing that the beginning of Big Bang (T →0) is like the "horizon" which is never fully attainable.

Reality as Relational and Paradoxical

Pandikattu says that reality is relational and at the same time paradoxical. The paradox of love is that when two people, who have accepted their own emptiness and recognises their own nothingness, affirm each other, there emerges authentic love that is infinite. Thus, when one truly looks at reality and accepts its nothingness (even absurdity), there emerge traces of infinity. That is the paradoxical beauty of love and of our existence.

Major Activities

Pandikattu has been actively involved in science-religion dialogue. He is interested in looking at both science and religion critically and creatively, so that they can enrich each other and the humanity. In this area he has delivered numerous lectures, written numerous articles and books and organised conferences.


Editor, AUC: Asian Journal of Religious StudiesEarly life and influences

Pandikattu was born in Areekara, Kerala, India. He was born to Uthuppan and Mary Joseph. He had his early education at Government LP School, Veliyannoor (1962–65) and St. Rockey's U.P. School, Areekara (1965–70). Then he pursued his basic studies at Sacred Heart School, Changanashery, Kerala (1970–73).

After completing School Secondary Leaving Certificate (S.S.L.C.) at Changanashery, he left for Guhiajori, Dumka, Bihar (now Jharkhand). Other places of his studies are: St. Xavier's School, Sahibganj (1976–78); Loyola College, Chennai (1978–81); St. Joseph's College, Trichy (1981–83); Jnana Deepa, Institute of Philosophy and Theology, Pune (1983–85), and University of Pune (1988–91)
Mathew Cheriankunnel
From Wikipedia
His Excellency
Mathew Cheriankunnel
In office 1988 - 1991
Predecessor Joseph Rajappa
Successor Abraham Aruliah Somavarapa
Ordination 28 April 1962
Personal details
Born 23 September 1930 

Mathew Cheriankunnel (born 23 September 1930) is the emerit bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kurnool.


Born on 23 September 1930 in KadayanicadIndia, he was ordained priest of PIME on 28 April 1962. He was appointed the first bishop of Nalgonda on 31 May 1976, and receiving his episcopal consecration on 3 May 1977, from Cardinal Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy. He was appointed coadjutor bishop of Catholic Diocese of Kurnool on 22 December 1986, succeeding on 18 January 1988. He left the diocese government on 16 July 1991.
Mariadas Kagithapu
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mariadas Kagithapu (7 September 1936 – 26 February 2018) was a Roman Catholic archbishop.

Archbishop Kagithapu Mariadas was born on 7 September, 1936 in Gnanapuram in Visakhapatnam Diocese. He was ordained a priest on 10 June, 1961 in the Congregation of Missionaries of Francis de Sales. Pope Paul VI appointed him as the fourth Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Guntur on 19 December, 1974 and ordained as Bishop on 5 May, 1977 by Cardinal Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy. Pope John Paul II appointed him as the Bishop of Visakhapatnam on 10 September 1982 and he was installed on 26 January, 1983.

With the elevation to the Archdiocese on 16 October 2001 he was appointed Archbishop of Visakhapatnam. Before becoming a prelate, Archbishop Mariadas was a professor at St. Peter's Seminary in Bangalore. On 3 July, 2012, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral care of the Diocese of Visakhapatnam. He was a priest for 56 years and a bishop for 40 years.

As a tradition Archbishop Kagithapu Mariadas's burial took place in St. Peter's Cathedral in GnanapuramVisakhapatnam on 28 February, 2018.
Nalin Swaris
 – As I Saw Him
by Asanga Tilakaratne

Buddhist Studies Program, University of Colombo

(May 04, Colombo, Sri Lanka Guardian) Nalin Swaris passed away on 17th April 2011 while he was on a tour in China. Although Nalin’s health had not been that good lately the news of his death came as a shock mainly because for many of us, including Nalin, life is an unfinished job, and the all too abrupt halt to things disorients one. Anyhow, once it happens, death is not the problem of the one who is dead, but it is something to be coped with by those who have been left behind.

My association with Nalin goes back to the early 1990s, when he was still resident in the Netherlands and writing his doctoral dissertation on the path of the Buddha. In Sri Lanka he used to stay at the Ecumenical Institute for Study and Dialogue in Havelock Town where he found a congenial environment for intellectual debates, and used to visit the Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies to read and discuss Buddhist philosophy. Nalin was excited about what he found in the Buddhist philosophy, which he had undertaken to study latterly. Nalin already had a great deal of exposure to the Christian theology, and at one point of his life he had undergone the training to be a Roman Catholic clergyman and, in fact, had served as one for several years. He came from a very strong background in Western philosophy, theology and classics and languages such as Hebrew, Greek and Latin. In addition to these, Nalin had read and been fascinated by Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Derrida and Foucault. With his Christian, Western philosophical and post-modernist background Nalin approached Buddhism and saw things that some of us who have been born and brought up as Buddhists did not or could not see. Nalin proved that coming totally fresh to Buddhist studies (or to any field of study for that matter) had its own advantages (and perhaps disadvantages). Nalin’s approach was not to attribute Western religious and philosophical categories to Buddhism. In fact, Nalin was very critical of such an approach and always said that Buddhism had its own methodology and that it had to be studied and understood through its own principles. Nalin was obviously referring to such Buddhist concepts as dependent co-origination and no-soul-ness, which provided the basis for the Buddhist understanding of reality.

Nalin thought that the Buddhist concept of anatta (no-soul) did to Indian philosophy and religion what Derrida’s deconstruction did to contemporary philosophy. Nalin was highly impressed with the deconstructive power of anatta and was very open in acknowledging it even to the embarrassment of some of his friends with a definitive a-religious stance. Nalin himself made a clear distinction between Buddhism as a religious organization and ideology and Buddhism as the teaching of the Buddha. While he was unequivocal about his admiration for the latter, he was equally openly critical and rejected a good many things in organized religion including those in Buddhism.

While I agreed with Nalin on many of his interpretations of Buddhism, a major disagreement I continued to have was with his reconstruction of the Buddhist philosophy and practice exclusively as an enlightened social movement, and consequently, the Buddha exclusively as a social reformer. He built this interpretation in his doctoral dissertation, a revised version of which was subsequently published as The Buddha’s Way to Human Liberation: a Socio-Historical Approach (1999). When this work was published Nalin wanted me to review it, which I agreed to do. However I could not attend to this work for several months mainly for the reason that I could not find enough time and quietude to read this substantial work, substantial both in quantity and quality. In 2000, I went away on my sabbatical leave and the first thing I did was to start reading his book. I remember it took one full month for me to finish reading it cover to cover, with the help of a dictionary and with some self-teaching in post-structuralism, postmodernism, psychology, anthropology and politics. Reading Nalin was a great intellectual experience, and it made me reexamine some of my own understanding of Buddhist philosophy and practice. The socio-historical approach that Nalin had adopted was not totally new in Buddhist studies. It had been tried by others like D. Kosambi before. But the specialty of Nalin’s was to use this approach to develop a comprehensive picture of Buddhism as a whole: philosophy, practice and the organization of Buddhism as an enlightened social movement of a group of ‘liberated’ people. While I agreed with Nalin that the Buddhist path and its fruit is not a private affair of an isolated individual I could not agree with his downplaying of strong ‘soteriological’ aspect of it. I wrote a long review to his book (running into 23 printed pages in Dialogue New Series, vol.xxvii pp.111-133.), in which I highlighted the merits of his interpretation and also recorded where I parted company with him. Let me quote from that essay:

“I fully sympathise with him in his view that the tradition has made Buddhism basically a monastic tradition in which house-holders have been relegated to a marginal position. Also I do not want to undervalue the message Swaris is trying to bring up, namely, that the path of the Buddha needs to be reinterpreted not as a system of ‘private salvation seeking’ but as a path of social action. My dissatisfaction, however, is that, in the process, we might make the path of the Buddha nothing more than a form of enlightened social living. This I think is to lose sight of the deep and subtle psychological import of the teaching of the Buddha. In other words, Buddhism demythologizes and demystifies our religious beliefs, but at the same time it leads us to higher form of understanding of our own individual and social reality. In Swaris’s interpretation the first part of this comes out very beautifully; but the second part remains largely unasserted. (pp.125-6).”

We have had this debate on and off, neither being convinced by the other. In 2008 Nalin published a somewhat abridged version of this book for he felt that the earlier version was a little too long. Except for some stylistic changes, the new version was exactly the same in content. Although Nalin wanted me to write a brief newspaper introduction to this version, to my dismay now, I was unable to oblige. If I had written it readers would have known that we were never done with our old bone of contention.

Nalin published Buddhism, Human Rights and Social Renewal in 2000. Rights and justice were two areas in which Nalin was not only academically interested but also was deeply concerned and involved. This relatively short work, which was published by the Asian Human Rights Commission based in Hong Kong, is an in-depth treatment of the issues of human rights and justice and highlights how Buddhist insights could be used in constructing a social philosophy rich enough to address the burning issues of our globalized society. For some time, Nalin wrote to English newspapers almost on a weekly basis on contemporary issues including terrorism, nationalism, corruption and education.

Nalin was a passionate believer in what he said. The issues he discussed academically had great existential relevance and significance to him. Nalin was the exact opposite of the objective, detached and disinterested seeker of knowledge. For him knowledge was inseparable from praxis. As a result Nalin always got into passionate debates and arguments with his friends in the course of which he even lost a few of them. But deep inside Nalin was a warm and compassionate human being. Although social realities marked by injustices and violations of human rights said otherwise, Nalin never gave up his idealism, and consequently he was nearly always a frustrated man. This is not only Nalin’s fate; it is bound to be the fate of many of us who try to cling tenaciously to our ideals in the face of harsh and unpleasant social realities. As we know Ideal forms exist only in Platonic heaven; Nalin showed that to yearn for them is not a sin, but is not very practical either. Closely associated with this phenomenon is being alone amidst thousands of people. All those who do not go along with the majority have ultimately to grapple with their own existential loneliness, and Nalin was not an exception.

Nalin is gone. As the last sentence of this note I do not wish to reduce Nalin’s life to one single identity or something of that sort. Among the many facets of his life, Nalin was a deeply religious man, although he renounced organized religion whether it was Buddhism, Christianity or any other. In Buddha’s Way to Human Liberation Nalin has a substantial discussion on ‘nirvāṇa’ which is the ultimate goal of the Buddhist path with which he identified himself. Although I am not quite sure whether or not Nalin’s ‘nirvāṇa’ exactly coincides with mine, I wish him the bliss of ‘nirvāṇa’, the ultimate freedom from suffering.
Marampudi Joji
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
His Excellency
Marampudi Joji

Church Christian
In office 30 April 2000 – 27 August 2010
Predecessor S. Arulappa
Successor Thumma Bala
Ordination 14 December 1971
Consecration 30 April 2000
Personal details
Born 7 October 1942
Died 27 August 2010 (aged 67)
Bishop's House, Hyderabad
Previous post(s) Bishop of Vijayawada

Marampudi Joji (7 October 1942 – 27 August 2010) was the third Archbishop of Hyderabad. He was born in Bhimavaram and died at the Bishop's House, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. He knew LatinTelugu, and English.

Early years & education

Joji was educated at the Lutheran Boarding School in Peddapuram near Samalkot which is managed by the Priests of the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church (AELC).

Ordination & Pastorship

Joji was ordained as a priest on 14 December 1971 in the diocese of Vijayawada. Joji was privileged to have received Blessed Mother Teresa when she went to Vijayawada to initiate the work of the Missionaries of Charity.

Diocese of Khammam

On 21 December 1991, he was appointed as the Bishop of Khammam and consecrated on 19 March 1992. He served until 8 November 1996 when he was transferred to the Diocese of Vijayawada.

Diocese of Vijayawada

Bishop Joji became the Bishop of Vijayawada on 8 November 1996. However, he took charge of the diocese only on 19 January 1997.

Archbishop of Hyderabad

On 29 January 2000, he was appointed as the Archbishop of Hyderabad. He was installed by Archbishop Giorgio Zur in the presence of his predecessor Archbishop S. Arulappa and of Bishop Joseph S. Thumma on 30 April 2000.

Joji inaugurated the Hyderabad session of the scholarly Church History Association of India incorporating Church Historians of the PentecostalProtestantOrthodox, and Catholic traditions.

Archbishop Joji was known for his able administration. He seemed to have headed the Diocese of Vijayawada's Social Service Society before being elevated to the Bishopric of Khammam.
Nick Vujicic
Evangelist, international motivational speaker and New York Times best-selling author Nick Vujicic (pronounced “Vooycheech”) was born in 1982 in Melbourne, Australia. Without any medical explanation or warning, Nick came into the world with neither arms nor legs. Throughout his childhood, Nick dealt not only with the typical challenges of school and adolescence, such as bullying and self-esteem issues, he also struggled with depression and loneliness as he questioned why he was different from all the other kids. He couldn't get the haunting question of “Why was I the one born without arms and legs?” out of his head.

As Nick grew up, he learned to deal with his disability and gradually accomplished more on his own. A janitor at his high school inspired him to start speaking publicly about overcoming adversity, so Nick starting speaking to small groups of students when he was 17.

"...he also struggled with depression and loneliness as he questioned why he was different from all the other kids. He couldn't get the haunting question of 'Why was I the one born without arms and legs?"After high school, Nick went onto tertiary education and obtained a double Bachelor's degree, majoring in Accounting and Financial Planning, from Griffith University in Logan, Australia. By the age of 19, Nick started to fulfill his dream of encouraging other people by giving speeches revolving around his life story. He found the purpose to his existence, and also the purpose in his circumstance.

Nick eventually made the move from Brisbane, Australia to Los Angeles, California, where he is the founder and president of an international nonprofit organization, Life Without Limbs, and owns the motivational speaking company, Attitude Is Altitude. He married the love of his life, Kanae, in 2012, welcoming their first son, Kiyoshi, in February 2013 and their second son Dejan, in September 2015.

Since his first motivational speaking engagement back when he was a teenager, Nick has traveled to over 57 countries, sharing his story with over 400 million of people. Nick is the author of Life Without Limits, Unstoppable (a New York Times best-seller), Limitless, Stand Strong and Love Without Limits. His books have been translated into over 30 different languages and have sold more than a million copies internationally.

Nick’s story continues to resonate worldwide, and he has been featured on “CBS Sunday Morning,” “Oprah’s LifeClass,” “PBS Religion & Ethics News Weekly,” USA Today, NewsMax, “Life Today” and “The 700 Club,” and twice on “60 Minutes Australia.” Christianity Today magazine named him one of the “33 under 33” who are shaping the next chapter in American faith.
Sant Odhavram
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sant Shri Odhavram Maharaj
Odhav Bhanushali
10 April 1889

Died 13 January 1957 (aged 67)

Parent(s) Hemraj Bhanushali, Chagbai Bhanushali

Odhavram (4 October 1889 – 13 January 1957) was an Indian religious teacher and a follower of Mohandas Gandhi. He campaigned for education, the poor, and the rights of Dalits.

Early years

Odhavram was born in Jakhau, a small village located on the west coast of Gujarat, India in District Kutchh. He was born in a Bhanushali family on the auspicious day of Hindu festival of "Ram Navami" in 1889, he was named Udhav. His parents were mother Chaagbai & father Hemraj. Udhav had one elder brother & two sisters.

As a kid Udhav was special. He did behave as a child but was more inclined towards spirituality. He loved Music and Bhajans from the age of 5 and when he grew 9, he always carried the Bhagwad Geta to school and at play too. He used to narrate single lines from the sacred Geeta to his friends and at times discuss the same with Pandits too.

Udhav got his first Guru at the age of 9, Shanakaranand from Mandvi Takula in Kutch. Udhav learnt Sanskrit and the Vedas from Shankaranand for 6 months and following a life-threatening accident in the ashram was returned to Jakhau. Later, Udhav came to Bombay and worked as a gunny-bag laborer for 8 years but finally left Bombay dedicating his life for the mankind and for the up-liftment of Kutch and Gujarat.

Ishwar Ashram

Odhavram came to Vandhay in Kutchh. Lalram was the Mahant at the Ishwar Ashram, Vandhai. The Vandhai Ashram follows the Harihar parampara. The Harihar Parampara was started by Deva Saheb in Hamla, Kutchh and a few decades later his disciple Ishwarram settled in Vandhai. After Ishwarrm, Lalram took care of the Ashram and after Lalram, Odhavram was declared the Mahant of the Ishwar Ashram.

Kutch gurukul

Odhavram always believed that society cannot progress without Education. Odhavram went door to door and person to person in Mumbai, Calcutta & Madhya Pradesh asking people to contribute funds to start the first gurukul in Kutch. As the construction of the gurukul began, Odhavram walked from house to house, village to village preaching the need of education. At times Odhavram used to work as a laborer carrying bricks overhead, make the cement mix and feed workers with food & water. The first gurukul of Kutch was named Ishwarram Gurukul & inaugurated on Vasant Panchami of year 1937 A.D. Odhavram welcomed his first batch of 330 students.

Odhavram was firm and dedicated in his decisions and this dedication made his gurukul dream come true. Now he wanted to push the gurukul barriers further by wanting to teach and educate the blind. He believed and preached that we all are children of God and we all deserve love and respect in the society. A blind person has no option but to beg or rely on family. He wanted to gift the blind self-reliance and respect in society. The school for the blind began in 1938. He called for the brail script from Bombay and his first batch had 7 or 8 students. Apart from book knowledge he used to teach them the intelligence of senses. He revealed to them, their power of ears, nose and fingers. Sadhu Sevadas who studied in the blind school, still resides at the Ishawar Ashram, Vandhai, Kutchh.

The 19th & 20th century was the period of illiteracy & poverty. People inclined towards Spirituality could be easily cheated in the name of God. In the same era, the Kadwa Patidar Samaj fell into the hands of some greedy[according to whom?] spiritual Gurus and got converted to a religion that has had no existence in history[clarification needed] called the Peerani Panth.

Odhavram struggled for 16 years to bringing the entire Patidaar Samaj back to Sanatan Dharma. In this struggle Odhavram faced 3 to 4 life-threatening attacks but escaped without a scratch. Once a guy entered his Sadhana Kutir (meditation place) & tried to shoot at him from point blank range but failed. Once he was attacked by a mob of 8-10 people with swords but they failed. Odhavram was a believer of "Ahimsa Paramo Dharma" (Non violence the highest religion). In his entire life span he never ever touched a weapon & still succeeded in his mission on faith & dedication.

Follower of Gandhi

In 1943, Odhavram supported Gandhi’s movement to accept the untouchables as part of the society. In Odhavram’s life this was the only decision that sparked off the society against him. Villagers throughout Kutch revolted but Odhavram stood firm on his decision. Some unsocial elements started provoking the villagers & People started leaving him. But as every night has a day, Harijans got their rightful place in the society & Odhavram won his battle for humanism with pride and dignity.

Odhavram was a firm believer of Mahatma Gandhi & follower of his deeds. Odhavram accepted Gandhi's Swadeshi Apnao slogan & put it to practice the same day. He started weaving his own clothes on the charkha and made it compulsory for every student of the Gurukul to learn & weave. Odhavram used to say one should first practice what he preaches.

In 1945, a convention was called under the leadership of Meher Ali in Mundra. Odhavram was also invited for this convention as his speeches had a very strong impact on people. When Odhavram was invited to give some spiritual discourses a strange incident happened. Odhavram said "I cannot die in peace till my motherland is freed from these invaders. In this freedom fight write my name first followed by my 330 students of the Gurukul. I would be honored to sacrifice my life for my motherland". In 1947, India was declared independent and Odhavram continued to serve mankind.

1940 drought

The year 1940 saw the worst drought of Kutchh. Cattle were dying in thousands. In this period Odhavram sidelined all his other activities & dedicated his life for the suffering cattle & villagers. Odhavram said "Saving these speechless cattle is the first and foremost responsibility of a true Hindu. If one has to give away everything he has and even his life for this noble cause it worth". In thousands cattle started flowing in Vandhai and Odhavram offered sufficient food, water & shelter for all. At times he, his students and ashram had to starve but thousands of cows & other cattle was saved.

Bhanushali movement

In 1942, Odhavram started a movement for the Bhanushali community. Bhanushalis are Surya Vanshi but due to illiteracy & poverty were being harassed by society. Odhavram decided to draw a path for his own community & give them their real place in the society. He traveled across villages & cities preaching the importance of education & finally succeeded in starting the first boarding in Mandvi. Bhansuhali Haridas Pradhan Joisar sold off almost all his properties & life savings to manage the required funds for this cause. A few years later Odhavram also struggled to build home shelter for the Bhanushalis who had migrated from Kutch to Bombay for work & with funds provided by Bhanushali Haridas Velji Joisar of Bombay. The Bhanushali wadi in Bombay, came into existence in year 1952.

During this era there was a 9-year-old girl who came very close to Odhavram. Odhavram blessed her with his knowledge & today she is serving mankind & showing all the divine path to happiness. She is Param Pujya Sant Mataji Rama Devi of Haridwar.

Later years

In year 1954, Odhavram handed over the Vandhai Ashram to "Dayaddasji" and reached Haridwar to spend the rest of his life at the Ganges but when he saw a few Kutchi’s roaming on the streets of Haridwar without any place to stay, He felt the need of a Dharmashala for people to stay & spend their last days peacefully. He wrote several letters asking for funds & help. Among his very close follower & associate, was Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar belonging to Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj. Manji Jeram took the leadership to build Kutchi Ashram in Haridwar and started with a large personal donation and roamed whole India to collect monies from rich families of his community as well PatidarBhanushaliMistri and other communities of Kutch. Finally, the Kutchhi Lalrameshwar Ashram at Haridwar was established in 1956. Pujya Jashoda Maa gave a helping hand & worked day & night in setting up the ashram.

In Haridwar, Odhavram found a holy soul who would follow his path of serving mankind after he was gone. His name was “Valji”. Valji took Diksha from him and became Valdas. Valdas started serving mankind & followed the path laid by Odhavram. Odhavram returned to Vandhai and died on 13 January 1957.
Pema Tönyö Nyinje
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pema Dönyö Nyinje, 12th Tai Situ
 born : Pema Tönyö Nyinje 9-3-1954

Pema Dönyö Nyinje Wylie: pad+ma don yod nyin byed, born 1954 is the 12th Tai Situpa, a tulku in Tibetan Buddhism, and one of the leading figures of the Karma Kagyu school. He is the head of Palpung Monastery.


Pema Tönyö Nyinje was born in 1954 in the village of Palmey, Palyul, DergeKham into a farming family named Liyultsang. He was enthroned at the age of 18 months as the 12th Tai Situ by Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa. At the age of 5 he was brought to Tsurphu Monastery. At the age of six he left Tibet for Bhutan, where King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck had been a disciple of the 11th Tai Situ. Later he was cared for at Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim, India, where he received his formal religious training from the 16th Karmapa.

The 16th Karmapa had been raised under the guidance of the 11th Tai Situ. The teacher-disciple relationship has served as a mechanism for the unbroken continuity within the Kagyu school. Chögyam Trungpa wrote in his book Born in Tibet: "Tai Situ Rinpoche, who was second in importance in the Karma Kagyu school, had died some years before and no reincarnation had been found. The Karmapa could now tell them where the incarnation had taken place. Everyone rejoiced and started immediately to make the preparations."

In 1974, at the age of 21, Pema Tönyö Nyinje went to Ladakh at the invitation from Druppon Dechen and stayed there for one year. In 1975, at the age of 22, he assumed his traditional responsibilities by founding Palpung Sherabling Monastery, at BaijnathHimachal PradeshNorth India as his main seat in exile. In 2000, relics of the 8th Tai Situ were enthroned in a temple near the monastery.

Historic visit of the 14th Dalai Lama to Palpung Sherabling Monastery, 11 and 12 May 2015. 12th Tai Situ offering a long-life empowerment to the Dalai Lama.

As a Buddhist teacher, the 12th Tai Situ traveled widely, making his first visit to the West in 1981 to Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre in Scotland and visiting the United States in 1982. Since then, he has extensively traveled throughout North America, Europe and Southeast Asia. His teachings have since been published in nine English books. Further publications followed in the new millennium.

In 1989 Pema Tönyö Nyinje embarked on the Pilgrimage for Active Peace. Its 25 years' jubilee was celebrated in a two-day Peace Conclave that was held in Palpung Sherabling Monastery with guests and representatives from different World Religions.

Together with the 12th Goshir Gyaltshap Pema Tönyö Nyinje recognised Orgyen Trinley Dorje as the 17th Karmapa. He also recognized Choseng Trungpa, born on 6 February 1989 in Kham, as the reincarnation of Chögyam Trungpa.

On 21 February 2015, the Tai Situ opened Palpung Sherabling Monastery's newly built shedra, the Buddhist University for Higher Studies, Palpung Lungrig Jampal Ling, in a celebration. On 11 and 12 May 2015, the 14th Dalai Lama visited Palpung Sherabling Monastery in the presence of Jamgon Kongtrul, Khenchen Thrangu and representatives of all the Karma Kagyu monasteries in India, Nepal and Bhutan as well as representatives of the Sakya Trizin, Drikung Kyabgon, and Goshir Gyaltshab, in order to crown the completion of Palpung Sherabling Monastery having exactly the same departments and facilities as Palpung Monastery in Tibet Autonomous Region with the Ten Knowledges, a monastery with its monastic community, a Buddhist university, three-year retreats for both nuns and monks of the Marpa Kagyu and a Shangpa Kagyu retreat, as well as a reliquary temple. His Holiness delivered a two-day teaching, preceded by a long-life empowerment and request for teachings offered by Tai Situpa.

Karmapa controversy

During his lifetime, Tai Situ was a central figure in the current controversy within the Karma Kagyu lineage. He recognised Ogyen Trinley Dorje as the current (17th) Karmapa, as opposed to Trinley Thaye Dorje.[8] Many high lamas within the lineage recognize Ogyen Trinley Dorje to be the current Karmapa, as does the 14th Dalai Lama and civil authorities in China.
Pandurang Shastri Athavale
From Wikipedia

Pandurang Shastri Athavale (19 October 1920 – 25 October 2003), also known as Dadaji, which literally translates as "elder brother" in Marathi, was an Indian activist philosopher, spiritual leader, social revolutionary and religion reformist, who founded the Swadhyaya Parivar (Swadhyaya Family) in 1954. Swadhyaya is a self-study process based on the Bhagavad Gita which has spread across nearly 100,000 villages in India, with five million adherents. He was also noted for his discourses on the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas and the Upanishads. He is known for his selfless work and brilliant knowledge in scriptures.

Pandurang Shastri Athavale
Born 19 October 1920
Roha, Bombay State, British India
Died 25 October 2003 (aged 83)
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Other names Dadaji
Known for Swadhyaya Parivar , Activist Philosopher, Spiritual Teacher, Spiritual Leader
Spouse(s) Nirmala Tai Athavale
Children Jayshree Talwalkar Adopted
Parent(s) Vaijnath Shastri Athavale (Father) Parvati Athavale (Mother)


Early life

Pandurang Vaijnath Athavale was born on 19 of October 1920 in Chitpavan Brahmin Family in the village of Roha in Maharashtra (Konkan), India. He was one of five children born to the Sanskrit teacher Vaijanath Shastri Athavale and his wife Parvati Athavale.

When Athavale was twelve years old, his grandfather set up an independent course of study for the young boy. Thus, Athavale was taught in a system very similar to that of the Tapovan system of ancient India. In 1942, he started to give discourses at the Srimad Bhagavad Gita Pathshala, Madhavbaug, Mumbai", a center set up by his father in 1926.

Athavale read diligently in the Royal Asiatic Library for a period of 14 years; at a young age, he was well-known to have read every piece of non-fiction literature (ranging from Marx's philosophy to Whitehead's writings to ancient Indian philosophy). In 1954, he attended the Second World Philosophers' Conference, held in Japan. There, Athavale presented the concepts of Vedic ideals and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Many participants were impressed by his ideas but wanted evidence of such ideals being put into practice in India. Nobel Prize–winning physicist Dr. Arthur Holly Compton was particularly enchanted with Athavale's ideas and offered him a lucrative opportunity in the United States, where he could spread his ideas. Athavale politely declined, saying that he had much to accomplish in his native India, where he planned to demonstrate to the world a model community peacefully practising and spreading Vedic thoughts and the message of the Bhagavad Gita.
Swadhyaya Parivar

Pandurang Shastri Athavale receiving the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, from Prince Philip at a public ceremony held in Westminster Abbey, 6 May 1997

Swadhyaya Parivar established itself in India in 1978 with adherents meeting every Sunday, where prayers were sung and a video recording of Athavale was played. Swadhyaya, which closely translates to "in depth study of the self" is a process based upon Vedic philosophy, and the members of the Parivar are called "Swadhyayees". Over the years, Athavale's followers have taken the Bhagawad Gita's concepts of Indwelling God and God's universal love, to millions of people: transcending caste, socioeconomic barriers, and religious differences. Rev. Athavale personally visited tens of thousands of villages (on foot and rented bicycles), and his brothers and sisters (swadhyayees) went to every house personally and established a selfless relationship with each family and went house to house to spread Gita's thoughts. adherents have followed suit to roughly 100,000 villages across India, and at least 34 nations across the globe. Dadaji In these villages, Rev. Athavale started various experiments (Prayogs) to impart social activism by means of a god-centric devotion, including cooperative farming, fishing and tree-planting projects in the spirit of collective, divine labour (bhakti), somewhat similar to the Antigonish Movement in Canada. Swadhyayees aim to fulfill Rev. Athavale's vision of eradicating the world's problems by creating a global family united under the principle of a universal blood maker. He felt that the universality of the Bhagavad Gita allows for it to a guide to all of humanity. As such, it's thoughts should reach unto the last person. Today, the millions of adherents can be found on every habitable continent in over 35 countries including the Caribbean, Americas, Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Middle East and Africa. It is the Swadhyaya Parivar's mission to complete Rev. Athavale's vision of a "Universal Brotherhood under the Divine Fatherhood of God."


Athavale died at the age of 83 of cardiac arrest on 25 October 2003, in Mumbai, India. He was cremated on the evening of 26 October at Tattvagyan Vidyapeeth in the Thane district, where hundreds of thousands of mourners had paid their respects to him over a period of 24 hours. Subsequently, his ashes were immersed at Ujjain, Pushkar, Haridwar, Kurukshetra, Gaya, Jagannath Puri, and lastly at Rameshwaram.

Popular culture

In 1991 Shyam Benegal created and directed the film Antarnaad (The Inner Voice), based on Rev. Athavale's Swadhyaya movements or Prayogs, starring Shabana Azmi and Kulbhushan Kharbanda, among others. In 2004 Abir Bazaz directed the documentary Swadhyaya, based on the life and works of Rev. Athavale.

There are multiple books based on dadaji's pravachan based on Vedic Stotras, The Geeta, and Ramayan. His famous books are Valmiki Ramayan, Geeta Amrutam, Homage to Saints, Prathana Preeti, Tulsidal, and many more. Written in multiple languages like Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi, and Sanskrit The Systems: The Way and the Work (Swadhyaya: The Unique Philosophy of Life), by Rev. Shri Pandurang Vaijnath Athavale Shastri (Rev. Dada).

Awards & Prize

He was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion in 1997 and the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 1996 for Community Leadership, along with India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan Award, in 1999. He also won the Rashtrabhusan award given to him by the FIE foundation for Progress in Religion.
Raphy Manjaly
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raphy Manjaly
Archdiocese Agra
Metropolis Agra
Diocese Agra
Installed 7th January 2021
Predecessor Albert D'Souza
Ordination 11 May 1983
Consecration 30 April 2007
Rank Archbishop
Personal details
Birth name Raphy Manjaly
Born 7 February 1958
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Agra
Parents M.V. Chacko(Father), Kathreena(Mother)
Previous post(s) Bishop of Varanasi (2007–2013)
Bishop of Allahabad (2013–2020) Archbishop of Agra (2021-present)
Motto To Bring Together People of God

Bishop Raphy Manjaly is the newly appointed Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of AgraIndia by Pope Francis. He was installed as Archbishop of Agra on 7th January, 2021.

Early life and education

He was born on 7 February 1958 in KeralaIndia to Mrs. Kathreena & Mr. M.V. Chacko. He received his primary education at St. Francis Xavier School, VendoreKerala and completed his high school from Tyagarajar High School, AlagappanagarTrichurKerala. He joined St. Lawrence Minor Seminary, Agra, in 1973 and completed it in year 1975. He joined St. Joseph’s Regional Seminary, Allahabad, in 1975 and completed his Philosophy and Theology education in year 1983. He completed his graduation and post graduation from Agra University. He completed his Doctorate in Spirituality from Angelicum UniversityRome.


He was ordained a priest on 11 May 1983 at St Mary's Church, Vendore


He was appointed bishop of Varanasi on 24 February 2007 and consecrated on 30 April 2007. He was Appointed bishop of Allahabad on 17 October 2013 and installed on 3 December 2013.He was appointed Archbishop of Agra on 12th November 2020 & installed on 7th January 2021.
Rajinder Singh 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rajinder Singh
Title Sant
Born 20 September 1946

Religion Sikhism
Nationality USA
Spouse Rita
Parents Darshan Singh, Harbhajan Kaur
Lineage Sant Mat
Institute Science of Spirituality/Sawan Kirpal Ruhani Mission
Senior posting
Based in Chicago, USA and Delhi, India
Predecessor Darshan Singh
Previous post Engineer
Present post Spiritual Master

Rajinder Singh (20 September 1946 in Delhi, India) is the head of the international non-profit organization Science of Spirituality (SOS), known in India as the Sawan Kirpal Ruhani Mission. To his disciples he is known as Sant Rajinder Singh Ji Maharaj. Singh is internationally recognized for his work toward promoting inner and outer peace through spirituality and meditation on the inner Light and Sound.

Life and career

Singh earned his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Madras, India  and his master's degree in Electrical Engineering from IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago, Illinois.[ He received his spiritual education from two of India's leading spiritual Masters: Sant Kirpal Singh Ji Maharaj (1894–1974) and Sant Darshan Singh Ji Maharaj (1921–1989). His training in both disciplines has helped him express age-old spiritual teachings in clear, logical language. Rajinder has had a distinguished twenty-year career in science, computers, and communications.

He is the son of Sant Darshan Singh Ji Maharaj (1921–1989) and grandson of Kirpal Singh (1894–1974).

Singh has said, "One of the greatest benefits of meditation is that we will not only have peace in our own homes, but will contribute to the peace of the world. Throughout the world, people are praying for peace. But, as the expression goes, charity begins at home. World peace can only become a reality when each of us individually has peace in our own circles. If we bring peace into our individual spheres, the effect will be cumulative, and it will contribute to world peace." In 2000, He was part of a delegation of hundreds of world religious leaders who traveled to New York for the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders, "an event unusual for its religious diversity and for its having convened at the United Nations," according to the New York Times. Singh told the Times, "When we sit and talk with them [leaders of other religions], we realize they are not much different".

Rajinder has written a number of books including Inner and Outer Peace Through Meditation which was #1 Barnes and Noble best-selling meditation book.

As founder of Darshan Education Foundation, Singh has established Darshan Academy throughout India (schools that teach students from Pre-K—12). Integrating both meditation and a spiritual curriculum into a traditional academic environment, the foundation's goal is two-fold: first, to produce students whose spiritual potential is developed along with their intellect and physical well-being; and second, to inspire in each student a global view of the world, unobstructed by distinctions of race, nationality, religion, or economic status.

He was President of the 16th International World Human Unity Conference in 1998.


Singh emphasizes the fundamental unity and harmony of all faiths. He says his aim is to "take the mystery out of mysticism, to help people put mysticism into action in their own lives. By doing so, they will help themselves as well as those around them attain bliss and universal love." He emphasizes meditation as the basis for peace. As he has said, "Within us is a divine spirit from which our intelligence and wisdom is derived. The process of accessing that inner divine spirit, intelligence, and wisdom is called meditation; if we transform knowledge to wisdom by meditating and experiencing the driving force behind all existence, then we have the key to human unity. This experience will transform our individual life and the lives of those around us. These individual transformations will ultimately bring unity and peace at the community, national, and global levels." (From a speech, "Moral Dimensions of Leadership" given to the United States Coast Guard Academy)


Meditation is a process by which a practitioner comes in contact with the Light and Sound of God already within themselves. The spiritual Masters of Science of Spirituality teach that (1) the divine current of Light and Sound reverberates in all creation; (2) by meditating on this current one can begin a journey into the inner spiritual regions; and (3) with the help and guidance of a spiritual Master, this journey ultimately culminates in God-realization and the merger of the soul with the Over-soul or God.  In the Times of India, Singh states, "Human beings are blessed with a special faculty to gain spiritual knowledge. That opportunity is offered to every human being but few make use of it. One needs to meditate to make full use of the gift."

Science and spirituality

The method of meditation taught by him is called a science because it can be practiced by people of all cultures. In this method, aspirants perform the experiment of meditation within their own selves. By doing so, the practitioner can have a firsthand inner experience of spiritual Light and Sound, affirming that there is something that lies beyond this physical world.

In his address given to students and faculty at IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) Mumbai, Singh states: “Science and spirituality make a great partnership. If those engaged in science spend time in the silence of their selves, inspiration will come and lead them to the answers they seek. If those interested in spirituality apply the scientific law of testing a hypothesis in the laboratories of their own bodies, they will find results. Each person is capable of success in proving spiritual truths. Such pursuits can make the world a better place as well as uncover the purpose of our lives.”


"Peace Award" by the Temple of Understanding and the Interfaith Center of New York, June 1997. 
Award by the City Council of San Ramon, California, 2010.
"The Medal of Cultural Merit" from the National Minister of Education, Bogotá, Colombia.
Illinois Institute of Technology Distinguished Leadership Award, Chicago, Illinois
Award from the President of the State of Mexico, November 2008
Simón Bolívar Award (Condecoracion Oficial Simon Bolivar) presented by the Minister of Education of Colombia at the Ministry of Education, in Bogotá
"Distinguished Leadership Award" for his work in peace and spirituality by IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) in Chicago, Illinois (November 1998).
The Extraordinary Grand Cross award was granted by the Governor of the Department of Quindío, Carlos Eduardo Osorio Buritica in Colombia on 31st December 2019.

Honorary doctorates
Rajinder Singh has received five honorary doctorates from various universities around the world in recognition of his work to introduce spirituality into science and education, and for his work toward human integration.

Speeches and activities

Keynote addresses

Singh has been invited to deliver keynotes and talks at various conferences through the years.

At the United Nations Headquarters, New York (May 2016), in his keynote address, he explained how meditation on the inner Light and Sound can lead to inner peace, which paves the way to building bridges of unity, love, and outer peace in the world. At the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders, United Nations, New York City, New York (August 2000), in his address entitled "Nature of Forgiveness and Compassion" Singh stated: "Spirituality is the recognition that behind our outer names and labels, we are souls, a part of one Creator. . . . When we develop this vision we no longer see through the eyes of prejudice and discrimination.". He also shared a speech at the UN celebration for Secretary General Kofi Annan.

At the United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA), New London, Connecticut (November 1999), addressing the members of the academy in his talk "Moral Leadership for the 21st Century," Singh provided a blueprint for successful leadership.

At the Sixth Assembly of the World Conference on Religion and Peace, in Riva del Garde, Italy (November 1994), in this talk "Curing the World’s Pain," he stated: "To heal the world, we must heal ourselves. To bring peace to the world, we must have peace ourselves. We can attain this through meditation."

Symposium of the World Conference on Religion and Peace in Vienna, Austria (1998). In his address, “Building Peace in the World,” he explored the importance of meditation as the way to connect to our soul and to the divinity that exists within us. He said: “When we recognize that all people of the world are made of the same Light that we are made of, we will feel the pain of others. . . . Our outlook will be a global one, and we will make choices that will benefit our global brothers and sisters.”

Addresses to academic and medical institutions

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts on Inner and Outer Communication (November 1996).
National Institute of Health (NIH), Washington, D.C (July 1993)

Veggie Fest

He is the inspiration behind Veggie Fest, the largest vegetarian food and lifestyle festival in North America. Co-sponsored by the Science of Spirituality and over 30 vendors, the festival celebrates the many benefits and joys of a vegetarian lifestyle. It is held in Lisle/Naperville, Illinois. In 2016, Veggie Fest celebrated its 11th year, launching its largest festival to date: Over 800 volunteers from around the world welcomed tens of thousands of visitors during its two-day program. Each year, participants attend a multi-faceted festival which includes: an international food court; vendor tents and food demos from noted area chefs; live music, a blood donation drive; a “Take the Vegetarian Challenge” tent, and a “Take the Meditation Challenge” tent.

Visitors can also attend the “Spirituality & Health Symposium” where doctors and health practitioners speak throughout the day on different aspects of the vegetarian diet and its impact on one's physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Singh delivers the Keynote on both days.
Ram Thakur
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sri Sri Ramthakur

" Ramthakur"
Born 2 February 1860

Died 1 May 1949 (aged 89)

Noakhali, East Bengal, Pakistan (now Bangladesh)
Religion Hinduism
Nationality Indian
Relatives Radhamadhava Chakravarty (father)
Kamala Devi (mother)
Philosophy Tantra, Yoga
Religious career

Ramthakur (Bengali: শ্রীশ্রী রামঠাকুর) (2 February 1860 – 1 May 1949) born Ram Chandra Chakraborty (Bengali: রাম চন্দ্র চক্রবর্তী), was an Indian mystic, yogi and spiritual leader during 19th-century India.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood
26 August 1925

Tooting, London, England
Died 30 October 2018 (aged 93)

Hereford, Herefordshire, England
Nationality British

Spiritual teacher

Sangharakshita (born Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood; 26 August 1925 – 30 October 2018) was a British spiritual teacher and writer, and the founder of the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order, which in 2010 was renamed the Triratna Buddhist Community.

He was one of a handful of westerners to be ordained as Theravadin Bhikkhus in the period following World War II, and spent over 20 years in Asia, where he had a number of Tibetan Buddhist teachers. In India, he was active in the conversion movement of Dalits—so-called "Untouchables"—initiated in 1956 by B. R. Ambedkar. He wrote more than 60 books, including compilations of his talks, and was described as "one of the most prolific and influential Buddhists of our era, "a skilled innovator in his efforts to translate Buddhism to the West," and as "the founding father of Western Buddhism for his role in setting up what is now the Triratna Buddhist Community but Sangharakshita was often regarded as a controversial teacher He was criticised for having had sexual relations with Order members, which allegedly amounted to abuse and coercion.

Sangharakshita retired formally in 1995 and in 2000 stepped down from the movement's ostensive leadership, but he remained its dominant figure and lived at its headquarters in Coddington, Herefordshire.

The Triratna Order Office announced the death of Sangharakshita after a short illness on 30 October 2018.

Early life

Sangharakshita was born Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood in TootingLondon, in 1925. After being diagnosed with a heart condition he spent much of his childhood confined to bed, and used the opportunity to read widely. His first encounter with non-Christian thought was with Madame Helena Blavatsky's Isis Unveiled, upon reading which, he later said, he realised that he had never been a Christian. The following year he came across two Buddhist texts—the Diamond Sutra and the Platform Sutra—and concluded that he had always been a Buddhist.

As Dennis Lingwood, he joined the Buddhist Society at the age of 18, and formally became a Buddhist in May 1944 by taking the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from the Burmese monk, U Thittila.

He was conscripted into the army in 1943, and served in IndiaSri Lanka (then known as Ceylon) and Singapore as a radio engineer in the Royal Corps of Signals. It was in Sri Lanka, while in contact with the swamis in the (Hindu) Ramakrishna Mission, that he developed the desire to become a monk. In 1946, after the cessation of hostilities, he was transferred to Singapore, where he made contact with Buddhists and learned to meditate.


Having been conscripted into the British Army and posted to India, at the end of the war Sangharakshita handed in his rifle, left the camp where he was stationed and deserted. He moved about in India for a few years, with a Bengali novice Buddhist, the future Buddharakshita, as his companion, meditating and experiencing for himself the company of eminent spiritual personalities of the times, like Mata AnandamayiRamana Maharishi and Swamis of Ramakrishna Mission. They spent fifteen months in 1947–48, in the Ramakrishna Mission centre at Muvattupuzha with the consent of Swami Tapasyananda and Swami Agamananda. In May 1949 he became a novice monk, or sramanera, in a ceremony conducted by the Burmese monk, U Chandramani, who was then the most senior monk in India. It was then that he was given the name Sangharakshita (Pali: Sangharakkhita), which means "protected by the spiritual community." Sangharakshita took full bhikkhu ordination the following year, with another Burmese bhikkhu, U Kawinda, as his preceptor (upādhyāya), and with the Ven. Jagdish Kashyap as his teacher (ācārya). He studied Pali, Abhidhamma, and Logic with Jagdish Kashyap at Benares (Varanasi) University. In 1950, at Kashyap's suggestion, Sangharakshita moved to the hill town of Kalimpong close to the borders of IndiaBhutanNepal. and Sikkim, and only a few miles from Tibet. Kalimpong was his base for 14 years until his return to England in 1966.

During his time in Kalimpong, Sangharakshita formed a young men's Buddhist association and established an ecumenical centre for the practice of Buddhism (the Triyana Vardhana Vihara). He also edited the Maha Bodhi Journal and established a magazine, Stepping Stones. In 1951, Sangharakshita met the German-born Lama Govinda, who was the first Buddhist Sangharakshita had known "to declare openly the compatibility of art with the spiritual life", and who gave Sangharakshita a greater appreciation for Tibetan Buddhism. Govinda had begun his explorations of Buddhism in the Theravada tradition, studying briefly under the German-born bhikkhu, Nyanatiloka Mahathera (who gave him the name Govinda), but after meeting the Gelug Lama, Tomo Geshe Rinpoche, in 1931, he turned towards Tibetan Buddhism. Sangharakshita's spiritual explorations were to follow a similar trajectory.

Sangharakshita was ordained in the Theravada school, but said he became disillusioned by what he felt was the dogmatism, formalism, and nationalism of many of the Theravadin bhikkhus he met and became increasingly influenced by Tibetan Buddhist teachers who had fled Tibet after the Chinese invasion in the 1950s. Two years after his meeting with Lama Govinda he began studying with the Gelug Lama, Dhardo Rinpoche. Sangharakshita also received initiations and teachings from teachers who included Jamyang KhyentseDudjom Rinpoche, as well as Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. It was Dhardo Rinpoche who was to give Sangharakshita Mayahana ordination.Later, Sangharakshita also studied with a Ch'an teacher, Yogi Chen (Chen Chien-Ming), along with another English monk, Bhikkhu Khantipalo. Together, the three men turned their ongoing seminar on Buddhist theory and practice into a book, Buddhist Meditation, Systematic and Practical.

Sangharakshita was an associate of B. R. Ambedkar. In 1952, Sangharakshita met Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956), the chief architect of the Indian constitution and India's first law minister. Ambedkar, who had been a so-called Untouchable, converted to Buddhism, along with 380,000 other Untouchables (now known as "dalits") on 14 October 1956.Ambedkar and Sangharakshita had been in correspondence since 1950, and the Indian politician had encouraged the young monk to expand his Buddhist activities. Ambedkar appreciated Sangharakshita's "commitment to a more critically engaged Buddhism that did not at the same time dilute the cardinal precepts of Buddhist thought".Ambedkar initially invited Sangharakshita to perform his conversion ceremony, but the latter refused, arguing that U Chandramani should preside. Ambedkar died six weeks later, leaving his conversion movement leaderless, and Sangharakshita, who had just arrived in Nagpur to visit dalit Buddhists, continued what he felt was Ambedkar's work by lecturing to former Untouchables, and presiding over a ceremony in which a further 200,000 Untouchables converted. For the next decade, Sangharakshita spent much of his time visiting dalit Buddhist communities in western India.

Return to the West

In 1964, Sangharakshita was invited to help with a dispute at the Hampstead Buddhist Vihara in north London,where he proved to be a popular teacher.His ecumenical approach and failure to conform to some of the trustees' expectations was said to contrast with the strict Theravadin-style Buddhism at the vihara. Although originally planning to stay only six months, he decided to settle in England, but after he returned to India for a farewell tour, the Vihara's trustees voted to expel him.

Sangharakshita returned to England and in April 1967 founded the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order.The Western Buddhist Order was founded a year later, when he ordained the first dozen men and women. The first ordinations were attended by a Zen monk, a Shin priest and two Theravadin monks.

Satisfied neither with the lay-Buddhist approach of the Buddhist Society, nor the monastic approach of the Hampstead vihara—the two dominant Buddhist organisations in Britain at that time—he created what he said was a new form of Buddhism. The order would be neither lay nor monastic,and members take a set of ten precepts that are a traditional part of Mahayana Buddhism.

Initially, Sangharakshita led all classes and conducted all ordinations. He gave lectures drawing on what he felt were the essential teachings of all the major Buddhist schools. He led major retreats twice a year and frequent day and weekend events. As the order grew, and centres became established across Britain and in other countries, order members took more responsibility until, in August 2000, he devolved his responsibilities as the head of the Western Buddhist Order to eight men and women who formed what was called the "College of Public Preceptors." In 2005 Sangharakshita donated all of his books and artefacts, with an insurance value of £314,400, to the charitable trust dedicated to his 'support and assistance' as well as enabling his office to 'maintain contact with his disciples and friends worldwide' and to 'support them in activities'.In 2015 this trust had an income of £140K, and for 2016 it was £73K.

Sangharakshita died, aged 93, on 30 October 2018 after a short illness.

Allegations of sexual coercion and abuse

In 1997, Sangharakshita became the focus of controversy when The Guardian newspaper published complaints concerning some of his sexual relationships with FWBO members during the 1970s and 1980s. For a decade following these public revelations, he declined to give any response to concerns from within the movement that he had misused his position as a Buddhist teacher to sexually exploit young men. In 2010 it was reported that he had addressed the controversy, stressing that his sexual partners were, or appeared to be, willing, and he expressed regret for any mistakes. In 2016 a local BBC channel showed a report based on interviews with three men, one under the age of homosexual consent at the time, who claimed they had been pressured into having sex with Sangharakshita, being told it would help them “make spiritual progress” to have homosexual sex despite being heterosexual. In 2017 the Triratna Buddhist Order hired an accredited facilitator to work directly with any individuals feeling harmed as a result of past sexual involvement with Sangharakshita. In 2020, a group within the Order published a report resulting from investigations into these allegations aiming to "establish the facts related to Sangharakshita's sexual behaviour". The report included acknowledgements that Sangharakshita did "not always recognise the power imbalance between student and teacher", and that he "was not always willing or able to have meaningful dialogue after the sexual involvement had ended".

Contributions and legacy
Ven. Rewata Dhamma, Sangharakshita and Thich Nhat Hanh at the European Buddhist Union Congress, Berlin, 1992

Sangharakshita has been described as "among the first Westerners who devoted their life to the practice as well as the spreading of Buddhism" and also as a "prolific writer, translator, and practitioner of Buddhism". As a Westerner seeking to use Western concepts to communicate Buddhism, he has been compared to Teilhard de Chardin, termed "the founding father of Western Buddhism," and noted as "a skilled innovator in his efforts to translate Buddhism to the West."

For Sangharakshita, as with other Buddhists, the factor that unites all Buddhist schools is not any particular teaching, but the act of "going for refuge" (sarana-gamana), which he regards "not simply as a formula but as a life-changing event and as an ongoing "reorientation of one's life away from mundane concerns to the values embodied in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha." Any decisive act upon the spiritual path—renunciation, ordination, initiation, the attainment of Stream Entry, and the arising of the bodhicitta—are manifestations or examples of Going for Refuge.

Sangharakshita has acknowledged that “Triratna sometimes bears the mark not of the dharma but of my own particular personality”. Among his distinctive views is his use of the scientific theory of evolution as a metaphor for spiritual development, referring to biological evolution as the "lower evolution" and spiritual development as being a form of self-directed "higher evolution".[citation needed] Though he considers women and men equally capable of Enlightenment and ordained them equally right from the start, he has also said he had "tentatively reached the conclusion that the spiritual life is more difficult for women because they are less able than men to envisage...something purely transcendental..." He also criticised heterosexual nuclear relationships as tending to neuroticism. The FWBO has been accused of cult-like behaviour in the 1970s and 80s for encouraging heterosexual men to engage in sexual relationships with men in order to get over their fear of intimacy with men and obtain spiritual growth. He has drawn parallels between Buddhism and the spirit of the Romantics, who believed that what art reveals has great moral and spiritual significance, and has written of "the religion of art."

Including compilations of his talks, Sangharakshita has authored more than 60 books. Meanwhile, the Triratna Buddhist Community, which he founded as the FWBO, has been described as "perhaps the most successful attempt to create an ecumenical international Buddhist organization". The community is one of the three largest Buddhist movements in Britain, and has a presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and Africa. More than a fifth of all Order members, as of 2006, were in India, where Dr. Ambedkar's mission to convert dalits to Buddhism continues. Martin Baumann, a scholar of Buddhism, has estimated that there are 100,000 people worldwide who are affiliated with the Triratna Buddhist Community.

For Buddhologist Francis Brassard, Sangharakshita's major contribution is "without doubt his attempt to translate the ideas and practices of [Buddhism] into Western languages." The non-denominational nature of the Triratna Buddhist Community, its equal ordination for both men and women, and its evolution of new forms of shared practice, such as what it calls team-based right livelihood projects, have been cited as examples of such "translation", and also as the creation of a "Buddhist society in miniature within the Western, industrialized world" For Martin Baumann, the Triratna Buddhist Community serves as proof that "Western concepts, such as a capitalistic work ethos, ecological considerations, and a social-reformist perspective, can be integrated into the Buddhist tradition".

Anagarika Dharmapala: A Biographical Sketch
Great Buddhists of the Twentieth Century

Books on Buddhism
The Eternal Legacy: An Introduction to the Canonical Literature of Buddhism
A Survey of Buddhism: Its Doctrines and Methods Through the Ages
The Ten Pillars of Buddhism
The Three Jewels: The Central Ideals of Buddhism

Edited seminars and lectures on Buddhism
The Bodhisattva Ideal
Buddha Mind
The Buddha's Victory
Buddhism for Today – and Tomorrow
Creative Symbols of Tantric Buddhism
The Drama of Cosmic Enlightenment
The Essence of Zen
A Guide to the Buddhist Path
Human Enlightenment
The Inconceivable Emancipation
Know Your Mind
Living with Awareness
Living with Kindness
The Meaning of Conversion in Buddhism
New Currents in Western Buddhism
Ritual and Devotion in Buddhism
The Taste of Freedom
The Yogi's Joy: Songs of Milarepa
Tibetan Buddhism: An Introduction
Transforming Self and World
Vision and Transformation (also known as The Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path)
Who Is the Buddha?
What Is the Dharma?
What Is the Sangha?
Wisdom Beyond Words

Essays and papers
Alternative Traditions
Crossing the Stream
Going For Refuge
The Priceless Jewel
Aspects of Buddhist Morality
Dialogue between Buddhism and Christianity
The Journey to Il Covento
St Jerome Revisited
Buddhism and Blasphemy
Buddhism, World Peace, and Nuclear War
The Bodhisattva Principle
The Glory of the Literary World
A Note on The Burial of Count Orgaz
Criticism East and West
Dharmapala: The Spiritual Dimension
With Allen Ginsburg in Kalimpong (1962)
Indian Buddhists
Ambedkar and Buddhism

Memoirs, autobiography and letters
Facing Mount Kanchenjunga: An English Buddhist in the Eastern Himalayas
From Genesis to the Diamond Sutra: A Western Buddhist's Encounters with Christianity
In the Sign of the Golden Wheel: Indian Memoirs of an English Buddhist
Moving Against the Stream: The Birth of a New Buddhist Movement
The Rainbow Road: From Tooting Broadway to Kalimpong
The History of My Going for Refuge
Precious Teachers
Travel Letters
Through Buddhist Eyes

Poetry and art
The Call of the Forest and Other Poems
Complete Poems 1941–1994
Conquering New Worlds: Selected Poems
Hercules and the Birds
In the Realm of the Lotus
The Religion of Art

Forty Three Years Ago: Reflections on My Bhikkhu Ordination
The FWBO and 'Protestant Buddhism': An Affirmation and a Protest
The Meaning of Orthodoxy in Buddhism
Was the Buddha a Bhikkhu? A Rejoinder to a Reply to 'Forty Three Years Ago'.
Sri Nisargadatta
Sri Nisargadatta was born on April 17, 1897, at break of dawn, the full moon in the month of Chaitra, to a devout Hindu couple Shivrampant Kambli and Parvatibai, in Bombay. The day was also the birthday of Lord Hanuman, hence the boy was named 'Maruti', after Lord Hanuman himself.Maruti Shivrampant Kambli was brought up in Kandalgaon, a small village in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, where he grew up amidst his family of six siblings, two brothers and four sisters, and deeply religious parents.His father, Shivrampant, worked as a domestic servant in Mumbai and later became a petty farmer in Kandalgaon.

In 1915, after his father died, he moved to Bombay to support his family back home, following his elder brother. Initially he worked as a junior clerk at an office but quickly he opened a small goods store, mainly selling bidis – leaf-rolled cigarettes, and soon owned a string of eight retail shops.

In 1924 he married Sumatibai and they had three daughters and a son.


In 1933, he was introduced to his guru, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, the head of the Inchegiri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya, by his friend Yashwantrao Baagkar. His guru told him, "You are not what you take yourself to be...".He then gave Nisargadatta simple instructions which he followed verbatim, as he himself recounted later:

"My Guru ordered me to attend to the sense 'I am' and to give attention to nothing else. I just obeyed. I did not follow any particular course of breathing, or meditation, or study of scriptures. Whatever happened, I would turn away my attention from it and remain with the sense 'I am'. It may look too simple, even crude. My only reason for doing it was that my Guru told me so. Yet it worked!"

Following his guru's instructions to concentrate on the feeling "I Am", he utilized all his spare time looking at himself in silence, and remained in that state for the coming years, practising meditation and singing devotional bhajans.

After an association that lasted hardly two and a half years, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj died on November 9, 1936, though by that time he had done his task. Maruti had reached self-awareness. Soon he adopted a new name, "Nisargadatta" meaning "naturally given" ("nis-arga" literally means "without parts," suggesting establishment in the unfragmented, seamless, solid Awareness He was also appointed as the spiritual head of the Inchegeri branch of Navnath Sampradaya, the 'Nine Masters’ tradition, a place he retained through his life.

In 1937, he left Mumbai and travelled across India.Through realising the shortcomings of a totally unworldly life and the greater spiritual fruitfulness of dispassionate action, he eventually returned to his family in Mumbai in 1938. It was there that he spent the rest of his life.

Later years

Between 1942-1948 he suffered two personal losses, first the death of his wife, Sumatibai, followed by the death of his daughter. He started taking disciples in 1951, only after a personal revelation from his guru, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj After he retired from his shop in 1966, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj continued to receive and teach visitors in his home, giving discourses twice a day, until his death on September 8, 1981 at the age of 84, of throat cancer

Style of Teaching

According to Sri Nisargadatta the purpose of spirituality is to know who you are, a viewpoint he expounded in the talks he gave at his humble flat in Khetwadi, Mumbai, where a mezzanine room was created for him to receive disciples and visitors. This room was also used for daily chantings, bhajans (devotional songs), meditation sessions, and discourses.

He talked about the 'direct way' of knowing the Final Reality, in which one becomes aware of one's original nature through mental discrimination, a method which is common to the teachers of the Navnath Sampradaya. This mental discrimination or the Bird's way ('Vihangam Marg') was also presented by Nisargadatta's co-disciple, Sri Ranjit Maharaj; wherein Self-Knowledge is gained just as a bird flying in the sky goes easily from branch to branch, instead of slowly crawling its way up the tree like an ant, as in the 'Pipilika Marg'. Here the disciple reaches straight to truth, without wasting time in long drawn out practices that would take him to the 'fruit' no doubt, only slowly. He proposed to use one's mental faculty to break from the unreal to the real, and the mind's false identification with the ego, simply by listening to and constantly thinking over what the master has said, and knowing that "You are already That".

The common teaching style of teaching of the Inchgiri Sampradaya masters (beginning with Shri Bhauseheb Maharaj) to Indian devotees was for the Master to select a passage from a traditional text on Advaita Vedanta, most commonly Dasbodh of Saint Shri Samarth Ramdas (as well as the "Yoga Vasishtha", "Saachara" of Shri Shankaracharya, and the "Ecknati Bhagwat" of Saint Ecknath), and to expound upon the meaning and import of that selected passage. Nisargadatta Maharaj and Ranjit Maharaj both deviated from this formal format by giving informal discourses for the benefit of western devotees who did not have access to Dasbodh or the other texts, and who were not familiar with Indian traditions and customs.

Many of Nisargadatta Maharaj's talks were recorded, and these recordings form the basis of I Am That and all of his other books. His words are free from cultural and religious trappings, and the knowledge he expounds is stripped bare of all that is unnecessary.

Summed up in the words of Advaita scholar and a disciple, Dr. Robert Powell, "Like the Zen masters of old, Nisargadatta's style is abrupt, provocative, and immensely profound -- cutting to the core and wasting little effort on inessentials. His terse but potent sayings are known for their ability to trigger shifts in consciousness, just by hearing, or even reading them."
A copy of Nisargadatta's "I Am That" in Hindi.
Sri Nisargadatta's teachings are grounded in the Advaita Vedanta interpretation of the Advaita idea Tat Tvam Asi, literally "That Thou Art", (Tat = "Divinity", Tvam = "You", Asi = "are") meaning You are (actually) Divinity (who thinks otherwise). He also had a strong devotional zeal towards his own guru, and suggested the path of devotion, Bhakti yoga, to some of his visitors, as he believed the path of knowledge, Jnana yoga was not for everyone.

According to Sri Nisargadatta, our true nature is perpetually free peaceful awareness, in Hinduism referred to as Brahman. Awareness is the source of, but different from, the personal, individual consciousness, which is related to the body. The mind and memory are responsible for association with a particular body; awareness exists prior to both mind and memory. It is only the idea that we are the body that keeps us from living what he calls our "original essence", the True Self, in Hinduism referred to as Atman.

He describes this essence as pure, free, and unaffected by anything that occurs. He likens it to a silent witness that watches through the body's senses, yet is not moved, either to happiness or sadness, based on what it sees.

For Nisargadatta, the Self is not one super-entity which knows independently, regardless of things; there is no such super-entity, no Creator with infinite intellect. God does not exist independently from creation. What does exist is the "total acting" (or functioning) of the Ultimate or Absolute Reality along the infinite varying forms in manifestation. This Absolute Reality is identical to the Self.

Nisargadatta's teachings also focus on our notion of causality as being misinterpreted. He understood that the interconnectedness of varying forces in the universe is so vast and innumerable that the notion of causality, as presently understood, is wasted. The endless factors required for anything to happen means that, at most, one can say everything creates everything; even the choices we make are predetermined by our genetic code, upbringing, mental strivings and limitations, our ethical and philosophical ideals, etc., all of which are uniquely combined to each person and recontextualized accordingly.

This leads to the radical notion that there is no such thing as a "doer". According to him and other teachers of Vedanta, since our true nature or identity is not the mind, is not the body, but the witness of the mind and body, we, as pure awareness, do nothing. The mind and body act of their own accord, and we are the witness of them, though the mind often believes it is the doer. This false idea (that the mind is the self and responsible for actions) is what keeps us from recognizing our Self. Nisargadatta cautions:

'"The life force [prana] and the mind are operating [of their own accord], but the mind will tempt you to believe that it is "you". Therefore understand always that you are the timeless spaceless witness. And even if the mind tells you that you are the one who is acting, don't believe the mind. [...] The apparatus [mind, body] which is functioning has come upon your original essence, but you are not that apparatus." - The Ultimate Medicine, (pp.54 - 70)

Among his most known disciples are Sailor Bob Adamson, Stephen Wolinsky, Jean Dunn, Alexander Smit, Robert Powell, Timothy Conway, and Ramesh Balsekar.

Quotes of Nisargadatta Maharaj

"All you can teach is understanding. The rest comes on its own.".

"Truth is not a reward for good behaviour, nor a prize for passing some tests. It cannot be brought about. It is the primary, the unborn, the ancient source of all that is. You are eligible because you are. You need not merit truth. It is your own. Just stop running away by running after. Stand still, be quiet. - Interview with Sri Nisargdatta Maharaj

"There is only life, there is nobody who lives a life." - I Am That pp. 43"My advice to you is very simple – just remember yourself, ‘I am’, it is enough to heal your mind and take you beyond, just have some trust. I don’t mislead you. Why should I? Do I want anything from you? I wish you well – such is my nature. Why should I mislead you? Common sense too will tell you that to fulfill a desire you must keep your mind on it. If you want to know your true nature, you must have yourself in mind all the time, until the secret of your being stands revealed." - I Am That

"A quiet mind is all you need. All else will happen rightly, once your mind is quiet. As the sun on rising makes the world active, so does self-awareness effect changes in the mind. In the light of calm and steady self-awareness inner energies wake up and work miracles without effort on your part."

"There is nothing to practice. To know yourself, be yourself. To be yourself, stop imagining yourself to be this or that. Just be. Let your true nature emerge. Don't disturb your mind with seeking."

"When I see I am nothing, that is wisdom. When I see I am everything, that is love. My life is a movement between these two."

"The search for Reality is the most dangerous of all undertakings, for it destroys the world in which you live."
Samineni Arulappa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Most Reverend
Samineni Arulappa
Archbishop of Hyderabad
Installed 6 December 1971
Term ended 29 January 2000
Predecessor Archbishop G. Joseph Mark
Successor Archbishop M. Joji
Ordination 6 May 1950
Consecration 13 February 1972
Personal details
Born 28 August 1924
Died 13 February 2005 (aged 80)
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Parents Rajamma and Samineni Chinnaiah
Motto Love and Serve

Archbishop Samineni Arulappa (28 August 1924 – 13 February 2005), often shortened to S Arulappa, was an Indian Catholic clergyman who served as the Archbishop of Hyderabad from December 1971 through January 2000. The youngest priest to be consecrated to such a high office, he was also the longest-serving Catholic archbishop in India. He was also the first archbishop who had the honour of being consecrated by Pope Paul VI in Rome.:42–51

"Love and Serve" was his motto.:40–41

Early years

Arulappa was born on 28 August 1924 to Rajamma and Chinnaiah in Kilacheri in the state of Tamil Nadu. He was the last born in a family of four sisters, two of whom are nuns, and two brothers.:5–6 He was brought up in an atmosphere of strict discipline by his mother, who wanted to see her only son become a priest. The Archbishop reminisces that her mother looked forward to the day when she could see him as a priest, but both his parents died before he was ordained a priest. He was since supported by his brother Samineni Anthaiah.:37–40

Divinity and pastorship
Seminary studies

Arulappa evinced keen interest in pursuing the vocation of priesthood and also assisted the priests as an altar boy during his childhood. He was sent to the Kandy Pontifical College (known as the Papal Seminary, it was built in 1893 by Pope Leo XIII), KandySri Lanka, to pursue theological studies. The Papal Seminary awarded Arulappa licentiate degrees in philosophy and theology (L. Ph. & L. Th.) on successfully completing his studies there. In 1955, the college re-located to Pune. (The Papal Seminary / Jnana Deepa Vidyapeeth is located in Ramwadi (Ahmednagar highway), Pune.)

Subsequently, he studied economics and education in Loyola College, Chennai.

Ordination and professorship

Arulappa was ordained as a priest on 6 May 1950 by Bishop Ignatius Glennie, S.J., the then Bishop of Trincomalee.

He joined the faculty of the Archdiocesan Minor & Major Seminaries in Madras and taught Latin and philosophy besides being the rector of the seminary.

Arulappa also served as a parish priest in two parishes and was principal of St. Joseph's Anglo-Indian Boys' High School in Madras.

He was sent to Oxford University, the oldest university in England, for post-graduate studies in public and social administration.

Later, Arulappa was appointed as the rector of Christ Hall Seminary, a philosophate in Karumathur in Madurai, and served as its rector.


Archdiocese of Hyderabad


G. Joseph Mark was the fifth bishop of Hyderabad and later became archbishop when the diocese of Hyderabad was elevated to an archdiocese on 19 September 1953.[3]:39–40 With his death on 28 February 1971, the office of the archbishop fell vacant.
St. Josephs, the seat of the Archbishop of Hyderabad

Fr. S. Arulappa of the archdiocese of Madras-Mylapore was brought in and nominated to the archbishopric of Hyderabad.

On 6 December 1971, he was appointed as the archbishop of Hyderabad. He was consecrated principally by Pope Paul VI and co-consecrators Cardinals Alfrink and Conway on 13 February 1972 at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

He was installed as the archbishop of Hyderabad on 19 March 1972 in the All Saints' School Grounds in Abids, Hyderabad.:40–41

Arulappa recollects that on 12 December 1971, he received a letter from the Apostolic Nunciature stating that he had been nominated as the archbishop of Hyderabad and all that he could do was just kneel down and pray like never before.


When the Archbishop took over the reins of the archdiocese, there were 18 parishes. At the time of his retirement, there were 60 parishes, which speaks about the work he undertook.

About 85 priests were ordained in the archdiocese during his archbishopric.

Arrival of the religious congregations

Altogether, 37 religious congregations were invited to work in the archdiocese.

Educational institutions

Apart from the formation of the Hyderabad Archdiocese Education Society (HAES), 35 high schools and 14 junior and degree colleges were opened.


Arulappa was instrumental in founding the Hyderabad Archdiocese Social Service Society (HASSS) in 1973 which is involved in diverse developmental activities cutting across religious lines.
Pastoral centre
Hyderabad Archdiocese Education Society (HAES)
Amruthavani communications centre
Andhra Pradesh Social Service Society

Missionaries of Charity

In 1974, the Archbishop visited Calcutta for a CBCI meeting and proceeded to invite Blessed Mother Teresa to work in the archdiocese of Hyderabad.[4]:47–50 In 1978, the Missionaries of Charity started arriving in Secunderabad, and on 15 August 1978, the work of the Missionaries of Charity was inaugurated. In January 1979, when Blessed Mother Teresa arrived in Hyderabad for the first time, the Archbishop was there to receive her and later took her to the residence of the then-Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy, who offered a part of a hospital in new Bhoiguda in Secunderabad for establishing a home for the dying destitute.

Erection of new dioceses

During the archbishopric of Arulappa, the region of Andhra Pradesh saw the erection of five new dioceses.

Relations with the government

Archbishop Arulappa did maintain good relations with the government. But when it came to laxity on the part of the government, he used to take them to task through the media.

Secunderabad hosts the Presidents of India annually. Rashtrapati Nilayam in Secunderabad is home to the Presidents during summers. The Archbishop used to call on them during the President's sojourn to Secunderabad. In 1982, President Giani Zail Singh visited St. Mary's Church in Secunderabad on invitation by the Archbishop.

On secularism

The Archbishop was known for his secular outlook. He remarked that one should have respect for other religions[4] and used to maintain cordial relations with leaders of other religious affiliations and was even invited to various fora. He spoke at spiritual conferences organised by Swami Ranganathananda of the Ramakrishna Mission and Swami Chidananda Saraswati of the Divine Life Society. He organised a number of inter-religious dialogues with various faiths, according to his grand nephew P.L. Arulraj, state youth wing general secretary of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of Andhra Pradesh.

On ecumenism and unity of the Church

In 1973, Arulappa took part in the inauguration of the new campus of the Andhra Christian Theological College, formed in 1964, which consisted of the AnglicanBaptistCongregationalLutheranMethodist and Wesleyan Societies and involved the seminarians from St. John's Regional Seminary to take part in the inaugural cultural programme.

In 1977, he shared a dais with the global evangelist Rev. Dr. Billy Graham and his associate Rev. Dr. Akbar Abdul Haqq during their conventions in Secunderabad. At another convention, he proposed common Eucharist among the Catholic and Protestant churches. The Archbishop never used to turn down any invitation extended by the different church societies belonging to either Catholic, Orthodox or Protestant backgrounds. He considered himself as a father to all.

The yearly United Christmas Celebrations organised by laymen of Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant backgrounds was the brainchild of the lay Methodists of Hyderabad. Together, they approached the three bishops resident in Hyderabad, namely, Archbishop S. Arulappa, Bishop Victor Premasagar (CSI Bishop-in-Medak), and Bishop Elia Peter (Methodist Bishop of Hyderabad Regional Conference) who gave their nod, and thus was born the United Christmas Celebrations, a yearly event to which either the Governor or Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh are invited with participation by all the churches of Hyderabad.


Catholic Bishop's Conference of India
Andhra Pradesh Bishop's Council
Chairman of the CBCI Commission of Education

Episcopal silver jubilee

On 8 February 1997, the Archbishop celebrated his episcopal silver jubilee in the grounds of St. Mary's High School in Secunderabad. Eight regional bishops were also present.[4] The book Want to be a Hero authored by the Archbishop was also released.

A Silver Jubilee Souvenir describing the achievements of Archbishop Arulappa was released by the Archdiocese of Hyderabad, entitled Archbishop Arulappa completes a Quarter Century, with articles by:

Msgr. B. Julian
Rev. Fr. J. Studen
Dr. B. F. Showrayya
Sri B. S. Innaiah
Smt. Evonne Maria
Kum. Corinne Campos
Smt. Christina Andrews
Smt. Nirmala Nair

Priestly golden jubilee

On 6 May 2000, the Archbishop celebrated his priestly golden jubilee.


On 29 January 2000, Arulappa retired from his position as the Archbishop on reaching 75 years of age but continued to live in the Archbishop's House at Secunderabad and was Archbishop Emeritus.

On his retirement, the Archdiocese of Hyderabad released a book Love and Serve, a brief memoir authored by Archbishop Arulappa himself.


Dr. J. A. Oliver of the Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Council of Churches:

...Fr. Arulappa was known for his uprightness and never minced words in distinguishing religion from culture.
Sri L. K. Advani, Past Deputy Prime Minister of India:

...admired for his patriotism and bold espousal of cultural nationalism.
Dr. Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy,[9] Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh:

...He was a man of the masses and people not only of the Catholic community but those from all religions loved and respected him immensely.
Sri K. R. Suresh Reddy, Speaker of the Legislature of Andhra Pradesh:

...a man of great image who dwelt on the hearts of multitude of people on the dint of his unforgettable social service.
Martin Michael and James Sylvester of the Catholic Association of Hyderabad

...During his three-decade-long tenure, he had seen the growth of the Archdiocese of Hyderabad from a mere 10 parishes to 72 in the districts of Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, Medak and Nizamabad.


Want to be a Hero - Anecdotes with a message, 1999, Amruthavani Publications, Secunderabad.

The Ethics of Religious Conversions, (with Dr. David Frawley), Pragna Bharathi, Hyderabad.

Quoted in B. K. Kiran's Education in Human Values for the Twenty-first Century, a NCERT publication

...Perhaps the most fundamental and insidious challenge, is “lack of political will”. Archbishop of Hyderabad, the Rev. Samineni Arulappa (1999) perceives a reason behind this frequently lamented phenomenon: “Apparently there seems to be no political will to solve the problems of education. Many political leaders often seems to be not really interested to change the system. They are happy to keep the masses ignorant and illiterate. There are people who say that the Indian politicians and bureaucrats have never sincerely tried to educate the masses. Once education becomes compulsory and universal, people will be conscious of their rights and will not allow themselves to be exploited. They can elect their leaders on the basis of character, intellectual and moral excellence rather than region and religion.” Where will political will come from? Or, perhaps more pressingly, can anything be done about the increasing void of “character, intellectual and moral excellence” among the populace in the meantime?

Ordination of women

The eminent Catholic scholar and theologian Father John WijngaardsMHML.S.S. (Rome), D. Th. (Rome) served as a lecturer in St. John's Regional Seminary, Hyderabad from 1964-1976 during the archbishopric of Arulappa. He espoused the cause of women priests.

Although Archbishop Arulappa expressed his respect for women, he remained faithful to the stance taken by Rome regarding women's ordination. Speaking at the plenary of the Association of Theologically Trained Women of India (ATTWI), held at the Auditorium of Stanley Girls High School, Chapel Road, Hyderabad, in 1999, he said that women in the Catholic Church were given duties like Bible reading, offering communion, etc., and were also holding independent positions in religious orders and managing institutions

Once, while addressing the Catholic Family Movement, he jocularly remarked that "God created man and rested. He created woman and neither God or man rested. That is the problem of all married people."On another occasion, he remarked that "Women are only asking for equality. I am one of those who say that women are actually superior to men!" Were the Archbishop remarks veiled references to his upbringing in a family of four sisters and a mother?


Archbishop Arulappa died in Hyderabad at the age of 80. In accordance to his wishes stated in a will, he was buried in the altar in St. Mary's Church, Secunderabad, on 14 February 2005.
Stanley Jedidiah Samartha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stanley Jedidiah Samartha
ಸ್ಟಾನ್ಲಿ ಜೆದಿದಿಃ ಸಮರ್ಥ
Born 7 October 1920

Karkala, Karnataka, India
Died 22 July 2001 (aged 80)

Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Other names Samartha
St. Aloysius College, Mangalore (B.A.)
Spouse(s) Iris Edna Samartha
Children Usha Benjamin, Kamalini Cook, Ravi Samartha

Church Church of South India, Diocese of Karnataka Central
Ordained 30 March 1952

Congregations served

Offices held
Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies, World Council of Churches
Theological Teacher

Basel Evangelical Mission Theological Seminary (now Karnataka Theological College), Mangalore

Title Reverend Doctor

Stanley Jedidiah Samartha[1] (Kannada: ಸ್ಟಾನ್ಲಿ ಜೆದಿದಿಃ ಸಮರ್ಥ; 7 October 1920 – 22 July 2001) was an Indian theologian and a participant in inter-religious dialogue.

Samartha's major contribution was through the World Council of Churches (WCC) sub-unit "Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies" of which he was the first director.

Western Scholars on Hinduism like Jan Peter Schouten[3] brings Samartha in the line of thinking of M. M. Thomas (an Indian thinker) and Raimundo Panikkar (a Catholic Priest) terming them as the "Great Three"  of whom Samartha was very involved in the developments in the Church in India.

Early life and education

Stanley Jedidiah was born on 7 October 1920 in Karkala, Karnataka into a pastoral family. His mother was a primary school Teacher while his father was a Pastor with the Basel Evangelical Mission. Stanley had his education at the Basel Evangelical Mission High School[6] after which he enrolled at the local Government College. Later in 1939 he joined the Jesuit St. Aloysius College (then affiliated to the University of Madras) from where he obtained a B.A. in 1941.


It felt natural for Stanley to follow in the footsteps of his father, a Pastor. The Basel Evangelical Mission Board approved his candidature for theological studies and sent him to the United Theological CollegeBengaluru in 1941. While pursuing theology, Stanley was afflicted with typhoid which kept him out of the Seminary for a year. While at the Seminary, Samartha came under the influence of his Professors, particularly Marcus Ward and P. D. Devanandan. In 1945, he was awarded the graduate degree of BD from the Seminary.

Pastor and lecturership

From 1945 to 1947, Stanley served as an Assistant to the Pastor in Udipi. Stanley was appointed as lecturer in the Basel Evangelical Mission Theological Seminary (now Karnataka Theological College) ,[8] Mangalore beginning from the academic year 1947 - 1948 to teach Theology and Religions. After availing study leave for the period 1949 - 1952 Samartha returned to the Seminary and resumed teaching responsibilities.

The Basel Evangelical Mission ordained S. J. Samartha on 30 March 1952.

In 1952, the Seminary made Samartha its Principal, a position in which he continued up to 1960. In fact, he was the Seminary's first Indian Principal. It was during Samartha's period at Mangalore that the Seminary became affiliated to the Senate of Serampore College (University), West Bengal.

Higher studies

The Basel Evangelical Mission sent Stanley to the Union Theological Seminary in the city of New York for post-graduate studies (S.T.M.) in 1949. He studied under Paul Tillich, the Christian existentialist Philosopher and worked out a thesis titled The Hindu View of History According to Dr. S. Radhakrishnan which eventually got published.

In 1950, Stanley enrolled as a doctoral candidate at the Hartford Theological SeminaryConnecticut and was awarded a PhD in 1951. Samartha's doctoral thesis was entitled The Modern Hindu View of History according to Representative Thinkers".

After completion of doctoral studies at Hartford Theological Seminary in 1951, Samartha spent a year at BaselSwitzerland at the invitation of the Basel Mission Board. Being at Basel seemed to have thrilled Samartha since it was the very mission board through which his parents came to Christ. While spending his days here, he also began attending Karl Barth's weekly lectures at the University of Basel besides visiting the local congregations in Switzerland as well as in Germany. It was here that he also met Hendrik Kraemer, the Dutch Reformed Theologian and the first Director of the Ecumenical Institute, Bossey.


While being the Principal at Mangalore, Samartha availed a sabbatical and taught for an academic year (1957–1958) at his alma mater, the Hartford Theological Seminary before returning to Mangalore.


In 1960, Samartha moved to the United Theological College, Bengaluru where he began teaching Philosophy and History of Religions.


William Stewart had been the Principal of Serampore College from 1959 to 1966. The Council of Serampore College appointed Samartha as the Principal of Serampore College {the only constituent college of the Senate of Serampore College (University)} in 1966. Samartha led the College through turbulent times up to 1968 after which he took up an assignment with the World Council of Churches. Among those who studied under his Principalship in Serampore included James Massey, S. Jeyapaul David and G. Babu Rao.

Appraisal by other Scholars

Israel Selvanayagam, Principal, United Theological College, Bengaluru.

.....What is imperative for him (Samartha) is 'dialogue', which he defines as 'a mood, a spirit, an attitude of love and respect towards neighbours of other faiths. It regards partners as persons, not as statistics. Understood and practised as an intentional life-style, it goes far beyond a sterile co-existence or uncritical friendliness'.

Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe of Indonesia:

..... Samartha was a productive thinker who was interested not only in theological, but also historical and philosophical problems, who paid much attention to Western thinkers as well as to such Indian philosophers as VivekanandaRadhakrishnan, and Gandhi. He was trying to "dialogue" with these ideas, and to come to his own interpretation of Christ within the Indian context.

Hans Schwarz, University of Regensburg, Germany.

.....For Samartha, there could not be any Christology without theology and no Christian theology apart from Jesus Christ but there can be and are theologies without reference to Jesus Christ namely in other religions. Samartha asserted that to ignore or deny this fact was like being insensitive to the faiths of our neighbours.

Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Professor of Systematic Theology, Fuller Theological SeminaryPasadena.

.....Stanley J. Samartha sees in the coming of Jesus Christ part of "God's dialogue with humanity." Our dialogue with people of other faiths is part of our participation in God's dialogue with humanity. And since Jesus Christ came to create a new kind of community "through forgiveness, reconciliation, and a new creation," dialogue is necessary to incorporate others into that community. Participants in the dialogue can trust the Holy Spirit to lead all into truth.

Timothy Yates, an Anglican Evangelical Missiologist, Durham.

.....Samartha made the proposal that to overcome the personal-impersonal divide between Christianity and Eastern religions, Hindu and Buddhist, the Eastern approach to truth as 'impersonal' be viewed instead as 'trans-personal' or 'supra-personal'. He was no doubt aware that there has been a strand of Orthodox theological tradition which has used the impersonal in relation to God in the interests of stressing the mystery of the Godhead.

Kirsteen Kim, Past Lecturer, Union Biblical SeminaryPune.

.....Samartha stressed that dialogue takes place 'in community' because discussion does not centre on 'other faiths' as religious systems but on their adherents, whom Samartha called 'our neighbours of other faiths'. Thus he stressed the experiential nature of dialogue and was concerned not so much with 'systems of thought' as with 'living faiths'. In Samartha's view, though seeking truth is the aim of dialogue, truth can only be an issue when mutual respect of one another's convictions has first been reached; that is, a pluralist approach in which no one tradition can claim a monopoly on truth is a prerequisite for dialogue. However, he was at pains to point out that this does not mean that the partners in dialogue suspend their respective religious commitments since dialogue is a combination of 'commitment with openness'.


Samartha was acknowledged as a leading authority on inter-religious dialogue. S. Wesley Ariarajah quotes Samartha on dialogue:

Dialogue is not a matter of discussion but of relationships. it has more to do with people than with ideas. Dialogue is a spirit, a mood, an attitude towards neighbours of other faiths. In a multi-religious country like India where the destinies of different religious communities are intertwined and where people of different religious persuasions and ideological convictions face the same human problems in the life of the nation we need to remove suspicion, and build up confidence and trust between people. Thus, in a community where people of different faiths live and work together, dialogue can become an expression of Christian neighbourliness and part of the Christian ministry in a pluralist world.


Criticism wasn't too far. Sunand Sumithra in his doctoral dissertation defended at the University of Tübingen, Germany in 1981 criticised (page 217) the work of Samartha arguing that Samartha failed to project Christ's distinctness in a pluralistic context. However, Samartha responded that Sunand Sumithra was not aware of the beliefs of other faiths. Kirsteen Kim believed that Sunand Sumithra was indeed aware of the beliefs of others and only wanted to distinguish Christ from others.

Further, Sunand Sumithra in a book on Christian Theology from an Indian Perspective evaluated Samartha's writings. He summarised that Samartha resorted to Advaitic system not on theological grounds but on mere empirical enquiry.

Similarly, Ken Gnanakan of the South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies, Bengaluru argued that Samartha's writings failed to uphold the Biblical Text in a setting of theology of religions.

Sunand Sumithra and Ken Gnanakan may have been right in their argument if one looks into a recent doctoral work by Dirk Griffioen submitted to the Utrecht University where Dirk brings to light the fact that Samartha rejected the Dutch Reformed Theologian Hendrik Kraemer's version of Christology stating that it was Christomonistic and not theocentric.

Samartha first met Hendrik Kraemer in Bossey during his sabbatical in Basel.

Stint at WCC

After being relieved as Principal of Serampore College, Serampore in 1968, Samartha served as Associate Secretary, Department of Studies in Mission and Evangelism in Geneva up to 1971 working closely with Hans-Jochen Margull, Professor of Missions at the University of Hamburg, Hamburg.

It was at the Central Committee meeting at Addis Ababa in 1971 that a sub-unit of the WCC Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies was set up with Samartha as its first Director. S. Wesley Ariarajah succeeded Samartha at the WCC.


In 1982, the Karnataka Theological College, Mangalore brought out a festschrift in his honour edited by the then Principal Rev. Dr. C. D. Jathanna entitled Dialogue in Community: Essays in Honour of Stanley J. Samartha.

India's first University, the Senate of Serampore College (University) in West Bengal conferred upon Samartha an honorary doctorate in 1986

In the same year, the Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands also awarded him an honorary doctorat.

Retirement and death

In 1980, Samartha returned to India after his stint in Geneva with the WCC was over and was Consultant to the Christian Institute for Study of Religion and Society (CISRS), Bengaluru and also Visiting Professor at the United Theological College, Bengaluru. After 1989, Samartha returned to India and got empanelled on South Asia Theological Research Institute's Committee supervising theses on Theology and Religions in Bengaluru.

A Press Release issued by the World Council of Churches Office of Communication on 24 July 2001 stated that Stanley Samartha died of prolonged illness on 22 July 2001 in Bengaluru.
Stephen Lepcha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Most Reverend

Stephen Lepcha
Archdiocese Calcutta
Diocese Darjeeling
Appointed 14 June 1997
Installed 8 December 1997
Predecessor Eric Benjamin
Successor Incumbent
Ordination 15 December 1982
Consecration 8 December 1997
Personal details
Birth name Stephen Lepcha
Born 22 December 1952; 
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Bishop's House, DarjeelingWest Bengal, 734101, India

Bishop Stephen Lepcha born 22 December 1952, is the serving Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Darjeeling.

Early life

He was born in SurukDarjeelingWest BengalIndia on 22 December 1952.


He was ordained a Catholic priest on 15 December 1982.


He was appointed Bishop of Darjeeling on 14 June 1997 and Ordained on 8 December 1997.
Roger Gaikwad
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roger Gaikwad
Born February 13, 1953
Maharashtra, India
Nationality Indian
Education B.A {honours (special)}
Occupation Theologian

Church Mizoram Presbyterian Church Synod
Ordained Deacon: 1976 by Methodist Church in India;

Congregations served English Methodist Church, Jabalpur (1977-1978), English Congregation Church, Aizawl (1978-2002),

Offices held ProfessorAizawl Theological CollegeAizawl (1978-2002),
Director, Senate Centre for Extension and Pastoral Theological Research of the Senate of Serampore College, Kolkata (2003-2006),
Title The Reverend Doctor

Roger Gaikwad (born February 13, 1953) was General Secretary of the National Council of Churches in India (comprising Protestant and Orthodox Church Societies in India) and has been in office from 2010 through 2019.

Gaikwad also served as a Senator of the Senate of Serampore College (University), the nation's first University from 2011-2014 representing the Presbyterian Church.

Gaikwad's graduate studies at the Wilson College, Mumbai, he was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in honours (special) by the Bombay University. For ministerial formation, Gaikwad enrolled at the Leonard Theological College, Jabalpur, a Seminary where the Old Testament Scholar Wolfgang Roth once taught, affiliated to the nation's first University as a Methodist student from where he obtained a Bachelor of Divinity degree awarded by the Senate of Serampore College (University) after his three-year course from 1974-1977. During Gaikwad's stint at the Aizawl Theological CollegeAizawl, he went on study leave and enrolled at the North India Institute for Post Graduate Theological Studies, a joint initiative of the Bishop's College, Kolkata and the Serampore CollegeSerampore where he pursued a Master of Theology degree specialising in Religions. During the penultimate year of his study, Gaikwad moved to Bangalore and pursued a one-year special course at the United Theological College, Bangalore in 1981, then under the Principalship of Joshua Russell Chandran, where he worked on his dissertation entitled Karma and Transmigration in Modern Hinduism: An evaluation of the interpretation of the concepts of the thought of M. K. Gandhi, Aurobindo and S. Radhakrishnan.

For doctoral studies, Gaikwad joined the South Asia Theological Research Institute where he researched and worked out a dissertation entitled Major Issues in Dialogical Pluralism for Inter-relationship. after which the Senate of Serampore College (University) under the Registrarship of D. S. Satyaranjan awarded him a Doctor of Theology degree in 1995.

Ecclesiastical ministry

Gaikwad was a Teacher at the Aizawl Theological CollegeAizawl from 1978 through 2010. From 2002 through 2008, Gaikwad went on leave and served as Director of the Senate Centre for Extension and Pastoral Theological Research of the Senate of Serampore College in Kolkata and returned in 2008 to take over as the Principal of the Aizawl Theological College.


1997, Rethinking Indian Christianity From A Tribal Perspective
2002, Forces of communalism in India
2002, Issues in Christian Relationships with People of Other Faiths in Asia
2004, Diversified Theological Education,
2006, Some stances of Christians on integrating peace concerns in our lives
2006, The Jubilee - an Alternative to Globalisation - (Luke 4:16-21 and Leviticus 25)
2008, The Extension Programme of the Senate of Serampore College

Honorary commitments

Gaikwad was Chairperson of the World Student Christian Federation, Asia Pacific Region from 2005 through 2008. In fact Gaikwad had already been Chairperson of the Student Christian Movement of India during the terms 1996-2001 and again 2003-2005.

As General Secretary of the National Council of Churches in India, Gaikwad is ex officio member of the following ecclesiastical organisations, Board of Theological Education of the Senate of Serampore CollegeBangalore,Council of Management of the Christian Literature Society, ChennaiHenry Martyn Institute, HyderabadEducational offices Preceded by Post created Director, Senate Centre for Extension and Pastoral Theological Research of the Senate of Serampore College, Kolkata
2003-2006 Succeeded by Wati A. Longchar
2006- Academic offices Preceded by H. Vànlalauva
1999-2007 Principal, Aizawl Theological CollegeAizawl
2008-2010 Succeeded by Vanlalchhuanawma
2011- Religious titles Preceded by D. K. Sahu
2005-2009 General Secretary, National Council of Churches in India
2010-2019 Succeeded by Asir Ebenezer
Siddharudha Swami
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siddharudha Swami
Siddharudha Swamiji
Title Sadguru Siddharudha Swami
Born 26 March 1836

Died 21 August 1929 (aged 93)

Resting place Siddharudha Matha, Hubballi, Karnataka District = Dharwad,Karnataka
Religion Hinduism
Nationality Indian

Gurushantappa (father)
Devamallamma (mother)
Philosophy Shaivism
Religious career
Guru Gajadanda Swami

Siddharudha Swami was an Indian hindu guru and Philosopher.


Sadguru Siddharudha Maharaj lived in the style of an ascetic throughout his life. He condemned practice of casteism and conceived divinity in everything that exists, as well as disagreeing with the common notion that Brahmins were the only ones entitled to liberation, firmly believing that everyone is equally entitled. Considered to be an incarnation of Shiva, one of the Trinity deities of Hinduism, Siddharudha renounced his home and his family ties at the very young age of 6 years, and set himself the goal of finding his Satguru or spiritual master. Siddharudha later surrendered himself, as a student, to the realized soul Shri Gajadandaswami, and served at his ashram.

According to the book Siddharoodh Charitra by Shivadas, Siddharudha was blessed by his guru and was asked to undertake a pilgrimage with the purpose of helping those in need, dispelling ignorance, and revealing the right path to spiritual enlightenment to those who were seeking. Thenceforth, Siddharudha traveled from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, delivering the right wisdom for spiritual awakening and methodical liberation to all those who were cognizant of his exemplary standards of spiritual practice before setting down at Hubli, where he was quickly recognized for his spiritual knowledge & immaculate sainthood. People sought him out from neighbouring states for solace, satisfaction of desires and spiritual enlightenment.

He died at Hubballi in the year of 1929 and was entombed at his ashram. He was believed to be working miracles for his devotees. A proverb runs by in a native Indian Language kannada:

Siddharudhara Jolige Jagakkella holige

which signifies the food that is served at his ashram and the miracles that occur of it.

He served the people without any discrimination, having a Muslim disciple named Kabirdas (not his original name) who was known for his dedication to him.
Parampoojya Shri Kalavati Devi (alias Aai meaning mother in Marathi), was his supreme disciple. Formerly known as Rukmabai Mallapur, she herself is well known as a supreme saint, whose samadhi is found at Shri Harimandir at Angol,Belgaum.
He had a devoted disciple, Gurunatharudha. His samadhi is just beside the samadhi of Sri Siddharudha Swami in Hubli Matha.
He gave sannyasa to Swami Muktananda, who studied at his ashram in Hubli until Siddharudha's death in 1929, he then left to study with a disciple of Siddharudha called Muppinarya Swami at his Sri Airani Holematt in Ranebennur Haveri District
shri guru also had a disciple, shri shivaputra appaji who's samadhi is situated at 20 metres distance from siddharoodh math. At present shri abhinav shivaputra swamiji is head of that math.
Sri Iychanda Bolliappa from Devanageri village was his supreme disciple. Swami Bolliappa was a regular visitor to Siddharudha mata located in cherambane village, kodagu district, Karnataka.


Siddharudha Maharaj is an acknowledged Hindu master of the Saivite Advaita stream of Vedic thought and has many followers throughout India, especially in the villages of KarnatakaMaharashtra and Telugu states.
Swami Kalyandev
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Swami Kalyandev
Kalyandev ji Maharaj
26 June 1876 (claimed)

Died 14 July 2004 (claimed age 128)
Known for Alleged supercentenarian status

Kalyandev ji Maharaj (died 14 July 2004), known as Swami Kalyandev, was an Indian-born ascetic who was awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award in India, for his social work in the villages of India.


Swami Kalyandev was born as Kaluram on the claimed date of 26 June 1876, in the village of Kotana, Bagpat districtUttar Pradesh and grew up in Mundbhar, Muzaffarnagar. In his youth, he traveled to Ayodhya and Haridwar. While in Haridwar he heard of Swami Vivekananda's visit to Khetri, and traveled there to meet him.

On his return from Khetri, Kalyandev became the disciple of Swami Purnananda of Muni Ki RetiRishikesh. Purananda named him Swami Kalyandev. Kalyandev did tapasya in the Himalayas for a few years but then decided to help the poor people of his region. Kalyandev established almost three hundred schools and medical facilities for the people of western Uttar PradeshHaryanaPunjabRajasthanDelhi and elsewhere. He was also noted for his advocacy against untouchability and the caste system.

Kalyandev also supported rebuilding of neglected religious and historical sites. He renovated a monument in Shuktal, Muzaffarnagar associated with Shuka. There, he also established the Shukadeva Ashrama and Seva Samiti. He also renovated parts of Hastinapur, and several pilgrimage sites in Haryana.

Later life

In 1982 he received the Padma Sri award, and in 2000 he received the Padma Bhushan. He was also awarded an honorary D.Litt. by Meerut University. In the late 1980s future Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh came to Shukatal to pray along with his wife and Kalyandev told him to do his first rally near Bhayla. His advice has been credited with repopularizing Singh as a politician.

During an interview, Kalyandev said his inspiration came in 1893, when he met Vivekananda in Khetri, who said to him, "If you want to see God, go to the huts of the poor. And if you want to attain God, then serve the poor, the helpless, the downtrodden and the miserable." Kalyandev stated that to attain God through service of the poor is the mantra he received from Swamiji.

Swami Kalyandev died in India on 14 July 2004. His age has been disputed due to uncertainty surrounding his birth date.
Sam P. Chelladurai
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sam P. Chelladurai
Born 7 December 1952

Occupation Pastor
Spouse(s) Dr. Manju Chelladurai
Children Jeevan Chelladurai, Priyadarshini Chelladurai
Website RevSam.Org

Sam P. Chelladurai (Tamil: சாம் பி.செல்லதுரை) is the senior pastor of the Apostolic Fellowship Tabernacle (more commonly known by its initials, AFT), a megachurch in PurasawalkamChennai. He is best known for his successful television programs, which are televised church services that predominantly feature his sermons. His Tamil language program, Vettriyum Vaazhvum (Victory and Life), which aired on DD Podhigai, was viewed by Tamil audiences all over India. His English Program, "God is Good" aired on "GOD TV" which was well-received among the youth. In addition to being televised, all of his church services are also "webcast" live on his website as well as on his church's YouTube channel. His other ministries include the Full Gospel Bible Institute, Campaign India (an Evangelistic outreach program), and teaching seminars throughout South India and other countries occasionally.

List of television programs

Tamil language | Tamil broadcast – Nambikkai TV, DD Podhigai TV (former)
English language | English broadcast – Good News TV, GOD TV (former)
Hindi language | Hindi broadcast – Shubhsandesh TV
Live broadcasts – Salvation TV, Holy God TV (former), JTK TV (former)

The Full Gospel Bible College

He is the principal of 'The Full Gospel Bible College', which offers degree courses such as Diploma in Theology (D.Th.) and Bachelor of Theology (B.Th.).
Swami Saswathikananda
There were many who considered him as an enemy

The mystery surrounding the death of Saswathikananda which occurred on July 1, 2002, has got a new twist with close friend Surendran alleging that not only Vellappally Natesan but some members within the Mutt might have had a role because of animosity towards him.

The case has been in the news lately with several allegations and counter-allegations flying thick and fast.

Swami’s close aide and a childhood friend Surendran K says that though he loved everyone, there were many who considered him as an enemy.

“He was a good administrator, a real follower of Sree Narayana Guru, above all he never deviated from his ethics and because of this he had many enemies. He even had enemies inside the Mutt,” Surendran said.

“Swami was very strict in checking corruption at Sree Narayana institutions, whether it is Mutt or other related organisations. So whoever was affected by his strict actions considered him an enemy,” he said.

On Vellappally Natesan, Surendran said, “Swami knew Natesan was a fraud. But he did not know how to hate others, so Natesan got all freedom. Swami was the one who supported Natesan to get to positions.”

Some background on who Saswathikananda was?

The real name of Saswathikananda was Sasidharan, who was the eldest child of Chellappan and Kausalya and belonged to a poor family.

Swami’s younger brother V Rajendran says, “At home we were in extreme poverty, no food to eat and no clothes to wear, that was the reason why Swami decided to go to the Mutt when he was 14 years old. At the Mutt, they gave free food, stay and education.”

According to Rajendran, his brother was a real saint, who loved his enemies and who helped others unconditionally. “From childhood, he was a different person, calm, quiet and treated everyone equally,” he says.

When he was 18 or 19 years old, he left the Mutt and wandered a lot like a sanyasi and returned after a few years. His decision to become a seer had shocked the family according to Rajendran.

“When one day I asked him to apply for a job he said he had become a sanyasi and was not interested in other life. We were shocked and our mother tried to stop him from that, but he was firm in his decision.”

“He visited home only four times after he joined the Mutt and he never shared anything personal with family,” Rajendran recalls.

Swami’s rise was meteoric and he became the youngest to head the Sivagiri Mutt.

Allegations against Swami

There are also accusations by the Swami’s natives to suggest that he was not all that pious.

One of the sources who was closely associated with the Swami and sought anonymity said, he was a goonda leader. “Swami had another face, he was a goonda leader. Everyone who is associated with him knows it. He had cases registered against him. He also had a murder case registered against him, after he passed away."

Death shrouded in mystery

According to sources, on June 30, Swami visited his friend Raveendran in Thiruvnanthapuram and had lunch at his house. He then left for Aluva by car and was not seen alive after that.

“Swami had shown his train ticket to Raveendran and told him that he had booked it earlier, but later Swami travelled in a Maruti 800 car to Aluva where some other Swami from the Mutt joined him in between. We don’t know why Swami cancelled the train journey, there is some mystery,” Surendran said.

It is believed that the Swami drowned in the Periyar river while taking a bath near Advaitashramam at Aluva near Kochi.

“Swami was a very good swimmer; he used to swim well even in sea. In childhood we used to do swimming competitions in the lake nearby. My mother used to say that he will never drown as he was an expert in swimming,” Rajendran said while adding, “it was a murder we all know that very well.”

Thevarparampil Kunjachan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Augustine of Ramapuram
Born 1 April 1891
RamapuramKerala, India
Died 16 October 1973 (aged 82)
RamapuramKerala, India
Venerated in Syro Malabar Church
Major shrine Mar Augustine's Forane Church, Ramapuram.
Feast 16 October

Thevarparambil Kunjachan (born Augustine Thevarparambil) was an Indian Syro-Malabar Catholic priest who dedicated himself to the spiritual and temporal welfare of marginalized Dalits.

Early life

Augustine was born on 1 April 1891, at Ramapuram in Travancore (present-day Kerala, India). He was the son of Itty Iype and Eliswa of the Thevarparambil clan, which was a branch of the Kuzhumpil lineage. Augustine received his primary education at a school sponsored by the government of Travancore. He advanced to St. Ephrem's School in Mannanam where his religious faith intensified, compelling him to pursue a career as a priest. After completing in secondary education at St Ephrem's School, Augustine embarked on a jounery on foot from Ramapuram to Changanacherry in order to enroll in St Thomas Minor Seminary. After receiving his major seminary formation at Puthenpally Seminary in Varapuzha, Augustine was ordained as a priest on July 16, 1915.

Early career

After celebrating his first mass at St. Augustine Church in Ramapuram, his home parish, Augustine resided in his home village for eight years while undergoing practical training. He was known as Kunjachan ('little priest' in Malayalam) for his short stature. In 1923, Augustine was appointed as assistant vicar to Thomas Kuzhumpil at St. Sebastian Church in Kadanad.

During his vocation in Kadanad, Kunjachan was often approached by the local villagers, who relied on his advice and blessings for their agricultural yield. Kunjachan would sprinkle holy water on crops, ensuring a plentiful harvest. Unfortunately, an illness forced Kunjachan to return to Ramapuram.

Missionary work

In Ramapuram, Kunjachan witnessed an entire caste of people deprived of dignity, respect, and the basic necessities of life. He would devote his entire life to the uplifting of the downtrodden. It is the singular achievement of Kunjachan that he had been able to baptize by himself no less than 5,000 Dalits (earlier the term 'Harijan' was used). He is to be counted as one of the foremost missionaries among the Dalits in India. In fact, he neither made use of eloquent sermons nor of any human techniques in order to give them the "Christ" of whom he was the herald. He preached with his works, practising charity, and always sublime and more dedicated.

Kunjachan led a very simple life for the poor and wished to be with them even after death. He spent everything he had for the poor. The Blessed who was a priest for more than 50 years, wrote in his Testament: "I do not possess anything either as landed property or as cash account... After my death, my funeral must be conducted in the most simple way. Ever since 1926, I had been staying with the Harijan (Dalit) Christians. Even after death, I would like to be with them. Therefore my dead body should be buried where the Harijan Christians are buried".


After a brief period of serious illness Kunjachan died on 16 October 1973 at the age of 82. At his death the children and others told that 'a saint has passed away'. At his funeral the priest who preached the panegyric, spoke well of his holiness in life, apostolic zeal, kindness of heart, love for the poor and other outstanding virtues. And towards the end of the speech he said to the surprise of all, "we are participating in the funeral of a saint. We have one more mediator in heaven."

Kunjachan had the reputation of a holy man even while he was alive. People irrespective of caste and religion, used to approach him in their manifold needs and they got favors through his prayers and blessings. Within a few days after his death his tomb at Ramapuram became a center of pilgrimage for people from far and wide.

Beatification and canonization
Beatified by Varkey Vithayathil, Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church on 30 April 2006.Participated by Papal Nuncio to India Archbishop Pedro Lopez Quintana and Cardinal Telesphore Toppo, President of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India (CBCI).

The process of beatification and canonization started on 11 August 1987 at Ramapuram, bestowing upon him the title, 'Servant of God'. The 'Positio super vita et virtutibus' was completed after ten years and was submitted at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on 12 February 1997. The 'positio' on the heroic practice of virtues of the saintly priest was approved by Pope John Paul II on 22 June 2004 and he was declared 'The Venerable'.

Meanwhile, the process of the miraculous cure of the clubfoot of a boy, Gilson Varghese, was undertaken, and the findings were sent to Rome for consideration. After a thorough investigation of the miraculous nature of the cure, made by personnel in Rome, Pope Benedict XVI approved it, opening the way for beatification. Kunjachan was beatified by Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil, Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Church on 30 April 2006 at the very same village Ramapuram where he was born, worked, died and buried.

The Papal Nuncio to India Archbishop Pedro López Quintana, Cardinal Telesphore Toppo, President of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India (CBCI), and other bishops and priests participated in the ceremony.

The Feast of Blessed Kunjachan is celebrated on 16 October every year.

Kunjachan had his last times at family house Thervarparampil Ramapuram.
Thomas Becket
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thomas Becket
19th-century depiction of Becket showing a sword piercing his head, at St Peter's ChurchBerkhamsted
Church Latin Church
Archdiocese Canterbury
Appointed 24 May 1162
Term ended 29 December 1170
Predecessor Theobald of Bec
Successor Roger de Bailleul (Archbishop-elect)
Ordination 2 June 1162
Consecration 3 June 1162
Personal details
Born 21 December c. 1119
Died 29 December 1170 (age 50 or 51)
Denomination Catholicism

Gilbert Beket
Previous post(s)

Coat of arms 
Feast day 29 December
Venerated in

Beatified by Pope Alexander III
Canonized 21 February 1173

In office

Monarch Henry II
Preceded by Robert of Ghent
Succeeded by Geoffrey Ridel

Attributed arms of Saint Thomas Becket: Argent, three Cornish choughs proper, visible in many English churches dedicated to him. As he died 30 to 45 years before the age of heraldry, he bore no arms.

Thomas Becket (/ˈbɛkɪt/), also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and later Thomas à Becket (21 December 1119 or 1120 – 29 December 1170), was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.


The main sources for the life of Becket are a number of biographies written by contemporaries. A few of these documents are by unknown writers, although traditional historiography has given them names. The known biographers are John of Salisbury, Edward GrimBenedict of Peterborough, William of Canterbury, William fitzStephenGuernes of Pont-Sainte-MaxenceRobert of Cricklade, Alan of Tewkesbury, Benet of St Albans, and Herbert of Bosham. The other biographers, who remain anonymous, are generally given the pseudonyms of Anonymous I, Anonymous II (or Anonymous of Lambeth), and Anonymous III (or Lansdowne Anonymous). Besides these accounts, there are also two other accounts that are likely contemporary that appear in the Quadrilogus II and the Thómas saga Erkibyskups. Besides these biographies, there is also the mention of the events of Becket's life in the chroniclers of the time. These include Robert of Torigni's work, Roger of Howden's Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi and Chronica, Ralph Diceto's works, William of Newburgh's Historia Rerum, and Gervase of Canterbury's works.

Early life

Becket was born about 1119, or in 1120 according to later tradition, at Cheapside, London, on 21 December, the feast day of St Thomas the Apostle. He was the son of Gilbert and Matilda Beket Gilbert's father was from Thierville in the lordship of Brionne in Normandy, and was either a small landowner or a petty knight. Matilda was also of Norman descent – her family may have originated near Caen. Gilbert was perhaps related to Theobald of Bec, whose family was also from Thierville. Gilbert began his life as a merchant, perhaps in textiles, but by the 1120s he was living in London and was a property owner, living on the rental income from his properties. He also served as the sheriff of the city at some point. They were buried in Old St Paul's Cathedral.

Plaque marking Becket's birthplace along Cheapside

One of Becket's father's wealthy friends, Richer de L'Aigle, often invited Thomas to his estates in Sussex, where Becket encountered hunting and hawking. According to Grim, Becket learnt much from Richer, who was later a signatory of the Constitutions of Clarendon against him.

At the age of 10, Becket was sent as a student to Merton Priory south-west of the city in Surrey. He later attended a grammar school in London, perhaps the one at St Paul's Cathedral. He did not study any subjects beyond the trivium and quadrivium at these schools. Around the age of 20, he spent about a year in Paris, but he did not study canon or civil law at the time and his Latin skill always remained somewhat rudimentary. Some time after Becket began his schooling, Gilbert Becket suffered financial reverses and the younger Becket was forced to earn a living as a clerk. Gilbert first secured a place for his son in the business of a relative – Osbert Huitdeniers. Later Becket acquired a position in the household of Theobald of Bec, by then Archbishop of Canterbury.

Theobald entrusted him with several important missions to Rome and also sent him to Bologna and Auxerre to study canon law. In 1154, Theobald named Becket Archdeacon of Canterbury, and other ecclesiastical offices included a number of beneficesprebends at Lincoln Cathedral and St Paul's Cathedral, and the office of Provost of Beverley. His efficiency in those posts led Theobald to recommend him to King Henry II for the vacant post of Lord Chancellor, to which Becket was appointed in January 1155.

As Chancellor, Becket enforced the king's traditional sources of revenue that were exacted from all landowners, including churches and bishoprics. King Henry sent his son Henry to live in Becket's household, it being the custom then for noble children to be fostered out to other noble houses.


Becket was nominated as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, several months after the death of Theobald. His election was confirmed on 23 May 1162 by a royal council of bishops and noblemen. Henry may have hoped that Becket would continue to put royal government first, rather than the church, but the famed transformation of Becket into an ascetic occurred at this time.

Becket enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury from a Nottingham Alabaster in the Victoria & Albert Museum

Becket was ordained a priest on 2 June 1162 at Canterbury, and on 3 June 1162 was consecrated as archbishop by Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester and the other suffragan bishops of Canterbury.

A rift grew between Henry and Becket as the new archbishop resigned his chancellorship and sought to recover and extend the rights of the archbishopric. This led to a series of conflicts with the King, including one over the jurisdiction of secular courts over English clergymen, which accelerated antipathy between Becket and the king. Attempts by Henry to influence other bishops against Becket began in Westminster in October 1163, where the King sought approval of the traditional rights of royal government in regard to the church. This led to the Constitutions of Clarendon, where Becket was officially asked to agree to the King's rights or face political repercussions.

Constitutions of Clarendon

Further information: Constitutions of Clarendon
14th-century depiction of Becket with King Henry II

King Henry II presided over assemblies of most of the higher English clergy at Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164. In 16 constitutions he sought less clerical independence and weaker connections with Rome. He used his skills to induce their consent and apparently succeeded with all but Becket. Finally, even Becket expressed willingness to agree to the substance of the Constitutions of Clarendon, but he still refused formally to sign the documents. Henry summoned Becket to appear before a great council at Northampton Castle on 8 October 1164, to answer allegations of contempt of royal authority and malfeasance in the Chancellor's office. Convicted on the charges, Becket stormed out of the trial and fled to the Continent.

Henry pursued the fugitive archbishop with a series of edicts, targeting Becket and all Becket's friends and supporters, but King Louis VII of France offered Becket protection. He spent nearly two years in the Cistercian abbey of Pontigny, until Henry's threats against the order obliged him to return to Sens. Becket fought back by threatening excommunication and an interdict against the king and bishops and the kingdom, but Pope Alexander III, though sympathising with him in theory, favoured a more diplomatic approach. Papal legates were sent in 1167 with authority to act as arbitrators.
Seal of the Abbot of Arbroath, showing the murder of Becket. Arbroath Abbey was founded 8 years after the death of St Thomas and dedicated to him; it became the wealthiest abbey in Scotland.

In 1170, Alexander sent delegates to impose a solution to the dispute. At that point, Henry offered a compromise that would allow Thomas to return to England from exile.

Becket's assassination and funeral, from a French enamelled chasse made about 1190–1200, one of about 52 surviving examples.
Sculpture and altar marking the spot of Thomas Becket's martyrdom, Canterbury Cathedral. The sculpture by Giles Blomfield represents the knights' four swords (two metal swords with reddened tips and their two shadows).

In June 1170, Roger de Pont L'Évêque, Archbishop of York, was at York with Gilbert FoliotBishop of London, and Josceline de BohonBishop of Salisburyto crown the heir apparent, Henry the Young King. This breached Canterbury's privilege of coronation and in November 1170 Becket excommunicated all three.

On hearing reports of Becket's actions, Henry is said to have uttered words interpreted by his men as wishing Becket killed. The exact wording is in doubt and several versions were reported. The most commonly quoted, as invented in 1740 and handed down by oral tradition, is "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?", but according to historian Simon Schama this is incorrect: he accepts the account of the contemporary biographer Edward Grim, writing in Latin, who gives, "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?" Many other variants have found their way into popular culture.

Whatever Henry said, it was interpreted as a royal command. Four knights, Reginald FitzUrseHugh de MorvilleWilliam de Tracy and Richard le Breton, set out to confront the Archbishop of Canterbury.

On 29 December 1170, they arrived at Canterbury. According to accounts by the monk Gervase of Canterbury and eyewitness Edward Grim, they placed their weapons under a tree outside the cathedral and hid their armour under cloaks before entering to challenge Becket. The knights told Becket he was to go to Winchester to give an account of his actions, but Becket refused. Not until he refused their demands to submit to the king's will did they retrieve their weapons and rushed back inside for the killing. Becket, meanwhile, proceeded to the main hall for vespers. The other monks tried to bolt themselves in for safety, but Becket said to them, "It is not right to make a fortress out of the house of prayer!", ordering them to reopen the doors.

The four knights, wielding drawn swords, ran into the room crying, "Where is Thomas Becket, traitor to the King and country?". They found Becket in a spot near a door to the monastic cloister, the stairs into the crypt, and the stairs leading up into the quire of the cathedral, where the monks were chanting vespers. On seeing them, Becket said, "I am no traitor and I am ready to die." One knight grabbed him and tried to pull him outside, but Becket grabbed onto a pillar and bowed his head to make peace with God.

Several contemporary accounts of what happened next exist; of particular note is that of Grim, who was wounded in the attack. This is part of his account:

...the impious knight... suddenly set upon him and [shaved] off the summit of his crown which the sacred chrism consecrated to God... Then, with another blow received on the head, he remained firm. But with the third the stricken martyr bent his knees and elbows, offering himself as a living sacrifice, saying in a low voice, "For the name of Jesus and the protection of the church I am ready to embrace death." But the third knight inflicted a grave wound on the fallen one; with this blow... his crown, which was large, separated from his head so that the blood turned white from the brain yet no less did the brain turn red from the blood; it purpled the appearance of the church... The fifth – not a knight but a cleric who had entered with the knights... placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr and (it is horrible to say) scattered the brains with the blood across the floor, exclaiming to the rest, "We can leave this place, knights, he will not get up again."

Another account appears in Expugnatio Hibernica ("Conquest of Ireland", 1189) by Gerald of Wales.

After Becket's death

After his death, the monks prepared Becket's s body for burial. According to some accounts, it was found that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments — a sign of penance. Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and on 21 February 1173 – little more than two years after his death – he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St Peter's Church, Segni. In 1173, Becket's sister Mary was appointed Abbess of Barking as reparation for the murder of her brother. On 12 July 1174, amidst the Revolt of 1173–74, Henry humbled himself in public penance at Becket's tomb and at the church of St. Dunstan's, which became a most popular pilgrimage site.

Becket's assassins fled north to de Morville's Knaresborough Castle for about a year. De Morville also held property in Cumbria and this too may have provided a hiding place, as the men prepared for a longer stay in the separate kingdom of Scotland. They were not arrested and Henry did not confiscate their lands, but he did not help them when they sought his advice in August 1171. Pope Alexander excommunicated all four. Seeking forgiveness, the assassins travelled to Rome, where the Pope ordered them to serve as knights in the Holy Lands for a period of 14 years.

This sentence also inspired the Knights of Saint Thomas, incorporated in 1191 at Acre, and which was to be modelled on the Teutonic Knights. This was the only military order native to England (with chapters in not only Acre, but London, Kilkenny, and Nicosia), just as the Gilbertine Order was the only monastic order native to England. Henry VIII dissolved both of these during the Reformation, rather than merging them with foreign orders or nationalising them as elements of the Protestant Church of England.

The monks were afraid Becket's body might be stolen, and so his remains were placed beneath the floor of the eastern crypt of the cathedral. A stone cover over it had two holes where pilgrims could insert their heads and kiss the tomb, as illustrated in the "Miracle Windows" of the Trinity Chapel. A guard chamber (now the Wax Chamber) had a clear view of the grave. In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated, bejewelled shrine behind the high altar in the Trinity Chapel. The shrine was supported by three pairs of pillars on a raised platform with three steps. This is shown in one of the miracle windows. Canterbury's religious history had always brought many pilgrims, and after Becket's death the numbers rapidly rose further.

Cult in the Middle Ages
St Thomas Becket's consecration, death and burial, at wall paintings in Santa Maria de Terrassa (Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain), romanesque frescoes, c. 1200
Candle marking the former spot of the shrine of Thomas Becket, at Canterbury Cathedral

In Scotland, King William the Lion ordered the building of Arbroath Abbey in 1178. On completion in 1197 the new foundation was dedicated to Becket, whom the king had known personally while at the English court as a young man.

On 7 July 1220, the 50th jubilee year of his death, Becket's remains were moved from his first tomb to a shrine in the recently built Trinity Chapel. This translation was "one of the great symbolic events in the life of the medieval English Church", attended by King Henry III, the papal legate, the Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton and many dignitaries and magnates secular and ecclesiastical. So a "major new feast day was instituted, commemorating the translation... celebrated each July almost everywhere in England and in many French churches." It was suppressed in 1536 with the Reformation.

The shrine was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries on orders from King Henry VIII. He also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered all mention of his name obliterated.

As the scion of a mercantile dynasty of later centuries, Mercers, Becket was much regarded as a Londoner by citizens and adopted as London's co-patron saint with St Paul: both appear on the seals of the city and of the Lord Mayor. The Bridge House Estates seal has only a Becket image, while his martyrdom shown on the reverse.

Local legends regarding Becket arose after his canonisation. Though they tend towards typical hagiography, they also display Becket's well-known gruffness. "Becket's Well", in Otford, Kent, is said to have been created after Becket had been displeased by the taste of the local water. Two springs of clear water are said to have bubbled up after he struck the ground with his crozier. The absence of nightingales in Otford is also ascribed to Becket, who is said to have been so disturbed in his devotions by the song of a nightingale and commanded that none sing in the town ever again. In the town of Strood, Kent, Becket is said to have caused the inhabitants and their descendants to be born with tails. The men of Strood had sided with the king in his struggles against the archbishop, and to demonstrate their support had cut off the tail of Becket's horse as he passed through the town.

The saint's fame quickly spread through the Norman world. The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral in Sicily, created shortly after his death. Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during their exile, and King William II of Sicily wed a daughter of Henry II. Marsala Cathedral in western Sicily is dedicated to Becket. Over 45 medieval chasse reliquaries decorated in champlevé enamel showing similar scenes from Becket's life survive, including the Becket Casket, constructed to hold relics of him at Peterborough Abbey and now housed in London's Victoria and Albert Museum.

In 1170 King Alfonso VIII of Castille married Eleanor Plantagenet, second daughter of Henry II. She honoured Becket with a wall painting of his martyrdom that survives in the church of San Nicolás de Soria in Spain. Becket's assassination made an impact in Spain: within five years of his death Salamanca had a church named after him, Iglesia de Santo Tomás Cantuariense.
Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales features a company of pilgrims walking from Southwark to Becket's shrine in Canterbury Cathedral.
The story of Becket's life became a popular theme for the medieval Nottingham Alabaster carvers. One set of Becket panels is displayed in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The coat of arms of the City of Canterbury, officially registered in 1619, but dating back to at least 1380, is based on the attributed arms of Thomas Becket, Argent, three Cornish choughs proper, with the addition of a chief gules charged with a lion passant guardant or from the Royal Arms of England.
In 1884, England's poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson wrote Becket, a play about Thomas Becket and Henry II. Henry Irving produced the play after Tennyson's death, and was celebrated in the title role.
Modern works based on the Becket story include T. S. Eliot's play Murder in the Cathedral (later adapted as the opera Assassinio nella cattedrale by Ildebrando Pizzetti), Jean Anouilh's play Becket, where Becket is not a Norman but a Saxon, which was made into a movie under that title, and Paul Webb's play Four Nights in Knaresborough, which Webb adapted for the screen and sold the rights to Harvey and Bob Weinstein. The struggle between Church's and King's power is a theme of Ken Follett's novel The Pillars of the Earth, where a late scene features the murder of Thomas Becket. Medieval mystery author Jeri Westerson recreated Chaucer's pilgrims and their time in Canterbury, along with murder and the theft of Becket's bones, in her fourth novel in the Crispin Guest series, Troubled Bones. An oratorio by David Reeves entitled Becket (The Kiss of Peace) was premièred in 2000 at Canterbury Cathedral, where the actual event occurred, as a part of the Canterbury Festival, and used as a fundraiser for the Prince's Trust.
The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, a non-profit, non-partisan legal and educational institute fostering free expression for all religious traditions took its inspiration from Thomas Becket.
In a 2006 poll by BBC History magazine for "worst Briton" of the previous millennium, Becket came second behind Jack the Ripper. The poll was dismissed as "daft" in The Guardian, and the result disputed by Anglicans and Catholics. Historians had nominated one person per century, and for the 12th century John Hudson chose Becket for being "greedy", "hypocritical", "founder of gesture politics" and "master of the soundbite". The magazine editor suggested most other nominees were too obscure for voters, as well as saying, "In an era when thumbscrews, racks and burning alive could be passed off as robust law and order—being guilty of 'gesture politics' might seem something of a minor charge."
The many UK churches dedicated to Thomas Becket include Cathedral Church of St Thomas of Canterbury, Portsmouth, St Thomas of Canterbury Church, Canterbury, Church of St Thomas the Martyr, Monmouth, St Thomas à Becket Church, Pensford, St Thomas à Becket Church, Widcombe, Church of St Thomas à Becket, Capel, St Thomas the Martyr, Bristol, and St Thomas the Martyr's Church, Oxford. Those in France include Église Saint-Thomas de Cantorbéry at Mont-Saint-Aignan, Upper-Normandy, Église Saint-Thomas-Becket at Gravelines (Nord-Pas-de-Calais), Église Saint-Thomas Becket at Avrieux (Rhône-Alpes), and Église saint-Thomas Becket at Bénodet (Brittany),
Among his obligations in contrition to Henry, William de Tracy much enlarged and re-dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury the parish church in Lapford, Devon, in his manor of Bradninch. The martyrdom day is still marked by a Lapford Revel.
British schools named after Thomas Becket include Becket Keys Church of England School and St Thomas of Canterbury Church of England Aided Junior School.
Part of the Hungarian city of Esztergom is named Szenttamás ("Saint Thomas"), on a hill called "Szent Tamás" dedicated to Thomas Becket – a classmate of Lucas, Archbishop of Esztergom in Paris.
In the treasury of Fermo Cathedral is the Fermo chasuble of St. Thomas Becket, on display at Museo Diocesano
Thomas Becket is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 29 December.

Wall painting of Thomas Becket's martyrdom painted in the 1330s in the parish church of St Peter ad Vincula, South Newington, Oxfordshire
The coat of arms of the City of Canterbury combines the attributed arms of Thomas Becket (three Cornish choughs) with a lion from the royal arms of England
Thomas Bhalerao
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thomas Bhalerao
Province Bombay
Metropolis Bombay
Installed 31 March 2007
Term ended 13 February 2015
Successor Bishop Valerian D’Souza
Other posts Bishop of Nashik.(1987-2007)
Ordination 27 March 1965
Consecration 23 August 1987
Personal details
Birth name Thomas Bhalerao
Born 1 February 1933
Died 13 February 2015 (aged 82)
St. Luke’s Hospital, Sreerampur, Maharashtra, India
Buried St. Mary’s Church, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra
Nationality Indian
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Sreeramput
Vincent Conçessao
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
His Excellency

Vincent Michael Conçessao
See Delhi
Appointed 19 November 2000
Retired 30 November 2012
Ordination 4 December 1961
Consecration 1 April 1995
Personal details
Born 28 September 1936 
Denomination Roman Catholic
Motto "To bear witness to the lord"

Vincent Michael Conçessao (born 28 September 1936) is a prominent Indian Catholic (Latin Rite) clergyman who was installed as the fifth Archbishop of Delhi in November 2000. He served as Vice President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India from 2000 to 2004.

Birth and education

Vincent Michael Conçessao was born on 28 September 1936 at Puttur in South Kanara district, Karnataka state, the fifth of eight children in a middle-class family. His parents were devout Catholics. He attended St. Francis Xavier Primary School and then St Philomena's Boy's High School, Puttur for his secondary education. In 1961 he joined St. Joseph's Seminary at Jeppu in Mangalore. His father died that year. He was ordained in Mangalore on 4 December 1961.

In 1962 Conçessao moved to New Delhi where he was appointed Assistant Parish Priest at the Sacred Heart Cathedral, New Delhi. In 1965 he was admitted to Loyola University Chicago, U.S.A. to study sociology, gaining a master's degree. He also studied Development during a summer course at the Coady International Institute in Canada.


In 1970 Conçessao returned to Delhi and was appointed Director of Social Action of the Archdiocese of Delhi. In this role he set up the organization that is now called Chetanalaya. Through it he undertook various projects such as relief for flood victims, rehabilitating displaced persons and supporting development of the poor. He was particularly involved with helping slum-dwellers in the Delhi resettlement colonies At the same time he was Rector of Pratiksha, the residence of seminarians studying at the Vidyajyoti College of Theology. He also served as the president of the Catholic Priests' Conference of India. In 1991 Conçessao was appointed parish priest of the Sacred Heart Cathedral, New Delhi, and in 1993 was elected Vicar General of the Archdiocese of Delhi.

Conçessao was consecrated a bishop on 1 April 1995 and was appointed auxiliary Bishop of Delhi and Bishop of titular see of Mascula. He chose the motto "To bear witness to the lord". He was appointed Archbishop of Agra on 5 November 1998. After Archbishop of Delhi Alan Basil de Lastic died Bishop Vincent was transferred back to Delhi and installed as its fifth Archbishop on 19 November 2000.

Archbishop Vincent participates in several inter-religious and multi-religious organizations. Between 2000 and 2004 he was Vice President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India. Other positions include President of the National United Christian Forum, President of the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conference (F.A.B.C) Office for Evangelization, President of the Regional Bishops' Conference of northern Region, Working President of the Foundation for Religious Harmony and Universal Peace and President of the Holy Family Hospital.


Talking shortly after the destruction of the World Trade Center in September 2001, at the General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops in the Vatican Archbishop Concessao spoke of another form of terrorism, which he called "the terrorism of an unjust economic system which grinds to death thousands of people every day".

Archbishop Vincent has been critical of the government for failing to prevent discrimination against Christians of Dalit origin based on their religion. He has said that the communal forces attacking Christians use a methodology borrowed from the Nazis, "spreading false accusations, creating an atmosphere of suspicion and hostility and then having recourse to violence to frighten the people to change their religion". When the National Integration Council was reconstituted and held an inaugural meeting in August 2005 the Christian minority rights leader John Dayal and the Reverend Valson Thampu presented a statement signed by Archbishop Vincent calling for equal rights for Christian Dalits and for an end to violence inspired by ethnic and religious divisions.

Following large-scale violent attacks on Christians in OrissaKarnataka and other states in 2008, Concessao said the attacks were not spontaneous but had been carefully organized after years of preparation by groups interested in spreading Hindutva. He accused Chief Ministers such as Naveen Patnaik of Orissa of failing to do the minimum to protect the citizens of his state. He called for a ban on Bajrang Dal and the closely related Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP). However, he said this seemed unlikely since he had the impression that there was collusion between the Karnataka government controlled by the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Bajrang Dal and the VHP.

Talking of the practice of Swiss banks in hiding illegal money, including that of Indians evading taxes, Concessao has said Europe "is bankrupt as regards to moral values which are so important to the Catholic Church". He proposed that Indian Catholics should help re-evangelize Europe.
Vagbhatananda Gurudevar

Intro Atheist, Writer, social reformer of Kerala, Sanskrit teacher
Gender Male
Birth 1885
Peoplepill ID vagbhatananda-gurudevar


Vagbhatananda Gurudevar

Vagbhatananda (27 April 1885 – 29 October 1939) was a Hindu social reformer in British India. He was the founder of the Atmavidya Sangham, which was fundamentally a group of professionals and intellectuals who sought change and eradicated social evils and superstitions.The movement he spearheaded played an important role in the Kerala reformation movement.


Vagbhatananda was born on 1885 April 27 in Pattiam desham near to Tellicherri in Kerala, India. He was given the name V. K. Gurukkal and was of the Thiyya community. He was educated in the traditional gurukkal system, through which he gained proficiency in scriptures and philosophy. He came to Calicut in the year 1905 as a sanscrit teacher, got attracted to the non-idolarity and atheistic reform activities of Dr.Ayyathan Gopalan ,a great social reformer of that time in Kerala, Leader and Propagandist of Brahmosamaj (1898) and founder of Sugunavardhini movement(1900) in Kerala, and started involving in the social activities with him.

Sree Narayana Guru, contemporary of Dr. Ayyathan Gopalan and Vaghbhatananda started temple construction and consecration of idols to make people co-operative. As a part of it, his followers made attempt to construct temples. In 1910, at Kozhikode under the leadership of some elites of the community, efforts were started to build the Sree Khandeshwaram Temple. Brahmananda Sivayogi was invited to deliver a speech against the proposed construction of the temple. During his association with Brahma Samaj he had rationally opposed idolatry and it was due to this, he was invited by Dr. Ayyathan Gopalan, a Brahmo samaj activist. The venue was the Kozhikode Town Hall. Many people arrived in order to query the speaker. Orthodox Hindus decided to stop it at any cost. They asked him whether there is a need to oppose idol-worship which had acceptance from the ancient times itself. Brahmananda Sivayogi the rational yogi argued, with excerpts from the religious texts, that "idol-worship had no approval during the olden times". His speech wiped out the ignorance of many. He also answered and established, with the help of passages from authoritative texts, that RajaYoga was possible for everyone. By this speech he got appreciation for his progressive ideas and plans for implementation against idolatry, and also gained a wide following of disciples in different parts of Malabar, Vaghbhatananda had gone to hear the speech of Sivayogi as a representative of Brahmosamaj and Dr. Ayyathan Gopalan. After hearing his speech he became attracted to swami's oratorial abilities and the Anandamatha and Rajayoga meditation and joined Brahmananda Sivayogi as his disciple. Brahmananda Swami Sivayogi was the one who named him as "Vaghbhatananda" seeing his oratorical abilities. Later on Vaghbhatananda started his own activities by disagreeing with some views of Sivayogi. He travelled widely to propagate "the teachings of universal non-duality for a better and egalitarian society.

In 1906 Vagbhatananda founded Thatwaprakashika Sanskrit school teaching Sanskrit in Calicut

In 1917, Vagbhatananda founded the Atmavidya Sangham, whose principles he outlined in an Advaita Vedanta treatise titled Atmavidya. Unlike the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana (SNDP), which had been established by Narayana Guru and was significant around the same time, the Atmavidya Sangham comprised mostly professional and intellectual people and it had a more secular approach to reform. It was instrumental in advancing the development of class organization among peasants of the region, spreading socialist ideas as a counter to the overbearing feudal and religiously orthodox establishment. Vagbhatananda himself criticized both economic exploitation and the role of foreign governments in supporting it.

Vagbhatananda, who was married, died on October 29, 1939. Kurup has described him as a "good combination of an erudite scholar, reformer, organizer, journalist and nationalist. ... His authority was the ancient wisdom of Hinduism, not the dogmatism of theology." The significance of the Atmavidya Sangham declined after his death, being superseded by other secular-oriented reform groups such as the Karshaka Sangham that adopted its agenda. However, it was still active in the 1980s.The Uralungal Labour Contract Co-operative Society (ULCCS), one of the largest labor contract societies in India today, is a group started by fourteen Chalayil Kunjayak gurus.

He left for his heavenly abode on 29 October 1939 at the age of 54.
Shri Vethathiri Maharishi

Shri Vethathiri Maharishi (1911–2006) was a spiritual leader and founder-trustee of “The World Community Service Centre”. From his youth he was driven by the desire for knowledge and in particular strove to find answers to three questions:
What is God? What is life? Why is poverty in the world?
The search to find these answers as well as to further his lot in life led him into various fields of endeavor, including becoming a qualified practitioner of two systems of Indian indigenous medicine, Ayurveda and Siddha, and certified practitioner Homeopathy as well.

Life History

Shri Vethathiri Maharishi was born in 1911 in the village of Guduvancheri, 30 km south of Chennai, India, into an indigent weaver’s family.
After spending several years in various minor employments, he established a textile concern that grew to employ over 2000 workers on a profit sharing basis that would be thought progressive even today.
Although constantly busy with family and business matters, he always found time to pursue his deep desire to achieve self-realization and realization of Truth. Several years of intense meditation and introspection brought him full enlightenment at the age of thirty five.
Early life

After spending several years in various minor employments, he established a textile concern that grew to employ over 2,000 workers on a profit-sharing basis.
Maharishi regularly participated in intense meditation and introspection, which he claims brought him full enlightenment at the age of thirty five.

At the age of fifty, he closed his commercial ventures and devoted himself solely to spiritual service. However, he remained a “householder”, i.e. he did not break his family ties or take vows of renunciation, but rather lived in the indigenous Siddha tradition, maintaining family ties.

Traveling around the world

Between 1972–1993, he visited the USA, Europe, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Japan and Mexico. On 9th January 1975 Vethathiri Maharishi’s gave immortal speech at the United Nations Organization, New York, U.S.A.

Spiritual Leader

At the age of fifty he closed his commercial ventures and devoted himself solely to spiritual service so as to guide sincere spiritual aspirants by transmitting and sharing with them his experiences and revelations of Truth.

Even though his life has long been dedicated spiritual and social service he has remained a “householder”, i.e. he has not broken his family ties and taken vows of renunciation, but rather lived in the indigenous Siddha tradition, maintaining family ties and fulfilling his duties.

Vethathiri’s science of living (Vethathiriyam)

Vethathiri’s lifetime works are called Vethathiriyam, which literally translates as a roadmap to the mountain of knowledge. He claimed that a deep understanding of nature is essential for living in harmony with the law of nature, while balancing material well-being with spiritual progress.

Vethathiri Maharishi’s claimed to synthesize a complete science of living for the betterment of humanity through: Simplified Kundalini Yoga meditation, Physical Exercises, Kaya Kalpa Yoga and Introspections.

Author / Writer

From his enlightenment till today, Shri Vethathiri Maharishi has received knowledge of the origin and functions of the cosmos and all aspects of life, as Nature revealed to his inner vision.
During these years he has spontaneously written over 2000 poems on philosophical subjects. He remains dedicated to serving his fellow beings by conveying his understanding of universe and the One Supreme Power through his speeches and writings.
He wrote about 80 books, many of which became academic textbooks.
In the Indian Philosophical tradition, his philosophy corresponds to pure advice.
Wrote over 2000 poems on philosophical subjects.
Authored about 80 books in Tamil and English

In the Indian Philosophical tradition, his philosophy corresponds to pure advaita; it may be called pantheistic monism. His language and attitudes are contemporary, non-sectarian and non-dogmatic. As of date, he has authored about 70 books in Tamil and English.
Model of the Universe

Shri Vethathiri Maharishi gives us a comprehensive and integrated revelation of the existence and functions of the One Reality; his exposition from the origin of the cosmos to the observed natural phenomena comprises the Vethathiriyan Model of the Universe.
With this comprehensive view, science and religion are reconciled and unified, to their mutual enhancement and completion.

By integrating science and religion, global harmony and peace will follow, based on universal understanding of One Truth, and reverence and respect for all its manifestations.


In 1958 Shri Vethathiri Maharishi founded the World Community Service Centre (WCSC), a non-profit registered society with a view to work towards World Peace through individual peace.
As of today, more than 200 trusts and about 1000 meditation centers have been registered and affiliated to WCSC in India, and thousands of people have benefited physically, mentally, socially and spiritually from the teachings and practices.

Kaya Kalpa Research Foundation

In 1984 he founded the “Vethathiri Maharishi Yoga and Kaya Kalpa Research Foundation” based in Aliyar, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu in the name of Arutperunjothi Nagar.

This is located on Pollachi-Valparai Highway SH-78, next to Azhiyar Dam and State Transportation buses are available to Arutperunjothi Nagar from Pollachi.

Temple of Consciousness

Facilities are provided for large groups to stay and undergo SKY courses of several days in duration. The Temple of Consciousness is the centerpiece of the campus.
In 1998 the Brain Trust was established to bring together intellectuals of various fields to discuss the issues facing mankind and work towards solutions for bringing about peace and harmony to the individual and to the world at large.
Vethathiri Maharishi died on 28 March 2006 in Coimbatore. His embalmed body is now located in Mani Mandapam inside the World Community Service Center, Arutperunjothi Nagar, Azhiyar, Pollachi

Shri. V.K.Natesan popularly known as Vellappally Natesan is the General Secretary of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam, a social organisation in Kerala.Vellappally Natesan is the Managing Director of Vellapplly Natesan and Company Ltd, one of the largest contracting companies in South India. He began his business as a contractor with PWD and he was considered one of the best contractors of his era.He began his second phase of contracting career with Indian Railways. The confidence that Vellappally Natesan has built in the mind sets of the E. Sreedharan the chief of Konkan Railway, his reference with Vellappally Nateasan has brought opportunities of big contract works even from North India.The confidence that Vellappally built in the authorities of railways for quality constructions at reasonable cost made. Vellappally to become the one of largest contractors with railways in India. His company is also involved in NTPC Construction at Kayamkulam , Dronacharya Complex of Military Engineering Services and National Highways.DATE OF BIRTH

September 10, 1937

PLACE OF BIRTHAlappuzha, Kerala, India
Vethathiri Maharishi
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vethathiri Maharishi

Vethathiri Maharishi on a 2010 stamp of India
Born 14 August 1911

Guduvancheri, Tamil Nadu, India
Died 28 March 2006 (aged 94)

Coimbatore, India

Yogiraj Shri Vethathiri Maharishi (14 August 1911 – 28 March 2006) was a spiritual leader, world peace activist, scientist, philosopher, Ayurvedic and homeopathic practitioner, and founder-trustee of the World Community Service Center in 1958 in Chennai, India. His Theory of Universal Magnetism provides an alternative for the Big Bang theory, and includes the concepts of the evolution of atoms and God particles. He provided 14 principles for World Peace. He presented a blueprint at United Nations for World Peace.

He founded over 300 yoga centres around the world and wrote about 80 books, many of which became academic textbooks. Tamil Nadu government has recently approved to teach his Simplified Kundalini Yoga at Schools. He was declared the 19th Siddha by the Dravidian University.

Early life

Shri Vethathiri Maharishi was born on 14 August 1911 in the village of Guduvancheri, south of Chennai, India, into an indigent weaver's Sengunthar Mudaliar family. After spending several years in various minor employment, he established a textile concern that grew to employ over 2,000 workers on a profit-sharing basis. Maharishi regularly participated in intense meditation and introspection, which he claims brought him full enlightenment at the age of thirty-five. At the age of fifty, he closed his commercial ventures and devoted himself solely to spiritual service. However, he remained a "householder", i.e. he did not break his family ties or take vows of renunciation, but rather lived in the indigenous Siddha tradition, maintaining family ties.

Poems and books

Shri Vethathiri Maharishi wrote over 3000 poems on philosophical subjects. In the Indian philosophical tradition, his philosophy corresponds to pure Advaita. His language and attitudes are contemporary, non-sectarian and non-dogmatic. He authored about 80 books in Tamil and English, and continued to write until his death.

Spiritual teachings

Vethathiri strove to find answers to three questions: “What is God?” “What is life?” “Why is poverty in the world?” The search to find these answers as well as to further his lot in life led him into various fields of endeavour, including becoming a qualified practitioner of two systems of Indian indigenous medicine, Ayurveda and Siddha, and certified practitioner Homeopathy as well. Vethathiri led the life of a householder until he was 50, and then changed the course of his life from being a businessman to teach and write about his experiences of purported divine revelations. He published many books in English and Tamil. Between 1972–1993, he visited the US, Europe, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Japan, and Mexico.

Vethathiri's science of living (Vethathiriyam)

Vethathiri Maharishi claimed to synthesize a complete science of living for the betterment of humanity through: Simplified Kundalini Yoga meditation, Physical Exercises, Kaya Kalpa Yoga and Introspections. Vethathiri's lifetime works are called Vethathiriyam, which literally translates as a roadmap to the mountain of knowledge. He claimed that a deep understanding of nature is essential for living in harmony with the law of nature, while balancing material well-being with spiritual progress.

Vethathiri that the primordial state of the universe, which he called Absolute Space, has two inherent attributes that are latent:

Force or Gravity: Inexhaustible self-compressive force, the source of all forces, which acts everywhere

Consciousness: The omniscient order of function in everything. According to Swamiji, as a result of the self-compressive nature of the absolute space, an infinitesimal volume of space begins to spin in a whirling motion, called a fundamental energy particle. He believed that the spinning action propels an outward repulsive force, and that the co-joining of the two forces, attractive and repulsive, is defined as Universal Magnetism. Vethathiri maintained that this fills the universe as a wave, and that it is the first phase of self-transformation of the absolute space from being to becoming.


In 1958 Shri Vethathiri Maharishi founded the World Community Service Centre (WCSC), a non-profit registered society with a view to working towards World Peace through individual peace. As of today, more than 200 trusts and about 2000 meditation centres have been registered and affiliated to WCSC in India. From 1972 to 1993, he travelled abroad annually, lecturing and teaching extensively in Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and the USA.
In 1984 he founded the "Vethathiri Maharishi Yoga and Kaya Kalpa Research Foundation" based in Aliyar, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu in the name of Arutperunjothi Nagar. This is located on Pollachi-Valparai Highway SH-78, next to Azhiyar Dam and State Transportation buses are available to Arutperunjothi Nagar from Pollachi. Facilities are provided for large groups to stay and undergo SKY courses of several days in duration. The Temple of Consciousness is the centerpiece of the campus.

In 1998 the Brain Trust was established to bring together intellectuals of various fields to discuss the issues facing mankind and work towards solutions for bringing about peace and harmony to the individual and to the world at large.

Vethathiri Maharishi died on 28 March 2006 in Coimbatore. His embalmed body is now located in Mani Mandapam inside the World Community Service Center, Arutperunjothi Nagar, Azhiyar, Pollachi.

Stamp on Vethathiri Maharishi released

Receiving from former Union Minister for Communications and Information Technology A. Raja the first copy of a commemorative postage stamp on Vethathiri Maharishi, the then Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi said that the centenary celebrations and postage stamps on eminent persons and freedom fighters would help the youth to be inspired and emulate such personalities.

Talking about Vethathiri Maharishi, the former Chief Minister said: "The teachings of Vethathiri Maharishi (1911–2006) have been receiving acclaim because the spiritual leader possessed the "weapon" of rationalism. To attract people, the spiritual leader did not use magical powers or claim that he was in contact with god. As he had possessed rationalism that would help people to realise themselves, his teachings and messages were still adored. Ramalinga Swamigal (1823–1874) and Vethathiri Maharishi were conscious of the influence of superstitions on people and they strove for showing the correct path, Mr. Karunanidhi said. N. Mahalingam, industrialist and president of the Temple of Consciousness, Aliyar, recalled his relationship with Maharishi and said the World Community Service Centre founded by the spiritual leader was an outcome of the Satya Gnana Sabai of Adigal.